Science.gov

Sample records for active interrogation beams

  1. Active Interrogation of Sensitive Nuclear Material Using Laser Driven Neutron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Roth, Markus

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of the viability of a laser-driven neutron source for active interrogation is reported. The need is for a fast, movable, operationally safe neutron source which is energy tunable and has high-intensity, directional neutron production. Reasons for the choice of neutrons and lasers are set forth. Results from the interrogation of an enriched U sample are shown.

  2. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  3. Personnel Dose Assessment during Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Akkurt, Hatice; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    A leading candidate in the detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is active interrogation (AI). Unlike passive interrogation, AI uses a source to enhance or create a detectable signal from SNM (usually fission), particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. During the development of AI sources, significant effort is put into determining the source strength required to detect SNM in specific scenarios. Usually during this process, but not always, an evaluation of personnel dose is also completed. In this instance personnel dose could involve any of the following: (1) personnel performing the AI; (2) unknown stowaways who are inside the object being interrogated; or (3) in clandestine interrogations, personnel who are known to be inside the object being interrogated but are unaware of the interrogation. In most instances, dose to anyone found smuggling SNM will be a secondary issue. However, for the organizations performing the AI, legal if not moral considerations should make dose to the personnel performing the AI, unknown stowaways, or innocent bystanders in clandestine interrogations a serious concern.

  4. The efficiency of a bremsstrahlung interrogator: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A.

    1987-08-01

    One can estimate the energetics of using gamma radiation produced by a high energy electron beam as a means of ascertaining the mass of distant objects. Several approaches to converting beam energy to radiation are compared, including a nonmaterial ''beamsstrahlung'' converter. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Background and Source Term Identification in Active Neutron Interrogation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    low MeV neutron energy range, the increased numbers of neutrons from scattering ...reactions for low neutron energy . For U-235, low energy neutrons (thermal neutrons ) are more likely to cause fission than inelastic scattering or...manner. Active neutron interrogation is a sought after method for this since the resulting high energy gamma rays produced by inelastic scattering

  6. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  7. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SANG Y.; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H.; PARK, JAEYOUNG

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  8. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  9. Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-05-01

    Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

  10. High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

    2011-10-01

    Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240Pu [1]. On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources [2]. Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials [3,4]. In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers [4,5]. Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, the University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1×10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2×10 4 n/cm 2 s.

  11. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  12. Damage detection in a cantilever beam under dynamic conditions using a distributed, fast, and high spatial resolution Brillouin interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motil, A.; Davidi, R.; Bergman, A.; Botsev, Y.; Hahami, M.; Tur, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ability of Brillouin-based fiber-optic sensing to detect damage in a moving cantilever beam is demonstrated. A fully computerized, distributed and high spatial resolution (10cm) Fast-BOTDA interrogator (50 full-beam Brillouin-gain-spectra per second) successfully directly detected an abnormally stiffened (i.e., `damaged') 20cm long segment in a 6m Aluminum beam, while the beam was in motion. Damage detection was based on monitoring deviations of the measured strain distribution along the beam from that expected in the undamaged case.

  13. Implementation of Microwave Active Nulling and Interrogation of Boundary Impedance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Sep. 2004. Electromagnetic Interrogation over Electric Boundary -H. How and C. Vittoria, "Microwave Impedance Control Over a Ferrite Boundary Layer...Utilizing Nonreciprocal Wave Propagation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-52(8), 2004. Electromagnetic Interrogation involving Hexagonal Ferrite ...H. How, X. Zuo, and C. Vittoria, "Wave Propagation in Ferrite Involving Planar Anisotropy - Theory and Experiment" IEEE Trans. Magnetics, Mag-41(8

  14. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  15. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  16. Nondestructive assay of spent boiling-water-reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Results agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondestructive assays.

  17. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  18. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  19. Interrogating the signaling dynamics of T cell activation with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnement, Michael R.; Faley, Shannon L.; Wikswo, John P.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2006-02-01

    We report the use of antibody-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) to monitor the expression dynamics of the membrane bound cytokine receptor interleukin-2 receptor-α (IL-2Rα) throughout the course of Jurkat T cell activation. Maximal receptor expression is observed 32-48 hours after activation, followed by a sharp decrease subsequent to 48 hours consistent with IL-2R internalization. Fluorescence microscopy, ELISA, and FACS analyses were used to verify controlled activation and specificity of QD labeling. Additionally, confocal microscopy demonstrated receptor internalization subsequent to expression and QD labeling. Antibody-conjugated QDs provide a convenient means to rapidly determine cell state and interrogate end products of cell signaling pathways. Interrogation of other signaling pathways can eventually be carried out in a similar manner upon identification of relevant membrane associated receptors. Ultimately, the multiplexing capabilities of QDs will allow the examination of several signaling pathways simultaneously and aid in toxin detection and discrimination.

  20. Active Neutron Interrogation of Non-Radiological Materials with NMIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-02-01

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), although primarily designed for analyzing special nuclear material, is capable of identifying nonradiological materials with a wide range of measurement techniques. This report demonstrates four different measurement methods, complementary to fast-neutron imaging, which can be used for material identification: DT transmission, DT scattering, californium transmission, and active time-tagged gamma spectroscopy. Each of the four techniques was used to evaluate how these methods can be used to identify four materials: aluminum, polyethylene, graphite, and G-10 epoxy. While such measurements have been performed individually in the past, in this project, all four measurements were performed on the same set of materials. The results of these measurements agree well with predicted results. In particular, the results of the active gamma spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the technique's applicability in a future version of NMIS which will incorporate passive and active gamma-ray spectroscopy. This system, designated as a fieldable NMIS (FNMIS), is under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification.

  1. Active Interrogation Observables for Enrichment Determination of DU Shielded HEU Metal Assemblies with Limited Geometrical Information

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, Kirsten E; McConchie, Seth M; Crye, Jason Michael; Mihalczo, John T

    2011-01-01

    Determining the enrichment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal assemblies shielded by depleted uranium (DU) proves a unique challenge to currently employed measurement techniques. Efforts to match time-correlated neutron distributions obtained through active interrogation to Monte Carlo simulations of the assemblies have shown promising results, given that the exact geometries of both the HEU metal assemblies and DU shields are known from imaging and fission site mapping. In certain situations, however, it is desirable to obtain enrichment with limited or no geometrical information of the assemblies being measured. This paper explores the possibility that the utilization of observables in the interrogation of assemblies by time-tagged D-T neutrons, including time-correlated distribution of neutrons and gammas using liquid scintillators operating on the fission chain time scale, can lead to enrichment determination without a complete set of geometrical information.

  2. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in 11B(d,n-γ)12C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example 232Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  3. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  4. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  5. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  6. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  7. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haori

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  8. Nondestructive assay of spent boiling water reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Spent fuel rods containing 9 kg of heavy metal were chopped into 5-cm segments and loaded into three 1-liter cans. The three cans were assayed in seven combinations of one, two, or three cans, enabling an evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the NDA system for different amounts of fissile material. The fissile mass in each combination was determined by comparing the induced-fission-neutron counts with the counts obtained from a known standard comprising chopped segments of unirradiated Dresden fuel. These masses were compared to the masses determined by chemical analyses of the spent fuel. The results from the nondestructive assays agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondesctuctive assays. The assay of BWR spent fuel served as a test of the NDA system which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the assay of spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel subassemblies at the heat-end of a reprocessing plant. Results of previous experiments and calculations reported earlier using simulated LMFBR fuel subassemblies indicated that the NDA system can measure the fissile masses of spent fuel subassemblies to within an accuracy of 3%. Results of the assays of spent BWR fuel reported herein support this conclusion.

  9. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  10. Active Neutron-Based Interrogation System with D-D Neutron Source for Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Misawa, T.; Yagi, T.; Pyeon, C. H.; Kimura, M.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    The detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) is an important issue for nuclear security. The interrogation systems used in a sea port and an airport are developed in the world. The active neutron-based interrogation system is the one of the candidates. We are developing the active neutron-based interrogation system with a D-D fusion neutron source for the nuclear security application. The D-D neutron source is a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IEC (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device which provides 2.45 MeV neutrons. The nuclear materials emit the highenergy neutrons by fission reaction. High-energy neutrons with energies over 2.45 MeV amount to 30% of all the fission neutrons. By using the D-D neutron source, the detection of SNMs is considered to be possible with the attention of fast neutrons if there is over 2.45 MeV. Ideally, neutrons at En>2.45 MeV do not exist if there is no nuclear materials. The detection of fission neutrons over 2.45 MeV are hopeful prospect for the detection of SNM with a high S/N ratio. In the future, the experiments combined with nuclear materials and a D-D neutron source will be conducted. Furthermore, the interrogation system will be numerically investigated by using nuclear materials, a D-D neutron source, and a steel container.

  11. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders.

  12. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Ludwig, Leif S.; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptional cis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  13. Dose profile modeling of Idaho National Laboratory's active neutron interrogation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chichester, D L; Seabury, E H; Zabriskie, J M; Wharton, J; Caffrey, A J

    2009-06-01

    A new laboratory has been commissioned at Idaho National Laboratory for performing active neutron interrogation research and development. The facility is designed to provide radiation shielding for deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion (14.1 MeV) neutron generators (2 x 10(8) n/s), deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion (2.5 MeV) neutron generators (1 x 10(7) n/s), and (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron sources (6.96 x 10(7) n/s, 30 microg). Shielding at the laboratory is comprised of modular concrete shield blocks 0.76 m thick with tongue-in-groove features to prevent radiation streaming, arranged into one small and one large test vault. The larger vault is designed to allow operation of the DT generator and has walls 3.8m tall, an entrance maze, and a fully integrated electrical interlock system; the smaller test vault is designed for (252)Cf and DD neutron sources and has walls 1.9 m tall and a simple entrance maze. Both analytical calculations and numerical simulations were used in the design process for the building to assess the performance of the shielding walls and to ensure external dose rates are within required facility limits. Dose rate contour plots have been generated for the facility to visualize the effectiveness of the shield walls and entrance mazes and to illustrate the spatial profile of the radiation dose field above the facility and the effects of skyshine around the vaults.

  14. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2008-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  15. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  16. pHTomato: A genetically-encoded indicator that enables multiplex interrogation of synaptic activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulong; Tsien, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of genetically-encoded probes for optical monitoring of neuronal activity and brain circuits would be greatly advanced by the generation of multiple indicators with non-overlapping color spectra. Most existing indicators are derived from or spectrally convergent on GFP. We generated a bright, red, pH-sensitive fluorescent protein, pHTomato, that can be used in parallel with green probes to monitor neuronal activity. SypHTomato, made by fusing pHTomato to the vesicular membrane protein synaptophysin, reports activity-dependent exocytosis as efficiently as green reporters. When coexpressed with the GFP-based indicator GCaMP3 in the same neuron, SypHTomato enabled concomitant imaging of transmitter release and presynaptic Ca2+ transients at single nerve terminals. Expressing SypHTomato and GCaMP3 in separate cells enabled the simultaneous determination of presynaptic vesicular turnover and postsynaptic sub- and supra-threshold responses from a connected pair of neurons. With these new tools, we observed a close size matching between pre- and postsynaptic compartments as well as interesting target-cell dependent regulation of presynaptic vesicle pools. Lastly, by coupling expression of pHTomato- and GFP-based probes with distinct variants of channelrhodopsin, we provided proof-of-principle for an all-optical approach to multiplex control and tracking of distinct circuit pathways. PMID:22634730

  17. Active neutron interrogation for verification of storage of weapons components at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.; Hughes, S.S.

    1998-02-23

    A nuclear weapons identification system (NWIS), under development since 1984 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and presently in use there, uses active neutron interrogation with low-intensity {sup 252}Cf sources in ionization chambers to provide a timed source of fission neutrons from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. To date, measurements have been performed on {approximately}15 different weapons systems in a variety of configurations both in and out of containers. Those systems included pits and fully assembled systems ready for deployment at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, and weapons components at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These measurements have shown that NWIS can identify nuclear weapons and/or components; nuclear weapons/components can be distinguished from mockups where fissile material has been replaced by nonfissile material; omissions of small amounts (4%) of fissile material can be detected; changes in internal configurations can be determined; trainer parts can be identified as was demonstrated by verification of 512 containers with B33 components at the Y-12 Plant (as many as 32 in one 8-hour shift); and nonfissile components can be identified. The current NWIS activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant include: (1) further development of the system for more portability and lower power consumption, (2) collection of reference signatures for all weapons components in containers, and (3) confirmation of a particular weapons component in storage and confirmation of receipts. This paper describes the recent measurements with NWIS for a particular weapons component in storage that have resolved an Inspector General (IG`s) audit finding with regard to performance of confirmation of inventory.

  18. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  19. Portable active interrogation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Brener, M. W.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    The system consists of a pulsed DT neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 7} n/s) and a portable but high intrinsic efficiency, custom-designed, polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He neutron detector. A multichannel scaler card in a ruggedized laptop computer acquires the data. A user-friendly LabVIEW program analyzes and displays the data. The program displays a warning message when highly enriched uranium or any other fissionable materials is detected at a specified number of sigmas above background in the delayed region between pulses. This report describes the system and gives examples of the response of the system to highly enriched uranium and some other fissionable materials, at several distances and with various shielding materials.

  20. Assessment of Optimal Interrogation Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    4 ( 01-03-2006 Final March 2006 - May 2007 Assessment of Optimal Interrogation Approaches H9C101-6-0051... interrogator . Specifically, DACA wanted the researchers to gather information from "expert" interrogators (referred to as "superior" interrogators ...common approaches/techniques that are employed by the majority of interrogators . U U U U 129 David E. Smith (314) 209-9495 ext 701 Prepared for the

  1. Interrogation: General vs. Local.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette

    This paper proposes a set of hypotheses on the nature of interrogration as a possible language universal. Examples and phrase structure rules and diagrams are given. Examining Tamazight and English, genetically unrelated languages with almost no contact, the author distinguishes two types of interrogation: (1) general, querying acceptability to…

  2. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  3. Advanced FBG sensing through rapid spectral interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzler, Wesley; Newman, Jason; Wilding, Daniel; Zhu, Zixu; Lowder, Tyson; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen; Wirthlin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A fiber Brag grating sensor interrogator has been developed which is capable of gathering vectors of information from individual fiber Bragg gratings by capturing the full optical spectrum 3 kHz. Using a field programmable gate array with high speed digital-to-analog converters and analog-to-digital components, plus a kilohertz rate MEMS optical filter, the optical spectrum can be scanned at rates in excess of 10 million nanometers per second, allowing sensor sampling rates of many kilohertz while maintaining the necessary resolution to understand sensor changes. The autonomous system design performs all necessary detection and processing of multiple sensors and allows spectral measurements to be exported as fast as Ethernet, USB, or RS232 devices can receive it through a memory mapped interface. The high speed - full spectrum - fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator enables advanced interrogation of dynamic strain and temperature gradients along the length of a sensor, as well as the use of each sensor for multiple stimuli, such as in temperature compensation. Two examples are described, showing interrogation of rapid laser heating in an optical fiber, as well as complex strain effects in a beam that had an engineered defect.

  4. Pulsed photoneutron interrogation: The GNT demonstration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.; Hoggan, J.M.; McManus, G.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed and tested an active photon interrogation technique to support the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of National Security and Nonproliferation (NN) mission related to verification technologies development. The INEL concept, referred to as the Gamma-Neutron Threshold (GNT) technology, uses a transportable, field-deployable, selective-energy (2 to 10 MeV), pulsed, electron accelerator to produce energetic X-rays having a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The energetic X-rays induce neutrons in many proliferation-limited items via direct photoneutron/photofission interactions. The time-dependent neutron response, as a function of the electron beam energy, is measured with a tripod-mounted, detector assembly and a portable data acquisition system. The portable detector assembly has been specifically designed to operate in very intense, pulsed X-ray environments. The GNT technique measures both the prompt and delayed neutron emission after each accelerator pulse. This report fully describes each component of this system and presents various signature results based on these emissions.

  5. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  6. Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

    2011-04-26

    We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

  7. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults.

  8. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  9. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  10. Gamma source for active interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  11. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  12. Active control of flexural vibrations in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using piezoelectric actuators to control the flexural oscillations of large structures in space is investigated. Flexural oscillations are excited by impulsive loads. The vibratory response can degrade the pointing accuracy of cameras and antennae, and can cause high stresses at structural node points. Piezoelectric actuators have the advantage of exerting localized bending moments. In this way, vibration is controlled without exciting rigid body modes. The actuators are used in collocated sensor/driver pairs to form a feedback control system. The sensor produces a voltage that is proportional to the dynamic stress at the sensor location, and the driver produces a force that is proportional to the voltage applied to it. The analog control system amplifies and phase shifts the sensor signal to produce the voltage signal that is applied to the driver. The feedback control is demonstrated to increase the first mode damping in a cantilever beam by up to 100 percent, depending on the amplifier gain. The damping efficiency of the control system when the piezoelectrics are not optimally positioned at points of high stress in the beam is evaluated.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Electron Beam Irradiated Dental Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Geethashri, A; Palaksha, K.J.; Sridhar, K. R.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The electron beam (e-beam) radiation is considered as an effective means of sterilization of healthcare products as well as to induce the structural changes in the pharmaceutical agents/drug molecules. In addition to structural changes of pharmaceutical it also induces the formation of low molecular weight compounds with altered microbiological, physicochemical and toxicological properties. Among the several known medicaments, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) are used as irrigants in dentistry to kill the pathogenic microorganisms like Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans inhabiting the oral cavity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and stability of e-beam irradiated dental irrigants, NaOCl and CHX. Materials and Methods: Two dental irrigants NaOCl (1.25% and 2.5%) and CHX (1% and 2%) were exposed to various doses of e-beam radiation. The antimicrobial activities of e-beam irradiated irrigants were compared with the non-irradiated (control) irrigants against E. faecalis, S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans by disc diffusion method. Following the storage, physico-chemical properties of the irrigants were recorded and the cytotoxic effect was evaluated on human gingival fibroblast cells. Result: The irrigants, 1.25% NaOCl and 1% CHX showed significantly increased antimicrobial activity against both E. faecalis, (16+0.0) and S. aureus (25+0.0) after irradiation with 1 kGy e-beam. Whereas, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed slightly increased antimicrobial activity only against S. aureus (28+0.0). The significant difference was noticed in the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of irradiated and non-irradiated irrigants following the storage for 180 d at 40C. Conclusion: The e-beam irradiation increased the antimicrobial activity of irrigants without altering the biocompatibility. PMID:25584220

  14. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  15. Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2007-05-29

    A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

  16. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  17. Activation of cells using femtosecond laser beam (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, Subrata; Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Study of communication in cellular systems requires precise activation of targeted cell(s) in the network. In contrast to chemical, electrical, thermal, mechanical stimulation, optical stimulation is non-invasive and is better suited for stimulation of targeted cells. As compared to visible lasers, the near infrared (NIR) microsecond/nanosecond pulsed laser beams are being used as preferred stimulation tool as they provide higher penetration depth in tissues. Femotosecond (FS) laser beams in NIR are also being used for direct and indirect (i.e. via two-photon optogenetics) stimulation of cells. Here, we present a comparative evaluation of efficacy of NIR FS laser beam for direct (no optogenetic sensitization) and 2ph optogenetic stimulation of cells. Further, for the first time, we demonstrate the use of blue (~450 nm, obtained by second harmonic generation) FS laser beam for stimulation of cells with and without Channelrhodopisn-2 (ChR2) expression. Comparative analysis of photocurrent generated by blue FS laser beam and continuous wave blue light for optogenetics stimulation of ChR2 transfected HEK cells will be presented. The use of ultrafast laser micro-beam for focal, non-contact, and repeated stimulation of single cells in a cellular circuitry allowed us to study the communication between different cell types.

  18. The Contrast between Interrogatives and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Rodney

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relation between interrogative, a category of grammatical form, and question, a category of meaning. Mismatches between interrogative phrases and questioned elements are also investigated. Two kinds of interrogative and three kinds of question are distinguished. (47 references) (Author/CK)

  19. Active Suppression Of Vibrations On Elastic Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Fuller, Chris R.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    1993-01-01

    Pairs of colocated piezoelectric transducers, independently controlled by multichannel adaptive controller, employed as actuators and sensors to achieve simultaneous attenuation of both extensional and flexural motion. Single pair used to provide simultaneous control of flexural and extensional waves, or two pairs used to control torsional motion also. Capability due to nature of piezoelectric transducers, when bonded to surfaces of structures and activated by oscillating voltages, generate corresponding oscillating distributions of stresses in structures. Phases and amplitudes of actuator voltages adjusted by controller to impede flow of vibrational energy simultaneously, in waves of various forms, beyond locations of actuators. Concept applies equally to harmonic or random response of structure and to multiple responses of structure to transverse bending, torsion, and compression within structural element. System has potential for many situations in which predominant vibration transmission path through framelike structure.

  20. Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Chul; Huang, Kevin C Y; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Nanometallic optical antennas are rapidly gaining popularity in applications that require exquisite control over light concentration and emission processes. The search is on for high-performance antennas that offer facile integration on chips. Here we demonstrate a new, easily fabricated optical antenna design that achieves an unprecedented level of control over fluorescent emission by combining concepts from plasmonics, radiative decay engineering and optical beaming. The antenna consists of a nanoscale plasmonic cavity filled with quantum dots coupled to a miniature grating structure that can be engineered to produce one or more highly collimated beams. Electromagnetic simulations and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the beaming process. The metals defining the plasmonic cavity can be utilized to electrically control the emission intensity and wavelength. These findings facilitate the realization of a new class of active optical antennas for use in new optical sources and a wide range of nanoscale optical spectroscopy applications.

  1. Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal of electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-08-15

    Plasma-based decelerating schemes are investigated as compact alternatives for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). Analytical solutions for the energy loss of electron beams propagating in passive and active (laser-driven) schemes are derived. These solutions, along with numerical modeling, are used to investigate the evolution of the electron distribution, including energy chirp and total beam energy. In the active beam dump scheme, a laser-driver allows a more homogeneous beam energy extraction and drastically reduces the energy chirp observed in the passive scheme. These concepts could benefit applications requiring overall compactness, such as transportable light sources, or facilities operating at high beam power.

  2. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  3. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  4. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  5. Simultaneous active control of flexural and extensional waves in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.; Gibbs, G. P.; Silcox, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The simultaneous active control of flexural and extensional vibrations in elastic beams is experimentally investigated. The results demonstrate that using pairs of piezoceramic transducers, whose elements are symmetrically located and independently controlled by a multichannel adaptive controller, enables the high attenuation of both flexural and extensional response. This capability is due to the nature of the piezoceramic element, which when bonded to the surface of the structure and electrically excited, exerts a surface strain on the structure. This strain enables input of both shear forces and moments into the structural system. The results are applicable to many situations where extensional vibrations couple to large flexural vibrations and subsequently radiate significant sound levels.

  6. High reliability FBG interrogation analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, William; Zhang, Charlie; Bergles, Eric

    2009-05-01

    The invention of optical fiber and semiconductor lasers in the 1960s opened up a cornucopia of applications, notably as a medium of carrying light signals for communications and sensing applications. Optical fibers provide a fundamental improvement over traditional methods offering lower loss, higher bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), lighter weight, lower cost, and lower maintenance. By applying a UV laser to "burn" or write a diffraction grating (A Fiber Bragg Grating-FBG) in the fiber it became possible to reflect certain wavelengths of light, which used together with an interrogation analyzer (spectral analyzer) precise sensing measurements could be taken. The recent developments of optoelectronics components in the optical telecommunications field have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of many components, such as: light sources, fibers, detectors, optical amplifiers, mux/demuxes, switches, etc. As a result, numerous applications are now available for monitoring strain, stress and pressure in harsh environments. Examples of current and planned deployments will be presented.

  7. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  8. "How": The Missing Interrogative in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, M. Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Describes a comparative study of interrogative words in Spanish and English, which resulted in a series of hypotheses about the way Spanish speakers convey the interrogative how plus adjective or adverb. To test the hypotheses, surveys were conducted with native Spanish speakers. Surveys and results are discussed. (AMH)

  9. Interrogation cradle and insertable containment fixture for detecting birefringent microcrystals in bile

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Chris; Seger, Tino

    2003-09-30

    A transparent flow channel fluidly communicates a fluid source and a collection reservoir. An interrogating light beam passes through a first polarizer having a first plane of polarization. The flow channel is orthogonal to the light beam. The light beam passes through a fluid sample as it flows through the flow channel, and is then filtered through a second polarizer having a second plane of polarization rotated 90.degree. from the first plane of polarization. An electronic photo-detector is aligned with the light beam, and signals the presence of birefringent microcrystals in the fluid sample by generating voltage pulses. A disposable containment fixture includes the flow channel and the collection reservoir. The fixture is adapted for removable insertion into an interrogation cradle that includes optical and data processing components. The cradle rigidly positions the centerline of the flow channel orthogonal to the light beam.

  10. Epistemic Analysis of Interrogative Domains using Cuboids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Cameron; Hughes, Tracey

    We are interested in analyzing the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from interrogative domains. The interrogative domains that have our current focus are taken from transcripts of legal trials, congressional hearings, or law enforcement interrogations. These transcripts have be encoded in XML or HTML formats. The agent uses these transcripts as a primary knowledge source. The complexity, size, scope and potentially conflicting nature of transcripts from interrogative domains bring into question the quality of propositional knowledge that can be garnered by the agent. Epistemic Cuboids or Cubes are used as a knowledge analysis technique that helps determine the quality and quantity of the propositional knowledge extracted by an epistemic agent from an interrogative domain. In this paper we explore how 'Epistemic Cubes' can be used to evaluate the nature of the agent's propositional knowledge.

  11. Are the American Psychological Association’s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9–11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists’ involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article’s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such as, “However well intended, were APA’s interrogation policies ethically sound?”; “Were they valid, realistic, and able to achieve their purpose?”; “Were other approaches available that would address interrogation issues more directly, comprehensively, and actively, that were more ethically and scientifically based, and that would have had a greater likelihood of success?”; and “Should APA continue to endorse its post-9–11 detainee interrogation policies?” PMID:22096660

  12. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  13. Large-volume slow-neutron interrogation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegors, Stanley H.; Nieschmidt, E. B.; Johnson, L. O.

    1995-03-01

    Characterization of sealed containers requires the use of many techniques. These techniques may be via active interrogation or, if the contents are radioactive, by a variety of passive techniques. One of the frequently used interrogative techniques is neutron interrogation, thermal or fast. The resultant detected radiation can be either neutrons or photons (gamma- rays). The use of neutrons is greatly influenced by the presence of moderators (mainly 1H) and neutron absorbers (1H, Cd, etc.). Complete characterization of such containers also requires the determination of substances (e.g., mercury) which do not produce neutrons as a result of neutron interrogation. To solve some of these characterization challenges a facility is required to study neutron capture leading to the production of more neutrons [i.e. (n,f)] or to other reactions such as (n,(gamma) ). Among the requirements of such a facility are good neutron conservation, efficient neutron moderation and long thermal neutron die-away time. Since one of the materials to be identified and quantified is 1H the facility must not contain this nuclide if possible.

  14. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  15. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  16. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  17. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  18. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  19. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed

  20. Negotiate Instead of Interrogate-Get Better Results from Interrogations Through Negotiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    style approach could be incorporated into interrogation techniques and make them for effective . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...negotiation style approach could be incorporated into interrogation techniques and make them for effective . AU/ACSC/DOTSON/AY09 vii...future attacks in the US. 7 Despite several allegations of enhanced interrogation techniques such AU/ACSC/DOTSON/AY09 4 as waterboarding

  1. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  2. Design of multi-megawatt actively cooled beam dumps for the Neutral-Beam Engineering Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.; Wells, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility will test Neutral Beam Sources up to 170 keV, 65 Amps, with 30 second beam-on times. For this application actively cooled beam dumps for both the neutral and ionized particles will be required. The dumps will be able to dissipate a wide range of power density profiles by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure. The thermal hydraulic design of the panels permit the dissipation of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/ anywhere on the panel surface. The water requirements of the dumps are optimized by restricting the flow to panel sections where the heat flux falls short of the design value. The mechanical design of the beam-dump structures is described along with tests performed on a prototype panel. The prototype tests were performed on two different panel designs, one manufactured by Mc Donnell Douglas (MDAC) the other by United Technologies (UT). The dissipation capabilities of the panels were tested at the critical regions to verify their use in the beam dump assemblies.

  3. Working group report on beam plasmas, electronic propulsion, and active experiments using beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, J. M.; Eastman, T.; Gabriel, S.; Hawkins, J.; Matossian, J.; Raitt, J.; Reeves, G.; Sasaki, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Winkler, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The JPL Workshop addressed a number of plasma issues that bear on advanced spaceborne technology for the years 2000 and beyond. Primary interest was on the permanently manned space station with a focus on identifying environmentally related issues requiring early clarification by spaceborne plasma experimentation. The Beams Working Group focused on environmentally related threats that platform operations could have on the conduct and integrity of spaceborne beam experiments and vice versa. Considerations were to include particle beams and plumes. For purposes of definition it was agreed that the term particle beams described a directed flow of charged or neutral particles allowing single-particle trajectories to represent the characteristics of the beam and its propagation. On the other hand, the word plume was adopted to describe a multidimensional flow (or expansion) of a plasma or neutral gas cloud. Within the framework of these definitions, experiment categories included: (1) Neutral- and charged-particle beam propagation, with considerations extending to high powers and currents. (2) Evolution and dynamics of naturally occurring and man-made plasma and neutral gas clouds. In both categories, scientific interest focused on interactions with the ambient geoplasma and the evolution of particle densities, energy distribution functions, waves, and fields.

  4. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

  5. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  6. Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F.; Ciapala, E.; De-Maria, R.; Koutchouk, J. P.; Linnecar, T.; Metral, E.; Morita, A.; Solyak, N.; Sun, Y.; Tomas, R.; Tuckmantel, J.; Weiler, T.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-05-04

    The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.

  7. Active Authentication Using Covert Cognitive Interrogation Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    users to develop unique strategy paths for playing the imperceptible games. By examining users’ subconscious game playing strategies, the team captured...the imperceptible games. By examining users’ subconscious game playing strategies, the team captured discriminatory information without sophisticated...covert, game-like tasks. By examining users’ subconscious game playing strategies, our approach captures discriminatory user information without

  8. Active beam shaping in multi-levels amplification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Lin, Weiran; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-09-01

    Using Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM) as a beam shaping device to improve beam quality in high-gain amplification system is reported. 1.6 nJ injected small-size signal Gaussian beam can be amplified to 5 J by 4 stages amplification, and finally output beam is a 50mm×50mm square spot with flat-top intensity distribution. In the amplification system we designed, LC-SLM is placed after the second level of amplifier, where the signal laser energy is about 20mJ, and beam size is 10mm×10mm. The structure of Fourier image transfer is also implemented in this amplifications system to be capable of maintaining high-quality image transmission in the amplification process. The LC-SLM as an object, is imaged by beam expand lenses and spatial filters lenses in the amplifications system to get good quality of imaging. By catching output spot and making a feed-back, transmission efficiency of each pixel on LC-SLM is modulated, high energy density area can be decreased to realize flat-top intensity distribution. A spot modulation function is defined as, using the maximum grey value on spot area divided by the average grey value of the image after background correction. By this, amplified laser obtains the spot modulation of 1.24 on central 90% area of the spot. Furthermore, un-uniform distribution on the full spot, soften effects of spot edge, and output beam shape can also be optimized by the LC-SLM shaping scheme in the amplification system.

  9. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  10. Combined Photoneutron And X Ray Interrogation Of Containers For Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael J.; Stevenson, John; Elsalim, Mashal; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie

    2011-06-01

    Effective cargo inspection systems for nuclear material detection require good penetration by the interrogating radiation, generation of a sufficient number of fissions, and strong and penetrating detection signatures. Inspection systems need also to be sensitive over a wide range of cargo types and densities encountered in daily commerce. Thus they need to be effective with highly hydrogenous cargo, where neutron attenuation is a major limitation, as well as with dense metallic cargo, where x-ray penetration is low. A system that interrogates cargo with both neutrons and x-rays can, in principle, achieve high performance over the widest range of cargos. Moreover, utilizing strong prompt-neutron (˜3 per fission) and delayed-gamma ray (˜7 per fission) signatures further strengthens the detection sensitivity across all cargo types. The complementary nature of x-rays and neutrons, used as both probing radiation and detection signatures, alleviates the need to employ exceedingly strong sources, which would otherwise be required to achieve adequate performance across all cargo types, if only one type of radiation probe were employed. A system based on the above principles, employing a commercially-available 9 MV linac was developed and designed. Neutrons are produced simultaneously with x-rays by the photonuclear interaction of the x-ray beam with a suitable converter. A total neutron yield on the order of 1011 n/s is achieved with an average electron beam current of 100 μA. If fissionable material is present, fissions are produced both by the high-energy x-ray beam and by the photoneutrons. Photofission and neutron fission dominate in hydrogenous and metallic cargos, respectively. Neutron-capture gamma rays provide information on the cargo composition. The prompt neutrons resulting from fission are detected by two independent detector systems: by very efficient Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) detectors, and by direct detection of neutrons with energies higher

  11. Combined Photoneutron And X Ray Interrogation Of Containers For Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael J.; Stevenson, John; Elsalim, Mashal; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie

    2011-06-01

    Effective cargo inspection systems for nuclear material detection require good penetration by the interrogating radiation, generation of a sufficient number of fissions, and strong and penetrating detection signatures. Inspection systems need also to be sensitive over a wide range of cargo types and densities encountered in daily commerce. Thus they need to be effective with highly hydrogenous cargo, where neutron attenuation is a major limitation, as well as with dense metallic cargo, where x-ray penetration is low. A system that interrogates cargo with both neutrons and x-rays can, in principle, achieve high performance over the widest range of cargos. Moreover, utilizing strong prompt-neutron ({approx}3 per fission) and delayed-gamma ray ({approx}7 per fission) signatures further strengthens the detection sensitivity across all cargo types. The complementary nature of x-rays and neutrons, used as both probing radiation and detection signatures, alleviates the need to employ exceedingly strong sources, which would otherwise be required to achieve adequate performance across all cargo types, if only one type of radiation probe were employed. A system based on the above principles, employing a commercially-available 9 MV linac was developed and designed. Neutrons are produced simultaneously with x-rays by the photonuclear interaction of the x-ray beam with a suitable converter. A total neutron yield on the order of 10{sup 11} n/s is achieved with an average electron beam current of 100 {mu}A. If fissionable material is present, fissions are produced both by the high-energy x-ray beam and by the photoneutrons. Photofission and neutron fission dominate in hydrogenous and metallic cargos, respectively. Neutron-capture gamma rays provide information on the cargo composition. The prompt neutrons resulting from fission are detected by two independent detector systems: by very efficient Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) detectors, and by direct detection of neutrons

  12. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  13. Active echolocation beam focusing in the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Nachtigall, Paul E; Donahue, Megan J; Breese, Marlee

    2012-04-15

    The odontocete sound production system is highly complex and produces intense, directional signals that are thought to be focused by the melon and the air sacs. Because odontocete echolocation signals are variable and the emitted click frequency greatly affects the echolocation beam shape, investigations of beam focusing must account for frequency-related beam changes. In this study we tested whether the echolocation beam of a false killer whale changed depending on target difficulty and distance while also accounting for frequency-related changes in the echolocation beam. The data indicate that the false killer whale changes its beam size according to target distance and difficulty, which may be a strategy of maximizing the energy of the target echo. We propose that the animal is using a strategy of changing the focal region according to target distance and that this strategy is under active control.

  14. Active Signal Propagation and Imaging Using Vortex Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    waist , and 2p+ l+1( )arctan(z / zR ) is the Gouy phase where zR is the Rayleigh range. The order of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode is given by N = 2p...cause them to rotate around the circumference of the optical vortex . 1.1. Guide-probe experiment Implementation of OV-GP imaging is based on...polarized Gaussian beam from a Helium-Neon laser cavity (633nm, ~5mW) is expanded and collimated to a beam waist of ~5mm and converted into an OV baring

  15. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R.…

  16. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  17. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy {gamma}-ray emission and characteristic fast decay time. Fortunately, the fission product {gamma}-radiation decays with a distinctive T{sub 1/2} = 20-30 sec lifetime that is well matched to cargo scan speeds of about one minute per container. Experimental characterization of the {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting thick cargos has not yet been undertaken. The work reported here leads to definite requirements for the interrogation neutron source that can be met with neutron commercially available source technology. A small (6-20 ft) deuteron accelerator producing about {approx} 1 mA, 2-5 MeV deuteron beam on a deuterium or beryllium target is required. Neutrons produced by such an accelerator are kinematically collimated in the forward direction, reducing shielding requirements while increasing the neutron flux on target to meet the intensity requirement even when there is thick intervening cargo. In addition, this technology provides a very penetrating beam in the energy range 4-8 MeV while remaining below the oxygen activation threshold. Maximum counting statistics and lowest error rates in the identification occur when the beam is pulsed with a 50 % duty cycle. The period for this pulsing must be comparable to the half-lives of the species that make up the signature, i.e. 10-60 sec. This is readily achieved with commercially available equipment and is well suited to rapid scanning of cargo containers.

  18. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Ramos, D.; Suzuki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented.

  19. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  20. A Platform for Interrogating Cancer-Associated p53 Alleles

    PubMed Central

    D’Brot, Alejandro; Kurtz, Paula; Regan, Erin; Jakubowski, Brandon; Abrams, John M

    2016-01-01

    p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Compelling evidence argues that full transformation involves loss of growth suppression encoded by wild-type p53 together with poorly understood oncogenic activity encoded by missense mutations. Furthermore, distinguishing disease alleles from natural polymorphisms is an important clinical challenge. To interrogate the genetic activity of human p53 variants, we leveraged the Drosophila model as an in vivo platform. We engineered strains that replace the fly p53 gene with human alleles, producing a collection of stocks that are, in effect, ‘humanized’ for p53 variants. Like the fly counterpart, human p53 transcriptionally activated a biosensor and induced apoptosis after DNA damage. However, all humanized strains representing common alleles found in cancer patients failed to complement in these assays. Surprisingly, stimulus-dependent activation of hp53 occurred without stabilization, demonstrating that these two processes can be uncoupled. Like its fly counterpart, hp53 formed prominent nuclear foci in germline cells but cancer-associated p53 variants did not. Moreover, these same mutant alleles disrupted hp53 foci and inhibited biosensor activity, suggesting that these properties are functionally linked. Together these findings establish a functional platform for interrogating human p53 alleles and suggest that simple phenotypes could be used to stratify disease variants. PMID:26996664

  1. SU-E-J-49: Distal Edge Activity Fall Off Of Proton Therapy Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Elmekawy, A; Ewell, L; Butuceanu, C; Zhu, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize and quantify the distal edge activity fall off, created in a phantom by a proton therapy beam Method and Materials: A 30x30x10cm polymethylmethacrylate phantom was irradiated with a proton therapy beam using different ranges and beams. The irradiation volume is approximated by a right circular cylinder of diameter 7.6cm and varying lengths. After irradiation, the phantom was scanned via a Philips Gemini Big Bore™ PET-CT for isotope activation. Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system as well as ImageJ™ were used to analyze the resulting PET and CT scans. The region of activity within the phantom was longitudinally measured as a function of PET slice number. Dose estimations were made via Monte Carlo (GATE) simulation. Results: For both the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) and the mono-energetic pristine Bragg peak proton beams, the proximal activation rise was steep: average slope −0.735 (average intensity/slice number) ± 0.091 (standard deviation) for the pristine beams and −1.149 ± 0.117 for the SOBP beams. In contrast, the distal fall offs were dissimilar. The distal fall off in activity for the pristine beams was fit well by a linear curve: R{sup 2} (Pierson Product) was 0.9968, 0.9955 and 0.9909 for the 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm range beams respectively. The good fit allows for a slope comparison between the different ranges. The slope varied as a function of range from 1.021 for the 13.5cm beam to 0.8407 (average intensity/slice number) for the 21.0cm beam. This dependence can be characterized: −0.0234(average intensity/slice number/cm range). For the SOBP beams, the slopes were significantly less and were also less linear: average slope 0.2628 ± 0.0474, average R{sup 2}=0.9236. Conclusion: The distal activation fall off edge for pristine proton beams was linear and steep. The corresponding quantities for SOBP beams were shallower and less linear. Philips has provided support for this work.

  2. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; He Jiaqing; Han, Mi-Kyung; Sootsman, Joseph R.; Girard, Steven; Arachchige, Indika U.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-08-15

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 deg. C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  3. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; He, J.; Han, M-K.; Sootsman, J. R.; Girard, S.; Arachchige, I. U.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Dravid, V. P.

    2011-08-01

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  4. Vers Une Analyse systematique de l'interrogation en francais (Toward a Systematic Analysis of the French Interrogative).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azoulay-Vicente, Avigail

    1988-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the French interrogative focuses on the distinction between the syntactic processes (identification of question words, interrogative phrase preposing, and rules of question formation) and phonological processes (intonation patterns) that characterize questions in French. (Author/MSE)

  5. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  6. Ground-water activation from the upcoming operation of MI40 beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Read, A.L.

    1996-09-01

    During the course of normal operation, a particle accelerator can produce radionuclides in the adjacent soil and in the beam line elements through the interactions of accelerated particles and/or secondary particles produced in the beam absorbers, targets, and sometimes elsewhere through routine beam losses. The production and concentration of these radionuclides depends on the beam parameters such as energy, intensity, particle type, and target configuration. The radionuclides produced in the soil can potentially migrate to the ground water. Soil activation and migration to the ground water depends on the details of the local hydrogeology. Generally, very few places such as the beam stops, target stations, injection and extraction sectors can have high enough radiation fields to produce radionuclides in the soil outside the enclosures. During the design, construction, or an upgrade in the intensity of existing beams, measures are taken to minimize the production of activated soil. The only leachable radionuclides known to be produced in the Fermilab soil are {sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be , {sup 22}Na, {sup 45}Ca and {sup 54}Mn and it has been determined that only {sup 3}H, and {sup 22}Na, because of their longer half lives and greater leachabilities, may significantly impact ground water resources.In the past, Fermilab has developed and used the Single Resident Well Model (SRWM) to estimate the ground water activation. Recently, the Concentration Model (CM), a more realistic method which depends on the site hydrogeology has been developed to decide the shielding requirements of the high radiation sites, and to calculate the ground water activation and its subsequent migration to the aquifer. In this report, the concentration of radionuclide released to the surface waters and the aquifer around the MI40 beam absorber are calculated. Subsequently, the ultimate limit on the primary proton beam intensity to be aborted on the Main Injector beam absorber is determined.

  7. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  8. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  9. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic. PMID:27270162

  10. Enhancing Interrogation: Advancing a New Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    magnifying the effectiveness of so- called enhanced interrogation techniques like waterboarding .” Accord- ing to Soufan, “There was no actionable...applied, justified their utility against a resistant subject, dispelled concerns about potential long-term harmful effects , and elaborated on medical...use of waterboarding on high-value de- tainees was a “no-brainer” because it “provided us enormously valuable information” that contributed to saving

  11. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  12. Revenge versus rapport: Interrogation, terrorism, and torture.

    PubMed

    Alison, Laurence; Alison, Emily

    2017-04-01

    This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy. We review this emerging field of study and show how rapport-based methods rely on building alliances and involve a specific set of interpersonal skills on the part of the interrogator. We conclude with 2 key propositions: (a) for psychologists to firmly maintain the Hippocratic Oath of "first do no harm," irrespective of perceived threat and uncertainty, and (b) for wider recognition of the empirical evidence that rapport-based approaches work and revenge tactics do not. Proposition (a) is directly in line with fundamental ethical principles of practice for anyone in a caring profession. Proposition (b) is based on the requirement for psychology to protect and promote human welfare and to base conclusions on objective evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Active buckling control of beams using piezoelectric actuators and strain gauge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a finite element model incorporating active control techniques has been developed to stabilize the first two buckling modes of both a simply supported and a cantilevered beam. The goal is to increase the corresponding beam buckling loads by using piezoelectric actuators along with optimal feedback control. The uniform beams are bonded with two pairs of segmented piezoelectric actuators at the top and bottom. Resistive strain gauges are attached to the centres of the actuators as sensors. Measurements are taken using these, to estimate the system states. The beams are simply supported or cantilevered and subjected to a slowly increasing axial compressive load. Finite element formulations based on the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the actuators are presented. The associated reduced-order modal equations and the state-space equations are derived for the design of a standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The finite element analysis and the active control simulation results are consistent with both theoretical analysis results and experimental data. The designed full state feedback LQR controller is shown to be successful in stabilizing the first two buckling modes of the beams. Also the control simulation shows that the present optimally located segmented actuator pairs along the beam are more effective for buckling control.

  14. Preliminary Findings of The Brief Everyday Activities Measurement (BEAM) in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scharaga, Elyssa A.; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Functional losses are common in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. However, subtle declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not always detected in self-reports. Performance IADL measurements are financially and time burdensome, restricting their use in varied settings. To address these limitations, we developed the Brief Everyday Activities Measure (BEAM), a short (< 5 minutes) objective IADL measure that assesses medication and finance management. Design & Participants The BEAM was administered to 209 cognitively non-demented community-dwellers (ages 65–95 years). Measurements Participants completed standardized motor, neuropsychological, psychological, and self-report functional assessments. Results BEAM completion time ranged from 54.16 to 259.31 seconds. Interclass correlations (ICC) for total BEAM completion time was moderate (0.65, 95% CI [.43 –.78]). Accuracy for total BEAM performance was in the low-moderate range (Kappa = 0.38, p < .001, 95% CI [.18 –.54]). As predicted, lower accuracy and longer time to complete the BEAM were both associated with worse executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Conclusions Medication and finance management can be efficiently assessed within five minutes. The BEAM may be a valuable screening tool to evaluate these functional abilities. PMID:26482695

  15. Active Plasma Lensing for Relativistic Laser-Plasma-Accelerated Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilborg, J.; Steinke, S.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Matlis, N. H.; Shaw, B. H.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Huijts, J. V.; Nakamura, K.; Daniels, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Bulanov, S. S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-10-01

    Compact, tunable, radially symmetric focusing of electrons is critical to laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) applications. Experiments are presented demonstrating the use of a discharge-capillary active plasma lens to focus 100-MeV-level LPA beams. The lens can provide tunable field gradients in excess of 3000 T /m , enabling cm-scale focal lengths for GeV-level beam energies and allowing LPA-based electron beams and light sources to maintain their compact footprint. For a range of lens strengths, excellent agreement with simulation was obtained.

  16. Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya

    2008-09-29

    Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic beams through paraxial ABCD optical systems operating through turbulent atmosphere is investigated with the help of the ABCD matrices and the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. In particular, the analytic formula is derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam. We applied our analysis for the ABCD system with a single lens located on the propagation path, representing, in a particular case, the unfolded double-pass propagation scenario of active laser radar. Through a number of numerical examples we investigated the effect of local turbulence strength and lens' parameters on spectral, coherence and polarization properties of the EGSM beam.

  17. Active Plasma Lensing for Relativistic Laser-Plasma-Accelerated Electron Beams.

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, J; Steinke, S; Geddes, C G R; Matlis, N H; Shaw, B H; Gonsalves, A J; Huijts, J V; Nakamura, K; Daniels, J; Schroeder, C B; Benedetti, C; Esarey, E; Bulanov, S S; Bobrova, N A; Sasorov, P V; Leemans, W P

    2015-10-30

    Compact, tunable, radially symmetric focusing of electrons is critical to laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) applications. Experiments are presented demonstrating the use of a discharge-capillary active plasma lens to focus 100-MeV-level LPA beams. The lens can provide tunable field gradients in excess of 3000 T/m, enabling cm-scale focal lengths for GeV-level beam energies and allowing LPA-based electron beams and light sources to maintain their compact footprint. For a range of lens strengths, excellent agreement with simulation was obtained.

  18. Medical ethics and the interrogation of Guantanamo 063.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-04-01

    The controversy over abusive interrogations of prisoners during the war against terrorism spotlights the need for clear ethics norms requiring physicians and other clinicians to prevent the mistreatment of prisoners. Although policies and general descriptions pertaining to clinical oversight of interrogations in United States' war on terror prisons have come to light, there are few public records detailing the clinical oversight of an interrogation. A complaint by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) led to an Army investigation of an interrogation at the United States prison at Guantanamo Bay. The declassified Army investigation and the corresponding interrogation log show clinical supervision, monitoring and treatment during an interrogation that employed dogs, prolonged sleep deprivation, humiliation, restraint, hypothermia and compulsory intravenous infusions. The interrogation and the involvement of a psychologist, physician and medics violate international and medical norms for the treatment of prisoners.

  19. Application of a passive/active autoparametric cantilever beam absorber with PZT actuator for Duffing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Navarro, G.; Abundis-Fong, H. F.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, B.

    2013-04-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out on a cantilever-type passive/active autoparametric vibration absorber, with a PZT patch actuator, to be used in a primary damped Duffing system. The primary system consists of a mass, viscous damping and a cubic stiffness provided by a soft helical spring, over which is mounted a cantilever beam with a PZT patch actuator actively controlled to attenuate harmonic and resonant excitation forces. With the PZT actuator on the cantilever beam absorber, cemented to the base of the beam, the auto-parametric vibration absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility to control the effective stiffness and damping associated to the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. This active vibration absorber employs feedback information from a high resolution optical encoder on the primary Duffing system and an accelerometer on the tip beam absorber, a strain gage on the base of the beam, feedforward information from the excitation force and on-line computations from the nonlinear approximate frequency response, parameterized in terms of a proportional gain provided by a voltage input to the PZT actuator, thus modifying the closed-loop dynamic stiffness and providing a mechanism to asymptotically track an optimal, robust and stable attenuation solution on the primary Duffing system. Experimental results are included to describe the dynamic and robust performance of the overall closed-loop system.

  20. Method of active charge and current neutralization of intense ion beams for ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Orthel, J.L.; Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of generating the beam neutralization electrons with required properties are given in the context of a Light Ion Fusion Experiment (LIFE) designed accelerator. Recently derived envelope equations for neutralized and ballistically focused intense ion beams are applied to the LIFE geometry in which 10 MeV He/sup +/ multiple beamlets coalesce and undergo 45:1 radial compression while beam pulses experience a 20:1 axial compression in the propagation range of 10 m. Both active and auto-neutralization methods are examined and found to produce initial electron temperatures consistent with the requirement of the envelope equation for both radial and axial adiabatic beam pulse compressions. The stability of neutralized beam propagation is also examined concerning the Pierce type electrostatic instability and for the case of LIFE beams it is found to have insignificant effect. A scaled experimental setup is presented which can serve to perform near term tests on the ballistically focused propagation of neutralized light ion beams.

  1. Scalable interrogation: Eliciting human pheromone responses to deception in a security interview setting.

    PubMed

    Stedmon, Alex W; Eachus, Peter; Baillie, Les; Tallis, Huw; Donkor, Richard; Edlin-White, Robert; Bracewell, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Individuals trying to conceal knowledge from interrogators are likely to experience raised levels of stress that can manifest itself across biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural factors, providing an opportunity for detection. Using established research paradigms an innovative scalable interrogation was designed in which participants were given a 'token' that represented information they had to conceal from interviewers. A control group did not receive a token and therefore did not have to deceive the investigators. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences between deceivers and truth-tellers across the four factors by collecting data for cortisol levels, sweat samples, heart-rate, respiration, skin temperature, subjective stress ratings and video and audio recordings. The results provided an integrated understanding of responses to interrogation by those actively concealing information and those acting innocently. Of particular importance, the results also suggest, for the first time in an interrogation setting, that stressed individuals may secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could be used for stand-off detection. The findings are discussed in relation to developing a scalable interrogation protocol for future research in this area.

  2. Radiological risks of neutron interrogation of food.

    PubMed

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2015-09-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of neutron scanning techniques for security. Neutron techniques with a range of energy spectra including thermal, white and fast neutrons have been shown to work in different scenarios. As international interest in neutron scanning increases the risk of activating cargo, especially foodstuffs must be considered. There has been a limited amount of research into the activation of foods by neutron beams and we have sought to improve the amount of information available. In this paper we show that for three important metrics; activity, ingestion dose and Time to Background there is a strong dependence on the food being irradiated and a weak dependence on the energy of irradiation. Previous studies into activation used results based on irradiation of pharmaceuticals as the basis for research into activation of food. The earlier work reports that (24)Na production is the dominant threat which motivated the search for (24)Na(n,γ)(24)Na in highly salted foods. We show that (42)K can be more significant than (24)Na in low sodium foods such as Bananas and Potatoes.

  3. Anti-angiogenic activity in metastasis of human breast cancer cells irradiated by a proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Shik; Shin, Jin-Sun; Nam, Kyung-Soo; Shon, Yun-Hee

    2012-07-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process of metastasis in human breast cancer. We investigated the effects of proton beam irradiation on angiogenic enzyme activities and their expressions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The regulation of angiogenic regulating factors, of transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β) and of vesicular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast cancer cells irradiated with a proton beam was studied. Aromatase activity and mRNA expression, which is correlated with metastasis, were significantly decreased by irradiation with a proton beam in a dose-dependent manner. TGF- β and VEGF transcriptions were also diminished by proton beam irradiation. In contrast, transcription of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), also known as biological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), was dose-dependently enhanced. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of TIMPs caused th MMP-9 activity to be diminished and the MMP-9 and the MMP-2 expressions to be decreased. These results suggest that inhibition of angiogenesis by proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells is closely related to inhibitions of aromatase activity and transcription and to down-regulation of TGF- β and VEGF transcription.

  4. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  5. Hand Held Device for Wireless Powering and Interrogation of Biomems Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held device for wireless powering, interrogation and data retrieval from at least one implanted sensor. The hand-held device includes an antenna for powering an implanted sensor and for receiving data from the implanted sensor to the hand-held device for at least one of storage, display or analysis. The hand-held device establishes electromagnetic coupling with a low radiating radio frequency power inductor in the implanted sensor at a predefined separation and the antenna geometry allows for the antenna to power, interrogate and retrieve data from the implanted sensor without strapping the hand-held device to a human body housing the implanted sensor The hand-held device optionally allows for activation of the implanted sensor only during interrogation and data retrieval.

  6. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  7. Active vibration control of a smart pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer I-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, G.; Qiao, P.; Sethi, V.; Prasad, A.

    2004-08-01

    Advanced and innovative materials and structures are increasingly used in civil infrastructure applications. By combining the advantages of composites and smart sensors and actuators, active or smart composite structures can be created and be efficiently adopted in practical structural applications. This paper presents results on active vibration control of pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite thin-walled I-beams using smart sensors and actuators. The FRP I-beams are made of E-glass fibers and polyester resins. The FRP I-beam is in a cantilevered configuration. The PZT (lead zirconate titanate) type of piezoelectric ceramic patches are used as smart sensors and actuators. These patches are surface bonded near the cantilevered end of the I-beam. Utilizing results from modal analyses and experimental modal testing, several active vibration control methods, such as position feedback control, strain rate feedback control and lead compensation, are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve effective vibration control of FRP I-beams. For instance, the modal damping ratio of the strong direction first bending mode increases by more than 1000% with positive position feedback control.

  8. Active vibration control of a smart pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer I-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gangbing; Qiao, Pizhong; Sethi, Vineet; Prasad, A.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced and innovative materials and structures are increasingly used in civil infrastructure applications. By combining the advantages of composites and smart sensors and actuators, active or smart composite structures can be created and be efficiently adopted in practical structural applications. This paper presents results of active vibration control of a pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites thin-walled I-beams using smart sensors and actuators. The FRP I-beams are made of E-glass fibers and polyester resins. The FRP I-beam is in a cantilevered configuration. PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) type of piezoelectric ceramic patches are used as smart sensors and actuators. These patches are surface-bonded near the cantilevered end of the I-beam. Utilizing results from modal analyses and experimental modal testing, several active vibration control methods, such as position feedback control, strain rate feedback control and lead compensator, are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve effective vibration control of FRP I-beams. For instance, the modal damping ratio of the strong direction first bending mode increases by more than 1000 percent with a positive position feedback control.

  9. NORME PEDAGOGIQUE--LES STRUCTURES INTERROGATIVES DU FRANCAIS (PEDAGOGICAL NORM--THE INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES OF FRENCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE SELECTION OF A PEDAGOGICAL NORM FOR FRENCH INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES. SINCE THIS AREA OF FRENCH GRAMMAR IS PARTICULARLY POLYMORPHOUS, OBJECTIVE CRITERIA ARE SET UP TO MAKE THE SELECTION--FREQUENCY, COMPLEXITY, AND EXTENSIVITY. BECAUSE "EST-CE QUE" CAN BE APPLIED WITHOUT EXCEPTION TO ALL TYPES OF KERNEL SENTENCES, IT WAS…

  10. First Deminsys (high speed FBG interrogator) flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Els, Thomas J.

    2009-03-01

    Deminsys is the world's fastest multi sensor / multi channel FBG interrogator, identifies one till four channels with typically 8 sensors per channel. The system is especially developed for the interrogation of signals up to 19,3 kHz for each sensor and the sample frequency is independent of the number of sensors. By having multiple sensors per fibre you can create a very compact network of sensors. Due to its revolutionary (light weight, compact and solid state) design, Deminsys seems to fit perfectly into (research) programs for aerospace, medic & life science, maritime, industrial, crash test and all other fast detection applications. Technobis Fibre Technologies (TFT) and NLR made a first test flight with the Deminsys optical fibre measurement system using the NLR test aircraft on October 24th 2008. This flight was a first step in the further development of the current system in order to make it suitable for operation on-board an aircraft and bring it from TRL3 towards TRL5, a functional model for aerospace applications.

  11. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  12. Optimization of nuclear-pumped laser active media by electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V.F.; Fedenev, A.V.

    1996-05-01

    In present report there are assumed the results of nuclear pumped laser (NPL) active media experimental studying with electron beam excitation and the analysis is made for emission characteristics and kinetic processes of more perspective lasers, which are operating at low pumping power close to NPL excitation conditions. Basic attention is paying to experimental data, obtained for e-beam pumped low-threshold active media, which have allowed to accelerate the understanding of the inversion population creation processes in NPL and which have predetermined new future experiments with NPL. It has been shown that in spit of same differences in plasma creation processes for e-beam pumping and fission fragment excitation, operating level and inversion population creation processes in nonequilibrium recombinant plasma are similar for both types of excitation at compatible pumping power and pulse duration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Outdoor Stand-Off Interrogation of Fissionable Material with a Hybrid Coded Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by SNM. Alternatively, active interrogation methods can be used to... activation counts in the NaI detectors result from thermal neutron activation of the aluminum casing of the detectors (resulting in a 1.779 MeV gamma ray...thermal neutron signals while boosting the efficiency for fast neutrons . III. RESULTS A. Active gamma background A rate plot of the 3-7

  14. Low energy proton beam induces tumor cell apoptosis through reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kheun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jin-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Proton beam is useful to target tumor tissue sparing normal cells by allowing precise dose only into tumor cells. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which proton beam induces tumor cell death are still undefined. We irradiated three different tumor cells (LLC, HepG2, and Molt-4) with low energy proton beam (35 MeV) with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) in vitro, and investigated cell death by MTT or CCK-8 assay at 24 h after irradiation. LLC and HepG2 cells were sensitive to proton beam at over 10 Gy to induce apoptosis whereas Molt-4 showed rather low sensitivity. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for the death rate relative to γ-ray were ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 in LLC and HepG2 but from 0.3 to 0.7 in Molt-4 at 11 d after irradiation by colony formation assay. The typical apoptotic nuclear DNA morphological pattern was observed by staining with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Tiny fragmented DNA was observed in HepG2 but not in Molt-4 by the treatment of proton in apoptotic DNA fragment assay. By FACS analysis after stained with FITC-Annexin-V, early as well as median apoptotic fractions were clearly increased by proton treatment. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced a cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and procaspases-3 and -9. Activity of caspases was highly enhanced after proton beam irradiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly increased and N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced by proton beam. Furthermore, p38 and JNK but not ERK were activated by proton and dominant negative mutants of p38 and JNK revived proton-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p38 and JNK pathway may be activated through ROS to activate apoptosis. In conclusion, our data clearly showed that single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP increased ROS and induced cell death of solid tumor cells (LLC and HepG2) in an apoptotic cell death program by the induction of caspases

  15. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  16. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    DOE PAGES

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; ...

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only inmore » the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.« less

  17. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  18. Observations of the plasma environment during an active ionospheric ion beam injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Erlandson, R. E.; Kintner, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Several sounding rocket flights have been used to clarify the electrodynamics of neutral beam releases of Ar ions in the upper ionosphere, by varying the Ar's point of release with respect to the diagnostic payload. A volume of 10-m radius centered on the Ar release payload is measured for broadband wave activity; the superthermal neutralizing beam electrons become magnetized in this volume for across-field plasma releases, and ambient electrons are accelerated to energies of several hundred eV. This is speculated to be due to wave turbulence rather than payload-neutralization.

  19. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility.

    PubMed

    Favalli, A; Pedersen, B

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre recently obtained a license to operate a new experimental device intended for research in the field of nuclear safeguards. The research projects currently being planned for the new device includes mass determination of fissile materials in matrices and detection of contraband non-nuclear materials. The device incorporates a commercial pulsed neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. In this configuration, a relatively high thermal neutron flux with a long lifetime is achieved inside the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator, a sample may be interrogated by a pure thermal neutron flux during repeated time periods. The paper reports on the design of the new device and the pulsed fast and thermal neutron source. The thermal neutron flux caused by the neutron generator and the graphite structure has been characterised by foil activation, fission chamber and (3)He proportional counter measurements.

  20. Current Chemical Biology Approaches to Interrogate Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Minkui

    2012-01-01

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) play various physiological and pathological roles through methylating histone and nonhistone targets. However, most PMTs including more than 60 human PMTs remain to be fully characterized. The current approaches to elucidate the functions of PMTs have been diversified by many emerging chemical biology technologies. This review focuses on progress in these aspects and is organized into four discussion modules (assays, substrates, cofactors and inhibitors) that are important to elucidate biological functions of PMTs. These modules are expected to provide general guidance and present emerging methods for researchers to select and combine suitable PMT-activity assays, well-defined substrates, novel SAM surrogates and PMT inhibitors to interrogate PMTs. PMID:22220966

  1. Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Nykaenen, H.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Kilanski, L.

    2012-03-19

    Experimental evidence on low energy electron beam induced point defect activation in GaN grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. The GaN samples are irradiated with a 5-20 keV electron beam of a scanning electron microscope and investigated by photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. The degradation of the band-to-band luminescence of the irradiated GaN films is associated with the activation of point defects. The activated defects were identified as in-grown Ga-vacancies. We propose that MOVPE-GaN contains a significant concentration of passive V{sub Ga}-H{sub n} complexes that can be activated by H removal during low energy electron irradiation.

  2. Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykänen, H.; Suihkonen, S.; Kilanski, L.; Sopanen, M.; Tuomisto, F.

    2012-03-01

    Experimental evidence on low energy electron beam induced point defect activation in GaN grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. The GaN samples are irradiated with a 5-20 keV electron beam of a scanning electron microscope and investigated by photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. The degradation of the band-to-band luminescence of the irradiated GaN films is associated with the activation of point defects. The activated defects were identified as in-grown Ga-vacancies. We propose that MOVPE-GaN contains a significant concentration of passive VGa-Hn complexes that can be activated by H removal during low energy electron irradiation.

  3. Optimized performance for neutron interrogation to detect SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Asztalos, S J; Biltoft, P J; Church, J A; Descalle, M; Hall, J M; Luu, T C; Manatt, D R; Mauger, G J; Norman, E B; Petersen, D C; Pruet, J A; Prussin, S G

    2007-02-14

    A program of simulations and validating experiments was utilized to evaluate a concept for neutron interrogation of commercial cargo containers that would reliably detect special nuclear material (SNM). The goals were to develop an interrogation system capable of detecting a 5 kg solid sphere of high-enriched uranium (HEU) even when deeply embedded in commercial cargo. Performance goals included a minimum detection probability, P{sub d} {ge} 95%, a maximum occurrence of false positive indications, P{sub fA} {le} 0.001, and maximum scan duration of t {le} 1 min. The conditions necessary to meet these goals were demonstrated in experimental measurements even when the SNM is deeply buried in any commercial cargo, and are projected to be met successfully in the most challenging cases of steel or hydrocarbons at areal density {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. Optimal performance was obtained with a collimated ({Delta}{Theta} = {+-} 15{sup o}) neutron beam at energy E{sub n} = 7 MeV produced by the D(d,n) reaction with the deuteron energy E{sub d} = 4 MeV. Two fission product signatures are utilized to uniquely identify SNM, including delayed neutrons detected in a large array of polyethylene moderated 3He proportional counters and high energy {beta}-delayed fission product {gamma}-radiation detected in a large array of 61 x 61 x 25 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillators. The latter detectors are nearly blind to normal terrestrial background radiation by setting an energy threshold on the detection at E{sub min} {ge} 3 MeV. Detection goals were attained with a low beam current (I{sub d} = 15-65 {micro}A) source up to {rho}L = 75 g/cm{sup 2} utilizing long irradiations, T = 30 sec, and long counting times, t = 30-100 sec. Projecting to a higher beam current, I{sub d} {ge} 600 {micro}A and larger detector array the detection and false alarm goals would be attained even with intervening cargo overburden as large as {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. The latter cargo thickness corresponds to

  4. Modeling Extraction of VLF Energy from Localized Ion Ring Beams for Space Based Active Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne; Ganguli, Gurudas; Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Mithaiwala, Manish

    2012-07-01

    Waves in the VLF range are of considerable interest in the magnetosphere since they are responsible for transporting energy and momentum and therefore impacting space weather. Ion ring beams can efficiently generate waves in the VLF frequency range between the electron and ion gyro-frequency (Mithaiwala et al., 2010). Generation of VLF waves by infinite extent ion ring beams have been extensively treated for a broad range of space plasma applications. However, ion ring distributions created by chemical release experiments in the ionosphere (Koons and Pongratz, 1981) and those that occur naturally during storms/substorms or solar-wind comet interactions are localized over a spatial extent. This presentation will consider a new computational model for the nonlinear evolution of VLF waves generated by a spatially localized ion ring beam. The model, though quite general, will have application to generation of VLF waves in the radiation belts by localized creation of an ion ring beam. The model includes the convective loss of energy through phenomenological electron-ion collisions, which models nonlinear scattering of electrostatic lower hybrid waves into large group velocity electromagnetic whistler/magnetosonic waves (Ganguli et al., 2010). Therefore the model, though electrostatic, includes critical electromagnetic effects in a computationally efficient fashion. An emphasis is placed on the determining the efficiency of extraction of VLF energy from the ion ring beam due to the spatial localization of the ion ring beam. It is shown that due to the convection of the VLF waves out of the source region, the efficiency of wave energy extraction is greatly enhanced. This is accompanied by a reduction in background and ion ring beam heating. The results will be used to highlight the importance of non-linear scattering to future active experiments in space. Mithaiwala et al. Phys. Plasma, doi.org/10.1063/1.3372842, 2010 Koons and Pongratz, JGR, 1981. Ganguli et al., Phys

  5. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  6. Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. |; Pelkey, G.E.; Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-01

    A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

  7. Active control of the forced and transient response of a finite beam. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Structural vibrations from a point force are modelled on a finite beam. This research explores the theoretical limit on controlling beam vibrations utilizing another point source as an active controller. Three different types of excitation are considered, harmonic, random, and transient. For harmonic excitation, control over the entire beam length is possible only when the excitation frequency is near a resonant frequency of the beam. Control over a subregion may be obtained even between resonant frequencies at the cost of increasing the vibration outside of the control region. For random excitation, integrating the expected value of the displacement squared over the required interval, is shown to yield the identical cost function as obtained by integrating the cost function for harmonic excitation over all excitation frequencies. As a result, it is always possible to reduce the cost function for random excitation whether controlling the entire beam or just a subregion, without ever increasing the vibration outside the region in which control is desired. The last type of excitation considered is a single, transient pulse. The form of the controller is specified as either one or two delayed pulses, thus constraining the controller to be casual. The best possible control is examined while varying the region of control and the controller location. It is found that control is always possible using either one or two control pulses.

  8. Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Sintonen, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the Interrogative Model of Inquiry (I-Model), developed for the purposes of epistemology and philosophy of science, could be applied to analyze elementary school students' process of inquiry in computer-supported learning. Suggests that the interrogative approach to inquiry can be productively applied for conceptualizing inquiry in…

  9. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any…

  10. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  11. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  12. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  13. Active Control of the Forced and Transient Response of a Finite Beam. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, John Theodore

    1989-01-01

    When studying structural vibrations resulting from a concentrated source, many structures may be modelled as a finite beam excited by a point source. The theoretical limit on cancelling the resulting beam vibrations by utilizing another point source as an active controller is explored. Three different types of excitation are considered, harmonic, random, and transient. In each case, a cost function is defined and minimized for numerous parameter variations. For the case of harmonic excitation, the cost function is obtained by integrating the mean squared displacement over a region of the beam in which control is desired. A controller is then found to minimize this cost function in the control interval. The control interval and controller location are continuously varied for several frequencies of excitation. The results show that control over the entire beam length is possible only when the excitation frequency is near a resonant frequency of the beam, but control over a subregion may be obtained even between resonant frequencies at the cost of increasing the vibration outside of the control region. For random excitation, the cost function is realized by integrating the expected value of the displacement squared over the interval of the beam in which control is desired. This is shown to yield the identical cost function as obtained by integrating the cost function for harmonic excitation over all excitation frequencies. As a result, it is always possible to reduce the cost function for random excitation whether controlling the entire beam or just a subregion, without ever increasing the vibration outside the region in which control is desired. The last type of excitation considered is a single, transient pulse. A cost function representative of the beam vibration is obtained by integrating the transient displacement squared over a region of the beam and over all time. The form of the controller is chosen a priori as either one or two delayed pulses. Delays

  14. Active Target-Time Projection Chambers for Reactions Induced by Rare Isotope Beams: Physics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittig, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Weakly bound nuclear systems can be considered to represent a good testing-ground of our understanding of non-perturbative quantum systems. Great progress in experimental sensitivity has been attained by increase in rare isotope beam intensities and by the development of new high efficiency detectors. It is now possible to study reactions leading to bound and unbound states in systems with very unbalanced neutron to proton ratios. Application of Active Target-Time Projection Chambers to this domain of physics will be illustrated by experiments performed with existing detectors. The NSCL is developing an Active Target-Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC) to be used to study reactions induced by rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Facility (NSCL) and at the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The AT-TPC counter gas acts as both a target and detector, allowing investigations of fusion, isobaric analog states, cluster structure of light nuclei and transfer reactions to be conducted without significant loss in resolution due to the thickness of the target. The high efficiency and low threshold of the AT-TPC will allow investigations of fission barriers and giant resonances with fast fragmentation rare isotope beams. This detector type needs typically a large number of electronic channels (order of magnitude 10,000) and a high speed DAQ. A reduced size prototype detector with prototype electronics has been realized and used in several experiments. A short description of other detectors of this type under development will be given.

  15. A portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor capable of phase interrogation in a large dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hang; Chang, Yun-Hsiang

    2014-08-01

    With the development of a point of care (POC) biosensor in mind, a polymer-molding prism with double parabolic surfaces is invented and developed to implement an ultra-compact SPR biosensor with extremely high sensitivity. The polymer molded parabolic prism is cost effective and disposable, thus cross contamination between biological samples can be avoided. A highly sensitive biosensor with a form factor less than 15cm*15cm*5cm was received with a tunable excitation angle of light beam for a large dynamic range. A highly sensitive optical phase interrogation was demonstrated. The biosensor is also compatible to a modern microscopy platform.

  16. Multi-channel monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Zongjian

    2011-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a mature sensing technology for the measurement of strain, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion. It has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. The most prominent advantages of FBG are: small size and light weight, distributed array of FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. However, a major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art FBG interrogation system is typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are typically assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the industrial need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver™) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables monolithic integration of all functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator system, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2 cm×5 cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  17. Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

  18. A new single crystal diamond dosimeter for small beam: comparison with different commercial active detectors.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; Tromson, D; Tranchant, N; Pomorski, M; Le Roy, M; Donois, M; Moignau, F; Ostrowsky, A; De Carlan, L; Bassinet, C; Huet, C; Derreumaux, S; Chea, M; Cristina, K; Boisserie, G; Bergonzo, P

    2013-11-07

    Recent developments of new therapy techniques using small photon beams, such as stereotactic radiotherapy, require suitable detectors to determine the delivered dose with a high accuracy. The dosimeter has to be as close as possible to tissue equivalence and to exhibit a small detection volume compared to the size of the irradiation field, because of the lack of lateral electronic equilibrium in small beam. Characteristics of single crystal diamond (tissue equivalent material Z = 6, high density) make it an ideal candidate to fulfil most of small beam dosimetry requirements. A commercially available Element Six electronic grade synthetic diamond was used to develop a single crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDDo) with a small detection volume (0.165 mm(3)). Long term stability was studied by irradiating the SCDDo in a (60)Co beam over 14 h. A good stability (deviation less than ± 0.1%) was observed. Repeatability, dose linearity, dose rate dependence and energy dependence were studied in a 10 × 10 cm(2) beam produced by a Varian Clinac 2100 C linear accelerator. SCDDo lateral dose profile, depth dose curve and output factor (OF) measurements were performed for small photon beams with a micro multileaf collimator m3 (BrainLab) attached to the linac. This study is focused on the comparison of SCDDo measurements to those obtained with different commercially available active detectors: an unshielded silicon diode (PTW 60017), a shielded silicon diode (Sun Nuclear EDGE), a PinPoint ionization chamber (PTW 31014) and two natural diamond detectors (PTW 60003). SCDDo presents an excellent spatial resolution for dose profile measurements, due to its small detection volume. Low energy dependence (variation of 1.2% between 6 and 18 MV photon beam) and low dose rate dependence of the SCDDo (variation of 1% between 0.53 and 2.64 Gy min(-1)) are obtained, explaining the good agreement between the SCDDo and the efficient unshielded diode (PTW 60017) in depth dose curve

  19. Determination of Flow Orientation of an Optically Active Turbulent Field by Means of a Single Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-18

    optically active turbulent field was determined by Fourier transforming the wander of a laser beam propagating in the ocean. A simple physical model... Fourier transform for the situation depicted on the right and on the left, respectively. July 1, 2013 / Vol. 38, No. 13 / OPTICS LETTERS 2185 0146-9592/13...132185-03$15.00/0 © 2013 Optical Society of America to the flow (see top row of Fig. 3). However, the magni- tude of the Fourier transform, in

  20. Safety and efficiency of emergency department interrogation of cardiac devices

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, James F.; Peacock, W. Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A.; Daughtery, John C.; McCleese, Ian C.; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Methods Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Results Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. Conclusion ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP. PMID:28168230

  1. Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuechen; Cheng, Chen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Castillo, Gabriel R.; Rabes, Blanca del Rosal; Tan, Yang; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Miniature laser sources with on-demand beam features are desirable devices for a broad range of photonic applications. Lasing based on direct-pump of miniaturized waveguiding active structures offers a low-cost but intriguing solution for compact light-emitting devices. In this work, we demonstrate a novel family of three dimensional (3D) photonic microstructures monolithically integrated in a Nd:YAG laser crystal wafer. They are produced by the femtosecond laser writing, capable of simultaneous light waveguiding and beam manipulation. In these guiding systems, tailoring of laser modes by both passive/active beam splitting and ring-shaped transformation are achieved by an appropriate design of refractive index patterns. Integration of graphene thin-layer as saturable absorber in the 3D laser structures allows for efficient passive Q-switching of tailored laser radiations which may enable miniature waveguiding lasers for broader applications. Our results pave a way to construct complex integrated passive and active laser circuits in dielectric crystals by using femtosecond laser written monolithic photonic chips. PMID:25100561

  2. Modeling activities on the negative-ion-based Neutral Beam Injectors of the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2011-09-26

    At the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) large-scaled negative ion sources have been widely used for the Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) mounted on the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is the world-largest superconducting helical system. These injectors have achieved outstanding performances in terms of beam energy, negative-ion current and optics, and represent a reference for the development of heating and current drive NBIs for ITER.In the framework of the support activities for the ITER NBIs, the PRIMA test facility, which includes a RF-drive ion source with 100 keV accelerator (SPIDER) and a complete 1 MeV Neutral Beam system (MITICA) is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova.An experimental validation of the codes has been undertaken in order to prove the accuracy of the simulations and the soundness of the SPIDER and MITICA design. To this purpose, the whole set of codes have been applied to the LHD NBIs in a joint activity between Consorzio RFX and NIFS, with the goal of comparing and benchmarking the codes with the experimental data. A description of these modeling activities and a discussion of the main results obtained are reported in this paper.

  3. Monolithic crystalline cladding microstructures for efficient light guiding and beam manipulation in passive and active regimes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuechen; Cheng, Chen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Castillo, Gabriel R; Rabes, Blanca del Rosal; Tan, Yang; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2014-08-07

    Miniature laser sources with on-demand beam features are desirable devices for a broad range of photonic applications. Lasing based on direct-pump of miniaturized waveguiding active structures offers a low-cost but intriguing solution for compact light-emitting devices. In this work, we demonstrate a novel family of three dimensional (3D) photonic microstructures monolithically integrated in a Nd:YAG laser crystal wafer. They are produced by the femtosecond laser writing, capable of simultaneous light waveguiding and beam manipulation. In these guiding systems, tailoring of laser modes by both passive/active beam splitting and ring-shaped transformation are achieved by an appropriate design of refractive index patterns. Integration of graphene thin-layer as saturable absorber in the 3D laser structures allows for efficient passive Q-switching of tailored laser radiations which may enable miniature waveguiding lasers for broader applications. Our results pave a way to construct complex integrated passive and active laser circuits in dielectric crystals by using femtosecond laser written monolithic photonic chips.

  4. Interrogation of Prisoners of War in the Airland Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Electronic Warfare and Intelligence) (CEWI) ( Coros ), May, 1983, provides only the most brief discussion of the interrogation company in the corps...Exlloitation)( Coros ) (1985): 18-20. ’FM 34-1 (1984): 2-41 to 2-43. Information on the authorization of forty interrogators in the corps tactical...items out of 343, or 9 percent. 9 c. Predictive time: 1 item out of 343, or 0.3 percent.!•i ercent. 4 VII Coros Interrogation Reports This section reports

  5. Active tuning of vibration and wave propagation in elastic beams with periodically placed piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengming; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Liu, Chunchuan

    2017-04-01

    A novel strategy is proposed to actively tune the vibration and wave propagation properties in elastic beams. By periodically placing the piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs along the beam axis, an active periodic beam structure which exhibits special vibration and wave propagation properties such as the frequency pass-bands and stop-bands (or band-gaps) is developed. Hamilton's principle is applied to establish the equations of motion of the sub-beam elements i.e. the unit-cells, bonded by the piezoelectric patches. A negative proportional feedback control strategy is employed to design the controllers which can provide a positive active stiffness to the beam for a positive feedback control gain, which can increase the stability of the structural system. By means of the added positive active stiffness, the periodicity or the band-gap property of the beam with periodically placed piezoelectric patches can be actively tuned. From the investigation, it is shown that better band-gap characteristics can be achieved by using the negative proportional feedback control. The band-gaps can be obviously broadened by properly increasing the control gain, and they can also be greatly enlarged by appropriately designing the structural sizes of the controllers. The control voltages applied on the piezoelectric actuators are in reasonable and controllable ranges, especially, they are very low in the band-gaps. Thus, the vibration and wave propagation behaviors of the elastic beam can be actively controlled by the periodically placed piezoelectric patches.

  6. Design concept for the microwave interrogation structure in PARCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment.

  7. Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin

    2013-12-02

    In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.

  8. Interrogating cyclic AMP signaling using optical approaches.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jason Y; Falcone, Jeffrey L; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M

    2017-03-01

    Optical reporters for cAMP represent a fundamental advancement in our ability to investigate the dynamics of cAMP signaling. These fluorescent sensors can measure changes in cAMP in single cells or in microdomains within cells as opposed to whole populations of cells required for other methods of measuring cAMP. The first optical cAMP reporters were FRET-based sensors utilizing dissociation of purified regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA, introduced by Roger Tsien in the early 1990s. The utility of these sensors was vastly improved by creating genetically encoded versions that could be introduced into cells with transfection, the first of which was published in the year 2000. Subsequently, improved sensors have been developed using different cAMP binding platforms, optimized fluorescent proteins, and targeting motifs that localize to specific microdomains. The most common sensors in use today are FRET-based sensors designed around an Epac backbone. These rely on the significant conformational changes in Epac when it binds cAMP, altering the signal between FRET pairs flanking Epac. Several other strategies for optically interrogating cAMP have been developed, including fluorescent translocation reporters, dimerization-dependent FP based biosensors, BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer)-based sensors, non-FRET single wavelength reporters, and sensors based on bacterial cAMP-binding domains. Other newly described mammalian cAMP-binding proteins such as Popdc and CRIS may someday be exploited in sensor design. With the proliferation of engineered fluorescent proteins and the abundance of cAMP binding targets in nature, the field of optical reporters for cAMP should continue to see rapid refinement in the coming years.

  9. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Kennedy, Mike O.

    2004-03-09

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  10. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Doug L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Richland, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  11. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel using Cf-252 interrogation with prompt neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, Howard O; Croft, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron (CIPN) detection is proposed as one of 14 NDA techniques to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies (FAs). CIPN is a low-cost and portable instrument, and it looks like a modified fork detector combined with an active interrogation source. Fission chamber (FC) is chosen as neutron detector because of its insensitivity to {gamma} radiation. The CIPN assay is comprised of two measurements, a background count and an active count, without and with the {sup 252}Cf source next to the fuel respectively. The net signal above background is primarily due to the multiplication of Cf source neutrons caused by the fissile content. The capability of CIPN to detect diversion and to determine fissile content was quantified using MCNPX simulations. New schemes were proposed (such as burnup and cooling time correction, etc.) and the results show that the fissile content of a target spent fuel assembly can be determined using CIPN signal.

  12. Interrogations, confessions, and guilty pleas among serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we examined (a) the prevalence and characteristics of youths' true and false admissions (confessions and guilty pleas), (b) youths' interrogation experiences with police and lawyers, and (c) whether youths' interrogation experiences serve as situational risk factors for true and false admissions. We interviewed 193 14- to 17-year-old males (M = 16.4) incarcerated for serious crimes. Over 1/3 of the sample (35.2%) claimed to have made a false admission to legal authorities (17.1% false confession; 18.1% false guilty plea), and 2/3 claimed to have made a true admission (28.5% true confession; 37.3% true guilty plea). The majority of youth said that they had experienced high-pressure interrogations (e.g., threats), especially with police officers. Youth who mentioned experiencing "police refusals" (e.g., of a break to rest) were more likely to report having made both true and false confessions to police, whereas only false confessions were associated with claims of long interrogations (>2 hr) and being questioned in the presence of a friend. The number of self-reported high-pressure lawyer tactics was associated with false, but not true, guilty pleas. Results suggest the importance of conducting specialized trainings for those who interrogate youth, recording interrogations, placing limits on lengthy and manipulative techniques, and exploring alternative procedures for questioning juvenile suspects.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of ripple filters designed for proton and carbon ion beams in hadrontherapy with active scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourhaleb, F.; Attili, A.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, P.; Marchetto, F.; Donetti, M.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Givehchi, N.; Iliescu, S.; La Rosa, A.; Pardo, J.; Pecka, A.; Peroni, C.

    2008-02-01

    Proton and carbon ion beams have a very sharp Bragg peak. For proton beams of energies smaller than 100 MeV, fitting with a gaussian the region of the maximum of the Bragg peak, the sigma along the beam direction is smaller than 1 mm, while for carbon ion beams, the sigma derived with the same technique is smaller than 1 mm for energies up to 360 MeV. In order to use low energy proton and carbon ion beams in hadrontherapy and to achieve an acceptable homogeneity of the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) either the peak positions along the beam have to be quite close to each other or the longitudinal peak shape needs to be broaden at least few millimeters by means of a properly designed ripple filter. With a synchrotron accelerator in conjunction with active scanning techniques the use of a ripple filter is necessary to reduce the numbers of energy switches necessary to obtain a smooth SOBP, leading also to shorter overall irradiation times. We studied the impact of the design of the ripple filter on the dose uniformity in the SOBP region by means of Monte Carlo simulations, implemented using the package Geant4. We simulated the beam delivery line supporting both proton and carbon ion beams using different energies of the beams. We compared the effect of different kind of ripple filters and their advantages.

  14. Engineering the Activity and Lifetime of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth via Substrate Ion Beam Bombardment (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0159 ENGINEERING THE ACTIVITY AND LIFETIME OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR CARBON NANOTUBE GROWTH VIA SUBSTRATE ION BEAM...July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENGINEERING THE ACTIVITY AND LIFETIME OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR CARBON NANOTUBE GROWTH VIA SUBSTRATE ION BEAM...the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes from iron catalysts with a density, height, and quality equivalent to those grown on conventional

  15. A planar lightwave circuit based micro interrogator and its applications to the interrogation of multiplexed optical fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Guo, Honglei; Zhang, Zhiyi; Yao, Jianping

    2008-12-01

    Optical fiber Bragg grating sensors have found potential applications in many fields, but the lack of a simple, field deployable and low cost interrogation system is hindering their deployment. To tackle this, we have developed a micro optical sensor interrogator using a monolithically integrated planar lightwave circuit based echelle diffractive grating demultiplexer and a detector array. The design and development of this device are presented in this paper. It has been found that the measurement range of this micro interrogator is more than 25 nm with better than 1 pm resolution. This paper also reports the applications of the micro interrogator developed to the monitoring of commercial optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors and mechanical sensors. The results obtained are very satisfactory and in some cases, they are better than those obtained using commercial bench top lab equipment.

  16. Focused-ion-beam post-processing technology for active devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Chyng Wen; Lau, Fat Kit; Zhao, Xin; Penty, Richard; White, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) etching technology is a highly efficient post-processing technique with the functionality to perform sputter etching and deposition of metals or insulators by means of a computer-generated mask. The high resolution and the ability to remove material directly from the sample in-situ make FIB etching the ideal candidate for device prototyping of novel micro-size photonic component design. Furthermore, the fact that arbitrary profile can be etched directly onto a sample without the need to prepare conventional mask and photolithography process makes novel device research with rapid feedback from characterisation to design activities possible. In this paper, we present a concise summary of the research work in Cambridge based on FIB technology. We demonstrate the applicability of focussed ion beam post processing technology to active photonic devices research. Applications include the integration of advanced waveguide architectures onto active photonic components. We documents details on the integration of lens structure on tapered lasers, photonic crystals on active SOA-integrated waveguides and surface profiling of low-cost gain-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Furthermore, we discuss additional functions of FIB in the measurement of buried waveguide structures or the integration of total-internal-reflection (TIR) mirror in optical interconnect structures.

  17. Interrogation of a long-period grating using a mechanically scannable arrayed waveguide grating and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honglei; Dai, Yitang; Xiao, Gaozhi; Mrad, Nezih; Yao, Jianping

    2008-08-01

    A novel technique to interrogate a long-period grating (LPG) using a mechanically scannable arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is proposed. This technique is implemented based on space-to-wavelength mapping by mechanically scanning the input light beam along the input coupler facet of an AWG. By employing a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating with multiple peaks as a reference, the central wavelength of the LPG is measured. An interrogation system with a resolution of 10 pm at a speed of 10 Hz is demonstrated. Furthermore, the technique proposed can potentially offer subpicometer resolution at a speed of 500 Hz.

  18. Evaluation of uncertainty in experimental active buckling control of a slender beam-column with disturbance forces using Weibull analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enss, Georg C.; Platz, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Buckling of slender load-bearing beam-columns is a crucial failure scenario in light-weight structures as it may result in the collapse of the entire structure. If axial load and load capacity are unknown, stability becomes uncertain. To compensate this uncertainty, the authors successfully developed and evaluated an approach for active buckling control for a slender beam-column, clamped at the base and pinned at the upper end. Active lateral forces are applied with two piezoelectric stack actuators in opposing directions near the beam-column' clamped base to prevent buckling. A Linear Quadratic Regulator is designed and implemented on the experimental demonstrator and statistical tests are conducted to prove effectivity of the active approach. The load capacity of the beam-column could be increased by 40% and scatter of buckling occurrences for increasing axial loads is reduced. Weibull analysis is used to evaluate the increase of the load capacity and its related uncertainty compensation.

  19. Crystallographic dependence of photocatalytic activity of WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Chongmin; Chambers, Scott A; Du, Yingge

    2015-06-21

    We investigated the impact of crystallographic orientation on the photocatalytic activity of single crystalline WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). A clear effect is observed, with (111) being the most reactive surface, followed by (110) and (001). Photoreactivity is directly correlated with the surface free energy determined by density functional theory calculations. The RhB photodegradation mechanism is found to involve hydroxyl radicals in solution formed from photo-generated holes and differs from previous studies performed on nanoparticles and composites.

  20. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome.

  1. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  2. Bioinformatic approaches to interrogating vitamin D receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Moray J

    2017-03-10

    Bioinformatics applies unbiased approaches to develop statistically-robust insight into health and disease. At the global, or "20,000 foot" view bioinformatic analyses of vitamin D receptor (NR1I1/VDR) signaling can measure where the VDR gene or protein exerts a genome-wide significant impact on biology; VDR is significantly implicated in bone biology and immune systems, but not in cancer. With a more VDR-centric, or "2000 foot" view, bioinformatic approaches can interrogate events downstream of VDR activity. Integrative approaches can combine VDR ChIP-Seq in cell systems where significant volumes of publically available data are available. For example, VDR ChIP-Seq studies can be combined with genome-wide association studies to reveal significant associations to immune phenotypes. Similarly, VDR ChIP-Seq can be combined with data from Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to infer the impact of VDR target genes in cancer progression. Therefore, bioinformatic approaches can reveal what aspects of VDR downstream networks are significantly related to disease or phenotype.

  3. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  4. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  5. Active suppression of a beam under a moving mass using a pointwise fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching; Wu, Rong-Hua

    2012-10-01

    This paper investigates active vibration control of a beam under a moving mass using a pointwise fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensing system. Dynamic responses of the proposed FBG displacement sensor are demodulated with an FBG filter and verified with measurement results obtained from a noncontact fiber-optic displacement sensor. System identification of the beam is first performed with a piezoceramic actuator and positive position feedback (PPF) controllers are designed based on the identified results. Then, transient responses of the beam under a moving mass with different moving conditions are measured using the FBG displacement sensor. A high-speed camera is used to detect the speed of the moving mass for further discussions about its influence on the transient response. Finally, active vibration control of the beam under the moving mass is performed and fast Fourier transform (FFT) as well as short-time Fourier transform (STFT) are employed to demonstrate control performances. For the case in which a rolling steel ball is directed from a slide to the beam to generate the moving mass, reductions of the vibration up to 50% and 60% are achieved in the frequency domain for the first and second modes of the beam, respectively. Based on the control experiments on the smallscale beam, results in this work show that the proposed FBG displacement sensing system can be used in research on the moving mass problem.

  6. Athermal optical waveguide microring biosensor with intensity interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiuyou; Shao, Yuchen; Han, Xiaonan; Lu, Zhili; Wu, Zhenlin; Teng, Jie; Ren, Jun; Zhao, Mingshan

    2015-12-01

    The temperature sensitivity of optical waveguide microring (MR) is the critical factor to influence the performance of MR-based biosensor. An athermal MR-based biosensor with intensity interrogation is proposed and analyzed. The integrative biosensor chip is composed of sensing unit MR and interrogation unit Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with the same temperature sensitivity. The resonant wavelength shift of MR by temperature change is equal to the center wavelength shift of interrogation curve of MZI which cancel with each other during interrogation process. The polymer based integrative biosensor chip is designed and investigated. The simulation results show that the temperature sensitivity of the polymer waveguide biosensor is smaller than 1 pm/K with the temperature change between -10 K to 20 K relative to the reference temperature 20 °C and refractive index change from 0 to 0.05. The intensity interrogation method utilizing the power ratio between the two output ports of MZI has the flexibility of selecting large linear range and high resolution and is immune to output power fluctuations of the light source.

  7. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  8. Electron beam/γ-ray irradiation synthesis of gold nanoparticles and investigation of antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Phu Dang, Van; Le, Anh Quoc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal solutions of 1 mM gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by γ-ray Co-60 and electron beam irradiation using 1% water soluble chitosan (WSC) with different molecular weight (Mw) as stabilizer. The AuNPs size measured from TEM images was of 7.1 and 15.1 nm for electron beam and γ-ray Co-60, respectively. The AuNPs sizes of 9.8, 15.1 and 22.4 nm stabilized by different WSC Mw of 155 × 103, 78 × 103 and 29 × 103 g mol-1, respectively, were also synthesized by γ-ray Co-60 irradiation. Antioxidant activity of AuNPs with different size from 7.1 to 20.0 nm was investigated using free radical 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+). Results indicated that the smaller size of AuNPs exhibited higher antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant efficiency was of nearly 100, 75, 65, 52 and 30% for 7.1, 9.8, 15.1, 20.0 nm AuNPs and WSC 0.1%, respectively, at the same reaction time of 270 min. Thus, due to the compatibility of WSC and the unique property of AuNPs, the pure colloidal AuNPs/WSC solutions synthesized by irradiation method can be potentially applied in biomedicine, cosmetics and in other fields as well.

  9. Identifying robust and sensitive frequency bands for interrogating neural oscillations.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Alexander J; McMenamin, Brenton W; Maxwell, Jeffrey S; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

    2010-07-15

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using neural oscillations to characterize the mechanisms supporting cognition and emotion. Oftentimes, oscillatory activity is indexed by mean power density in predefined frequency bands. Some investigators use broad bands originally defined by prominent surface features of the spectrum. Others rely on narrower bands originally defined by spectral factor analysis (SFA). Presently, the robustness and sensitivity of these competing band definitions remains unclear. Here, a Monte Carlo-based SFA strategy was used to decompose the tonic ("resting" or "spontaneous") electroencephalogram (EEG) into five bands: delta (1-5Hz), alpha-low (6-9Hz), alpha-high (10-11Hz), beta (12-19Hz), and gamma (>21Hz). This pattern was consistent across SFA methods, artifact correction/rejection procedures, scalp regions, and samples. Subsequent analyses revealed that SFA failed to deliver enhanced sensitivity; narrow alpha sub-bands proved no more sensitive than the classical broadband to individual differences in temperament or mean differences in task-induced activation. Other analyses suggested that residual ocular and muscular artifact was the dominant source of activity during quiescence in the delta and gamma bands. This was observed following threshold-based artifact rejection or independent component analysis (ICA)-based artifact correction, indicating that such procedures do not necessarily confer adequate protection. Collectively, these findings highlight the limitations of several commonly used EEG procedures and underscore the necessity of routinely performing exploratory data analyses, particularly data visualization, prior to hypothesis testing. They also suggest the potential benefits of using techniques other than SFA for interrogating high-dimensional EEG datasets in the frequency or time-frequency (event-related spectral perturbation, event-related synchronization/desynchronization) domains.

  10. Identifying Robust and Sensitive Frequency Bands for Interrogating Neural Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; McMenamin, Brenton W.; Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using neural oscillations to characterize the mechanisms supporting cognition and emotion. Oftentimes, oscillatory activity is indexed by mean power density in predefined frequency bands. Some investigators use broad bands originally defined by prominent surface features of the spectrum. Others rely on narrower bands originally defined by spectral factor analysis (SFA). Presently, the robustness and sensitivity of these competing band definitions remains unclear. Here, a Monte Carlo-based SFA strategy was used to decompose the tonic (“resting” or “spontaneous”) electroencephalogram (EEG) into five bands: delta (1–5Hz), alpha-low (6–9Hz), alpha-high (10–11Hz), beta (12–19Hz), and gamma (>21Hz). This pattern was consistent across SFA methods, artifact correction/rejection procedures, scalp regions, and samples. Subsequent analyses revealed that SFA failed to deliver enhanced sensitivity; narrow alpha sub-bands proved no more sensitive than the classical broadband to individual differences in temperament or mean differences in task-induced activation. Other analyses suggested that residual ocular and muscular artifact was the dominant source of activity during quiescence in the delta and gamma bands. This was observed following threshold-based artifact rejection or independent component analysis (ICA)-based artifact correction, indicating that such procedures do not necessarily confer adequate protection. Collectively, these findings highlight the limitations of several commonly used EEG procedures and underscore the necessity of routinely performing exploratory data analyses, particularly data visualization, prior to hypothesis testing. They also suggest the potential benefits of using techniques other than SFA for interrogating high-dimensional EEG datasets in the frequency or time-frequency (event-related spectral perturbation, event-related synchronization / desynchronization) domains. PMID

  11. Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 films produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Foglia, Flavio; Losco, Tonia; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo; Selli, Elena

    2009-08-01

    The photocatalytic activity of thin, nanostructured films of titanium dioxide, synthesized by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) from the gas phase, has been investigated employing the photodegradation of salicylic acid as test reaction. Because of the low deposition energy, the so-deposited highly porous TiO2 films are composed of nanoparticles maintaining their original properties in the film, which can be fully controlled by tuning the deposition and post-deposition treatment conditions. A systematic investigation on the evolution of light absorption properties and photoactivity of the films in relation to their morphology, determined by AFM analysis, and phase composition, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been performed. The absorption and photocatalytic activity of the nanostructured films in the visible region could be enhanced either through post-deposition annealing treatment in ammonia containing atmosphere or employing mild oxidation conditions, followed by annealing in N2 at 600 °C.

  12. Beam sensorimotor learning and habituation to motor activity in lurcher mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Joyal, C C; Thifault, S

    1996-01-01

    Lurcher mutant mice lose cerebellar granule cells and Purkinje cells. The mutants were compared to normal mice in a beam-walking task. Normal mice were placed on a slippery bridge while lurchers, because of their severe ataxia, were placed on a bridge with the same diameter, but enveloped with surgical tape to improve traction. The performance of both groups improved with repeated trials. In an activity box, lurcher mutants were as active as normal mice, showed normal intrasession habituation, and emerged from a toy object as easily as normal mice. These results indicate that the cerebellar damage in lurchers does not prevent the acquisition of a motor skill task requiring balance in an immobile apparatus. Ataxia was not accompanied by hypoactivity, inhibition or disturbances in intrasession habituation.

  13. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of an actively stabilized beam-column with circular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffner, Maximilian; Enss, Georg C.; Platz, Roland

    2014-04-01

    Buckling of axially loaded beam-columns represents a critical design constraint for light-weight structures. Besides passive solutions to increase the critical buckling load, active buckling control provides a possibility to stabilize slender elements in structures. So far, buckling control by active forces or bending moments has been mostly investigated for beam-columns with rectangular cross-section and with a preferred direction of buckling. The proposed approach investigates active buckling control of a beam-column with circular solid cross-section which is fixed at its base and pinned at its upper end. Three controlled active lateral forces are applied near the fixed base with angles of 120° to each other to stabilize the beam-column and allow higher critical axial loads. The beam-column is subject to supercritical static axial loads and lateral disturbance forces with varying directions and offsets. Two independent modal state space systems are derived for the bending planes in the lateral y- and z-directions of the circular cross-section. These are used to design two linear-quadratic regulators (LQR) that determine the necessary control forces which are transformed into the directions of the active lateral forces. The system behavior is simulated with a finite element model using one-dimensional beam elements with six degrees of freedom at each node. With the implemented control, it is possible to actively stabilize a beam-column with circular cross-section in arbitrary buckling direction for axial loads significantly above the critical axial buckling load.

  14. Fast crystallization of amorphous Gd2Zr2O7 induced by thermally activated electron-beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhangyi; Qi, Jianqi; Zhou, Li; Feng, Zhao; Yu, Xiaohe; Gong, Yichao; Yang, Mao; Shi, Qiwu; Wei, Nian; Lu, Tiecheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the ionization and displacement effects of an electron-beam (e-beam) on amorphous Gd2Zr2O7 synthesized by the co-precipitation and calcination methods. The as-received amorphous specimens were irradiated under electron beams at different energies (80 keV, 120 keV, and 2 MeV) and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A metastable fluorite phase was observed in nanocrystalline Gd2Zr2O7 and is proposed to arise from the relatively lower surface and interface energy compared with the pyrochlore phase. Fast crystallization could be induced by 120 keV e-beam irradiation (beam current = 0.47 mA/cm2). The crystallization occurred on the nanoscale upon ionization irradiation at 400 °C after a dose of less than 1017 electrons/cm2. Under e-beam irradiation, the activation energy for the grain growth process was approximately 10 kJ/mol, but the activation energy was 135 kJ/mol by calcination in a furnace. The thermally activated ionization process was considered the fast crystallization mechanism. PMID:26648597

  15. Micro-size optical fibre strain interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Nezih; Xiao, Gaozhi; Guo, Honglei

    2008-03-01

    Within several countries, the military is undergoing significant economic pressure to extend the use of its air fleet beyond its established design life. The availability of low weight, small size, reliable and cost-effective technologies to detect and monitor incipient damage and to alert prior to catastrophic failures is critical to sustain operational effectiveness. To enable the implementation of distributed and highly multiplexed optical fiber sensors networks to aerospace platforms, the data acquisition (interrogation) system has to meet small size and low weight requirements. This paper reports on our current development of micro-sized Echelle Diffractive Gratings (EDG) based interrogation system for strain monitoring of serially multiplexed fibre Bragg grating sensors. The operation principle of the interrogator and its suitability for strain measurements is demonstrated. Static load measurements obtained using this system are compared to those acquired using a optical multi-wavelength meter and are found to have strong correlation.

  16. Development of fast FBG interrogator with wavelength-swept laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yukitaka

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research is the construction of a structural health monitoring system that uses fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to determine the health of structures. We develop fast FBG interrogator for real-time measurement of the reflected wavelength of a multipoint FBG to monitor the broadband vibration of a structure. This FBG interrogator, which combines a wavelength-swept laser and a real-time measurement system is capable of measuring wavelength within a standard deviation of 2×10-3 nm or less. We have demonstrated that the FBG interrogator is able to measure vibration that has a resonance frequency of 440 Hz at intervals of 0.1 ms with a multipoint FBG.

  17. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  18. Beam dynamics activities at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has been funded by the US Navy to build an infra-red FEL driven by an energy-recovering compact SRF-based linear accelerator. The machine is to produce a 1 kW IR photon beam. The Jefferson Lab Accelerator Division is presently engaged in detailed design and beam dynamics studies for the driver accelerator. Principle beam dynamics and beam transport considerations include: (1) generation and transport of a high-quality, high-current, space-charge dominated beam; (2) the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) during beam recirculation transport; (3) low-loss transport of a large momentum spread, high-current beam; (4) beam break up (BBU) instabilities in the recirculating accelerator; (5) impedance policing of transport system components; and (6) RF drive system control during energy recovery and FEL operation.

  19. 100 s extraction of negative ion beams by using actively temperature-controlled plasma grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A. Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Grisham, L. R.

    2014-02-15

    Long pulse beam extraction with a current density of 120 A/m{sup 2} for 100 s has been achieved with a newly developed plasma grid (PG) for the JT-60SA negative ion source which is designed to produce high power and long pulse beams with a negative ion current of 130 A/m{sup 2} (22 A) and a pulse length of 100 s. The PG temperature is regulated by fluorinated fluids in order to keep the high PG temperature for the cesium-seeded negative ion production. The time constant for temperature controllability of the PG was measured to be below 10 s, which was mainly determined by the heat transfer coefficient of the fluorinated fluid. The measured decay time of the negative ion current extracted from the actively temperature-controlled PG was 430 s which was sufficient for the JT-60SA requirement, and much longer than that by inertial-cooling PG of 60 s. Obtained results of the long pulse capability are utilized to design the full size PG for the JT-60SA negative ion source.

  20. A Study of the Effect of Preschool Children's Participation in Sensorimotor Activities on Their Understanding of the Mechanical Equilibrium of a Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Anastasiou, Leonidas; Konsolas, Manos; Prevezanou, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in sensorimotor activities by preschool children involving their own bodily balance while walking on a beam over the floor has an effect on their understanding of the mechanical equilibrium of a balance beam. The balance beam consisted of a horizontal stick balancing around its…

  1. Interrogative suggestibility, confabulation, and acquiescence in people with mild learning disabilities (mental handicap): implications for reliability during police interrogations.

    PubMed

    Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-09-01

    In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations.

  2. Active vibration control of beams using filtered-velocity feedback controllers with moment pair actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changjoo; Hong, Chinsuk; Jeong, Weui Bong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, filtered-velocity feedback (FVF) control is proposed to stabilize a control system with a non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration. This method is applied to actively control a clamped beam with a sensor/moment pair actuator. Since the sensor/moment pair actuator is a non-collocated configuration, the control system experiences structural instability at high frequencies. Due to the roll-off property of the FVF controller, the high frequency structural instability problem can be overcome. Due to the second-order filter characteristics of the FVF controller, similar to a low pass filter, multimode disturbances can be controlled at the modes below the cut-off frequency. To verify the performance of the controller, the FVF controller is tuned to around 2 kHz, and the structural responses are successfully reduced by numerical and experimental approaches.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of optical forces generated by an active tractor beam using radial polarization.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador

    2014-02-10

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional behavior of nanoparticles in an active optical conveyor. To do this, we solved the Langevin equation when the forces are generated by a focusing system at the near field. Analytical expressions for the optical forces generated by the optical conveyor were obtained by solving the Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction integrals in an approximated form when a mask of two annular pupils is illuminated by a radially polarized Hermite-Gauss beam. Trajectories, in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction, are analyzed showing that the behavior of the optical conveyor can be optimized by conveniently choosing the configuration of the mask of the two annular pupils (inner and outer radius of the two rings) in order to trap and transport all particles at the focal plane.

  4. Biological effects of passive versus active scanning proton beams on human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Daila S; Pecaut, Michael J; Mao, Xiao W; Wroe, Andrew J; Luo-Owen, Xian

    2015-02-01

    The goal was to characterize differences in cell response after exposure to active beam scanning (ABS) protons compared to a passive delivery system. Human lung epithelial (HLE) cells were evaluated at various locations along the proton depth dose profile. The dose delivered at the Bragg peak position was essentially identical (∼4 Gy) with the two techniques, but depth dose data showed that ABS resulted in lower doses at entry and more rapid drop-off after the peak. Average dose rates for the passive and ABS beams were 1.1 Gy/min and 5.1 Gy/min, respectively; instantaneous dose rates were 19.2 Gy/min and 2,300 Gy/min (to a 0.5 × 0.5 mm(2) voxel). Analysis of DNA synthesis was based on (3)H-TdR incorporation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was done to determine expression of genes related to p53 signaling and DNA damage; a total of 152 genes were assessed. Spectral karyotyping and analyses of the Golgi apparatus and cytokines produced by the HLE cells were also performed. At or near the Bragg peak position, ABS protons resulted in a greater decrease in DNA synthesis compared to passively delivered protons. Genes with >2-fold change (P < 0.05 vs. 0 Gy) after passive proton irradiation at one or more locations within the Bragg curve were BTG2, CDKN1A, IFNB1 and SIAH1. In contrast, many more genes had >2-fold difference with ABS protons: BRCA1, BRCA2, CDC25A, CDC25C, CCNB2, CDK1, DMC1, DNMT1, E2F1, EXO1, FEN1, GADD45A, GTSE1, IL-6, JUN, KRAS, MDM4, PRC1, PTTG1, RAD51, RPA1, TNF, WT1, XRCC2, XRCC3 and XRCC6BP1. Spectral karyotyping revealed numerous differences in chromosomal abnormalities between the two delivery systems, especially at or near the Bragg peak. Percentage of cells staining for the Golgi apparatus was low after exposure to passive and active proton beams. Studies such as this are needed to ensure patient safety and make modifications in ABS delivery, if necessary.

  5. Design of active temperature compensated composite free-free beam MEMS resonators in a standard process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xereas, George; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency references are used in almost every modern electronic device including mobile phones, personal computers, and scientific and medical instrumentation. With modern consumer mobile devices imposing stringent requirements of low cost, low complexity, compact system integration and low power consumption, there has been significant interest to develop batch-manufactured MEMS resonators. An important challenge for MEMS resonators is to match the frequency and temperature stability of quartz resonators. We present 1MHz and 20MHz temperature compensated Free-Free beam MEMS resonators developed using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial multi-user process available from MEMSCAP. We introduce a novel temperature compensation technique that enables high frequency stability over a wide temperature range. We used three strategies: passive compensation by using a structural gold (Au) layer on the resonator, active compensation through using a heater element, and a Free-Free beam design that minimizes the effects of thermal mismatch between the vibrating structure and the substrate. Detailed electro-mechanical simulations were performed to evaluate the frequency response and Quality Factor (Q). Specifically, for the 20MHz device, a Q of 10,000 was obtained for the passive compensated design. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) simulations were used to evaluate the Temperature Coefficient of frequency (TCf) of the resonators between -50°C and 125°C which yielded +0.638 ppm/°C for the active compensated, compared to -1.66 ppm/°C for the passively compensated design and -8.48 ppm/°C for uncompensated design for the 20MHz device. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations showed that the heater element was capable of increasing the temperature of the resonators by approximately 53°C with an applied voltage of 10V and power consumption of 8.42 mW.

  6. High sensitivity transuranic waste barrels assay by photon interrogation using an electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyoussi, A.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Loridon, J.; Buisson, A.; Allano, J.

    1997-02-01

    The system described here uses a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator (LINAC) to produce high-energy photon bursts from a metallic converter. The photons induce fissions in TRU waste package which is inside an original Neutron Separating and Counting Cavity-NS2C. When fission is induced in trace amounts of TRU contaminants in waste material, it provides "signatures" from fission products that can be used to assay the material before disposal. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse of the LINAC by using the Sequential Photon Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures—SPHINCS—technique. The use of SPHINS measurement technique coupled with NS2C facility improves the signal to noise ratio by a factor about 30. The dynamics of photofission and delayed neutron production, NS2C advantages and performances, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, and a future experimental works are discussed.

  7. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  8. Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Dong Sik

    2010-01-01

    My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

  9. Some Remarks on Interrogative and Relative Pronouns in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowska, Barbara

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of three "wh" words -- what, which, and who -- which are most frequently used as interrogative and relative pronouns in English. An attempt is made to find some formal syntactic markers distinguishing these two uses and consequently to postulate distinct feature matrices for them. (Available from: See FL 508 214.) (Author/RM)

  10. The Development of Interrogative Structures in Children's Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellugi, Ursula

    The verbal behavior of three children was sampled. The samples were analyzed to obtain a picture of three stages of the children's language development, specifically the interrogative structures. Each stage was about 4- or 5-months long, starting at the 18th to 28th month, depending upon the child's level of linguistic ability. The interrogative…

  11. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  12. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-09-25

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  13. Interrogating Our Practices of Integrating Spirituality into Workplace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…

  14. Teacher Epistemology and Collective Narratives: Interrogating Teaching and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Susan Matoba

    2011-01-01

    This action research study interrogates how one teacher educator analyzed her pedagogy and engaged her students in writing narratives about working with children, families, and co-workers who are racially and ethnically different from themselves. Data were collected from a special topic graduate course entitled, Epistemology, Diversity and…

  15. Interview and Interrogation Training using a Computer-Simulated Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Dale E.

    Interactive, multimedia software involving a simulated subject has been created to help trainees develop interview and interrogation techniques using personal computers, because practice interviews are not always realistic and are too expensive. New and experienced law enforcement agents, among others, need such extensive training in techniques…

  16. Interrogation of Detainees: Requirements of the Detainee Treatment Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-26

    6 Effects of Hamdan v. Rumsfeld and the MCA........................................................................7 Post-DTA... effective control of the DOD or detained in a DOD facility shall be subject to any interrogation treatment or technique that is not authorized by and...using duct tape over the eyes; • applying beatings, electric shock, burns, or other forms of physical pain; • waterboarding ; • using military

  17. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  18. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. …

  19. Ask Systems: Interrogative Access to Multiple Ways of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize instructional designers and researchers with a useful design and research paradigm known as "Ask Systems." Ask Systems are interrogative interfaces to information and learning environments that model conversations with a skilled, reflective practitioner (Schon, The reflective practitioner, "1983") or…

  20. Children's Maintenance and Generalization of an Interrogative Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestner, Jane; Borkowski, John G.

    1979-01-01

    In experiment 1, 48 first-grade children were presented one of four elaboration strategies or labeling instructions during a single study trial and then recalled 16 paired associates. In experiment 2, 32 first-grade children were trained over a four-day period in the use of an interrogative elaboration strategy or received labeling instructions.…

  1. Enacting Inclusion : A Framework for Interrogating Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that…

  2. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Penney, Nicholas; Marsolais, Annette M.; Kamm, Tracy R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  3. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  4. Chemogenetic tools to interrogate brain functions.

    PubMed

    Sternson, Scott M; Roth, Bryan L

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the roles of neuronal cell types for physiology and behavior is essential for understanding brain functions. Perturbation of neuron electrical activity can be used to probe the causal relationship between neuronal cell types and behavior. New genetically encoded neuron perturbation tools have been developed for remotely controlling neuron function using small molecules that activate engineered receptors that can be targeted to cell types using genetic methods. Here we describe recent progress for approaches using genetically engineered receptors that selectively interact with small molecules. Called "chemogenetics," receptors with diverse cellular functions have been developed that facilitate the selective pharmacological control over a diverse range of cell-signaling processes, including electrical activity, for molecularly defined cell types. These tools have revealed remarkably specific behavioral physiological influences for molecularly defined cell types that are often intermingled with populations having different or even opposite functions.

  5. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  6. Active Vibration Control of Elastic Beam by Means of Shape Memory Alloy Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Q.; Levy, C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical model of a flexible beam covered with shape memory alloy (SMA) layers is presented. The SMA layers are used as actuators, which are capable of changing their elastic modulus and recovery stress, thus changing the natural frequency of, and adjusting the excitation to, the vibrating beam. The frequency factor variation as a function of SMA Young's modulus, SMA layer thickness and beam thickness is discussed. Also control of the beam employing an optimal linear control law is evaluated. The control results indicate how the system reacts to various levels of excitation input through the non-homogeneous recovery shear term of the governing differential equation.

  7. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  8. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  9. Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-02

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  10. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  11. Improving Reasoning and Recall: The Differential Effects of Elaborative Interrogation and Mnemonic Elaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescents with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation were taught reasons for dinosaur extinction. Those taught in a mnemonic elaborative interrogation condition recalled more reasons than did students who received direct teaching. Students in elaborative interrogation and mnemonic elaborative interrogation groups recalled…

  12. A MHz speed wavelength sweeping for ultra-high speed FBG interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyeong Hun; Lee, Hwi Don; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrated a MHz speed wavelength-swept fiber laser based on the active mode locking (AML) technique and applied to interrogation system of an array of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. MHz speed wavelength sweeping of wavelength-swept fiber laser can be obtained by programmable frequency modulation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) without any wavelength tunable filter. Both static and dynamic strain measurement of FBG sensors were successfully characterized with high linearity of an R-square value of 0.9999 at sweeping speed of 50 kHz.

  13. Impact of diagnostic neutral beam optimization on active spectroscopy in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiande; Nornberg, Mark. D.; den Hartog, Daniel. J.; Oliva, Steven. P.; Craig, Darren; Univ of Wisconsin, Madison Team; Wheaton College, IL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam on MST provides local measurements of impurity ion emission through charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) and of core-localized magnetic field through the motional Stark effect (MSE). The beam has been optimized to operate at 50kV, 4A steady beam current with 20ms beam pulse and 75% primary energy ion fraction. It's achieved by tuning the beam voltage, arc current, fuel line pressure, arc and high voltage module timing, and the magnetic isolation field. Electron density measurements in the ion source revealed that ion extraction is maximized under low density conditions which are thought to affect the shape of the ion sheath at the extraction grid. The sheath may be transitioning from a planar or convex shape at high density to one which is concave which helps focus the ion trajectories and produce higher beam current. With the improvements in beam operation, the CHERS signal is expected to increase by 20%-30%, and the Stark broadening is expected to increase by 10%. These signal increases will help resolve convolved fine-structure components in both analyses. Beam voltage ripple is also measured to better quantify the accuracy of spectral MSE and CHERS measurement. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  14. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  15. Active buckling control of an imperfect beam-column with circular cross-section using piezo-elastic supports and integral LQR control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffner, Maximilian; Platz, Roland

    2016-09-01

    For slender beam-columns loaded by axial compressive forces, active buckling control provides a possibility to increase the maximum bearable axial load above that of a purely passive structure. In this paper, the potential of active buckling control of an imperfect beam-column with circular cross-section using piezo-elastic supports is investigated numerically. Imperfections are given by an initial deformation of the beam-column caused by a constant imperfection force. With the piezo-elastic supports, active bending moments in arbitrary directions orthogonal to the beam-column's longitudinal axis can be applied at both beam- column's ends. The imperfect beam-column is loaded by a gradually increasing axial compressive force resulting in a lateral deformation of the beam-column. First, a finite element model of the imperfect structure for numerical simulation of the active buckling control is presented. Second, an integral linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) that compensates the deformation via the piezo-elastic supports is derived for a reduced modal model of the ideal beam-column. With the proposed active buckling control it is possible to stabilize the imperfect beam-column in arbitrary lateral direction for axial loads above the theoretical critical buckling load and the maximum bearable load of the passive structure.

  16. The Modelling and Vibration Control of Beams with Active Constrained Layer Damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, Y. M.; LI, Z. F.; HUA, H. X.; FU, Z. F.; LIU, T. X.

    2001-08-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is combined with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) model of viscoelastic materials (VEM) to model a cantilever beam with active constrained layer damping treatments. This approach avoids time-consuming iteration in solving modal frequencies, modal damping ratios and responses. But the resultant finite element (FE) model has too many degrees of freedom (d.o.f.s) from the point of view of control, nor is it observable and controllable. A new model reduction procedure is proposed. An iterative dynamic condensation is performed in the physical space, and Guyan condensation is taken as an initial iteration approximation. A reduced order model (ROM) of suitable size emerges, but it is still not observable and controllable. Accordingly, a robust model reduction method is then employed in the state space. A numerical example proves that this procedure reduces the model and assures the stability, controllability and observability of the final reduced order model (FROM). Finally, a controller is designed by linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method based on the FROM. The vibration attenuation is evident

  17. Polarization multiplexed interrogation technique for FBG sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Tiwari, Vinita; Soni, Anupam; Jaiswal, Ritesh; Bhanot, Surekha

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a polarization multiplexed interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array. The novelty of the proposed model is its ability to reduce interference and cross talk, thus allowing larger number of FBG sensors to be interrogated in an array. The calibration technique has been illustrated in this work for the FBG sensor array, where data from each sensor are linearly polarized and multiplexed before co-propagation, to find out the tapping points that enable identification of each sensor data uniquely. Simulation has been carried out for odd number and even number of sensors in an array. Even with interfering input, this proposed scheme can interrogate and distinctively identify each sensor data using appropriate tuning of polarization-splitter, polarization-rotator, and polarization-attenuator at the detector end during the calibration process. The significance of the proposed method is its compact size, which makes this calibration system ready to be deployed in real-time sensing applications and data acquisition from the FBG sensor array.

  18. Photonic Interrogation and Control of Nano Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassemnejad, Baha

    2003-01-01

    My research activities for the summer of 2003 consisted of two projects: One project was concerned with determining a method for predicting the static and dynamic assembly properties of nano-structures using laser tweezers. The other project was to investigate the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes using a spatial light modulator incorporated into an optical tweezers system. Concerning the first project, I initially pursued the approach suggested by my NASA colleague Dr. Art Decker. This approach involved mimicking the model of the structure of atomic nucleus for the assembly of 1 to 100 atoms using allowed quadruple transitions induced by orbital angular momentums of a Laguerre- Gaussian (Doughnut) laser mode. After realizing the inaptness of the nuclear model with the nanostructure model as far as the binding forces and transitions were concerned, I focused on using quantum dot modei. This model was not attuned also for the host lattice influences the electronic structure of the quantum dot. Thus one other option that I decided to pursue was the approach of molecular quantum mechanics. In this approach the nanostructure is treated as a large (10-100 nm) molecule constructed from single element or multi-elements. Subsequent to consultation with Dr. Fred Morales, a chemical engineer at NASA GRC, and Dr. David Ball, a computational chemist at Cleveland State University, I acquired a molecular-quantum computation software, Hyperchem 7.0. This software allows simulation of different molecular structures as far as their static and dynamic behaviors are concerned. The time that I spent on this project was about eight weeks. Once this suitable approach was identified, I realized the need to collaborate with a computational quantum chemist to pursue searching for stable nanostructures in the range of 10-100 nm that we can be assembled using laser tweezers. The second project was about generating laser tweezers that possess orbital angular momentum. As shown, we were

  19. Transuranic waste assay by neutron interrogation and online prompt and delayed neutron measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoux, A.-C.; Lyoussi, A.; Passard, C.; Denis, C.; Loridon, J.; Misraki, J.; Chany, P.

    2003-06-01

    A comprehensive program is currently underway in several laboratories for the development of sensitive and non-destructive techniques for the quantification of transuranics in low and intermediate radioactive waste packages. This paper describes the method being developed to quantify different isotopes separately by using online prompt and delayed neutron measurements from the fission of isotopes such as 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 241Pu. The system uses a new generation 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator the emission of which is about 2×10 9 n s -1. The association of the differential die-away technique technique [W.E. Kunz, J.D. Atencio, J.T. Caldwell, A 1 nCi/g sensitivity transuranic waste assay system using pulsed neutron interrogation, INMM Annual meeting, Palm Beach, Florida. LA-UR-90-1794, CONF-800655-4 (1980)] (Differential Die-away Technique) and the SPHINCS method [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 160 (2000) 280-289] (Sequential PHoton Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures) allows measurement of the prompt and delayed neutrons from thermal and fast-induced fission after each interrogating pulse. This method is demonstrated by the measurement of uranium and plutonium samples. Samples of U + Pu have also been analysed inside a non-active drum of bituminized coating for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the separation of 235U from 239Pu by this method. Moreover, the influence of 238U and the necessity of correcting its effects have been studied. Finally, the purpose is to determine the best estimated value for each mass of interest associated with its own standard deviation and statistical distribution. Hence a specific method, based on the Monte Carlo trials, has been developed to estimate masses and associated uncertainties for each isotope of interest.

  20. Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1992-01-01

    An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

  1. Identifying work related injuries: comparison of methods for interrogating text fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries in Australia are estimated to cost around $57.5 billion annually, however there are currently insufficient surveillance data available to support an evidence-based public health response. Emergency departments (ED) in Australia are a potential source of information on work-related injuries though most ED's do not have an 'Activity Code' to identify work-related cases with information about the presenting problem recorded in a short free text field. This study compared methods for interrogating text fields for identifying work-related injuries presenting at emergency departments to inform approaches to surveillance of work-related injury. Methods Three approaches were used to interrogate an injury description text field to classify cases as work-related: keyword search, index search, and content analytic text mining. Sensitivity and specificity were examined by comparing cases flagged by each approach to cases coded with an Activity code during triage. Methods to improve the sensitivity and/or specificity of each approach were explored by adjusting the classification techniques within each broad approach. Results The basic keyword search detected 58% of cases (Specificity 0.99), an index search detected 62% of cases (Specificity 0.87), and the content analytic text mining (using adjusted probabilities) approach detected 77% of cases (Specificity 0.95). Conclusions The findings of this study provide strong support for continued development of text searching methods to obtain information from routine emergency department data, to improve the capacity for comprehensive injury surveillance. PMID:20374657

  2. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  3. Transuranic waste detection by photon interrogation and on-line delayed neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyoussi, A.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Jallu, F.; Payan, E.; Buisson, A.; Nurdin, G.; Allano, J.

    2000-02-01

    A comprehensive program is currently in progress at several laboratories for the development of sensitive, practical, non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics (TRUs) in bulk solid wastes. This paper describes the method being developed to assay high density TRU waste packages using photon interrogation. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from an electron linear accelerator to produce high-energy photon bursts from a metallic converter. The photons induce fissions in a TRU waste package which is inside an original neutron separating and counting cavity (NS2C). When fission is induced in trace amounts of TRU contaminants in waste material, it provides “signatures” from fission products that can be used to assay the material before disposal. We give here the results from counting photofission-induced delayed neutrons from 239Pu, 235U and 238U in sample matrices. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse of the LINAC by using the sequential photon interrogation and neutron counting signatures (SPHINCS) technique which had been developed in the present framework. The SPHINCS method enhances the available counts by a factor of about 20 compared with the counting of delayed neutrons only, after the irradiation period. Furthermore, the use of SPHINCS measurement technique coupled with the NS2C facility improves the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of about 30. This decreases the detection limit. The electron linear accelerator operates at 15 MeV, 140 mA, and 2.5 μs wide pulse at a 50 and 6.25 Hz rate. The dynamics of photofission and delayed neutron production, NS2C advantages and performances, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, and future experimental works are discussed.

  4. Transuranic waste detection by photon interrogation and on-line delayed neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyoussi, A.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Jallu, F.; Payan, E.; Buisson, A.; Nurdin, G.; Allano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A comprehensive program is currently in progress at several laboratories for the development of sensitive, practical, non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of low-level transuranics (TRUs) in bulk solid wastes. This paper describes the method being developed to assay high density TRU waste packages using photon interrogation. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from an electron linear accelerator to produce high-energy photon bursts from a metallic converter. The photons induce fissions in a TRU waste package which is inside an original neutron separating and counting cavity (NS2C). When fission is induced in trace amounts of TRU contaminants in waste material, it provides "signatures" from fission products that can be used to assay the material before disposal. We give here the results from counting photofission-induced delayed neutrons from 239Pu, 235U and 238U in sample matrices. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse of the LINAC by using the sequential photon interrogation and neutron counting signatures (SPHINCS) technique which had been developed in the present framework. The SPHINCS method enhances the available counts by a factor of about 20 compared with the counting of delayed neutrons only, after the irradiation period. Furthermore, the use of SPHINCS measurement technique coupled with the NS2C facility improves the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of about 30. This decreases the detection limit. The electron linear accelerator operates at 15 MeV, 140 mA, and 2.5 μs wide pulse at a 50 and 6.25 Hz rate. The dynamics of photofission and delayed neutron production, NS2C advantages and performances, use of an electron linear accelerator as a particle source, experimental and electronics details, and future experimental works are discussed.

  5. Active detection of shielded SNM with 60-keV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C; Dietrich, D; Hall, J; Kerr, P; Nakae, L; Newby, R; Rowland, M; Snyderman, N; Stoeffl, W

    2008-07-08

    Fissile materials, e.g. {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, can be detected non-invasively by active neutron interrogation. A unique characteristic of fissile material exposed to neutrons is the prompt emission of high-energy (fast) fission neutrons. One promising mode of operation subjects the object to a beam of medium-energy (epithermal) neutrons, generated by a proton beam impinging on a Li target. The emergence of fast secondary neutrons then clearly indicates the presence of fissile material. Our interrogation system comprises a low-dose 60-keV neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 6}/s), and a 1 m{sup 2} array of scintillators for fast neutron detection. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the detectability of small quantities (370 g) of HEU shielded by steel (200 g/cm{sup 2}) or plywood (30 g/cm{sup 2}), with a typical measurement time of 1 min.

  6. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  7. Engineering Evaluation of UXO Detection Technologies and Interrogation Methodologies for Use in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    most common species in this forest are the wild cashew (Anacardium excelsum), yellow wood (Terminalia amazonia ), and kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) (TNC...planted crops such as corn, rice, cassava, and yams in the forest clearings, and grasslands in these areas are the result of recent deforestation ...interrogation activities. The long-term impacts of deforestation would include the potential loss of flora species and diversity, endangered species

  8. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  9. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bria P.; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1 degree sign . Gantry angle accuracy was within 1 degree sign for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT.

  10. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Bria P; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1 degrees. Gantry angle accuracy was within 1 degrees for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT.

  11. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Bria P.; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1°. Gantry angle accuracy was within 1° for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT. PMID:19175117

  12. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolata, J. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mittig, W.; Ahn, T.; Bazin, D.; Becchetti, F. D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Febbrarro, M.; Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W. G.; Roberts, A.; Shore, A.; Torres-Isea, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The total fusion excitation function for 10Be+40Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) 10Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  13. Decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Norlirubayah; Teo Ming, Ting; Ahmadun, Fakhru'l-Razi; Sobri, Shafreeza

    2010-01-01

    The research conducted a study on decomposition and biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater using a combination of electron beam irradiation and activated sludge process. The purposes of this research are to remove pollutant through decomposition and to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater. The wastewater is treated using electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment before undergo an activated sludge process. As a result, for non-irradiated wastewater, the COD removal was achieved to be between 70% and 79% after activated sludge process. The improvement of COD removal efficiency increased to 94% after irradiation of treated effluent at the dose of 50 kGy. Meanwhile, the BOD(5) removal efficiencies of non-irradiated and irradiated textile wastewater were reported to be between 80 and 87%, and 82 and 99.2%, respectively. The maximum BOD(5) removal efficiency was achieved at day 1 (HRT 5 days) of the process of an irradiated textile wastewater which is 99.2%. The biodegradability ratio of non-irradiated wastewater was reported to be between 0.34 and 0.61, while the value of biodegradability ratio of an irradiated wastewater increased to be between 0.87 and 0.96. The biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater is increased with increasing the doses. Therefore, an electron beam radiation holds a greatest application of removing pollutants and also on enhancing the biodegradability of textile wastewater.

  14. Explosives (and other threats) detection using pulsed neutron interrogation and optimized detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, Dan A.; Elsalim, Mashal; Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported results from a human-portable system using neutron interrogation to detect contraband and explosives. We summarized our methodology for distinguishing threat materials such as narcotics, C4, and mustard gas in the myriad of backgrounds present in the maritime environment. We are expanding our mission for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) through the detection of multiple fission signatures without compromising the conventional threat detection performance. This paper covers our initial investigations into using neutrons from compact pulsed neutron generators via the d(D,n)3He or d(T,n)α reactions with energies of ~2.5 and 14 MeV, respectively, for explosives (and other threats) detection along with a variety of gamma-ray detectors. Fast neutrons and thermal neutrons (after successive collisions) can stimulate the emission of various threat detection signatures. For explosives detection, element-specific gamma-ray signatures via the (n,n'γ) inelastic scattering reaction and the (n,'γ) thermal capture reaction are detected. For SNM, delayed gamma-rays following fission can be measured with the same detector. Our initial trade-off investigations of several gamma-ray detectors types (NaI, CsI, LaBr3, HPGe) for measuring gamma-ray signatures in a pulsed neutron environment for potential application in a human-portable active interrogation system are covered in this paper.

  15. Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth characteristics using genome interrogation with artificial transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Pinas, Johan E.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Augustijn, Dieuwertje; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; van der Zaal, Bert J.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population has a greatly increasing demand for plant biomass, thus creating a great interest in the development of methods to enhance the growth and biomass accumulation of crop species. In this study, we used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATF)-mediated genome interrogation to manipulate the growth characteristics and biomass of Arabidopsis plants. We describe the construction of two collections of Arabidopsis lines expressing fusions of three zinc fingers (3F) to the transcriptional repressor motif EAR (3F-EAR) or the transcriptional activator VP16 (3F-VP16), and the characterization of their growth characteristics. In total, six different 3F-ATF lines with a consistent increase in rosette surface area (RSA) of up to 55% were isolated. For two lines we demonstrated that 3F-ATF constructs function as dominant in trans acting causative agents for an increase in RSA and biomass, and for five larger plant lines we have investigated 3F-ATF induced transcriptomic changes. Our results indicate that genome interrogation can be used as a powerful tool for the manipulation of plant growth and biomass and that it might supply novel cues for the discovery of genes and pathways involved in these properties. PMID:28358915

  16. Finite Element Formulation and Active Vibration Control Study on Beams Using Smart Constrained Layer Damping (scld) Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BALAMURUGAN, V.; NARAYANAN, S.

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the active vibration control of beams with smart constrained layer damping (SCLD) treatment. SCLD design consists of viscoelastic shear layer sandwiched between two layers of piezoelectric sensors and actuator. This composite SCLD when bonded to a vibrating structure acts as a smart treatment. The sensor piezoelectric layer measures the vibration response of the structure and a feedback controller is provided which regulates the axial deformation of the piezoelectric actuator (constraining layer), thereby providing adjustable and significant damping in the structure. The damping offered by SCLD treatment has two components, active action and passive action. The active action is transmitted from the piezoelectric actuator to the host structure through the viscoelastic layer. The passive action is through the shear deformation in the viscoelastic layer. The active action apart from providing direct active control also adjusts the passive action by regulating the shear deformation in the structure. The passive damping component of this design eliminates spillover, reduces power consumption, improves robustness and reliability of the system, and reduces vibration response at high-frequency ranges where active damping is difficult to implement. A beam finite element model has been developed based on Timoshenko's beam theory with partially covered SCLD. The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method has been used to model the viscoelastic layer. The dissipation co-ordinates, defined using GHM approach, describe the frequency-dependent viscoelastic material properties. Models of PCLD and purely active systems could be obtained as a special case of SCLD. Using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control, the effects of the SCLD on vibration suppression performance and control effort requirements are investigated. The effects of the viscoelastic layer thickness and material properties on the vibration control performance are investigated.

  17. Active suppression of nonlinear composite beam vibrations by selected control algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warminski, Jerzy; Bochenski, Marcin; Jarzyna, Wojciech; Filipek, Piotr; Augustyniak, Michal

    2011-05-01

    This paper is focused on application of different control algorithms for a flexible, geometrically nonlinear beam-like structure with Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator. Based on the mathematical model of a geometrically nonlinear beam, analytical solutions for Nonlinear Saturation Controller (NSC) are obtained using Multiple Scale Method. Effectiveness of different control strategies is evaluated by numerical simulations in Matlab-Simulink software. Then, the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) controller and selected control algorithms are implemented to the physical system to compare numerical and experimental results. Detailed analysis for the NSC system is carried out, especially for high level of amplitude and wide range of frequencies of excitation. Finally, the efficiency of the considered controllers is tested experimentally for a more complex autoparametric " L-shape" beam system.

  18. A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

    2011-08-01

    In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5).

  19. Surface-active element effects on the shape of GTA, laser, and electron-beam welds

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Roper, J.R.; Stagner, R.T.; Aden, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Laser and electron-beam welds were passed across selenium-doped zones in 21-6-9 stainless steel. The depth/width (d/w) ratio of a defocused laser weld with a weld pool shape similar to a GTA weld increased by over 200% in a zone where 66 ppm selenium had been added. Smaller increases were observed in selenium-doped zones for a moderately defocused electron beam weld with a higher d/w ratio in undoped base metal. When laser or electron beam weld penetration was by a keyhole mechanism, no change in d/w ratio occurred in selenium-doped zones. The results confirm the surface-tension-driven fluid-flow model for the effect of minor elements on GTA weld pool shape. Other experimental evidence bearing on the effect of minor elements on GTA weld penetration is summarized.

  20. Heterodyne interrogation system for TDM interferometric fiber optic sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gaosheng; Xu, Tuanwei; Li, Fang

    2015-04-01

    We proposed an interrogation system for time sequenced fiber optic sensors array based on the heterodyne detection and orthogonal demodulation techniques, where the sensors array is a kind of interferometric fiber optic sensors. The techniques are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated with recovering the sinusoid wave and triangle wave applied to the sensors. The system has a phase resolution about 1×10-4 rad/√Hz, the amplitude consistency and linearity of the demodulated results are 95.275% and 98.379%, respectively with single frequency event applied to the sensors.

  1. Intraoperative Optical Imaging and Tissue Interrogation During Urologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mark; Gupta, Mohit; Su, Li-Ming; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation. Recent findings Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Summary Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery are reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. PMID:24240512

  2. DFB laser based electrical dynamic interrogation for optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J. P.; Frazão, O.; Baptista, J. M.; Santos, J. L.; Barbero, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    An electrical dynamic interrogation technique previously reported by the authors for long-period grating sensors is now progressed by relying its operation exclusively on the modulation of a DFB Laser. The analysis of the detected first and second harmonic generated by the electrical modulation of the DFB Laser allows generating an optical signal proportional to the LPG spectral shift and resilient to optical power fluctuations along the system. This concept permits attenuating the effect of the 1/f noise of the photodetection, amplification and processing electronics on the sensing head resolution. This technique is employed in a multiplexing sensing scheme that measures refractive index variations.

  3. Uranium enrichment determination by high-energy photon interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianyu; Zhang, Songbai; Wu, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Uranium enrichment determination by non-destructive assay is an important method in authenticating the nuclear warhead or uranium component in deep nuclear reduction verifications. In this paper, the feasibility of applying the high-energy photon interrogation to determine the uranium enrichment is studied. Simplified models are presented which were simulated by particle Monte Carlo transport code. The results indicate that the relation curves of the released neutrons and the enrichment of uranium objects are almost linear. For a uranium object of a given shape, the uranium enrichment can be obtained with the relation curves, which could be got in advance by calibration experiments or simulations.

  4. BEAM-BEAM 2003 SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.SEN,T.

    2003-05-19

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions of the Beam-Beam'03 workshop, held in Montauk, Long Island, from May 19 to 23, 2003. Presentations and discussions focused on halo generation from beam-beam interactions; beam-beam limits, especially coherent limits and their effects on existing and future hadron colliders; beam-beam compensation techniques, particularly for long-range interactions; and beam-beam study tools in theory, simulation, and experiment.

  5. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this measurement

  6. Modeling energy transport in a cantilevered Euler-Bernoulli beam actively vibrating in Newtonian fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Cassio T.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2014-04-01

    When a mechanical and/or structural component is immersed in a fluid and it vibrates, the reasonable assumption is that part of the energy is transmitted to the adjacent media. For some engineering applications the energy transport between these two domains, i.e., structure and fluid, plays a central role. The work presented in this paper is focused on discussing the energy transport in beam-like structures as they can be used to represent flexible swimmers (fish-like pulsating mechanisms) in their simplest form. In order to expose the role of each of the fluid and beam properties effecting the energy transfer process, a simplified analytical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is derived. After analysis of the resulting coupled-systems' damping coefficient, a new energy transport component is added to the initial Euler-Bernoulli beam equation; a term associated with diffusion (fluid viscosity). In addition our modeling results in an added mass term, a characteristic consistent with previous literature. While deriving the model, an important assumption is made: beam mode shapes are not significantly affected by the domains' interaction. This hypothesis is experimentally tested in two different fluid media and confirmed to be reasonable for the first three vibration mode shapes.

  7. Crossed Molecular Beam Studies and Dynamics of Decomposition of Chemically Activated Radicals

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, Y. T.

    1973-09-01

    The power of the crossed molecular beams method in the investigation of the dynamics of chemical reactions lies mainly in the direct observation of the consequences of single collisions of well controlled reactant molecules. The primary experimental observations which provide information on reaction dynamics are the measurements of angular and velocity distributions of reaction products.

  8. Compact interrogator for fiber optic Bragg sensors based on an acousto-optic filter formed by photonic crystal rows of air holes.

    PubMed

    Tsarev, Andrei V; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2011-10-01

    Fiber optic sensors are typically used with expensive tunable lasers or optical spectrum analyzers for wavelength interrogation. We propose to replace the tunable laser by a broadband optical source incorporated with a novel thin linewidth acousto-optic tunable filter. It utilizes optical beam expanders constituted by photonic crystal rows of air holes in LiNbO(3) waveguide. A new design is numerically studied for a short structure (with 32 photonic crystal rows) by a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Extrapolation of these results to larger structure sizes (about 1 cm) demonstrates the possibility to develop compact interrogators with 0.4 pm wavelength resolution and 40 nm tunable range around 1550 nm.

  9. Active vibration control of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers based on higher order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendine, K.; Boukhoulda, F. B.; Nouari, M.; Satla, Z.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of active vibration control of functionally graded beams with upper and lower surface-bonded piezoelectric layers. The model is based on higher-order shear deformation theory and implemented using the finite element method (FEM). The proprieties of the functionally graded beam (FGB) are graded along the thickness direction. The piezoelectric actuator provides a damping effect on the FGB by means of a velocity feedback control algorithm. A Matlab program has been developed for the FGB model and compared with ANSYS APDL. Using Newmark's method numerical solutions are obtained for the dynamic equations of FGB with piezoelectric layers. Numerical results show the effects of the constituent volume fraction and the influence the feedback control gain on the frequency and dynamic response of FGBs.

  10. SU-E-T-666: Radionuclides and Activity of the Patient Apertures Used in a Proton Beam of Wobbling System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.Y.; Chen, H.H.; Tsai, H.Y.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity of the patient apertures used in a 190-MeV proton beam of wobbling system. Methods: A proton beam of wobbling system in the first proton center in Taiwan, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, was used to bombard the patient apertures. The patient aperture was composed of 60.5 % copper, 39.4 % Zinc, 0.05 % iron, 0.05 % lead. A protable high-purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector was used to measure the spectra of the induced nuclides of patient apertures. The analysis of the spectra and the identification of the radionuclides were preliminarily operated by the Nuclide Navigator III Master Library. On the basis of the results by Nuclide Navigator III Master Library, we manually selected the reliable nuclides by the gamma-ray energies, branching ratio, and half life. In the spectra, we can quantify the activity of radionuclides by the Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method. Results: In this study, the radioisotopes activated in patient apertures by the 190-MeV proton beam were divided into two categories. The first category is long half-life radionuclides, such as Co-56 (half life, 77.3 days). Other radionuclides of Cu-60, Cu-61, Cu-62, Cu-66, and Zn-62 have shorter half life. The radionuclide of Cu-60 had the highest activity. From calculation with the efficiency transfer method, the deviations between the computed results and the measured efficiencies were mostly within 10%. Conclusion: To identify the radionuclides and quantify the activity helps us to estimate proper time intervals for cooling the patient apertures. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  11. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  12. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil).

  13. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Proton beam simulation with MCNPX/CINDER'90: Germanium metal activation estimates below 30MeV relevant to the bulk production of arsenic radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Fassbender, M; Taylor, W; Vieira, D; Nortier, M; Bach, H; John, K

    2012-01-01

    Germanium metal targets encapsulated in Nb shells were irradiated in a proton beam. Proton and secondary neutron beam fluences as well as radionuclide activity formation were modeled using MCNPX in combination with CINDER90. Targets were chemically processed using distillation and anion exchange. Good agreement between the measured radiochemical yields and MCNPX/CINDER90 estimates was observed. A target of pentavalent (73,74)As radioarsenic for neutron activation studies was prepared.

  15. Mathematical modelling of postbuckling in a slender beam column for active stabilisation control with respect to uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enss, Georg C.; Platz, Roland; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-04-01

    Buckling is an important design constraint in light-weight structures as it may result in the collapse of an entire structure. When a mechanical beam column is loaded above its critical buckling load, it may buckle. In addition, if the actual loading is not fully known, stability becomes highly uncertain. To control uncertainty in buckling, an approach is presented to actively stabilise a slender flat column sensitive to buckling. For this purpose, actively controlled forces applied by piezoelectric actuators located close to the column's clamped base stabilise the column against buckling at critical loading. In order to design a controller to stabilise the column, a mathematical model of the postcritically loaded system is needed. Simulating postbuckling behaviour is important to study the effect of axial loads above the critical axial buckling load within active buckling control. Within this postbuckling model, different kinds of uncertainty may occur: i) error in estimation of model parameters such as mass, damping and stiffness, ii) non-linearities e. g. in the assumption of curvature of the column's deflection shapes and many more. In this paper, numerical simulations based on the mathematical model for the postcritically axially loaded column are compared to a mathematical model based on experiments of the actively stabilised postcritically loaded real column system using closed loop identification. The motivation to develop an experimentally validated mathematical model is to develop of a model based stabilising control algorithm for a real postcritically axially loaded beam column.

  16. Study on active vibration control for high order mode of flexible beam using smart material piezoelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Da-fang; Huang, Liang; Mu, Meng; Wang, Yue-wu; Wu, Shuang

    2011-11-01

    In order to reduce effective load and lower the launch cost, many light-weight flexible structures are employed in spacecraft. The research of active control on flexible structural vibration is very important in spacecraft design. Active vibration control on a flexible beam with smart material piezoelectric pieces bonded in surface is investigated experimentally using independent modal space control method, which is able to control the first three modes independently. A comparison between the systems responses before and after control indicates that the modal damping of flexible structure is greatly improved after active control is performed, indicating remarkable vibration suppression effect. Dynamic equation of the flexible beam is deducted by Hamilton principle, and numerical simulation of active vibration control on the first three order vibration modes is also conducted in this paper. The simulation result matches experimental result very well. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the independent modal control method using piezoelectric patch as driving element is a very effective approach to realize vibration suppression, which has promising applications in aerospace field.

  17. Study on active vibration control for high order mode of flexible beam using smart material piezoelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Da-fang; Huang, Liang; Mu, Meng; Wang, Yue-wu; Wu, Shuang

    2012-04-01

    In order to reduce effective load and lower the launch cost, many light-weight flexible structures are employed in spacecraft. The research of active control on flexible structural vibration is very important in spacecraft design. Active vibration control on a flexible beam with smart material piezoelectric pieces bonded in surface is investigated experimentally using independent modal space control method, which is able to control the first three modes independently. A comparison between the systems responses before and after control indicates that the modal damping of flexible structure is greatly improved after active control is performed, indicating remarkable vibration suppression effect. Dynamic equation of the flexible beam is deducted by Hamilton principle, and numerical simulation of active vibration control on the first three order vibration modes is also conducted in this paper. The simulation result matches experimental result very well. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the independent modal control method using piezoelectric patch as driving element is a very effective approach to realize vibration suppression, which has promising applications in aerospace field.

  18. Beam quality active control of a slab MOPA solid state laser with combined deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rujian; Xu, Honglai; Li, Guohui; Wu, Jing; Du, Yinglei; Zhang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    A novel phase aberration correcting method based on combined deformable mirrors (DMs) in a slab MOPA (master oscillator and power amplifier) solid state laser system is proposed and validated experimentally. The adaptive optics(AO) system with combined deformable mirrors composed of a one-dimension (1D) DM with 11 actuators and a two-dimension (2D) DM with 67 valid actuators, has been designed to correct the phase aberrations, which doesn't need the high voltage drivers and has an excellent correcting efficiency of the high order phase aberrations. The experimental results show that the wave front of the slab laser beam is compensated well and the residual wave front is less than 0.08 λ rms. The beam quality of the slab laser in the far field is improved to1.67x DL.

  19. Range degradation and distal edge behavior of proton radiotherapy beams using 11C activation and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed Farouk

    The distal edge of therapeutic proton radiation beams was investigated by different methods. Proton beams produced at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute (HUPTI) were used to irradiate a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom for three different ranges (13.5, 17.0 and 21.0 cm) to investigate the distal slope dependence of the Bragg peak. The activation of 11 C was studied by scanning the phantom less than 10 minutes post-irradiation with a Philips Big Bore Gemini(c) PET/CT. The DICOM images were imported into the Varian Eclipse(c) Treatment Planning System (TPS) for analysis and then analyzed by ImageJ(c) . The distal slope ranged from ?0.1671 +/- 0.0036 to -0.1986 +/- 0.0052 (pixel intensity/slice number) for ranges 13.5 to 21.0 cm respectively. A realistic description of the setup was modeled using the GATE 7.0 Monte Carlo simulation tool and compared to the experiment data. The results show the distal slope ranged from -0.1158+/-0.0133 to -0.0787+/-0.002 (Gy/mm). Additionally, low activity, 11C were simulated to study the 11C reconstructed half-life dependence versus the initial activity for six ranges chosen around the previous activation study. The results of the expected/nominal half-life vs. activity ranged from -5 x 10-4 +/- 2.8104 x 10-4 to 1.6 x 10-3 +/- 9.44 x 10-4 (%diff./Bq). The comparison between two experiments with proton beams on a PMMA phantom and multi-layer ion chamber, and two GATE simulations of a proton beam incident on a water phantom and 11C PET study show that: (i) the distal fall-off variation of the steepness of the slopes are found to be similar thus validating the sensitivity of the PET technique to the range degradation and (ii) the average of the super-ratios difference between all studies observed is primarily due to the difference in the dose deposited in the media.

  20. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  1. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, I. M. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Zhou, R. J. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  2. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  3. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  4. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A.; Peters, C.W.

    1992-07-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ``electronic collimation`` (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  5. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. ); Peters, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  6. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a shortmore » RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.« less

  7. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.

  8. Beam-beam simulations for separated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel A.

    2000-04-10

    We present beam-beam simulation results from a strong-strong gaussian code for separated beams for the LHC and RHIC. The frequency spectrum produced by the beam-beam collisions is readily obtained and offers a good opportunity for experimental comparisons. Although our results for the emittance blowup are preliminary, we conclude that, for nominal parameter values, there is no significant difference between separated beams and center-on-center collisions.

  9. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-02-24

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated.

  10. Fiber Bragg grating interrogator for demonstration of spaceborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößner, Max R.; Müller, Mathias S.; Buck, Thorbjörn C.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2011-05-01

    Today's spacecraft employ hundreds of sensors. With spacecraft becoming increasingly complex, there is the need for spaceborne measurement systems that are of low mass and volume, yet of high reliability and lifetime in the harsh space environment. Targeted towards future applications in telecommunication satellites, the presented FOSAT project aimes at a corresponding fiber-optic measurement system demonstrator. This goal particularly calls for a vast number of sensors being multiplexed, enabling systems with a minuscle per-sensor mass, volume and power share. To achieve this, several multiplexing techniques are jointly applied in the presented project to form hybrid multiplexing. Furthermore, an interrogation technique which allows a dynamically adaptable tradeoff between the number of sampled sensors and the sampling rate is employed to increase operational flexibility. The design and the implementation of this unit are presented and a test result is summarized.

  11. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  12. Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority.

  13. FBG sensor interrogation using fiber optical bistability in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guohui; Ou, Jinping; Ye, Hongan; Zhou, Zhi; Shang, Shaohua; Yang, Chao; Wang, Huiying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of fiber Bragg grating interrogation by use of hybrid fiber optical bistable device (OBD). The OBD is realized in the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing element. Light source is an electronic tuned widely swept ring fiber laser. In this experiment, FBG's are acting as optical intensity modulator and sensing elements at same time. Combined with feedback control circuit, the OBD can be used as an optic-fiber sensor working in digital type through bistable switching phenomenon. We discuss the mechanism of this bistable sensor. Scanning the bias Voltage on PZT, the bistable pulse signal can be counted by circuit that operates in the manner of a pulse-equivalent. If we use 16 bit Digital Analog Converter (DAC), the resolution will achieve 1pm level. High accuracy, high speed and high ratio of signal to noise are the advantages of this scheme.

  14. Queering marriage: an ideographic interrogation of heteronormative subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Davin

    2003-01-01

    Recent debates on same-sex marriage mark the institution, practice, and concept of marriage as a significant site of power and resistance within American culture. Adopting Michel Foucault's conception of "discipline," this essay examines how marriage discourse reinforces heteronormative power relations through its rhetorical constitution of gay male identity. Supplementing "ideographic" critique with Judith Butler's theory of performative speech acts enables us to better interrogate and resist these operations of power. This essay maps the contemporary scene of heteronormative power and resistance through two rhetorical performances of gay male identity. The marriage debates, in the first instance, demonstrate how a conventional desire for masculine agency influences the heteronormative production of gay male identity. In the second instance, gay male SM [sadomasochism] performs a concept of "relational agency," which potentially resists heteronormativity.

  15. Mitochondrial genome interrogation for forensic casework and research studies.

    PubMed

    Roby, Rhonda K; Sprouse, Marc; Phillips, Nicole; Alicea-Centeno, Alessandra; Shewale, Shantanu; Shore, Sabrina; Paul, Natasha

    2014-04-24

    This unit describes methods used in the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for forensic and research applications. UNIT describes procedures specifically for forensic casework where the DNA from evidentiary material is often degraded or inhibited. In this unit, protocols are described for quantification of mtDNA before amplification; amplification of the entire control region from high-quality samples as well as procedures for interrogating the whole mitochondrial genome (mtGenome); quantification of mtDNA post-amplification; and, post-PCR cleanup and sequencing. The protocols for amplification were developed for high-throughput databasing applications for forensic DNA testing such as reference samples and population studies. However, these same protocols can be applied to biomedical research such as age-related disease and health disparities research.

  16. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than −36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated. PMID:26927098

  17. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J.; Harmon, F.

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The Sociocultural Psychology as a Postformal Theory of Academic Achievement: Interrogating Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…

  19. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  20. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  1. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  2. Utilization of an interrogative model to evaluate mothers' use and children's comprehension of question forms.

    PubMed

    Toler, S A; Bankson, N W

    1976-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of utilizing Leach's interrogation model as a means for analyzing question types used by mothers and their children's responses to various interrogative forms. Data analyzed consisted of language samples obtained from three preschool children and their mothers during mother-child interactions plus each child's responses to a 90-item probe containing questions representing the 15 question forms delineated by the model. The interrogation model was an effective and reliable tool in the analysis of data. The question forms most frequently used by the mothers were (1) wh- interrogative nominal segment, (2) auxiliary + no infinitive, and (3) tag questions. All three subjects displayed similarities of performance in response to wh- interrogative nominal segment and auxiliary + no infinitive questions. Two of the subjects appeared capable of appropriately answering all of the question forms tested during the interrogative probe. Similarities of performance during the mother-child interaction and the interrogative probe were found to exist for two of the three subjects in certain categories. A high percentage of the questions posed by the mothers during the mother-child interactions were of forms which their children consistently answered appropriately during the interrogative probe.

  3. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.614 Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or...

  4. And I Want to Thank You Barbie: Barbie as a Site for Cultural Interrogation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Barbie is presented as the perfect cultural site for interrogating margins, borders, and contradictions in females' lives. This article illuminates such issues by interrogating the "cumulative cultural text of Barbie." Texts criticized are: Barbie collector cards; "Barbie" and "Barbie Fashion" comic books;…

  5. Electronically controlled optical beam-steering by an active phased array of metallic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    DeRose, C T; Kekatpure, R D; Trotter, D C; Starbuck, A; Wendt, J R; Yaacobi, A; Watts, M R; Chettiar, U; Engheta, N; Davids, P S

    2013-02-25

    An optical phased array of nanoantenna fabricated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process is presented. The optical phased array is fed by low loss silicon waveguides with integrated ohmic thermo-optic phase shifters capable of 2π phase shift with ∼ 15 mW of applied electrical power. By controlling the electrical power to the individual integrated phase shifters fixed wavelength steering of the beam emitted normal to the surface of the wafer of 8° is demonstrated for 1 × 8 phased arrays with periods of both 6 and 9 μm.

  6. A Method for Vibration-Based Structural Interrogation and Health Monitoring Based on Signal Cross-Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, I.

    2011-07-01

    Vibration-based structural interrogation and health monitoring is a field which is concerned with the estimation of the current state of a structure or a component from its vibration response with regards to its ability to perform its intended function appropriately. One way to approach this problem is through damage features extracted from the measured structural vibration response. This paper suggests to use a new concept for the purposes of vibration-based health monitoring. The correlation between two signals, an input and an output, measured on the structure is used to develop a damage indicator. The paper investigates the applicability of the signal cross-correlation and a nonlinear alternative, the average mutual information between the two signals, for the purposes of structural health monitoring and damage assessment. The suggested methodology is applied and demonstrated for delamination detection in a composite beam.

  7. Gold nano-particle formation from crystalline AuCN: Comparison of thermal, plasma- and ion-beam activated decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Mihály T.; Bertóti, Imre; Mohai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Jakab, Emma; Szabó, László; Szépvölgyi, János

    2017-02-01

    In this work, in addition to the conventional thermal process, two non-conventional ways, the plasma and ion beam activations are described for preparing gold nanoparticles from microcrystalline AuCN precursor. The phase formation at plasma and ion beam treatments was compared with that at thermal treatments and the products and transformations were characterized by thermogravimetry-mass-spectrometry (TG-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TG-MS measurements in Ar atmosphere revealed that AuCN decomposition starts at 400 °C and completes at ≈700 °C with evolution of gaseous (CN)2. XPS and TEM show that in heat treatment at 450 °C for 1 h in Ar, loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs and small, 5-30 nm gold particles forms. Heating at 450 °C for 10 h in sealed ampoule, much larger, 60-200 nm size and well faceted Au particles develop together with a fibrous (CN)n polymer phase, and the Au crystallites are covered by a 3-5 nm thick polymer shell. Low pressure Ar plasma treatment at 300 eV energy results in 4-20 nm size Au particles and removes most of the nitrogen and part of carbon. During Ar+ ion bombardment with 2500 eV energy, 5-30 nm size Au crystallites form already in 10 min, with preferential loss of nitrogen and with increased amount of carbon residue. The results suggest that plasma and ion beam activation, acting similarly to thermal treatment, may be used to prepare Au nanoparticles from AuCN on selected surface areas either by depositing AuCN precursors on selected regions or by focusing the applied ionized radiation. Thus they may offer alternative ways for preparing tailor-made catalysts, electronic devices and sensors for different applications.

  8. Lie-detection biases among male police interrogators, prisoners, and laypersons.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2009-12-01

    Beliefs of 28 male police interrogators, 30 male prisoners, and 30 male laypersons about their skill in detecting lies and truths told by others, and in telling lies and truths convincingly themselves, were compared. As predicted, police interrogators overestimated their lie-detection skills. In fact, they were affected by stereotypical beliefs about verbal and nonverbal cues to deception. Prisoners were similarly affected by stereotypical misconceptions about deceptive behaviors but were able to identify that lying is related to pupil dilation. They assessed their lie-detection skill as similar to that of laypersons, but less than that of police interrogators. In contrast to interrogators, prisoners tended to rate lower their lie-telling skill than did the other groups. Results were explained in terms of anchoring and self-assessment bias. Practical aspects of the results for criminal interrogation were discussed.

  9. Active buckling control of a beam-column with circular cross-section using piezo-elastic supports and integral LQR control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffner, Maximilian; Götz, Benedict; Platz, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Buckling of slender beam-columns subject to axial compressive loads represents a critical design constraint for light-weight structures. Active buckling control provides a possibility to stabilize slender beam-columns by active lateral forces or bending moments. In this paper, the potential of active buckling control of an axially loaded beam-column with circular solid cross-section by piezo-elastic supports is investigated experimentally. In the piezo-elastic supports, lateral forces of piezoelectric stack actuators are transformed into bending moments acting in arbitrary directions at the beam-column ends. A mathematical model of the axially loaded beam-column is derived to design an integral linear quadratic regulator (LQR) that stabilizes the system. The effectiveness of the stabilization concept is investigated in an experimental test setup and compared with the uncontrolled system. With the proposed active buckling control it is possible to stabilize the beam-column in arbitrary lateral direction for axial loads up to the theoretical critical buckling load of the system.

  10. Defect study in molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films with activated and unactivated arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Izhnin, I. I.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Fitsych, O. I.; Pociask-Bialy, M.; Sheregii, E.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2014-04-28

    A defect study was performed on molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films in situ doped with arsenic. Doping was performed from either effusion cell or cracker cell, and studied were both as-grown samples and samples subjected to arsenic activation annealing. Electrical properties of the films were investigated with the use of ion milling as a means of “stirring” defects in the material. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the most efficient incorporation of electrically active arsenic occurs at the cracking zone temperature of 700 °C. Interaction between arsenic and tellurium during the growth was observed and is discussed in the paper.

  11. Fast crystallization of amorphous Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} induced by thermally activated electron-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhangyi; Qi, Jianqi Zhou, Li; Feng, Zhao; Yu, Xiaohe; Gong, Yichao; Yang, Mao; Wei, Nian; Shi, Qiwu; Lu, Tiecheng

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the ionization and displacement effects of an electron-beam (e-beam) on amorphous Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} synthesized by the co-precipitation and calcination methods. The as-received amorphous specimens were irradiated under electron beams at different energies (80 keV, 120 keV, and 2 MeV) and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A metastable fluorite phase was observed in nanocrystalline Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is proposed to arise from the relatively lower surface and interface energy compared with the pyrochlore phase. Fast crystallization could be induced by 120 keV e-beam irradiation (beam current = 0.47 mA/cm{sup 2}). The crystallization occurred on the nanoscale upon ionization irradiation at 400 °C after a dose of less than 10{sup 17} electrons/cm{sup 2}. Under e-beam irradiation, the activation energy for the grain growth process was approximately 10 kJ/mol, but the activation energy was 135 kJ/mol by calcination in a furnace. The thermally activated ionization process was considered the fast crystallization mechanism.

  12. Interrogation: Is the US Army Equipped and Trained to Meet the Present Challenges in Today’s Contemporary Operational Environment?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the interrogators are currently trained and what limitations that the interrogation school , located at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, should consider for...prisoner or detainee comes, must be schooled in interrogation techniques, and must have a good knowledge of the current tactical situation and enemy...SFC Mackey uses an example of trickery that he learned attending the interrogation school at Fort Huachuca, Arizona: One scenario involved telling

  13. Comparative study of cross-field and field-aligned electron beams in active experiments. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Pritchett, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    Beam-plasma interactions associated with the cross-field and field-aligned injection of electron beams from spacecraft were investigated using a two-dimensional (three velocity component) electrostatic particle simulations. It is shown that the beam properties and plasma response can be characterized well by the ratio between the stagnation time and the plasma response time, which depends on the ratio of the ambient plasma density to the beam density, the beam width, the beam energy, and the spacecraft length. It was found that the beams injected across the field lines tend to lose their coherence after about one or two gyrations due to space-charge oscillations induced by the beam, irrespective of the spacecraft charging. These oscillations scatter the beam electrons into a hollow cylinder of a radius equal to a beam electron gyroradius and thickness of the order of two beam Debye lengths. Parallel injected beams are subjected to similar oscillations, which cause the beam to expand to fill a solid cylinder of a comparable thickness.

  14. A comparative study of five different PIV interrogation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piirto, M.; Eloranta, H.; Saarenrinne, P.; Karvinen, R.

    2005-09-01

    Five different particle image velocimetry (PIV) interrogation algorithms are tested with numerically generated particle images and two real data sets measured in turbulent flows with relatively small particle images of size 1.0 2.5 pixels. The size distribution of the particle images is analyzed for both the synthetic and the real data in order to evaluate the tendency for peak-locking occurrence. First, the accuracy of the algorithms in terms of mean bias and rms error is compared to simulated data. Then, the algorithms’ ability to handle the peak-locking effect in an accelerating flow through a 2:1 contraction is compared, and their ability to estimate the rms and Reynolds shear stress profiles in a near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at Reτ=510 is analyzed. The results of the latter case are compared to direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a TBL. The algorithms are: standard fast Fourier transform cross-correlation (FFT-CC), direct normalized cross-correlation (DNCC), iterative FFT-CC with discrete window shift (DWS), iterative FFT-CC with continuous window shift (CWS), and iterative FFT-CC CWS with image deformation (CWD). Gaussian three-point peak fitting for sub-pixel estimation is used in all the algorithms. According to the tests with the non-deformation algorithms, DNCC seems to give the best rms estimation by the wall, and the CWS methods give slightly smaller peak-locking observations than the other methods. With the CWS methods, a bias error compensation method for the bilinear image interpolation, based on the particle image size analysis, is developed and tested, giving the same performance as the image interpolation based on the cardinal function. With the CWD algorithms, the effect of the spatial filter size between the iteration loops is analyzed, and it is found to have a strong effect on the results. In the near-wall region, the turbulence intensity varies by up to 4%, depending on the chosen interrogation algorithm. In

  15. Parallel encoding of focus and interrogative meaning in Mandarin intonation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2005-01-01

    Despite much research, disagreements abound regarding the detailed characteristics of question intonation in different languages or even in the same language. The present study investigates question intonation in Mandarin by also considering the role of focus that is frequently ignored in previous research. In experiment 1, native speakers of Mandarin produced statements, yes/no questions, particle questions, wh-questions, rhetorical questions and confirmation questions with narrow focus on the initial, medial or final word of the sentence, or on none of the words. Detailed F(0) contour analyses showed that focus generated the same pitch range modification in questions as in statements, i.e., expanding the pitch range of the focused word, suppressing (compressing and lowering) that of the post-focus words, but leaving that of the pre-focus words largely unaffected. When the effects of focus (as well as other functions also potentially present) were controlled by subtracting statement F(0) contours from those of the corresponding yes/no questions, the resulting difference curves resembled exponential or even double-exponential functions. Further F(0) analyses also revealed an interaction between focus and interrogative meaning in the form of a boost to the pitch raising by the question start-ing from the focused word. Finally, subtle differences in the amount of pitch raising were also observed among different types of questions, especially at the sentence-final position. Experiment 2 investigated whether listeners could detect both focus and question in the same utterance. Results showed that listeners could identify both in most cases, indicating that F(0) variations related to the two functions could be simultaneously transmitted. Meanwhile, the lowest identification rates were found for neutral focus in questions and for statements with final focus. In both cases, the confusions seemed to arise from the competing F(0) adjustments by interrogative meaning and

  16. The use of interrogative forms in the verbal interaction of three mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Holzman, M

    1972-12-01

    A classification of interrogatives according to their purposes was devised and applied to four, 100-utterance samples by three mothers to their children when their children had a mean utterance length of (1) two morphemes and (2) four morphemes. The distribution of mothers' utterances into interrogative and noninterrogative types and into the classification of interrogatives by purpose was obtained. Interrogatives comprise from 15 to 33% of mothers' utterances and interrogatives whose purpose is not to ask questions but rather to make suggestions, negative evaluations of the child's behavior, or to make reports occur with all mothers. A study of these mothers' children's interrogatives in the three-morpheme period revealed that at this early period in language development children already use the interrogative form analogously to their mothers for making suggestions and reports. An analysis of the development of this capacity based on the concept of the "speech act" is given which leads to the conclusion that it is the embeddedness of verbalizations in a particular personal relations, action context which fosters this development.

  17. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for shape control of flexible beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.

    2004-08-01

    This work presents the use of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem for the shape control of flexible beams with an active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The design objectives are to minimize the total weight of the system, the input voltages and the steady-state error between the achieved and desired shapes. Design variables include the thickness of the constraining and viscoelastic layers, the arrangement of the ACLD patches, as well as the control gains. In order to set up an evaluator for the MOGA, the finite element method (FEM), in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model a clamped-free beam with ACLD patches to predict the dynamic behaviour of the system. As a result of the optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that ACLD treatment is suitable for shape control of flexible structures and that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  18. Thermal and destructive interrogation of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojard, Greg; Doza, Douglas; Ouyang, Zhong; Angel, Paul; Smyth, Imelda; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are intended for elevated temperature use and their performance at temperature must be clearly understood as insertion efforts are to be realized. Most efforts to understand ceramic matrix composites at temperature are based on their lifetime at temperature under stress based on fatigue or creep testing or residual testing after some combination of temperature, stress and time. While these efforts can be insightful especially based on their mechanical performance, there is no insight into how other properties are changing with thermal exposure. To gain additional insight into oxidation behavior of CMC samples, a series of fatigue and creep samples tested at two different temperatures were non-destructively interrogated after achieving run-out conditions by multiple thermal methods and limited X-ray CT. After non-destructive analysis, residual tensile tests were undertaken at room temperature. The resulting residual properties will be compared against the non-destructive data. Analysis will be done to see if data trends can be determined and correlated to the level and duration of exposure.

  19. Interrogating the function of metazoan histones using engineered gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Daniel J.; Klusza, Stephen; Penke, Taylor J.R.; Meers, Michael P.; Curry, Kaitlin P.; McDaniel, Stephen L.; Malek, Pamela Y.; Cooper, Stephen W.; Tatomer, Deirdre C.; Lieb, Jason D.; Strahl, Brian D.; Duronio, Robert J.; Matera, A. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histones and their post-translational modifications influence the regulation of many DNA-dependent processes. Although an essential role for histone-modifying enzymes in these processes is well established, defining the specific contribution of individual histone residues remains a challenge because many histone-modifying enzymes have non-histone targets. This challenge is exacerbated by the paucity of suitable approaches to genetically engineer histone genes in metazoans. Here, we describe a facile platform in Drosophila for generating and analyzing any desired histone genotype, and we use it to test the in vivo function of three histone residues. We demonstrate that H4K20 is neither essential for DNA replication nor for completion of development, unlike conclusions drawn from analyses of H4K20 methyltransferases. We also show that H3K36 is required for viability and H3K27 is essential for maintenance of cellular identity during development. These findings highlight the power of engineering histones to interrogate genome structure and function in animals. PMID:25669886

  20. FTIR-based airborne spectral imagery for target interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithson, Tracy L.; St. Germain, Daniel; Nadeau, Denis

    2007-09-01

    DRDC Valcartier is continuing to developed infrared spectral imagery systems for a variety of military applications. Recently a hybrid airborne spectral imager / broadband imager system has been developed for ground target interrogation (AIRIS). This system employs a Fourier Transform Interferometer system coupled to two 8x8 element detector arrays to create spectral imagery in the region from 2.0 to 12 microns (830 to 5000 cm -1) at a spectral resolution of up to 1 cm -1. In addition, coupled to this sensor are three broadband imagers operating in the visible, mid-wave and long-wave infrared regions. AIRIS uses an on-board tracking capability to: dwell on a target, select multiple targets sequentially, or build a mosaic description of the environment around a specified target point. Currently AIRIS is being modified to include real-time spectral imagery calibration and application processing. In this paper the flexibility of the AIRIS system will be described, its concept of operation discussed and examples of measurements will be shown.

  1. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Norman; J. L. Jones; B. W. Blackburn; S. M. Watson; K. J. Haskell

    2006-08-01

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors.

  2. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun; Hu, Liqun; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey-predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  3. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  4. Beam finite-element model of a molecular motor for the simulation of active fibre networks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kei W.; Birzle, Anna M.; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins that excessively increase the efficiency of subcellular transport processes. They allow for cell division, nutrient transport and even macroscopic muscle movement. In order to understand the effect of motors in large biopolymer networks, e.g. the cytoskeleton, we require a suitable model of a molecular motor. In this contribution, we present such a model based on a geometrically exact beam finite-element formulation. We discuss the numerical model of a non-processive motor such as myosin II, which interacts with actin filaments. Based on experimental data and inspired by the theoretical understanding offered by the power-stroke model and the swinging-cross-bridge model, we parametrize our numerical model in order to achieve the effect that a physiological motor has on its cargo. To this end, we introduce the mechanical and mathematical foundations of the model, then discuss its calibration, prove its usefulness by conducting finite-element simulations of actin–myosin motility assays and assess the influence of motors on the rheology of semi-flexible biopolymer networks. PMID:26997891

  5. Design of Interrogation Protocols for Radiation Dose Measurements Using Optically-Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sara A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Jawad, Ali H; Boria, Andrew J; Buth, Tobias J; Dawson, Alexander S; Eng, Sheldon C; Frank, Samuel J; Green, Crystal A; Jacobs, Mitchell L; Liu, Kevin; Miklos, Joseph A; Nguyen, Hien; Rafique, Muhammad; Rucinski, Blake D; Smith, Travis; Tan, Yanliang

    2017-03-01

    Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters are capable of being interrogated multiple times post-irradiation. Each interrogation removes a fraction of the signal stored within the optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeter. This signal loss must be corrected to avoid systematic errors in estimating the average signal of a series of optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeter interrogations and requires a minimum number of consecutive readings to determine an average signal that is within a desired accuracy of the true signal with a desired statistical confidence. This paper establishes a technical basis for determining the required number of readings for a particular application of these dosimeters when using certain OSL dosimetry systems.

  6. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  7. Optically active vacancies in GaN grown on Si substrates probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Zhang, Yang; Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Palacios, Tomás; Cao, Yu; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2014-02-24

    Native defects in GaN layers grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for GaN layers showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were formed in the layers. Charge transition of the defects due to electron capture was found to occur when the layers were irradiated by photons with energy above 2.71 eV. The concentration of such defects increased after 600–800 °C annealing, but the defects have not been annealed out even at 1000 °C. They were identified as Ga-vacancy-type defects, such as complexes between Ga vacancies and carbon impurities, and the relationship between their charge transition and optical properties were discussed.

  8. Optically active vacancies in GaN grown on Si substrates probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-02-01

    Native defects in GaN layers grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for GaN layers showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were formed in the layers. Charge transition of the defects due to electron capture was found to occur when the layers were irradiated by photons with energy above 2.71 eV. The concentration of such defects increased after 600-800 °C annealing, but the defects have not been annealed out even at 1000 °C. They were identified as Ga-vacancy-type defects, such as complexes between Ga vacancies and carbon impurities, and the relationship between their charge transition and optical properties were discussed.

  9. Characterization of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for particle detection: Beam test of the four-sensors RAPS03 stacked system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeri, Daniele; Servoli, Leonello; Biagetti, Daniele; Meroli, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    In this work, in order to check the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) detectors for vertexing/tracking applications, four stacked CMOS APS sensors featuring 256×256 pixels with 10×10 μm 2 size have been tested at the INFN Beam Test Facility (BFT), Frascati (Rome). For this purpose, a dedicated mechanical and electrical set-up has been devised and implemented, allowing for the simultaneous read-out of four sensors arranged in a stacked structure. A compact and fast system (up to 64 MHz read-out clock) based on external ADCs and FPGA allows for the PC communication through USB2.0. Preliminary results in terms of track reconstructions of electrons of different energies (up to 496 MeV) are presented. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SHARPS project, supported by INFN.

  10. Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, T.W.

    1980-03-01

    A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

  11. Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

    PubMed

    Hardin, Robert A; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Blokland, Willem

    2011-02-14

    A high peak-power Q-switched laser has been used to monitor the ion beam profiles in the superconducting linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The laser beam suffers from position drift due to movement, vibration, or thermal effects on the optical components in the 250-meter long laser beam transport line. We have designed, bench-tested, and implemented a beam position stabilization system by using an Ethernet CMOS camera, computer image processing and analysis, and a piezo-driven mirror platform. The system can respond at frequencies up to 30 Hz with a high position detection accuracy. With the beam stabilization system, we have achieved a laser beam pointing stability within a range of 2 μrad (horizontal) to 4 μrad (vertical), corresponding to beam drifts of only 0.5 mm × 1 mm at the furthest measurement station located 250 meters away from the light source.

  12. Cartesian beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2007-12-01

    A new and very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in Cartesian coordinates is presented. We call such a field a Cartesian beam. The complex amplitude of the Cartesian beams is described by either the parabolic cylinder functions or the confluent hypergeometric functions, and the beams are characterized by three parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integration are studied in detail. Applying the general expression of the Cartesian beams, we also derive two new and meaningful beam structures that, to our knowledge, have not yet been reported in the literature. Special cases of the Cartesian beams are the standard, elegant, and generalized Hermite-Gauss beams, the cosine-Gauss beams, the Lorentz beams, and the fractional order beams.

  13. Development of an in vitro human liver system for interrogating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Feaver, Ryan E.; Cole, Banumathi K.; Lawson, Mark J.; Hoang, Stephen A.; Blackman, Brett R.; Figler, Robert A.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A barrier to drug development for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the absence of translational preclinical human-relevant systems. An in vitro liver model was engineered to incorporate hepatic sinusoidal flow, transport, and lipotoxic stress risk factors (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids) with cocultured primary human hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and macrophages. Transcriptomic, lipidomic, and functional endpoints were evaluated and compared with clinical data from NASH patient biopsies. The lipotoxic milieu promoted hepatocyte lipid accumulation (4-fold increase, P < 0.01) and a lipidomics signature similar to NASH biopsies. Hepatocyte glucose output increased with decreased insulin sensitivity. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory analyte secretion (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, alanine aminotransferase). Fibrogenic activation markers increased with lipotoxic conditions, including secreted TGF-β (>5-fold increase, P < 0.05), extracellular matrix gene expression, and HSC activation. Significant pathway correlation existed between this in vitro model and human biopsies. Consistent with clinical trial data, 0.5 μM obeticholic acid in this model promoted a healthy lipidomic signature, reduced inflammatory and fibrotic secreted factors, but also increased ApoB secretion, suggesting a potential adverse effect on lipoprotein metabolism. Lipotoxic stress activates similar biological signatures observed in NASH patients in this system, which may be relevant for interrogating novel therapeutic approaches to treat NASH. PMID:27942596

  14. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  15. Police interviewing and interrogation: a self-report survey of police practices and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Kassin, Saul M; Leo, Richard A; Meissner, Christian A; Richman, Kimberly D; Colwell, Lori H; Leach, Amy-May; La Fon, Dana

    2007-08-01

    By questionnaire, 631 police investigators reported on their interrogation beliefs and practices-the first such survey ever conducted. Overall, participants estimated that they were 77% accurate at truth and lie detection, that 81% of suspects waive Miranda rights, that the mean length of interrogation is 1.6 hours, and that they elicit self-incriminating statements from 68% of suspects, 4.78% from innocents. Overall, 81% felt that interrogations should be recorded. As for self-reported usage of various interrogation tactics, the most common were to physically isolate suspects, identify contradictions in suspects' accounts, establish rapport, confront suspects with evidence of their guilt, and appeal to self-interests. Results were discussed for their consistency with prior research, policy implications, and methodological shortcomings.

  16. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  17. U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-25

    Order Code RL32438 U.N. Convention Against Torture ( CAT ): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques Updated January 25, 2008 Michael...Convention Against Torture ( CAT ): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 U.N. Convention Against Torture ( CAT ): Overview and

  18. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    intelligence; HUMINT; U.S. Army Field Manual 34-52; Hanns Scharff; Camp 020; Military Intelligence Service; MI9; MI19; Director of Military...of actionable intelligence. This is reflected in modern U.S. doctrine pertaining to interrogation as defined in U.S. Army Field Manual 34-52...15As quoted in Jones, 60-61. 16Department of the Army, Field Manual 34-52, Intelligence Interrogation (Washington, DC: GPO, 8 May 1987), 1-0

  19. Adaptive Piezoelectric Circuitry Sensor Network with High-Frequency Harmonics Interrogation for Structural Damage Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    Harmonics Interrogation for Structural Damage Detection FA9550-11-1-0072 Kon-Well Wang and Jiong Tang The Regents of the University of Michigan, 3003...Well Wang 734-764-8464 1    Adaptive Piezoelectric Circuitry Sensor Network with High-Frequency Harmonics Interrogation for Structural Damage Detection...limitations. This research explores damage identification via advancing a third type of approach: high-frequency harmonic excitation-based self

  20. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Military Interrogation of Terror Suspects: Imaginative Does Not Have to Mean Unlawful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Howard, the Romans distinguished between bellum (war against legitimus hostis, a legitimate enemy) and guerra (war against latrunculi, pirates...apply. They do not apply to guerra . Indeed, punishment for latrunculi, “the common enemies of mankind,” traditionally has been summary execution.16 We...interrogations. Our experiences in Korea and Vietnam included relatively few U.S.-run interrogations. In fact, because of the treatment of captured U.S

  2. Implantable fiber-optic interface for parallel multisite long-term optical dynamic brain interrogation in freely moving mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Seeing the big picture of functional responses within large neural networks in a freely functioning brain is crucial for understanding the cellular mechanisms behind the higher nervous activity, including the most complex brain functions, such as cognition and memory. As a breakthrough toward meeting this challenge, implantable fiber-optic interfaces integrating advanced optogenetic technologies and cutting-edge fiber-optic solutions have been demonstrated, enabling a long-term optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits in freely moving mice. Here, we show that a specifically designed implantable fiber-optic interface provides a powerful tool for parallel long-term optical interrogation of distinctly separate, functionally different sites in the brain of freely moving mice. This interface allows the same groups of neurons lying deeply in the brain of a freely behaving mouse to be reproducibly accessed and optically interrogated over many weeks, providing a long-term dynamic detection of genome activity in response to a broad variety of pharmacological and physiological stimuli.

  3. A multi-parameter optical fiber sensor with interrogation and discrimination capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yage; Wu, Hua; Yang, Qinyu; Pei, Jincheng; Yang, Xichun

    2009-11-01

    A multi-parameter and multi-function, but low-cost, optical fiber grating sensor with self-interrogation and self-discrimination capabilities is presented theoretically and experimentally. The sensor bases on three fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and one fiber long period grating (LPG). Strain, vibration, pressure, ordinary temperature (-10 to 100 °C) and high temperature (100-800 °C) can be measured by the sensor. When high temperature (100-800 °C) is measured, the LPG is used as a high temperture sensor head and FBG 1 is used as an interrogation element. Alternatively, when one of the other four measurands is measured, FBG 1 (or FBG 2) is used as a sensor head and LPG is used as an interrogation element. When two of the other four measurands are measured simultaneously, FBG 1 and FBG 2 are used as sensor heads and LPG is used as a shared interrogation element. FBG 3 is used as a reference element to eliminate the errors resulted from light source fluctuation and the cross-sensitivity between measurand and environmental temperature. The measurands can be interrogated according to the signals of the photodiodes (PDs), which are related to the relative wavelength shift of the LPG and the FBGs. Experimental results agree well with theoretical analyses. The interrogation scheme is immune to light source fluctuation and the cross-sensitivity between measurands and enviromental temperature, and also the dynamic range is large.

  4. Fissile and fertile nuclear material measurements using a new differential die-away self-interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, S H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for the measurement of fissile and fertile nuclear materials in spent fuel and plutonium laden materials such as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The technique, called differential die-away self-interrogation, is similar to traditional differential die-away analysis, but it does not require a pulsed neutron generator or pulsed beam accelerator, and it can measure the fertile mass in addition to the fissile mass. The new method uses the spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm in spent fuel and {sup 240}Pu effective neutrons in MOX as the 'pulsed' neutron source with an average of {approx} 2.7 neutrons per pulse. The time correlated neutrons from the spontaneous fission and the subsequent induced fissions are analyzed as a function of time to determine the spontaneous fission rate, the induced fast-neutron fissions, and the induced thermal-neutron fissions. The fissile mass is determined from the induced thermal-neutron fissions that are produced by reflected thermal neutrons that originated from the spontaneous fission reaction. The sensitivity of the fissile mass measurement is enhanced by the use of two measurements, with and without a cadmium liner between the sample and the hydrogenous moderator. The fertile mass is determined from the multiplicity analysis of the neutrons detected soon after the initial triggering neutron is detected. The method obtains good sensitivity by the optimal design of two different neutron die-away regions: a short die-away for the neutron detector region and a longer die-away for the sample interrogation region.

  5. Development of in-series piezoelectric bimorph bending beam actuators for active flow control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wilfred K.; Clingman, Dan J.; Amitay, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials have long been used for active flow control purposes in aerospace applications to increase the effectiveness of aerodynamic surfaces on aircraft, wind turbines, and more. Piezoelectric actuators are an appropriate choice due to their low mass, small dimensions, simplistic design, and frequency response. This investigation involves the development of piezoceramic-based actuators with two bimorphs placed in series. Here, the main desired characteristic was the achievable displacement amplitude at specific driving voltages and frequencies. A parametric study was performed, in which actuators with varying dimensions were fabricated and tested. These devices were actuated with a sinusoidal waveform, resulting in an oscillating platform on which to mount active flow control devices, such as dynamic vortex generators. The main quantification method consisted of driving these devices with different voltages and frequencies to determine their free displacement, blocking force, and frequency response. It was found that resonance frequency increased with shorter and thicker actuators, while free displacement increased with longer and thinner actuators. Integration of the devices into active flow control test modules is noted. In addition to physical testing, a quasi-static analytical model was developed and compared with experimental data, which showed close correlation for both free displacement and blocking force.

  6. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Kinetic model of the active medium of an XeCl laser pumped by an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boĭchenko, A. M.; Derzhiev, V. I.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Yakovlenko, Sergei I.

    1989-02-01

    Kinetic models of active media of an XeCl laser are developed for the case when these media are diluted by various buffer gases (helium, neon, argon) and the laser is pumped by an electron beam. The results of the calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  7. Research Topics on Cluttered Environments Interrogation and Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    instance for laser beam propagation through the turbulent atmosphere . This is important because it allows us to analyze statistical stability of...propagation through the turbulent atmosphere . This is important because it allows us to analyze statistical sta- bility of imaging and communication...In general for waves prop- agating through microstructure, say through the turbulent atmosphere , through the earth’s crust or through foliage, it is

  8. Aeromechanical stability augmentation of helicopters using enhanced active constrained layer damping treatment on rotor flex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badre Alam, Askari

    This thesis presents a study conducted to explore the feasibility of employing Enhanced Active Constrained Layer (EACL) damping treatment in helicopter rotor systems to alleviate aeromechanical instability. The central idea is to apply the EACL treatment on the flexbeams of soft in-plane bearingless main rotors (BMRs) and increase the damping of the first lag mode. In this research, it is explored whether EACL damping treatment can provide sufficient damping in rotor system without exceeding the physical design limits of actuators. To study the feasibility of the EACL damping treatment, a finite element based mathematical model of a rotor with EACL damping treatment on flexbeam is developed. A bench top experiment is conducted to verify the mathematical model. It is shown that the experimental results correlate well with the analytical results. A derivative controller, with control voltage based on the flexbeam tip transverse velocity, is used in this investigation. A filter is developed to remove 1/rev component of the feedback signal. An optimization study is conducted to understand the influence of EACL design parameters on the performance of the damping treatment. A study is conducted to analyze delamination of EACL damping treatment. In this study, a new finite element model is developed that is capable of accurately predicting both, the performance and interlaminar stresses in EACL damping treatment. A new configuration of PCL damping treatment is developed by tapering the constraining layer at the free ends. As compared to a conventional PCL, this configuration has significantly lower interlaminar stresses and similar damping performance. A study is conducted to compare ACL with purely active configuration. It was shown that in ACL configuration, the interlaminar stresses are an-order-of-magnitude lower than the purely active configuration for similar damping levels. A new ACL configuration is designed by changing the poling direction of the PZT constraining

  9. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  10. Approximating ambient D-region electron densities using dual-beam HF heating experiments at the high-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Divya

    Dual-beam ELF/VLF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are critically compared with the predictions of a newly developed ionospheric high frequency (HF) heating model that accounts for the simultaneous propagation and absorption of multiple HF beams. The dual-beam HF heating experiments presented herein consist of two HF beams transmitting simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere in the extremely low frequency (ELF, 30 Hz to 3 kHz) and/or very low frequency (VLF, 3 kHz to 30 kHz) band while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF/VLF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF/VLF wave generation. Ground-based experimental observations are used together with the predictions of the theoretical model to identify the property of the received ELF/VLF wave that is most sensitive to the effects of multi-beam HF heating, and that property is determined to be the ELF/VLF signal magnitude. The dependence of the generated ELF/VLF wave magnitude on several HF transmission parameters (HF power, HF frequency, and modulation waveform) is then experimentally measured and analyzed within the context of the multi-beam HF heating model. For all cases studied, the received ELF/VLF wave magnitude as a function of transmission parameter is analyzed to identify the dependence on the ambient D-region electron density (Ne) and/or electron temperature ( Te), in turn identifying the HF transmission parameters that provide significant independent information regarding the ambient conditions of the D-region ionosphere. A theoretical analysis is performed to determine the conditions under which the effects of Ne and Te can be decoupled, and the results of this analysis are applied to identify an electron density profile that can reproduce the unusually high level of ELF

  11. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-01

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from ˜20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  12. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-03

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  13. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  14. Interrogation of Chesapeake Bay sediment microbial communities for intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jamie M; Wawrik, Boris; Isom, Catherine; Boling, Wilford B; Callaghan, Amy V

    2015-02-01

    Based on the transient exposure of Chesapeake Bay sediments to hydrocarbons and the metabolic versatility of known anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms, it was hypothesized that distinct Bay sediment communities, governed by geochemical gradients, would have intrinsic alkane-utilizing potential under sulfate-reducing and/or methanogenic conditions. Sediment cores were collected along a transect of the Bay. Community DNA was interrogated via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, PCR of anaerobic hydrocarbon activation genes, and qPCR of 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in sulfate reduction/methanogenesis. Site sediments were used to establish microcosms amended with n-hexadecane under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that sediments associated with hypoxic water columns contained significantly greater proportions of Bacteria and Archaea consistent with syntrophic degradation of organic matter and methanogenesis compared to less reduced sediments. Microbial taxa frequently associated with hydrocarbon-degrading communities were found throughout the Bay, and the genetic potential for hydrocarbon metabolism was demonstrated via the detection of benzyl-(bssA) and alkylsuccinate synthase (assA) genes. Although microcosm studies did not indicate sulfidogenic alkane degradation, the data suggested that methanogenic conversion of alkanes was occurring. These findings highlight the potential role that anaerobic microorganisms could play in the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in the Bay.

  15. Expanding applications for surface-contaminant sensing using the laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III; Christesen, Steven D.; Wong, Anna

    2004-02-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a UV-Raman technique that provides short-range standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division, is currently developing and expanding the LISA technology under several programs that span a variety of missions for homeland defense. We will present and discuss some of these applications, while putting in perspective the overall evolution undergone by the technique within the last years. These applications include LISA-Recon (now called the Joint Contaminated Surface Detector--JCSD) which was developed under a cost-sharing arrangement with the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM) for incorporation on the Army"s future reconnaissance vehicles, and designed to demonstrate single-shot on-the-move measurements of chemical contaminants at concentration levels below the Army's requirements. In parallel, LISA-Shipboard is being developed to optimize the sensor technique for detection of surface contaminants in the operational environment of a ship. The most recently started activity is LISA-Inspector that is being developed to provide a transportable sensor in a 'cart-like' configuration.

  16. Interrogating the degradation pathways of unstable mRNAs with XRN1-resistant sequences

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Volker; Gerbracht, Jennifer V.; Marx, Marie-Charlotte; Gehring, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    The turnover of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is a key regulatory step of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Due to the complexity of the mammalian degradation machinery, the contribution of decay factors to the directionality of mRNA decay is poorly understood. Here we characterize a molecular tool to interrogate mRNA turnover via the detection of XRN1-resistant decay fragments (xrFrag). Using nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as a model pathway, we establish xrFrag analysis as a robust indicator of accelerated 5′–3′ mRNA decay. In tethering assays, monitoring xrFrag accumulation allows to distinguish decapping and endocleavage activities from deadenylation. Moreover, xrFrag analysis of mRNA degradation induced by miRNAs, AU-rich elements (AREs) as well as the 3′ UTRs of cytokine mRNAs reveals the contribution of 5′–3′ decay and endonucleolytic cleavage. Our work uncovers formerly unrecognized modes of mRNA turnover and establishes xrFrag as a powerful tool for RNA decay analyses. PMID:27917860

  17. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  18. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  19. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-03-06

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  20. Intense laser-driven ion beams in the relativistic-transparency regime: acceleration, control and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Juan C.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-plasma interactions in the novel regime of relativistically-induced transparency have been harnessed to generate efficiently intense ion beams with average energies exceeding 10 MeV/nucleon (>100 MeV for protons) at ``table-top'' scales. We have discovered and utilized a self-organizing scheme that exploits persisting self-generated plasma electric ( 0.1 TV/m) and magnetic ( 104 Tesla) fields to reduce the ion-energy (Ei) spread after the laser exits the plasma, thus separating acceleration from spread reduction. In this way we routinely generate aluminum and carbon beams with narrow spectral peaks at Ei up to 310 MeV and 220 MeV, respectively, with high efficiency ( 5%). The experimental demonstration has been done at the LANL Trident laser with 0.12 PW, high-contrast, 0.65 ps Gaussian laser pulses irradiating planar foils up to 250 nm thick. In this regime, Ei scales empirically with laser intensity (I) as I 1 / 2. Our progress is enabled by high-fidelity, massive computer simulations of the experiments. This work advances next-generation compact accelerators suitable for new applications. E . g ., a carbon beam with Ei 400 MeV and 10% energy spread is suitable for fast ignition (FI) of compressed DT. The observed scaling suggests that is feasible with existing target fabrication and PW-laser technologies, using a sub-ps laser pulse with I 2.5 ×1021 W/cm2. These beams have been used on Trident to generate warm-dense matter at solid-densities, enabling us to investigate its equation of state and mixing of heterogeneous interfaces purely by plasma effects distinct from hydrodynamics. They also drive an intense neutron-beam source with great promise for important applications such as active interrogation of shielded nuclear materials. Considerations on controlling ion-beam divergence for their increased utility are discussed. Funded by the LANL LDRD program.

  1. SU-D-BRF-01: Applications of Photonuclear Activation of Biological Tissues in Clinical High-Energy X-Ray Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Fourkal, E; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The commercial availability of high-energy accelerators opens new therapeutic opportunities for X-rays with energies in excess of 15MV. Three clinical beams (Varian 18MV, Elekta SL25, and Top Grade LA45) were compared by the production of photo-activated positron emitters in five types of biological tissues. Methods: The activation studies were performed using FLUKA2011 Monte Carlo suite with beam models designed for the three accelerators. Absolute activity density (Bq/ml) distribution in space was obtained from this study. Additionally, the temporal evolution of all activated species was monitored for cooling times up to 30 minutes. Results: The relative activation contrast of tissue pairs was evaluated for 2Gy of dose at 10cm depth for five tissues (normal, hypoxic, adipose, bone, and lung). In bone the sort-lived isotopes O-15 and P-30 dominated the activity at the early cooling stages. In all tissues 15 minutes post-irradiation the C-11 activity became dominant. Tissues with higher carbon-to-oxygen ratio in their elemental composition became clearly visible in a PET scan at longer cooling times. Radiation treatment of a lung tumor with a hypoxic core was simulated in an anthropomorphic phantom using the LA45 beam model. Increase in the PET counts by more than 50% was measured in the hypoxic volume 15 minutes post-irradiation, demonstrating the benefits of the relative activation contrast concept. Conclusion: LA45 beam is found to produce measurable activation distribution for 2Gy of dose, suitable for tissue type discrimination studies. Maximum activation contrast of 1.7 between hypoxic and normal tissues was measured in a simulated treatment. The absolute activity density values obtained from these Monte Carlo studies suggest that the window of opportunity for a PET scan exists up to 60 minutes after 2Gy of dose is deposited by 45MV X-ray beam. Lung-to-tissue activation contrast can be explored for treatment QA purposes as well.

  2. Design of an RFQ-Based Neutron Source for Cargo ContainerInterrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, John W.; Hoff, M.D.; Kwan, J.W.; Li, D.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Ratti, A.; Virostek, S.P.; Wells, R.P.

    2006-08-01

    An RFQ-based neutron generator system is described that produces pulsed neutrons for the active screening of sea-land cargo containers for the detection of shielded special nuclear materials (SNM).A microwave-driven deuteron source is coupled to an electrostatic LEBT that injects a 40 mA D+ beam into a 6 MeV, 5.1 meter-long 200 MHz RFQ.The RFQ has a unique beam dynamics design and is capable of operating at duty factors of 5 to 10 percent accelerating a D+ time-averaged current of up to 1.5 mA at 5 percent duty factor, including species and transmission loss. The beam is transported through a specially-designed thin window into a 2.5-atmosphere deuterium gas target. A high-frequency dipole magnet is used to scan the beam over the long dimension of the 5by 35 cm target window. The source will deliver a neutron flux of 1 cdot107 n/(cm2s) to the center of an empty cargo container. Details of the ion source, LEBT, RFQ beam dynamics and gas target design are presented.

  3. A Study of The Effect of Preschool Children's Participation in Sensorimotor Activities on Their Understanding of the Mechanical Equilibrium of a Balance Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Anastasiou, Leonidas; Konsolas, Manos; Prevezanou, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in sensorimotor activities by preschool children involving their own bodily balance while walking on a beam over the floor has an effect on their understanding of the mechanical equilibrium of a balance beam. The balance beam consisted of a horizontal stick balancing around its center of mass (middle point), while carrying equal-weight objects on either side of it. The study utilized a two-group design, and was conducted in three phases (pre-test, treatment and post-test). The results of the study provide evidence that there was such an effect, since the children (who participated in the sensorimotor activities) could select out of a number of objects those two with the same weight regardless of their shape, size or colour, in order to balance the stick. This effect also can be seen when a comparison is made with a second group of children, which had previously participated in a hands-on activity regarding the equilibrium of a similar balance beam, and which (children), therefore, had a definite advantage over the other children who had participated in the sensorimotor activity. A Chi Square Test showed no significant differences between the two groups on both an immediate and a delayed post-test, while the McNemar Test for the Significance of Change showed a statistically significant difference (that is, a negative change in performance between the first and the second post-test) only within the hands-on group. This difference represents evidence that the children from the sensorimotor group remembered better the rule they were applying (i.e., selecting equal-weight objects) in order to balance the beam.

  4. Coarse-scaling adjustment of fine-group neutron spectra for epithermal neutron beams in BNCT using multiple activation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an improved and reliable neutron source description for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a spectrum adjustment procedure named coarse-scaling adjustment has been developed and applied to the neutron spectrum measurements of both the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam in Taiwan and the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in The Netherlands, using multiple activation detectors. The coarse-scaling adjustment utilizes a similar idea as the well-known two-foil method, which adjusts the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes according to the Maxwellian distribution for thermal neutrons and 1/ E distribution over the epithermal neutron energy region. The coarse-scaling adjustment can effectively suppress the number of oscillations appearing in the adjusted spectrum and provide better smoothness. This paper also presents a sophisticated 9-step process utilizing twice the coarse-scaling adjustment which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with satisfactory continuity and excellently matched reaction rates between measurements and calculation. The spectrum adjustment algorithm applied in this study is the same as the well-known SAND-II.

  5. Transparent and electrically conductive GaSb/Si direct wafer bonding at low temperatures by argon-beam surface activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predan, F.; Reinwand, D.; Klinger, V.; Dimroth, F.

    2015-10-01

    Direct wafer bonds of the material system n-GaSb/n-Si have been achieved by means of a low-temperature direct wafer bonding process, enabling an optical transparency of the bonds along with a high electrical conductivity of the boundary layer. In the used technique, the surfaces are activated by sputter-etching with an argon fast-atom-beam (FAB) and bonded in ultra-high vacuum. The bonds were annealed at temperatures between 300 and 400 °C, followed by an optical, mechanical and electrical characterization of the interface. Additionally, the influence of the sputtering on the surface topography of the GaSb was explicitly investigated. Fully bonded wafer pairs with high bonding strengths were found, as no blade could be inserted into the bonds without destroying the samples. The interfacial resistivities of the bonded wafers were significantly reduced by optimizing the process parameters, by which Ohmic interfacial resistivities of less than 5 mΩ cm2 were reached reproducibly. These promising results make the monolithic integration of GaSb on Si attractive for various applications.

  6. Beam-beam interaction working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    The limit in hadron colliders is understood phenomenologically. The beam-beam interaction produces nonlinear resonances and makes the transverse tunes amplitude dependent. Tune spreads result from the latter, and as long as these tune spreads do not overlap low order resonances, the lifetime and performance is acceptable. Experience is that tenth and sometimes twelfth order resonances must be avoided, and the hadron collider limit corresponds roughly to the space available between resonances of that and lower order when operating near the coupling resonance. The beam-beam interaction in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders is not understood well. This affects the performance of existing colliders and could lead to surprises in new ones. For example. a substantial amount of operator tuning is usually required to reach the performance limit given above, and this tuning has to be repeated after each major shutdown. The usual interpretation is that colliding beam performance is sensitive to small lattice errors, and these are being reduced during tuning. It is natural to ask what these errors are, how can a lattice be characterized to minimize tuning time, and what aspects of a lattice should receive particular attention when a new collider is being designed. The answers to this type of question are not known, and developing ideas for calculations, simulations and experiments that could illuminate the details of the beam-beam interaction was the primary working group activity.

  7. Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve M.

    2017-01-01

    Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded fiber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolves its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz–1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 μm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design specifics. Results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor. PMID:28134819

  8. Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of (12)C-induced beta(+)-activity.

    PubMed

    Attanasi, F; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Enghardt, W; Moehrs, S; Parodi, K; Rosso, V; Vecchio, S

    2009-01-21

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  9. NOTE: Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of 12C-induced β+-activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasi, F.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Enghardt, W.; Moehrs, S.; Parodi, K.; Rosso, V.; Vecchio, S.

    2009-01-01

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  10. Effect of food characteristics, storage conditions, and electron beam irradiation on active agent release from polyamide-coated LDPE films.

    PubMed

    Han, J; Castell-Perez, M E; Moreira, R G

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation, storage conditions, and model food pH on the release characteristics of trans-cinnamaldehyde incorporated into polyamide-coated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films. Active agent release rate on irradiated films (up to 20.0 kGy) decreased by 69% compared with the nonirradiated controls, from 0.252 to 0.086 microg/mL/h. Storage temperature (4, 21, and 35 degrees C) and pH (4, 7, and 10) of the food simulant solutions (10% aqueous ethanol) affected the release rate of trans-cinnamaldehyde. As expected, antimicrobial release rate decreased to 0.013 microg/mL/h at the refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C) compared to the higher temperatures (0.029 and 0.035 microg/mL/h at 21 and 35 degrees C). The fastest release rate occurred when exposed to the acidic food simulant solution (pH 4). In aqueous solution, trans-cinnamaldehyde was highly unstable to ionizing radiation, with loss in concentration from 24.50 to 1.36 microg/mL after exposure to 2.0 kGy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation up to 10.0 kGy did not affect the structural conformation of LDPE/polyamide films and the trans-cinnamaldehyde in the films, though it induced changes in the functional group of trans-cinnamaldehyde when dose increased up to 20.0 kGy. Studies with a radiation-stable compound (naphthalene) showed that ionizing radiation induced the crosslinking in polymer networks of LDPE/polyamide film and caused slow and gradual release of the compound. This study demonstrated that irradiation serves as a controlling factor for release of active compounds, with potential applications in the development of antimicrobial packaging systems.

  11. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Inoue, Kazumasa; Gomi-Miyagishi, Tomoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kameoka, Satoru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation reaction of the incident protons on target nuclei using a PET apparatus. The activity of the positron-emitting nuclei generated in a patient was measured with a PET-CT apparatus after proton beam irradiation of the patient. Activity measurement was performed in patients with tumors of the brain, head and neck, liver, lungs, and sacrum. The 3-D PET image obtained on the CT image showed the visual correspondence with the irradiation area of the proton beam. Moreover, it was confirmed that there were differences in the strength of activity from the PET-CT images obtained at each irradiation site. The values of activity obtained from both measurement and calculation based on the reaction cross section were compared, and it was confirmed that the intensity and the distribution of the activity changed with the start time of the PET imaging after proton beam irradiation. The clinical use of this information about the positron-emitting nuclei will be important for promoting proton treatment with higher accuracy in the future.

  12. Iterative key-residues interrogation of a phytase with thermostability increasing substitutions identified in directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Amol V; Roccatano, Danilo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phytases have attracted industrial interest as animal feed supplement due to their high activity and sufficient thermostability (required for feed pelleting). We devised an approach named KeySIDE,  an iterative Key-residues interrogation of the wild type with Substitutions Identified in Directed Evolution for improving Yersinia mollaretii phytase (Ymphytase) thermostability by combining key beneficial substitutions and elucidating their individual roles. Directed evolution yielded in a discovery of nine positions in Ymphytase and combined iteratively to identify key positions. The "best" combination (M6: T77K, Q154H, G187S, and K289Q) resulted in significantly improved thermal resistance; the residual activity improved from 35 % (wild type) to 89 % (M6) at 58 °C and 20-min incubation. Melting temperature increased by 3 °C in M6 without a loss of specific activity. Molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed reduced flexibility in the loops located next to helices (B, F, and K) which possess substitutions (Helix-B: T77K, Helix-F: G187S, and Helix-K: K289E/Q). Reduced flexibility in the loops might be caused by strengthened hydrogen bonding network (e.g., G187S and K289E/K289Q) and a salt bridge (T77K). Our results demonstrate a promising approach to design phytases in food research, and we hope that the KeySIDE might become an attractive approach for understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  13. Chromatic-dispersion measurement by modulation phase-shift method using a Kerr phase-interrogator.

    PubMed

    Baker, Chams; Lu, Yang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-09-22

    We present a novel approach for the measurement of chromatic-dispersion in long optical fibers using a modulation phase-shift method based on a Kerr phase-interrogator. This approach utilizes a Kerr phase-interrogator to measure the phase variation of a sinusoidal optical signal induced by traveling in a fiber under test as the laser carrier wavelength and the sinusoidal signal frequency are varied. Chromatic-dispersion measurement for several fibers including a standard single-mode silica fiber and a dispersion-shifted fiber is experimentally demonstrated. The ultrafast response of the Kerr phase-interrogator opens the way for real-time monitoring of chromatic-dispersion in kilometers-long optical fibers.

  14. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation.

  15. The relationship between criminal conviction and interrogative suggestibility among delinquent boys.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H; Singh, K K

    1984-03-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS), and number of previous convictions among 35 delinquent boys. The GSS measures two independent aspects of suggestibility. First, the extent to which subjects give in to suggestive questions. Second, the extent to which subjects give in to interpersonal pressure given in the form of critical feedback about test performance. The number of convictions were found to correlate negatively with the latter aspect of interrogative suggestibility, but not significantly with the former.

  16. Training and generalization of agrammatic aphasic adults' wh-interrogative productions.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, J L; Thompson, C K

    1989-11-01

    The stimulus and response generalization effects of training wh-interrogative production were examined in 4 agrammatic Broca's aphasic subjects using a multiple baseline design across behaviors and subjects. Throughout treatment, response generalization to untrained questions and stimulus generalization to several nontraining conditions were assessed. Variable response generalization to untrained exemplars of trained wh-interrogative forms and little generalization to grammatically different wh constructions occurred. Stimulus generalization to only one of three conditions was noted. However, generalization treatment involving sequential modification of training across conditions was found to be effective in facilitating generalization to an additional stimulus condition for 2 of the 4 subjects.

  17. Control over the morphology of AlN during molecular beam epitaxy with the plasma activation of nitrogen on Si (111) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Mizerov, A. M. Kladko, P. N.; Nikitina, E. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2015-02-15

    The results of studies of the growth kinetics of AlN layers during molecular beam epitaxy with the plasma activation of nitrogen using Si (111) substrates are presented. The possibility of the growth of individual AlN/Si (111) nanocolumns using growth conditions with enrichment of the surface with metal near the formation mode of Al drops, at a substrate temperature close to maximal, during molecular beam epitaxy with the plasma activation of nitrogen (T{sub s} ≈ 850°C) is shown. The possibility of growing smooth AlN layers on a nanocolumnar AlN/Si (111) buffer with the use of T{sub s} ≈ 750°C and growth conditions providing enrichment with metal is shown.

  18. Fictitious magnetic-field gradients in optical microtraps as an experimental tool for interrogating and manipulating cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, B.; Meng, Y.; Clausen, C.; Dareau, A.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical microtraps provide a strong spatial confinement for laser-cooled atoms. They can, e.g., be realized with strongly focused trapping light beams or the optical near fields of nanoscale waveguides and photonic nanostructures. Atoms in such traps often experience strongly spatially varying ac Stark shifts which are proportional to the magnetic quantum number of the respective energy level. These inhomogeneous fictitious magnetic fields can cause a displacement of the trapping potential that depends on the Zeeman state. Hitherto, this effect was mainly perceived as detrimental in optical microtraps. However, it also provides a means to probe and to manipulate the motional state of the atoms in the trap by driving transitions between Zeeman states. Furthermore, by applying additional real or fictitious magnetic fields, the state dependence of the trapping potential can be controlled. Here, using laser-cooled atoms that are confined in a nanofiber-based optical dipole trap, we employ this control in order to tune the microwave coupling of motional quantum states. We record corresponding microwave spectra which allow us to infer the trap parameters as well as the temperature of the atoms. Finally, we reduce the mean number of motional quanta in one spatial dimension to =0.3 (1 ) by microwave sideband cooling. Our work shows that the inherent fictitious magnetic fields in optical microtraps expand the experimental toolbox for interrogating and manipulating cold atoms.

  19. Design and initial application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system: Multiprocessing ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    A pipelined, multiprocessor, general-purpose ground support equipment for digital flight systems has been developed and placed in service at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The design is an outgrowth of the earlier aircraft interrogation and display system (AIDS) used in support of several research projects to provide engineering-units display of internal control system parameters during development and qualification testing activities. The new system, incorporating multiple 16-bit processors, is called extended AIDS (XAIDS) and is now supporting the X-29A forward-swept-wing aircraft project. This report describes the design and mechanization of XAIDS and shows the steps whereby a typical user may take advantage of its high throughput and flexible features.

  20. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  1. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children's books. The activity helps students consider how children's books shape future workers' understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  2. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  3. A Syntactic Bias in Scope Ambiguity Resolution in the Processing of English-French Cardinality Interrogatives: Evidence for Informational Encapsulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Outcalt, Samantha D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a reading-time study of scope resolution in the interpretation of ambiguous cardinality interrogatives in English-French and in English and French native sentence processing. Participants were presented with a context, a self-paced segment-by-segment presentation of a cardinality interrogative, and a numerical answer that…

  4. Wh interrogative production in agrammatic aphasia: an experimental analysis of auditory-visual stimulation and direct-production treatment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C K; McReynolds, L V

    1986-06-01

    The effects of auditory-visual stimulation treatment derived from principles associated with a stimulation approach for aphasia treatment and direct-production treatment derived from a behavioral or learning approach were examined in 4 neurologically stable agrammatic aphasic subjects. Subjects were trained to produce selected exemplars of wh interrogative morphemes in complete sentence contexts, while the acquisition, response generalization (both within and across interrogative forms), stimulus generalization (to language samples), and maintenance effects of the two treatments were assessed. An alternating treatments design (ATD) in combination with a multiple-baseline design across behaviors and a multiple-baseline design across subjects was employed. Interrogative constructions were counterbalanced across subjects and treatments, and probes were administered daily to assess treatment effects. Results indicated that direct-production treatment was consistently more effective than auditory-visual stimulation treatment in facilitating acquisition of target responses for all subjects. Response generalization within interrogative forms paralleled acquisition regardless of treatment approach. Stimulus generalization to the elicited language-sample condition was not evident, however, trained responses were maintained subsequent to treatment. These data provided support for using direct-production treatment for interrogative intervention with agrammatic aphasic patients and indicated that training a selected number of exemplars of target interrogatives results in generalization of that question form to novel language responses. However, the lack of generalization across interrogatives indicated that wh interrogatives do not constitute a response class and, thus, pointed out a need for programming generalization to untrained members of that linguistic class and to spontaneous language.

  5. Can You Believe It? 12-Month-Olds Use Word Order to Distinguish between Declaratives and Polar Interrogatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Susan; Mintz, Toben H.

    2015-01-01

    Word order is a core mechanism for conveying syntactic structure, yet interrogatives usually disrupt canonical word orders. For example, in English, polar interrogatives typically invert the subject and auxiliary verb and insert an utterance-initial "do" if no auxiliary is present. These word order patterns result from differences in the…

  6. A New DREADD Facilitates the Multiplexed Chemogenetic Interrogation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, Eyal; Robinson, J. Elliott; Li, Chia; Olsen, Reid H. J.; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Giguere, Patrick M.; Sassano, Flori M.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Zhu, Hu; Urban, Daniel J.; White, Kate L.; Rittiner, Joseph E.; Crowley, Nicole A.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; Mosier, Philip D.; Song, Juan; Kash, Thomas L.; Malanga, C. J.; Krashes, Michael J.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    DREADDs are chemogenetic tools widely used to remotely control cellular signaling, neuronal activity and behavior. Here we used a structure-based approach to develop a new Gi coupled DREADD using the kappa-opioid receptor as template (KORD) that is activated by the pharmacologically inert ligand salvinorin B (SALB). Activation of virally-expressed KORD in several neuronal contexts robustly attenuated neuronal activity and modified behaviors. Additionally, co-expression of the KORD and the Gq coupled M3-DREADD within the same neuronal population facilitated the sequential and bi-directional remote control of behavior. The availability of DREADDs activated by different ligands provides enhanced opportunities for investigating diverse physiological systems using multiplexed chemogenetic actuators. PMID:25937170

  7. Genome-Wide Mapping and Interrogation of the Nmp4 Antianabolic Bone Axis.

    PubMed

    Childress, Paul; Stayrook, Keith R; Alvarez, Marta B; Wang, Zhiping; Shao, Yu; Hernandez-Buquer, Selene; Mack, Justin K; Grese, Zachary R; He, Yongzheng; Horan, Daniel; Pavalko, Fredrick M; Warden, Stuart J; Robling, Alexander G; Yang, Feng-Chun; Allen, Matthew R; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Liu, Yunlong; Bidwell, Joseph P

    2015-09-01

    PTH is an osteoanabolic for treating osteoporosis but its potency wanes. Disabling the transcription factor nuclear matrix protein 4 (Nmp4) in healthy, ovary-intact mice enhances bone response to PTH and bone morphogenetic protein 2 and protects from unloading-induced osteopenia. These Nmp4(-/-) mice exhibit expanded bone marrow populations of osteoprogenitors and supporting CD8(+) T cells. To determine whether the Nmp4(-/-) phenotype persists in an osteoporosis model we compared PTH response in ovariectomized (ovx) wild-type (WT) and Nmp4(-/-) mice. To identify potential Nmp4 target genes, we performed bioinformatic/pathway profiling on Nmp4 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data. Mice (12 w) were ovx or sham operated 4 weeks before the initiation of PTH therapy. Skeletal phenotype analysis included microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, serum profiles, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and the growth/mineralization of cultured WT and Nmp4(-/-) bone marrow mesenchymal stem progenitor cells (MSPCs). ChIP-seq data were derived using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, murine embryonic stem cells, and 2 blood cell lines. Ovx Nmp4(-/-) mice exhibited an improved response to PTH coupled with elevated numbers of osteoprogenitors and CD8(+) T cells, but were not protected from ovx-induced bone loss. Cultured Nmp4(-/-) MSPCs displayed enhanced proliferation and accelerated mineralization. ChIP-seq/gene ontology analyses identified target genes likely under Nmp4 control as enriched for negative regulators of biosynthetic processes. Interrogation of mRNA transcripts in nondifferentiating and osteogenic differentiating WT and Nmp4(-/-) MSPCs was performed on 90 Nmp4 target genes and differentiation markers. These data suggest that Nmp4 suppresses bone anabolism, in part, by regulating IGF-binding protein expression. Changes in Nmp4 status may lead to improvements in osteoprogenitor response to therapeutic cues.

  8. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  9. Interrogating Institutionalized Establishments: Urban-Rural Inequalities in China's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    China's urban-rural disparities are a fundamental source of China's overall educational inequalities. This article addresses the issue with data collected through interviews with members at various Chinese higher education institutions. It interrogates China's current policies together with the socio-political institutional arrangements that…

  10. The L1 vs. L2 Acquisition of English Interrogation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…

  11. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology. A systems viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems.

  12. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  13. CEL_INTERROGATOR: A FREE AND OPEN SOURCE PACKAGE FOR AFFYMETRIX CEL FILE PARSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CEL_Interrogator Package is a suite of programs designed to extract the average probe intensity and other information for each probe sequence from an Affymetrix GeneChip CEL file and unite them with their human-readable Affymetrix consensus sequence names. The resulting text file is suitable for di...

  14. An Evaluation of "Miranda" Rights and Interrogation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salseda, Lindsay M.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Fass, Tracy; Miora, Deborah; Leark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary deficits present in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may lead to increased susceptibility to involvement in the criminal justice system. The same deficits may also cause individuals with ASD to be more vulnerable to interrogation techniques and other aspects of the legal system. Due to the increased level of vulnerability as well as…

  15. Scripting, Ritualising and Performing Leadership: Interrogating Recent Policy Developments in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya; Savage, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue that leadership of schools is a form of performance that has become ritualised and routinised through the official scripting of policy texts that mandate how leadership of schools should occur. Our interrogation of recent policy scripts in Australia reveals that there is limited scope for leadership in schools to occur as…

  16. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Detainee Program ( http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/231001p.pdf ); and DoD Directive 3115.09, DoD Intelligence Interrogations, Detainee Debriefings, and Tactical Questioning http://www.dtic.mil... provided by DoD Instruction 1100.22, Policy and Procedures for Determining Workforce Mix (...

  17. Double Jeopardy in the Interrogation Room for Youths with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. Owen-Kostelnik, N. D. Reppucci, and J. R. Meyer (see record 2006-05893-002) which reviewed the issues surrounding the police interrogation of minors. This commentary expands on the review by addressing the mental health status of youths who come into contact with police. It stems from two immutable facts: (a) The…

  18. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens,…

  19. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  20. Asking for Action or Information? Crosslinguistic Comparison of Interrogative Functions in Early Child Cantonese and Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei; Tse, Shek Kam; Leung, Shing On; Ye, Qianling

    2015-01-01

    Request for information (RfI) is believed to be the universally dominant function of young children's questioning, whereas request for action (RfA) has been reported to be the leading interrogative form used in early child Cantonese. The possibility of crosslinguistic variability prompts further research and comparison with additional languages.…

  1. 3 CFR 13491 - Executive Order 13491 of January 22, 2009. Ensuring Lawful Interrogations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall not be subjected to any interrogation technique or approach, or any treatment related to... techniques, approaches, and treatments described in the Manual shall be implemented strictly in accord with... of State; (v) the Secretary of Homeland Security; (vi) the Director of the Central...

  2. Reading Resistance: The Record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Interrogation by Wartime Japan's "Thought Police"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takao

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's interrogation as a thought criminal following his arrest in July, 1943. By comparing and contrasting his responses and statements against the official government positions, I hope to clarify the nature of his critique of the wartime fascist regime. Makiguchi himself was an educator, and…

  3. Bilateral and Unilateral Requests: The Use of Imperatives and "Mi X"? Interrogatives in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    When making requests, speakers need to select from a range of alternative forms available to them. In a corpus of naturally occurring Italian interaction, the two most common formats chosen are imperatives and interrogative constructions that include a turn-initial dative pronoun "mi" "to/for me", which is referred to as the "Mi X"? format in this…

  4. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  5. The Impact of Caregivers' Interrogative Styles in English and Japanese on Early Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Janice; Quay, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between caregivers' conversational styles in One-Person-One-Language (OPOL) settings and early bilingual development. In particular, it attempts to demonstrate that interrogative styles may have an impact on bilingual children's responsiveness in two language contexts. It is based on longitudinal data of a…

  6. Advice-Implicative Interrogatives: Building "Client-Centered" Support in a Children's Helpline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Carly W.; Potter, Jonathan; Danby, Susan; Emmison, Michael; Hepburn, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Interactional research on advice giving has described advice as normative and asymmetric. In this paper we examine how these dimensions of advice are softened by counselors on a helpline for children and young people through the use of questions. Through what we term "advice-implicative interrogatives," counselors ask clients about the…

  7. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance.

  8. Radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer for wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaao; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Wen, Yongqiang; Rohollahnejad, Jalal

    2016-01-15

    The optical unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) has attracted significant interests for interrogation of FBG sensors owing to its excellent advantages in sensitivity, resolution, and demodulation speed. But this method is still limited to dynamic measurements due to its poor stability and reliability when used for quasi-static detections. Here, we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a radio-frequency unbalanced M-Z interferometer (RF-UMZI) for interrogation of FBG sensors, which, owing to its operation in an incoherent rather than a coherent regime, provides an ideal solution for the existing stability problem of the conventional UMZI, with remarkable features of adjustable resolution and potentially extremely high sensitivity. A dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a small length difference are served as the two unbalanced arms of the RF interferometer. The induced differential chromatic dispersion transfers the wavelength shift of the FBG to the change of the RF phase difference between the two interferometric carriers, which ultimately leads to the variation of the RF signal intensity. An interrogation of a strain-turned FBG was accomplished and a maximum sensitivity of 0.00835  a.u./με was obtained, which can easily be further improved by more than two orders of magnitude through various fiber dispersion components. Finally, the stability of the interrogation was tested.

  9. Formation of the active medium in high-power repetitively pulsed gas lasers pumped by an electron-beam-controlled discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaev, V. D.; Lysenko, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    A high-power repetitively pulsed e-beam-controlled discharge CO2 laser is simulated numerically; the simulation results are compared with experimental data. Optimal sizes and design of electrodes and configuration of the external magnetic field are found, which allow one to introduce no less than 90% electric pump energy into a specified volume of the active medium, including the active volume of a laser with an aperture of 110 × 110 cm. The results obtained can also be used to design other types of highpower gas lasers.

  10. Formation of the active medium in high-power repetitively pulsed gas lasers pumped by an electron-beam-controlled discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaev, V D; Lysenko, S L

    2015-07-31

    A high-power repetitively pulsed e-beam-controlled discharge CO{sub 2} laser is simulated numerically; the simulation results are compared with experimental data. Optimal sizes and design of electrodes and configuration of the external magnetic field are found, which allow one to introduce no less than 90% electric pump energy into a specified volume of the active medium, including the active volume of a laser with an aperture of 110 × 110 cm. The results obtained can also be used to design other types of highpower gas lasers. (lasers)

  11. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  12. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Beam-energy inequality in the beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Siemann, R. )

    1990-03-01

    Conditions for energy transparency,'' unequal-energy beams having the same beam-beam behavior, are derived for round beams from a Hamiltonian model of the beam-beam interaction. These conditions are equal fractional betatron tunes, equal synchrotron tunes, equal beam-beam strength parameters, equal nominal sizes, equal {beta}{sup *}'s and equal bunch lengths. With these conditions the only way to compensate for unequal energies is with the number of particles per bunch.

  14. Stability of cooled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, J.; Carli, C.; Chanel, M.; Madsen, N.; Maury, S.; Möhl, D.; Tranquille, G.

    2000-02-01

    Because of their high density together with extremely small spreads in betatron frequency and momentum, cooled beams are very vulnerable to incoherent and coherent space-charge effects and instabilities. Moreover, the cooling system itself, i.e. the electron beam in the case of e-cooling, presents large linear and non-linear "impedances" to the circulating ion beam, in addition to the usual beam-environment coupling impedances of the storage ring. Beam blow-up and losses, attributed to such effects, have been observed in virtually all the existing electron cooling rings. The adverse effects seem to be more pronounced in those rings, like CELSIUS, that are equipped with a cooler capable of reaching the presently highest energy (100-300 keV electrons corresponding to 180-560 MeV protons). The stability conditions will be revisited with emphasis on the experience gained at LEAR. It will be argued that for all present coolers, three conditions are necessary (although probably not sufficient) for the stability of intense cold beams: (i) operation below transition energy, (ii) active damping to counteract coherent instability, and (iii) careful control of the e-beam neutralisation. An extrapolation to the future "medium energy coolers", planned to work for (anti)protons of several GeV, will also be attempted.

  15. Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-08

    which is described as “the loss of those defenses most recently acquired by civilized man:. . . the capacity to carry out the highest creative ... activities , to meet new, challenging, and complex situations, to deal with trying interpersonal relations, and to cope with repeated frustrations.” These

  16. Displaying Knowledge through Interrogatives in Student-Initiated Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Marit Skarbø

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of student initiatives in whole-class interactions. While prior research on question-answer sequences in classroom interactions has shown students to be rather passive recipients of knowledge, this article focuses on aspects of classroom interaction where students take a more active role. Following a conversation…

  17. Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

  18. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  19. Beam tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.

  20. NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Simulation of Fresnel diffraction of output beams of unstable resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepenin, N. D.; Usanov, Yu Ya

    1987-11-01

    The solution is given of the problem of diffraction of a spherical wave by an aperture in the form of a doubly connected region with a rectangular or circular contour, followed by the propagation of this wave across an optical system characterized by an arbitrary ray matrix. The exact expression is obtained for the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral in terms of Fresnel integrals or Lommel functions of two variables. An investigation is made of the evolution of the effective beam width when its effective length and the shape of the aperture altered. A simple method is proposed for applying this solution in approximate simulation of the distribution of the field in laser output beams generated in unstable optical resonators.

  1. Predicting the Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Years: A Corpus-Based Study of Mandarin-Speaking Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Jing, Mengguo; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of and possible predictors of interrogative forms and functions in early childhood Mandarin. All the interrogatives drawn from the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (168 children 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, and 5;6) were analyzed. The main results indicated that (i) there were significant age effects in interrogative forms and…

  2. A novel approach to prepare optically active ion doped luminescent materials via electron beam evaporation into ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, K.; Lorbeer, C.; Mudring, A. -V.

    2014-11-10

    A novel approach to prepare luminescent materials via electron-beam evaporation into ionic liquids is presented which even allows doping of host lattices with ions that have a strong size mismatch. Thus, to prove this, MgF2 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ were fabricated. The obtained nanoparticles featured an unusually high luminescence lifetime and the obtained material showed a high potential for application.

  3. A novel approach to prepare optically active ion doped luminescent materials via electron beam evaporation into ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Richter, K.; Lorbeer, C.; Mudring, A. -V.

    2014-11-10

    A novel approach to prepare luminescent materials via electron-beam evaporation into ionic liquids is presented which even allows doping of host lattices with ions that have a strong size mismatch. Thus, to prove this, MgF2 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ were fabricated. The obtained nanoparticles featured an unusually high luminescence lifetime and the obtained material showed a high potential for application.

  4. Microfocusing of the FERMI@Elettra FEL beam with a K-B active optics system: Spot size predictions by application of the WISE code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, L.; Svetina, C.; Mahne, N.; Cocco, D.; Abrami, A.; De Marco, M.; Fava, C.; Gerusina, S.; Gobessi, R.; Capotondi, F.; Pedersoli, E.; Kiskinova, M.; De Ninno, G.; Zeitoun, P.; Dovillaire, G.; Lambert, G.; Boutu, W.; Merdji, H.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Gauthier, D.; Zangrando, M.

    2013-05-01

    FERMI@Elettra, the first seeded EUV-SXR free electron laser (FEL) facility located at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste has been conceived to provide very short (10-100 fs) pulses with ultrahigh peak brightness and wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm. A section fully dedicated to the photon transport and analysis diagnostics, named PADReS, has already been installed and commissioned. Three of the beamlines, EIS-TIMEX, DiProI and LDM, installed after the PADReS section, are in advanced commissioning state and will accept the first users in December 2012. These beam lines employ active X-ray optics in order to focus the FEL beam as well as to perform a controlled beam-shaping at focus. Starting from mirror surface metrology characterization, it is difficult to predict the focal spot shape applying only methods based on geometrical optics such as the ray tracing. Within the geometrical optics approach one cannot take into account the diffraction effect from the optics edges, i.e. the aperture diffraction, and the impact of different surface spatial wavelengths to the spot size degradation. Both these effects are strongly dependent on the photon beam energy and mirror incident angles. We employed a method based on physical optics, which applies the Huygens-Fresnel principle to reflection (on which the WISE code is based). In this work we report the results of the first measurements of the focal spot in the DiProI beamline end-station and compare them to the predictions computed with Shadow code and WISE code, starting from the mirror surface profile characterization.

  5. Chemical interrogation of malarial host and parasite kinomes

    PubMed Central

    Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Magalhães, Andreia D.; Kato, Nobutaka; Sanschagrin, Paul C.; Wang, Jinhua; Zhou, Wenjun; Miduturu, Chandrasekhar V.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Sliz, Piotr; Mota, Maria M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, an infectious disease caused by eukaryotic parasites from the genus Plasmodium, afflicts hundreds of millions of people every year. Both the parasite and its host utilize protein kinases to regulate essential cellular processes. Bioinformatic analyses of parasite genomes predict at least 65 protein kinases, but their biological functions and therapeutic potential are largely unknown. We profiled 1,358 small molecule kinase inhibitors to evaluate the role of both the human and malaria kinomes in Plasmodium infection of liver cells, the parasites’ obligatory but transient developmental stage that precedes the symptomatic blood stage. The screen identified several small molecules that inhibit parasite load in liver cells, some with nanomolar efficacy, and each compound was subsequently assessed for activity against blood stage malaria. Most of the screening hits inhibited both liver and blood stage malaria parasites, which have dissimilar gene expression profiles and infect different host cells. Evaluation of existing kinase activity profiling data for the library members suggests several kinases are essential to malaria parasites, including cyclin-dependent kinases, glycogen synthase kinases, and phosphoinositide-3-kinases. CDK inhibitors were found to bind to Plasmodium protein kinase 5, but it is likely that these compounds target multiple parasite kinases. The dual stage inhibition of the identified kinase inhibitors makes them useful chemical probes and promising starting points for antimalarial development. PMID:25111632

  6. Foldable beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Coyner, J. V.; Crawford, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A foldable beam possessing superior qualities of light weight, compactness for transportation, quick deployment with minimum use of force, and high strength is described. These qualities are achieved through the use of a series of longitudinally rigid segments, hinged along one side and threaded by one or two cables along the opposite side. Tightening the cables holds the beam extended. Loosening the cables permits the segments to fold away from the threaded side. In one embodiment the segments are connected by canted hinges with the result that the beam may be folded in a helix-like configuration around a cylinder. In another embodiment the segments themselves may be hinged to fold flat laterally as the beam is folded, resulting in a configuration that may be helixed around a shorter cylinder.

  7. Production of medical radioisotopes with high specific activity in photonuclear reactions with γ-beams of high intensity and large brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Köster, U.

    2011-05-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in ( γ, xn+ yp) photonuclear reactions or ( γ, γ') photoexcitation reactions with high-flux [(1013-1015) γ/s], small diameter ˜(100 μm)2 and small bandwidth (Δ E/ E≈10-3-10-4) γ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion, xn+ yp) reactions with (ion = p,d, α) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n, γ) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow γ-beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). However, for ions with a strong atomic stopping only a fraction of less than 10-2 leads to nuclear reactions resulting in a target heating, which is at least 105 times larger per produced radioactive ion and often limits the achievable activity. In photonuclear reactions the well defined initial excitation energy of the compound nucleus leads to a small number of reaction channels and enables new combinations of target isotope and final radioisotope. The narrow bandwidth γ excitation may make use of the fine structure of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) or fluctuations in γ-width leading to increased cross sections. Within a rather short period compared to the isotopic half-life, a target area of the order of (100 μm)2 can be highly transmuted, resulting in a very high specific activity. ( γ, γ') isomer production via specially selected γ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with γ-beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. 47Sc, 44Ti, 67Cu, 103Pd, 117 m Sn, 169Er, 195 m Pt or 225Ac, with higher specific activity

  8. Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, V.

    1990-10-22

    In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Luminescence study of Dy or Ce activated LiCaBO3 phosphor for γ-ray and C5+ ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Oza, Abha H; Dhoble, N S; Lochab, S P; Dhoble, S J

    2015-11-01

    The photoluminescence and thermoluminescence characteristics of rare earths (Dy or Ce) activated LiCaBO3 phosphors have been studied. Phosphors were synthesized by modified solid state synthesis. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) for structural, morphological and luminescence studies. Dy(3+) activated LiCaBO3 shows emission at 486 and 577 nm due to (4) F9/2 →(6) H15/2 and (4) F9/2 → (6) H13/2 transition, respectively, whereas the PL emission spectra of Ce(3+) activated LiCaBO3 phosphor shows a broad band peaking at 432 nm, which is due to the transition from 5d level to the ground state of the Ce(3+) ion. The thermoluminescence study was also carried out for both these phosphors for γ-ray irradiation and carbon beam irradiation. Linearity was studied for a 0.4-3.1 Rad dose γ-rays. Linear behaviour over this dose range was observed. Gamma ray-irradiated phosphors were shown to be negligible fading upon storage. All the samples were also studied for 75 MeV C(5+) ion beam exposure in the range of 3.75 × 10(12) - 7.5 × 10(13) ion cm(-2) fluence. In addition to this, trapping parameters of all the samples were also calculated using Chen's peak shape method.

  10. Development of activity pencil beam algorithm using measured distribution data of positron emitter nuclei generated by proton irradiation of targets containing {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, and {sup 40}Ca nuclei in preparation of clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Aya; Nishio, Teiji; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a new calculation algorithm that is satisfactory in terms of the requirements for both accuracy and calculation time for a simulation of imaging of the proton-irradiated volume in a patient body in clinical proton therapy. Methods: The activity pencil beam algorithm (APB algorithm), which is a new technique to apply the pencil beam algorithm generally used for proton dose calculations in proton therapy to the calculation of activity distributions, was developed as a calculation algorithm of the activity distributions formed by positron emitter nuclei generated from target nuclear fragment reactions. In the APB algorithm, activity distributions are calculated using an activity pencil beam kernel. In addition, the activity pencil beam kernel is constructed using measured activity distributions in the depth direction and calculations in the lateral direction. {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, and {sup 40}Ca nuclei were determined as the major target nuclei that constitute a human body that are of relevance for calculation of activity distributions. In this study, ''virtual positron emitter nuclei'' was defined as the integral yield of various positron emitter nuclei generated from each target nucleus by target nuclear fragment reactions with irradiated proton beam. Compounds, namely, polyethylene, water (including some gelatin) and calcium oxide, which contain plenty of the target nuclei, were irradiated using a proton beam. In addition, depth activity distributions of virtual positron emitter nuclei generated in each compound from target nuclear fragment reactions were measured using a beam ON-LINE PET system mounted a rotating gantry port (BOLPs-RGp). The measured activity distributions depend on depth or, in other words, energy. The irradiated proton beam energies were 138, 179, and 223 MeV, and measurement time was about 5 h until the measured activity reached the background level. Furthermore, the activity pencil beam data

  11. Guidelines for calculating and enhancing detection efficiency of PIT tag interrogation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and reliance on stationary PIT tag interrogation systems to monitor fish populations, guidelines are offered to inform users how best to use limited funding and human resources to create functional systems that maximize a desired level of detection and precision. The estimators of detection efficiency and their variability as described by Connolly et al. (2008) are explored over a span of likely performance metrics. These estimators were developed to estimate detection efficiency without relying on a known number of fish passing the system. I present graphical displays of the results derived from these estimators to show the potential efficiency and precision to be gained by adding an array or by increasing the number of PIT-tagged fish expected to move past an interrogation system.

  12. Realization of nano static strain sensing with fiber Bragg gratings interrogated by narrow linewidth tunable lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingwen; Tokunaga, Tomochika; He, Zuyuan

    2011-10-10

    Aiming at realizing a static strain sensor of nano-strain resolution, which is required in most geophysical applications, this paper presents a thorough analysis on the strain resolution of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) static strain sensor interrogated with a narrow linewidth tunable laser. The main noise sources of the sensor are discussed, and the strain resolution is deduced with a cross-correlation algorithm. The theoretical prediction agrees well with our experimental result, and the analysis is further validated by numerical simulations. Based on the analysis, the paper provides the guidelines for optimizing this type of sensor to realize ultra-high resolution. It is shown that with properly designed FBGs and interrogation systems, nano static strain resolution can be realized, as we recently demonstrated in experiment.

  13. Fast and reliable interrogation of USFBG sensors based on MG-Y laser discrete wavelength channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohollahnejad, Jalal; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Ran, Yanli; Su, Lei

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we propose to use discrete wavelength channels of a single chip MG-Y laser to interrogate an ultra-short fiber Bragg grating with a wide Gaussian spectrum. The broadband Gaussian spectrum of USFBG is sampled by the wavelength channels of MG-Y laser, through which the center of the spectrum. The measurement inherits the important features of a common tunable laser interrogation technique, namely its high flexibility, natural insensitivity to intensity variations relative to common intensity-based approaches. While for traditional tunable laser methods, it requires to sweep the whole spectrum to obtain the center wavelength of the spectrum, for the proposed scheme, just a few discrete wavelength channels of laser are needed to be acquired, which leads to significant improvements of the efficiency and measurement speed. This reliable and low cost concept could offer the good foundation for USFBGs future applications in large scale distributed measurements, especially in time domain multiplexing scheme.

  14. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  16. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Kilin, S. Ya.; Sakoda, K.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  17. A knowledge based application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Larson, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    A family of multiple-processor ground support test equipment was used to test digital flight-control systems on high-performance research aircraft. A unit recently built for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle project is the latest model in a series called the extended aircraft interrogation and display system. The primary feature emphasized monitors the aircraft MIL-STD-1553B data buses and provides real-time engineering units displays of flight-control parameters. A customized software package was developed to provide real-time data interpretation based on rules embodied in a highly structured knowledge database. The configuration of this extended aircraft interrogation and display system is briefly described, and the evolution of the rule based package and its application to failure modes and effects testing on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle is discussed.

  18. A BOTDA with break interrogation function over 72 km sensing length.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Zhang, Xuping; Yao, Yuguo; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-01-14

    A BOTDA with the capacity of break interrogation is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our configuration, coherent detection and double sideband probe method are employed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to effectively reduce nonlocal effects, respectively. Without amplification, a 72 km sensing range with 5-meter resolution and an estimated temperature uncertainty of 1.8 °C are obtained. Benefiting from the flexible optical configuration, this sensor system has the capacity of break interrogation as a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (COTDR) if there is a break in the fiber under test (FUT). The sensor achieves a dynamic range of 36 dB with a 100 m spatial resolution, which offers an excellent solution for the requisite of two-end-access in BOTDA, and significantly enhances the robustness of the sensing system.

  19. Examining the role of interrogative suggestibility in Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Douglas, Kevin S

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to further clarify the association between interrogative suggestibility and Miranda rights comprehension in adolescents; in particular, we examined whether intellectual ability (IQ) serves as a mediator of this relationship. Participants completed Grisso's Miranda Instruments, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale. Many youth demonstrated poor comprehension of their rights, particularly younger and less intellectually capable adolescents. Both yield and shift components of interrogative suggestibility were inversely related to rights comprehension; however, IQ fully mediated these relationships. Neither demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status after controlling for IQ, and English as a second language (ESL) status) nor previous police experience were significantly associated with rights comprehension in the present sample. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Factors influencing the interrogative strategies of mentally retarded and nonretarded students.

    PubMed

    Borys, S V

    1979-11-01

    The interrogative strategies of institutionalized mentally retarded young adults and nonretarded first and fourth graders were investigated using a 20-questions type task. Subjects were presented with 8- and 16-cell matrices consisting of geometric forms, and the items that were eliminated by their questions were either covered or left uncovered or left uncovered. A variety of dependent measures was obtained, including information efficiency and proportion of redundant and constraint-seeking questions. In contrast to findings in previous research, results showed that reducing array size and covering eliminated items significantly improved various aspects of children's interrogative strategies, lending support to the idea that reducing cognitive strain can enhance information-processing ability. Despite task simplification, the performance of the fourth graders exceeded that of the first graders on most measures, and the performance of the retarded young adults was comparable to, or poorer than, that of the first graders, who were of appreciably lower MA.

  1. The Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Sintonen, Matti

    The purpose of the study was to examine how the Interrogative Modelof Inquiry (I-Model), developed by Jaakko Hintikka and Matti Sintonenfor the purposes of epistemology and philosophy of science, could be applied to analyze elementary schoolstudents'' process of inquiry in computer-supported learning. We review the basic assumptions of I-Model,report results of empirical investigation of the model in the context of computer-supportedcollaborative learning, and discuss pedagogical implications of the model. The results of the studyfurnished evidence that elementary school students were able to transform initially vagueexplanation-seeking question to a series of more specific subordinate questions while pursuing theirknowledge-seeking inquiry. The evidence presented indicates that, in an appropriate environment, it is entirelypossible for young students, with computer-supportfor collaborative learning, to engage in sophisticatedknowledge seeking analogous to scientific inquiry. We argue that the interrogative approach to inquiry canproductively be applied for conceptualizing inquiry in the context of computer-supported learning.

  2. Interrogative pressure in simulated forensic interviews: the effects of negative feedback.

    PubMed

    McGroarty, Allan; Baxter, James S

    2007-08-01

    Much experimental research on interrogative pressure has concentrated on the effects of leading questions, and the role of feedback in influencing responses in the absence of leading questions has been neglected by comparison. This study assessed the effect of negative feedback and the presence of a second interviewer on interviewee responding in simulated forensic interviews. Participants viewed a videotape of a crime, answered questions about the clip and were requestioned after receiving feedback. Compared with neutral feedback, negative feedback resulted in more response changes, higher reported state anxiety and higher ratings of interview difficulty. These results are consistent with Gudjonsson and Clark's (1986) model of interrogative suggestibility. The presence and involvement of a second interviewer did not significantly affect interviewee responding, although trait anxiety scores were elevated when a second interviewer was present. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are considered.

  3. Sharpening Precision Medicine by a Thorough Interrogation of Metabolic Individuality.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kirk; Kennedy, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an active component of medical practice today, but aspirations are to both broaden its reach to a greater diversity of individuals and improve its "precision" by enhancing the ability to define even more disease states in combination with associated treatments. Given complexity of human phenotypes, much work is required. In this review, we deconstruct this challenge at a high level to define what is needed to move closer toward these aspirations. In the context of the variables that influence the diverse array of phenotypes across human health and disease - genetics, epigenetics, environmental influences, and the microbiome - we detail the factors behind why an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is increasingly regarded as a key element to precisely defining phenotypes. Although an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is generally regarded, and frequently shown, to be a surrogate to the phenotypic state, we review how metabolites (and therefore an individual's metabolic profile) are also functionally related to the myriad of phenotypic influencers like genetics and the microbiota. We describe how using the technology to comprehensively measure an individual's biochemical profile - metabolomics - is integrative to defining individual phenotypes and how it is currently being deployed in efforts to continue to elaborate on human health and disease in large population studies. Finally, we summarize instances where metabolomics is being used to assess individual health in instances where signatures (i.e. biomarkers) have been defined.

  4. Interrogative kinetics: A new methodology for catalyst characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhtman, Sergiy Oskavovich

    A general theory for transient kinetic TAP (Temporal Analysis of Products) studies of multicomponent solid catalytic material is developed. The theory describes one-pulse and multi-pulse TAP experiments. The mathematical formalism is based on moments, integral characteristics of the experimentally measured exit flow (moment-based approach). The theory of one-pulse experiments includes: (a) a method to explicitly separate diffusional transport and reaction; (b) a method to identify the primary kinetic characteristics (basic kinetic coefficients) that can be independently measured in a TAP experiment; (c) a method for relating the primary kinetic characteristics to the detailed reaction mechanisms. The theory of multi-pulse experiments includes: (a) a method for creating and kinetically characterizing different uniform catalyst states using TAP multi-pulse experiments; (b) a method for extracting the catalyst state characteristics from the data obtained in a multi-pulse experiment (particularly the number of "working" active sites). A new thin-zone reactor that guarantees the catalyst uniformity was proposed for TAP studies and the corresponding theoretical approach was developed. The theory is applied to TAP studies of porous diffusion in zeolitic materials and selective hydrocarbon oxidation over VPO catalysts.

  5. The Requirement for U.S. Army Special Forces to Conduct Interrogation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    development of successful American, British, and German interrogation programs during World War II that demonstrated the potential treasure trove of...a professional ethics program that would equip soldiers with a sharp moral compass for guidance in situations often riven with conflicting moral... program that placed a large emphasis on Japanese culture and psychology, language expertise, and the humane treatment of Japanese POWs.47 The

  6. RF-Interrogated End-State Chip-Scale Atomic Clock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    measured end-state resonance signal obtained from a 2 mm, 0.7 atm cesium vapor cell, without Zeeman interrogation. 57% Contrast 9.19165 GHz VCO CW ...feedback from the cesium optical absorption profile was fed back to the VCSEL temperature control to stabilize the laser wavelength. In this way, the...temperature. Feedback control was used to stabilize the VCSEL laser wavelength to the cesium optical absorption peak, clock local oscillator stabilized

  7. Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System and Method with Fiber String Multiplexing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-28

    operation. 12 In Fig. 1, ELED 10 transmits light into the optical fiber 16 13 which contains a plurality of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) 20. 14 The FBGs...RESEARCH DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CODE OOCC3 ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 19970523 097 WJ& Lma mszEGZED * Serial No.: PATENT APPLICATION Inventors: Alan D...Kersey et al. Navy Case No. 77809 1 FIBER BRAGG GRATING INTERROGATION SYSTEM 2 AND METHOD WITH FIBER STRING MULTIPLEXING 3 SPECIFICATION 4 1

  8. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell’s environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell’s internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a “correct” model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology. PMID:27367445

  9. Voyage to the Dark Side: The Tortured Path of United States’ Detainee Interrogation Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-13

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT VOYAGE TO THE DARK SIDE : THE TORTURED PATH OF UNITED STATES’ DETAINEE INTERROGATION POLICY...2007 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research Project 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Voyage to the Dark Side The...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Jon L. Lightner TITLE: Voyage to the Dark Side : The Tortured

  10. Interrogation of fiber gratings by use of low-coherence spectral interferometry of noiselike pulses.

    PubMed

    Keren, S; Horowitz, M

    2001-03-15

    We demonstrate an innovative method for a real-time interrogation of fiber Bragg gratings based on low-coherence spectral interferometry of noiselike pulses. By analyzing the spectral interference at the output of a Michelson interferometer we obtained the impulse response of the grating with a time resolution of ~350 fs . Using the Gabor transformation, we could directly detect nonuniform regions inside the grating and could measure the spatial dependence of the resonance wavelength along the grating.

  11. Study of LPG-assisted fibre modal Michelson interferometers with coherence addressing and heterodyne interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldas, P.; Araújo, F.; Ferreira, L. A.; Rego, G.; Marques, M. B.; Santos, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the LPG-assisted fibre Michelson modal interferometer is studied as a sensing structure for environmental refractive index, temperature and liquid level when coherence addressing and heterodyne interrogation are considered. The effects on measurand sensitivity of the order of the cladding mode excited by the LPG, of the degree of etching of the sensing fibre and of the fibre type used are investigated.

  12. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  13. Making Bunyaviruses Talk: Interrogation Tactics to Identify Host Factors Required for Infection

    PubMed Central

    Riblett, Amber M.; Doms, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of host cellular genes that act as either proviral or antiviral factors has been aided by the development of an increasingly large number of high-throughput screening approaches. Here, we review recent advances in which these new technologies have been used to interrogate host genes for the ability to impact bunyavirus infection, both in terms of technical advances as well as a summary of biological insights gained from these studies. PMID:27187446

  14. Interrogative suggestibility among adolescent boys and its relationship with intelligence, memory, and cognitive set.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Gudjonsson, G H

    1992-06-01

    This study investigates some of the hypotheses generated by the Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. The subjects were 40 adolescent boys (11-16 years), who completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and instruments measuring intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes towards persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with I.Q. and memory capacity, and positively with field-dependence.

  15. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  16. TDM interrogation of intensity-modulated USFBGs network based on multichannel lasers.

    PubMed

    Rohollahnejad, Jalal; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Ran, Yanli; Rahubadde, Udaya; Zhou, Jiaao; Zhu, Lin

    2017-01-23

    We report a large-scale multi-channel fiber sensing network, where ultra-short FBGs (USFBGs) instead of conventional narrow-band ultra-weak FBGs are used as the sensors. In the time division multiplexing scheme of the network, each grating response is resolved as three adjacent discrete peaks. The central wavelengths of USFBGs are tracked with the differential detection, which is achieved by calculating the peak-to-peak ratio of two maximum peaks. Compared with previous large-scale hybrid multiplexing sensing networks (e.g., WDM/TDM) which typically have relatively low interrogation speed and very high complexity, the proposed system can achieve interrogation of all channel sensors through very fast and simple intensity measurements with a broad dynamic range. A proof-of-concept experiment with twenty USFBGs, at two wavelength channels, was performed and a fast static strain measurements were demonstrated, with a high average sensitivity of ~0.54dB/µƐ and wide dynamic range of over ~3000µƐ. The channel to channel switching time was 10ms and total network interrogation time was 50ms.

  17. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  18. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band—selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media—based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  19. Accurate wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Michelson interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornall, William; Amarel, Tony R.

    2004-03-01

    Fiber-optic techniques for remote sensing are now being accepted and developed for a wide range of applications. Traditional sensor technology relies on electrical components to provide the measurement of changing environmental conditions. However, when operating in remote and harsh environments, electrical sensors have a variety of limitations such as power requirements and short lifetime. In contrast, fiber-optic sensors are passive devices that are environmentally stable and have a long lifetime. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a particular type of fiber-optic sensor that can be adapted to measure parameters such as temperature, pressure or strain. The measurement is encoded with the wave-length of the optical signal reflected from the FBG. Consequently, the method of measuring the absolute optical wavelength is a critical component of the fiber-optic sensing system. To reliably detect very small changes in the environment at the sensor, the interrogation system must provide accurate and repeatable wavelength measurements. The interrogator also must be robust so that it can be deployed in the field as well as in the laboratory. Performance of a fiber Bragg grating interrogator based on Michelson interferometry is discussed along with the advantages of this technique.

  20. Design, integration, and testing of a compact FBG interrogator, based on an AWG spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trita, Andrea; Vickers, Garrie; Mayordomo, Iker; van Thourhout, Dries; Vermeiren, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating or FBG sensors are gaining more and more interest in structural health monitoring of composite materials. Often, the weakest point in such a system is the ingress point of the fiber sensing chain into the composite material. For this reason we have developed a strongly miniaturized FBG interrogator unit with wireless power and data transmission, which can be incorporated in the composite structure. The interrogator is based on an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) filter fabricated in a SOI technology, which is tailored in such a way to give large cross-talk between neighboring channels. The AWG signals are read by a linear 128 pixel InGaAs array flip-chipped on top of the Photonic Circuit (PIC). The spectrometer unit is completed with a ROIC mounted on the same substrate. The SLED and remaining electronics are integrated on a small and thin substrate and surrounded by the wireless antenna. The interrogator has an overall dimension of 100 mm diameter by max 7 mm height. The power dissipation of the electronics unit is limited to 1.5 W. The unit is capable of measuring strain values as low as 5 micro-strain.

  1. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs.

    PubMed

    Posada-Roman, Julio E; Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Poiana, Dragos A; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-11-26

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  2. [Research on symmetrical optical waveguide based surface plasmon resonance sensing with spectral interrogation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-long; Liu, Le; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Peng-fei; Guo, Ji-hua; Ma, Hui; He, Yong-hong

    2015-02-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors with spectral interrogation can adopt fiber to transmit light signals, thus leaving the sensing part separated, which is very convenient for miniaturization, remote-sensing and on-site analysis. Symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW) SPR has the same refractive index of the-two buffer media layers adjacent to the metal film, resulting in longer propagation distance, deeper penetration depth and better performance compared to conventional SPR In the present paper, we developed a symmetrical optical, waveguide (SOW) SPR sensor with wavelength interrogation. In the system, MgF2-Au-MgF2 film was used as SOW module for glucose sensing, and a fiber based light source and detection was used in the spectral interrogation. In the experiment, a refractive index resolution of 2.8 x 10(-7) RIU in fluid protocol was acquired. This technique provides advantages of high resolution and could have potential use in compact design, on-site analysis and remote sensing.

  3. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  4. Effects of beam irregularity on uniform scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Jang, Sea duk; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2016-09-01

    An active scanning beam delivery method has many advantages in particle beam applications. For the beam is to be successfully delivered to the target volume by using the active scanning technique, the dose uniformity must be considered and should be at least 2.5% in the case of therapy application. During beam irradiation, many beam parameters affect the 2-dimensional uniformity at the target layer. A basic assumption in the beam irradiation planning stage is that the shape of the beam is symmetric and follows a Gaussian distribution. In this study, a pure Gaussian-shaped beam distribution was distorted by adding parasitic Gaussian distribution. An appropriate uniform scanning condition was deduced by using a quantitative analysis based on the gamma value of the distorted beam and 2-dimensional uniformities.

  5. Energy release, beam attenuation radiation damage, gas production and accumulation of long-lived activity in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.

    1996-06-01

    The calculation and analysis of the nuclei concentrations and long-lived residual radioactivity accumulated in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets irradiated by 800 MeV, 30 mA proton beam have been performed. The dominating components to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission and spallation reactions and radiative capture by both target nuclei and accumulated radioactive nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were analyzed. The estimations of spectral component contributions of neutron and proton fluxes to the accumulated activity were carried out. The contributions of fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The accumulation of Po isotopes due to reactions induced by secondary alpha-particles were found to be important for the Pb target as compared with two-step radiative capture. The production of Tritium in the targets and its contribution to the total targets activity was considered in detail. It is found that total activities of both targets are close to one another.

  6. Edible flowers of Viola tricolor L. as a new functional food: antioxidant activity, individual phenolics and effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koike, Amanda; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Villavicencio, Anna L C H; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-15

    Edible flowers are used in food preparations, being also recognized for their beneficial effects on human health. Nevertheless, these species are highly perishable, and irradiation treatment might be applied to ensure food quality and increase their shelf life. Viola tricolor L. is a typical edible flower, with multiple applications and biological properties, mainly provided by the flavonoid content. In the present work, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using biochemical assays. Linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed in order to compare the results obtained with flowers submitted to different irradiation doses and technologies (cobalt-60 and electron-beam). In general, irradiated samples (mostly with 1 kGy) showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the significant differences observed in the LDA allow determination of which dose and/or technology is suitable to obtain flowers with higher antioxidant potential.

  7. A new experiment to investigate the origin of optical activity using a low energy positron beam of controlled helicity. [molecular biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Previous experiments undertaken in search of a correlation between the origin of optical activity in biological molecules and the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay have not provided any useful results. A description is presented of an experiment in which a low energy polarized positron beam of controlled helicity interacts with an optically active material to form positronium in vacuum. Advantages of the current study compared to the previous experiments are mainly related to a much greater sensitivity. Initially, it will be possible to detect a helicity-dependent asymmetry in triplet positronium formation of 1 part in 10,000. Improvements to better than 1 part in 100,000 should be attainable.

  8. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  9. Beam dynamics group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  10. Coherent beam-beam interaction with four colliding beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, B.; Siemann, R. H.

    1995-09-01

    The coherent beam-beam interaction in the absence of Landau damping is studied with a computer simulation of four space-charge-compensated colliding beams. Results are presented for the modes, phase space structures, widths, and growth rates of coherent beam-beam resonances. These results are compared with solutions of the Vlasov equation, and with measurements made at the Dispositif de Collisions dans l'Igloo (DCI) storage ring in Orsay, France, which operated with space-charge-compensated colliding beams.

  11. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Loui, Hung; Brock, Billy C.

    2016-10-25

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RF signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.

  12. In-beam quality assurance using induced β+ activity in hadrontherapy: a preliminary physical requirements study using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestand, L.; Montarou, G.; Force, P.; Pauna, N.

    2012-10-01

    Light and heavy ions particle therapy, mainly by means of protons and carbon ions, represents an advantageous treatment modality for deep-seated and/or radioresistant tumours. An in-beam quality assurance principle is based on the detection of secondary particles induced by nuclear fragmentations between projectile and target nuclei. Three different strategies are currently under investigation: prompt γ rays imaging, proton interaction vertex imaging and in-beam positron emission tomography. Geant4 simulations have been performed first in order to assess the accuracy of some hadronic models to reproduce experimental data. Two different kinds of data have been considered: β+-emitting isotopes and prompt γ-ray production rates. On the one hand simulations reproduce experimental β+ emitting isotopes production rates to an accuracy of 24%. Moreover simulated β+ emitting nuclei production rate as a function of depth reproduce well the peak-to-plateau ratio of experimental data. On the other hand by tuning the tolerance factor of the photon evaporation model available in Geant4, we reduce significantly prompt γ-ray production rates until a very good agreement is reached with experimental data. Then we have estimated the total amount of induced annihilation photons and prompt γ rays for a simple treatment plan of ∼1 physical Gy in a homogenous equivalent soft tissue tumour (6 cm depth, 4 cm radius and 2 cm wide). The average annihilation photons emitted during a 45 s irradiation in a 4 π solid angle are ∼2 × 106 annihilation photon pairs and 108 single prompt γ whose energy ranges from a few keV to 10 MeV.

  13. In-beam quality assurance using induced β(+) activity in hadrontherapy: a preliminary physical requirements study using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Lestand, L; Montarou, G; Force, P; Pauna, N

    2012-10-21

    Light and heavy ions particle therapy, mainly by means of protons and carbon ions, represents an advantageous treatment modality for deep-seated and/or radioresistant tumours. An in-beam quality assurance principle is based on the detection of secondary particles induced by nuclear fragmentations between projectile and target nuclei. Three different strategies are currently under investigation: prompt γ rays imaging, proton interaction vertex imaging and in-beam positron emission tomography. Geant4 simulations have been performed first in order to assess the accuracy of some hadronic models to reproduce experimental data. Two different kinds of data have been considered: β(+)-emitting isotopes and prompt γ-ray production rates. On the one hand simulations reproduce experimental β(+) emitting isotopes production rates to an accuracy of 24%. Moreover simulated β(+) emitting nuclei production rate as a function of depth reproduce well the peak-to-plateau ratio of experimental data. On the other hand by tuning the tolerance factor of the photon evaporation model available in Geant4, we reduce significantly prompt γ-ray production rates until a very good agreement is reached with experimental data. Then we have estimated the total amount of induced annihilation photons and prompt γ rays for a simple treatment plan of ∼1 physical Gy in a homogenous equivalent soft tissue tumour (6 cm depth, 4 cm radius and 2 cm wide). The average annihilation photons emitted during a 45 s irradiation in a 4 π solid angle are ∼2 × 10(6) annihilation photon pairs and 10(8) single prompt γ whose energy ranges from a few keV to 10 MeV.

  14. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  15. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities.

  16. Simulation of 3-D radiation beam patterns propagated through a planar interface from ultrasonic phased array transducers.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan

    2002-05-01

    Phased array transducers are quite often mounted on solid wedges with specific angles in many practical ultrasonic inspections of thin plates <10 mm in their thickness or welded joints with convex crowns. For the reliable application of phased array techniques with testing set-up, it is essential to have thorough understanding on the characteristics of radiation beam pattern produced in the interrogated medium. To address such a need, this paper proposes a systematic way to calculate full 3-D radiation beam patterns produced in the interrogated solid medium by phased array transducers mounted on a solid wedge. In order to investigate the characteristics of radiation beam patterns in steel, simulation is carried out for 7.5 MHz array transducers mounted on an acrylic wedge with the angle of 15.45 degrees with various of steering angles and/or focal planes.

  17. Integration of a model-independent interface for RBE predictions in a treatment planning system for active particle beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Steinsträter, O; Scholz, U; Friedrich, T; Krämer, M; Grün, R; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-07

    Especially for heavier ions such as carbon ions, treatment planning systems (TPSs) for ion radiotherapy depend on models predicting the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the particles involved. Such models are subject to intensive research and the choice of the optimal RBE model is a matter of debate. On the other hand TPSs are often strongly coupled to particular RBE models and transition even to extended models of the same family can be difficult. We present here a model-independent interface which allows the unbiased use of any RBE model capable of providing dose-effect curves (even sampled curves) for a TPS. The full decoupling between the RBE model and TPS is based on the beam-mixing model proposed by Lam which is, in contrast to the often-used Zaider-Rossi model, independent of the explicit form of the underlying dose-effect curves. This approach not only supports the refinement of RBE models without adaptations of the TPS--which we demonstrate by means of the local effect model (LEM)--but also allows the comparison of very different model approaches on a common basis. We exemplify this by a comparison between the LEM and a model from the literature for proton RBE prediction.

  18. Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

    2003-09-11

    The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

  19. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.; Poiana, Dragos A.; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal. PMID:27898043

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  1. ChIP-Chip Designs to Interrogate the Genome of Xenopus Embryos for Transcription Factor Binding and Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Manak, J. Robert; Green, Roland D.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with genome tile path microarrays or deep sequencing can be used to study genome-wide epigenetic profiles and the transcription factor binding repertoire. Although well studied in a variety of cell lines, these genome-wide profiles have so far been little explored in vertebrate embryos. Principal Findings Here we report on two genome tile path ChIP-chip designs for interrogating the Xenopus tropicalis genome. In particular, a whole-genome microarray design was used to identify active promoters by close proximity to histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. A second microarray design features these experimentally derived promoter regions in addition to currently annotated 5′ ends of genes. These regions truly represent promoters as shown by binding of TBP, a key transcription initiation factor. Conclusions A whole-genome and a promoter tile path microarray design was developed. Both designs can be used to study epigenetic phenomena and transcription factor binding in developing Xenopus embryos. PMID:20098671

  2. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Colleen J.; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies. PMID:26804977

  3. A novel microfluidic mixer based on dual-hydrodynamic focusing for interrogating the kinetics of DNA-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Xu, Fei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Youzhi; Feng, Xiaojun; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2013-08-21

    Kinetic measurement of biomacromolecular interaction plays a significant role in revealing the underlying mechanisms of cellular activities. Due to the small diffusion coefficient of biomacromolecules, it is difficult to resolve the rapid kinetic process with traditional analytical methods such as stopped-flow or laminar mixers. Here, we demonstrated a unique continuous-flow laminar mixer based on microfluidic dual-hydrodynamic focusing to characterize the kinetics of DNA-protein interactions. The time window of this mixer for kinetics observation could cover from sub-milliseconds to seconds, which made it possible to capture the folding process with a wide dynamic range. Moreover, the sample consumption was remarkably reduced to <0.55 μL min⁻¹, over 1000-fold saving in comparison to those reported previously. We further interrogated the interaction kinetics of G-quadruplex and the single-stranded DNA binding protein, indicating that this novel micromixer would be a useful approach for analyzing the interaction kinetics of biomacromolecules.

  4. Semantic interrogation of a multi knowledge domain ontological model of tendinopathy identifies four strong candidate risk genes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Colleen J; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Mahjoubeh; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2016-01-25

    Tendinopathy is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by tendon pain and thickening, and impaired performance during activity. Candidate gene association studies have identified genetic factors that contribute to intrinsic risk of developing tendinopathy upon exposure to extrinsic factors. Bioinformatics approaches that data-mine existing knowledge for biological relationships may assist with the identification of candidate genes. The aim of this study was to data-mine functional annotation of human genes and identify candidate genes by ontology-seeded queries capturing the features of tendinopathy. Our BioOntological Relationship Graph database (BORG) integrates multiple sources of genomic and biomedical knowledge into an on-disk semantic network where human genes and their orthologs in mouse and rat are central concepts mapped to ontology terms. The BORG was used to screen all human genes for potential links to tendinopathy. Following further prioritisation, four strong candidate genes (COL11A2, ELN, ITGB3, LOX) were identified. These genes are differentially expressed in tendinopathy, functionally linked to features of tendinopathy and previously implicated in other connective tissue diseases. In conclusion, cross-domain semantic integration of multiple sources of biomedical knowledge, and interrogation of phenotypes and gene functions associated with disease, may significantly increase the probability of identifying strong and unobvious candidate genes in genetic association studies.

  5. Coherent beam-beam effects, theory & observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri I Alexahin

    2003-07-16

    Current theoretical understanding of the coherent beam-beam effect as well as its experimental observations are discussed: conditions under which the coherent beambeam modes may appear, possibility of their resonant interaction (coherent resonances), stability of beam-beam oscillations in the presence of external impedances. A special attention is given to the coherent beam-beam modes of finite length bunches: the synchro-betatron coupling is shown to provide reduction in the coherent tuneshift and--at the synchrotron tune values smaller than the beam-beam parameter--Landau damping by overlapping synchrotron satellites.

  6. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  7. High resolution and wide scale fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Youchun; Wang, Changjiang; Yang, Yuanhong; Yan, Shubin; Li, Jinming

    2013-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a high resolution and wide scale fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation system based on fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) and Fabry-Perot ITU filter (FPIF). By automatic control of the driving voltage of the FFP-TF, the wavelength of the laser can be tracked to the -3dB reflectivity spectrum of the FBG. Using FPIF as the reference channel, the measurement resolution of the system is improved by wiping out the nonlinearity of the FFP-TF. A high resolution of better than 2pm within wide strain measurement range was verified by experiments.

  8. Systematic Functional Interrogation of Rare Cancer Variants Identifies Oncogenic Alleles | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer genome characterization efforts now provide an initial view of the somatic alterations in primary tumors. However, most point mutations occur at low frequency, and the function of these alleles remains undefined. We have developed a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. We subjected 474 mutant alleles curated from 5,338 tumors to pooled in vivo tumor formation assays and gene expression profiling. We identified 12 transforming alleles, including two in genes (PIK3CB, POT1) that have not been shown to be tumorigenic.

  9. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Evans, Louise G; Lee, S Y

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  10. Self and transfer impedances of coaxial coils for interrogating a borehole formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical models for coaxial-coil logging were improved to permit a self-consistent and accurate evaluation of formation rocks using multiple frequencies within 10 to 100 MHz. For typical borehole diameters up to 20 cm, the inclusion of magnetic-quadrupole coupling allows the self and transfer impedances to be accurately calibrated during design, and self-consistently measured during downhole interrogation. Comprehensive processings of the measurable Z/sub 11/ and Z/sub 21/ are expected to enhance the uniqueness of evaluating the properties of reservoir rocks.

  11. Dispersion characterization of group birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber using a Kerr phase-interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Baker, Chams; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2015-07-01

    We present a new approach to characterize dispersion of group birefringence in a long polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF). Two sinusoidal optical signals are respectively launched into fast and slow axes of a PMF under test. Wavelength dependent group-delay difference between two sinusoidal optical signals induced by group birefringence in the PMF is measured using a Kerr phase-interrogator, and dispersion of group birefringence is characterized from the group-delay difference. Measurements of wavelength dependent group birefringence and group birefringence dispersion for a 459.4-m Panda PMF are experimentally demonstrated.

  12. In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI): Noninvasive Visualization and Interrogation of Biological Processes in Living Animals

    PubMed Central

    Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Sayler, Gary S.; Ripp, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is increasingly being utilized as a method for modern biological research. This process, which involves the noninvasive interrogation of living animals using light emitted from luciferase-expressing bioreporter cells, has been applied to study a wide range of biomolecular functions such as gene function, drug discovery and development, cellular trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and especially tumorigenesis, cancer treatment, and disease progression. This article will review the various bioreporter/biosensor integrations of BLI and discuss how BLI is being applied towards a new visual understanding of biological processes within the living organism. PMID:22346573

  13. Arrayed waveguide grating interrogator for fiber Bragg grating sensors: measurement and simulation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system based on an intensity demodulation and demultiplexing of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) module is examined in detail. The influence of the spectral line shape of the FBG on the signal obtained from the AWG device is discussed by accomplishing the measurement and simulation of the system. The simulation of the system helps to create quickly and precisely calibration functions for nonsymmetric, tilted, or nonapodized FBGs. Experiments show that even small sidebands of nonapodized FBGs have strong influences on the signal resulted by an AWG device with a Gaussian profile.

  14. Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Carlton, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the urogenital tract in men and women, with a worldwide presence and significant implications for global public health. T. vaginalis research entered the age of genomics with the publication of the first genome sequence in 2007, yet subsequent utilization of other ‘omics’ technologies and methods has been slow. Here, we review some of the tools and approaches available to interrogate T. vaginalis biology, with an emphasis on recent advances and current limitations, and draw attention to areas where further efforts are needed to effectively examine the complex and intriguing biology of the parasite. PMID:23219217

  15. Trajectory scoring in geodetic coordinates using transponder-interrogator range data

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.

    1986-03-01

    Range measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The range and Kalman filter equations are derived in geodetic coordinates to allow for coverage over a large geographic area. The equations are then verified by processing data from flight tests at Edwards Air Force Base, producing position accuracies of 3 to 4 meters 1sigma.

  16. Trajectory scoring in rectangular coordinates using transponder-interrogator range and range rate data

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, J.

    1989-01-01

    Range and range rate measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter and an extended Kalman smoother to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The necessary equations are derived in rectangular coordinates. As such, they are only valid for low altitude flights over a small geographic area. The equations are implemented in a FORTRAN program which is used to process flight data gathered at Edgewood, NM. 5 refs., 65 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Methods and systems for Raman and optical cross-interrogation in flow-through silicon membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Letant, Sonia E.

    2014-09-09

    Cross-interrogating photonic detection systems and methods are shown. A flow through photonic crystal membrane with a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is provided with pores which are distributed along multiple regions. The pores of one region have walls to which a first type of target specific anchor can be attached, while pores of another region have walls to which a second type of target specific anchor can be attached. An optical arrangement out-of-plane to the SERS substrate is also provided for enhanced sensitivity and identification of target organisms.

  18. Flow Cytometric Assays for Interrogating LAGLIDADG Homing Endonuclease DNA-Binding and Cleavage Properties

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Sarah K.; Lambert, Abigail R.; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Jarjour, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A fast, easy, and scalable method to assess the properties of site-specific nucleases is crucial to understanding their in cellulo behavior in genome engineering or population-level gene drive applications. Here we describe an analytical platform that enables high-throughput, semiquantitative interrogation of the DNA-binding and catalytic properties of LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs). Using this platform, natural or engineered LHEs are expressed on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast where they can be rapidly evaluated against synthetic DNA target sequences using flow cytometry. PMID:23423888

  19. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-09-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10-8 refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  20. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.