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Sample records for active isolation system

  1. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  2. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  3. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.; Rao, N. N. S.; Rupert, J. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    Many microgravity space science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR)) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop a state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  4. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  5. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  6. Active Rack Isolation System Program and Technical Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian; Allen, James; Quraishi, Naveed

    2000-01-01

    The Boeing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) is one of the means used to isolate acceleration-sensitive scientific experiments from structurally transmitted disturbances aboard the International Space Station. The presentation provides an overview of ARIS and technical issues associated with the development of the active control system. An overview of ARIS analytical models is presented along with recent isolation performance predictions made using these models. Issues associated with commanding and capturing ARIS data are discussed and possible future options based on the ARIS ISS Characterization Experiment (ICE) Payload On-orbit Processor (POP) are outlined. An overview of the ARIS-ICE experiment scheduled to fly on ISS Flight 6A is presented. The presentation concludes with a discussion of recent- developmental work that includes passive rack damping, umbilical redesigns and advanced multivariable control design methods.

  7. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  8. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  9. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  10. Static calibration of the RSRA active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) active-isolator system is designed to reduce rotor vibrations transmitted to the airframe and to simultaneously measure all six forces and moments generated by the rotor. These loads are measured by using a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. The first static calibration of the complete active-isolator rotor balance system was performed in l983 to verify its load-measurement capabilities. Analysis of the data included the use of multiple linear regressions to determine calibration matrices for different data sets and a hysteresis-removal algorithm to estimate in-flight measurement errors. Results showed that the active-isolator system can fulfill most performance predictions. The results also suggested several possible improvements to the system.

  11. Verification of static rotor-load measurement capabilities of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft helicopter technology demonstration test bed incorporates an active isolator system which reduces the rotor vibrations that are transmitted to the airframe and allows the simultaneous measurement of all six forces and moments generated by the rotor. The first full system calibration was performed in 1983 to verify the system's static load measurement capabilities; the analysis of the data encompassed multiple linear regressions to determine calibration matrices for different data sets, and a hysteresis removal algorithm for the estimation of in-flight measurement errors. The results obtained indicate that the active isolator system meets most performance predictions.

  12. Design and optimization of voice coil actuator for six degree of freedom active vibration isolation system using Halbach magnet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MyeongHyeon; Kim, Hyunchang; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, optimization, and validation of an active vibration isolation system using a voice coil motor. The active vibration isolating method was constructed with a passive isolator and an active isolator. A spring was used for passive isolating; an actuator was used for active isolating. The proposed active vibration isolation system (AVIS) can isolate disturbances for many kinds of instruments. Until now, developed AVIS were able to isolate a six degree-of-freedom disturbance effectively. This paper proposes the realization of such a six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system that can work as a bench top device for precision measuring machines such as atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, etc.

  13. Design and optimization of voice coil actuator for six degree of freedom active vibration isolation system using Halbach magnet array.

    PubMed

    Kim, MyeongHyeon; Kim, Hyunchang; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, optimization, and validation of an active vibration isolation system using a voice coil motor. The active vibration isolating method was constructed with a passive isolator and an active isolator. A spring was used for passive isolating; an actuator was used for active isolating. The proposed active vibration isolation system (AVIS) can isolate disturbances for many kinds of instruments. Until now, developed AVIS were able to isolate a six degree-of-freedom disturbance effectively. This paper proposes the realization of such a six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system that can work as a bench top device for precision measuring machines such as atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, etc.

  14. Validation of a "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey S.; Hampton, R. David

    2000-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller, ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. In November 1999, the authors presented a response to the second ("A 'Kane's Dynamics' model for the Active Rack Isolation System", Hampton and Beech) intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. This paper documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. As before, this model contains the full actuator dynamics, however, the umbilical models are not included in this presentation. The validation of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION, and Online Dynamics' AUTOLEV. ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs 3-dimensional (3-D) Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. AUTOLEV is a DOS based interpreter that is designed in general to solve vector based mathematical problems and specifically to solve Dynamics problems using Kane's method.

  15. Active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures for a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danh, Le Thanh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an active pneumatic vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structures (NSS) for a vehicle seat in low excitation frequencies is proposed, which is named as an active system with NSS. Here, the negative stiffness structures (NSS) are used to minimize the vibratory attraction of a vehicle seat. Owing to the time-varying and nonlinear behavior of the proposed system, it is not easy to build an accurate dynamic for model-based controller design. Thus, an adaptive intelligent backstepping controller (AIBC) is designed to manage the system operation for high-isolation effectiveness. In addition, an auxiliary control effort is also introduced to eliminate the effect of the unpredictable perturbations. Moreover, a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model is utilized to estimate the optimal gain of the auxiliary control effort. Final control input and the adaptive law for updating coefficients of the approximate series can be obtained step by step using a suitable Lyapunov function. Afterward, the isolation performance of the proposed system is assessed experimentally. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed controller for the proposed system is also compared with that of the traditional backstepping controller (BC). The experimental results show that the isolation effectiveness of the proposed system is better than that of the active system without NSS. Furthermore, the undesirable chattering phenomenon in control effort is quite reduced by the estimation mechanism. Finally, some concluding remarks are given at the end of the paper.

  16. The importance of active efflux systems in the quinolone resistance of clinical isolates of Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Isabel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Cebrian, Laura; Royo, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the active elimination of antibiotics by active efflux systems, in the decrease in fluoroquinolone sensitivity of clinical isolates of Salmonella spp. as well as the intrinsic antibiotic activity of certain active efflux system inhibitors. The effect of the active efflux system on the decrease in sensitivity to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and sparfloxacin was studied by investigating the variation in the in vitro activity of these compounds when assayed in association with reserpine and MC 207.110. The active efflux systems inhibited by reserpine displayed low activity in the elimination of these compounds, whereas those inhibited by MC 207.110 showed high activity in the elimination of nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, but were less effective in the elimination of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. These two compounds did not exhibit intrinsic inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. at the concentrations assayed. These mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics are complex and vary depending on the chemical composition of the antibiotics used, and perhaps the inhibitors of these systems, although they do not exhibit any intrinsic antibiotic activity, may be used as adjuvants to increase the activity of certain antibiotics. These mechanisms complement the mutations in the gyrA gene and this supports the thesis that it is necessary to lower the breakpoint established by the NCCLS for ciprofloxacin, since the strains studied have resistance mechanisms that reduce the activity of this drug and may favour the emergence of resistant mutants during treatment.

  17. Evaluation of actuators for the SDOF and MDOF active microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University of Virginia examined the design of actuators for both single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) active microgravity isolation systems. For SDOF systems, two actuators were considered: a special large gap magnetic actuator and a large stroke Lorentz actuator. The magnetic actuator was viewed to be of greater difficulty than the Lorentz actuator with little compelling technical advantage and was dropped from consideration. A Lorentz actuator was designed and built for the SDOF test rig using magnetic circuit and finite element analysis. The design and some experimental results are discussed. The University also examined the design of actuators for MDOF isolation systems. This includes design of an integrated 1 cm gap 6-DOF noncontacting magnetic suspension system and of a 'coarse' follower which permits the practical extension of magnetic suspension to large strokes. The proposed 'coarse' actuator was a closed kinematic chain manipulator known as a Stewart Platform. The integration of the two isolation systems together, the isolation tasks assigned to each, and possible control architectures were also explored. The results of this research are examined.

  18. Flight performance of the International Space Station active rack isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Glenn S.; Fialho, Ian J.; Allen, James L.; Quraishi, Naveed

    2003-10-01

    Space flight experiment test results of a Space Station Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) are presented. The purpose of ARIS is to isolate microgravity sensitive science experiments mounted in Space Station racks from structural vibrations present on the large Space Station orbital structure. The ARIS is shown to solve the very difficult and challenging low frequency isolation problem by providing over an order of magnitude reduction in the acceleration at 0.1 Hz. The Station displacement response to crew motion is discussed along with the control method that ARIS employs to maintain microgravity performance while limiting the motion between the Station and the isolated rack. The dramatic difference between the Station acceleration levels during crew awake and sleep periods are presented. Some microgravity experiments are sensitive to angular acceleration, so both the translational and angular accelerations of the isolated rack are presented. The performance at frequencies up to 300 Hz was measured by exciting the Station structure with a proof-mass shaker and a hammer and these results, and the impacts from payload fans are presented. ARIS has been in operation for two years and three Zeolite Crystal Growth Experiments have been supported.

  19. Application of a load-bearing passive and active vibration isolation system in hydraulic drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, Oliver; Haase, Thomas; Pohl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Hydraulic drives are widely used in many engineering applications due to their high power to weight ratio. The high power output of the hydraulic drives produces high static and dynamic reaction forces and moments which must be carried by the mounts and the surrounding structure. A drawback of hydraulic drives based on rotating pistons consists in multi-tonal disturbances which propagate through the mounts and the load bearing structure and produce structure borne sound at the surrounding structures and cavities. One possible approach to overcome this drawback is to use an optimised mounting, which combines vibration isolation in the main disturbance direction with the capability to carry the reaction forces and moments. This paper presents an experimental study, which addresses the vibration isolation performance of an optimised mounting. A dummy hydraulic drive is attached to a generic surrounding structure with optimised mounting and excited by multiple shakers. In order to improve the performance of the passive vibration isolation system, piezoelectric transducers are applied on the mounting and integrated into a feed-forward control loop. It is shown that the optimised mounting of the hydraulic drive decreases the vibration transmission to the surrounding structure by 8 dB. The presented study also reveals that the use of the active control system leads to a further decrease of vibration transmission of up to 14 dB and also allows an improvement of the vibration isolation in an additional degree of freedom and higher harmonic frequencies.

  20. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure. PMID:26617573

  1. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure. PMID:26617573

  2. Development of a Simulation Capability for the Space Station Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Terry L.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    To realize quality microgravity science on the International Space Station, many microgravity facilities will utilize the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). Simulation capabilities for ARIS will be needed to predict the microgravity environment. This paper discusses the development of a simulation model for use in predicting the performance of the ARIS in attenuating disturbances with frequency content between 0.01 Hz and 10 Hz. The derivation of the model utilizes an energy-based approach. The complete simulation includes the dynamic model of the ISPR integrated with the model for the ARIS controller so that the entire closed-loop system is simulated. Preliminary performance predictions are made for the ARIS in attenuating both off-board disturbances as well as disturbances from hardware mounted onboard the microgravity facility. These predictions suggest that the ARIS does eliminate resonant behavior detrimental to microgravity experimentation. A limited comparison is made between the simulation predictions of ARIS attenuation of off-board disturbances and results from the ARIS flight test. These comparisons show promise, but further tuning of the simulation is needed.

  3. Magnetic force driven six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using a phase compensated velocity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongdae; Park, Kyihwan; Kim, Sangyoo

    2009-04-15

    A six-axis active vibration isolation system (AVIS) is developed using voice coil actuators. Point contact configuration is employed to have an easy assembly of eight voice coil actuators to an upper and a base plates. The velocity sensor, using an electromagnetic principle that is commonly used in the vibration control, is investigated since its phase lead characteristic causes an instability problem for a low frequency vibration. The performances of the AVIS are investigated in the frequency domain and finally validated by comparing with the passive isolation system using the atomic force microscope images.

  4. Magnetic force driven six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using a phase compensated velocity sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongdae; Kim, Sangyoo; Park, Kyihwan

    2009-04-01

    A six-axis active vibration isolation system (AVIS) is developed using voice coil actuators. Point contact configuration is employed to have an easy assembly of eight voice coil actuators to an upper and a base plates. The velocity sensor, using an electromagnetic principle that is commonly used in the vibration control, is investigated since its phase lead characteristic causes an instability problem for a low frequency vibration. The performances of the AVIS are investigated in the frequency domain and finally validated by comparing with the passive isolation system using the atomic force microscope images.

  5. Concepts for the design of a completely active helicopter isolation system using output vector feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, G.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of output vector feedback (a few measured quantities) is used to derive completely active oscillation isolation functions for helicopters. These feedback controller concepts are tested with various versions of the BO 105 helicopter and their performance is demonstrated. A compensation of the vibrational excitations from the rotor and harmonics of the number of blades are considered. There is also a fast and automatic trim function for maneuvers.

  6. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)).

  7. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System Part Two: Nonlinear Model Development, Verification, and Simplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, G. S.; Hampton, R. D.; Rupert, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels that are unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's active rack isolation system (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) An isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic; i.e., mathematical, model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. This Technical Memorandum documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. The verification of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION(registered trademark), and Online Dynamics Autolev(trademark). ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs three-dimensional computer-aided design models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. Autolev is a DOS-based interpreter designed, in general, to solve vector-based mathematical problems and specifically to solve dynamics problems using Kane's method. The simplification of this model was achieved using the small-angle theorem for the joint angle of the ARIS actuators. This simplification has a profound effect on the overall complexity of the closed-form solution while yielding a closed-form solution easily employed using COTS control hardware.

  8. Crude dietary polysaccharide fraction isolated from jackfruit enhances immune system activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Hai-Long; Lai, Wei-Yong; Zhang, Jun-Qing

    2013-07-01

    Crude polysaccharides (PSs) were isolated from the fruit pulp of jackfruit, and their chemical composition determined and evaluated for an immune regulatory activity in mice. The PSs were isolated from water extracts of jackfruit pulp (JFP) using the ethanol precipitation method. The resulting precipitates were further purified by dialysis and protein depletion by the Sevage method. The phenol-sulfuric method was used to determine the content of the PSs. The composition of PSs was determined by the Sephadex-G200 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The thymus index and macrophage phagocytic function methods in mice were used to evaluate the immune regulatory activity of JFP-PSs. The JFP-PSs content in jackfruit was about 21% (w/w) and the yield of crude PSs was 3.91%. The single molecular mass weight PS was the main constituent of JFP-PSs. The major monosaccharide residues were rhamnose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The JFP-PSs enhanced the thymus weight index and the phagocytic rate after 30 days of subchronic p.o. administration to mice at 4.5 mg/kg. The JFP contains single molecular PS and JFP-PS has immune-stimulating activities in mice. These data suggest that at least some of the traditional uses of JFP can be ascribed to its immunomodulatory effects.

  9. Crude dietary polysaccharide fraction isolated from jackfruit enhances immune system activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Hai-Long; Lai, Wei-Yong; Zhang, Jun-Qing

    2013-07-01

    Crude polysaccharides (PSs) were isolated from the fruit pulp of jackfruit, and their chemical composition determined and evaluated for an immune regulatory activity in mice. The PSs were isolated from water extracts of jackfruit pulp (JFP) using the ethanol precipitation method. The resulting precipitates were further purified by dialysis and protein depletion by the Sevage method. The phenol-sulfuric method was used to determine the content of the PSs. The composition of PSs was determined by the Sephadex-G200 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The thymus index and macrophage phagocytic function methods in mice were used to evaluate the immune regulatory activity of JFP-PSs. The JFP-PSs content in jackfruit was about 21% (w/w) and the yield of crude PSs was 3.91%. The single molecular mass weight PS was the main constituent of JFP-PSs. The major monosaccharide residues were rhamnose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The JFP-PSs enhanced the thymus weight index and the phagocytic rate after 30 days of subchronic p.o. administration to mice at 4.5 mg/kg. The JFP contains single molecular PS and JFP-PS has immune-stimulating activities in mice. These data suggest that at least some of the traditional uses of JFP can be ascribed to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23875906

  10. Preliminary results of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight analogous to a wind tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators which use pressure gages to measure loads. Complete evaluation of system performance required calibration of the rotor force and moment measuring system when installed in the aircraft. Measurement system responses to rotor loads obtained during the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter are plotted and discussed. Plots of the raw transducer data are included.

  11. Numerical analysis of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in a manner analogous to a wind-tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. Complete evaluation of system performance requires calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft. Derivations of calibration corrections for various combinations of calibration data are discussed.

  12. Active fault detection and isolation of discrete-time linear time-varying systems: a set-membership approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtaba Tabatabaeipour, Seyed

    2015-08-01

    Active fault detection and isolation (AFDI) is used for detection and isolation of faults that are hidden in the normal operation because of a low excitation signal or due to the regulatory actions of the controller. In this paper, a new AFDI method based on set-membership approaches is proposed. In set-membership approaches, instead of a point-wise estimation of the states, a set-valued estimation of them is computed. If this set becomes empty the given model of the system is not consistent with the measurements. Therefore, the model is falsified. When more than one model of the system remains un-falsified, the AFDI method is used to generate an auxiliary signal that is injected into the system for detection and isolation of faults that remain otherwise hidden or non-isolated using passive FDI (PFDI) methods. Having the set-valued estimation of the states for each model, the proposed AFDI method finds an optimal input signal that guarantees FDI in a finite time horizon. The input signal is updated at each iteration in a decreasing receding horizon manner based on the set-valued estimation of the current states and un-falsified models at the current sample time. The problem is solved by a number of linear and quadratic programming problems, which result in a computationally efficient algorithm. The method is tested on a numerical example as well as on the pitch actuator of a benchmark wind turbine.

  13. Passive active vibration isolation systems to produce zero or infinite dynamic modulus: theoretical and conceptual design strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J. T.; Xiong, Y. P.; Price, W. G.

    2005-09-01

    The application of mechanical springs connected in parallel and/or in series with active springs can produce dynamical systems characterised by infinite or zero value stiffness. This mathematical model is extended to more general cases by examining the dynamic modulus associated with damping, stiffness and mass effects. This produces a theoretical basis on which to design an isolation system with infinite or zero dynamic modulus, such that stiffness and damping may have infinite or zero values. Several theoretical designs using a mixture of passive and active systems connected in parallel and/or in series are proposed to overcome limitations of feedback gain experienced in practice to achieve an infinite or zero dynamic modulus. It is shown that such systems can be developed to reduce the weight supported by active actuators as demonstrated, for example, by examining suspension systems of very low natural frequency or with a very large supporting stiffness or with a viscous damper or a self-excited vibration oscillator. A more general system is created by combining these individual systems allowing adjustment of the supporting stiffness and damping using both displacement and velocity feedback controls. Frequency response curves show the effects of active feedback control on the dynamical behaviour of these systems. The theoretical design strategies presented can be applied to design feasible hybrid vibration control systems displaying increased control performance.

  14. Central nervous system activities of two diterpenes isolated from Aloysia virgata.

    PubMed

    Wasowski, Cristina; Marder, Mariel

    2011-03-15

    Using the guide of a competitive assay for the benzodiazepine binding site in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)), two active diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu var. platyphylla (Briquet) Moldenke. These compounds, identified as (16R)-16,17,18-trihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (1) and (16R)-16,17-dihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (2) on the basis of spectral data, competitively inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-FNZ to the benzodiazepine binding site with K(i)±S.E.M. values of 56±19 μM and 111±13 μM, respectively. The behavioral actions of these diterpenes, intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in mice, were examined in the plus-maze, holeboard, locomotor activity and light/dark tests. Compound 1 exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice evidenced by a significant increase of the parameters measured in the holeboard test (the number of head dips at 0.3 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, the rears at 1 mg/kg and the time spent head-dipping at 3 mg/kg), in the plus-maze assay (the percentage of open arm entries at 1 mg/kg) and in the light/dark test (the time in light and the number of transitions at 1 mg/kg). Compound 2 augmented the number of rearings in the holeboard apparatus (at 0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) and the locomotor activity (at 1 mg/kg). These results reveal the presence of neuroactive compounds in Aloysia virgata. PMID:21036579

  15. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  16. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  17. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  18. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ1-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  19. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  20. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  1. Isolation of plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta at term and measurement of system A and system beta amino acid transporter activity.

    PubMed

    Kusinski, L C; Jones, C J P; Baker, P N; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D

    2010-01-01

    Placental amino acid transport is essential for optimal fetal growth and development, with a reduced fetal provision of amino acids being implicated as a potential cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Understanding placental insufficiency related FGR has been aided by the development of mouse models that have features of the human disease. However, to take maximal advantage of these, methods are required to study placental function in the mouse. Here, we report a method to isolate plasma membrane vesicles from mouse placenta near-term and have used these to investigate two amino acid transporters, systems A and beta, the activities of which are reduced in human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles from FGR pregnancies. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated at embryonic day 18 by a protocol involving homogenisation, MgCl(2) precipitation and centrifugation. Vesicles were enriched 11.3+/-0.5-fold in alkaline phosphatase activity as compared to initial homogenate, with minimal intracellular organelle contamination as judged by marker analyses. Cytochemistry revealed alkaline phosphatase was localised between trophoblast layers I and II, with intense reaction product deposited on the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II, suggesting that vesicles were derived from this trophoblast membrane. System A and system beta activity in mouse placental vesicles, measured as Na(+)-dependent uptake of (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) and (3)H-taurine respectively confirmed localisation of these transporters to the maternal-facing plasma membrane of layer II. Comparison to human placental MVM showed that system A activity was comparable at initial rate between species whilst system beta activity was significantly lower in mouse. This mirrored the lower expression of TAUT observed in mouse placental vesicles. We conclude that syncytiotrophoblast layer II-derived plasma membrane vesicles can be isolated and used to examine transporter function.

  2. Two myomodulins isolated from central nervous system of Northwest Pacific Sea Hare, Aplysia kurodai, and their activities on other mollusks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Go, Hye-Jin; Park, Nam Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of Aplysia is a fascinating source to identify and characterize neuropeptides and neurotransmitters because of offering many useful divergent and convergent neuronal aggregates. Here, two neuropeptides were isolated from the extract of CNS of the northwest pacific sea hare, Aplysia kurodai, using HPLC system for fractionation and the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the Mytilis edulis as the bioassay system. Purified peptides, myomodulin A (MMA) and E (MME), were determined by amino acid sequencing and molecular mass analysis. MMA showed a potentiating effect at 100 nM or lower, on the contrary, an inhibitory effect at higher doses from 100 nM on phasic contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation on the ABRM of Mytilus. However, MME only inhibited phasic contraction with all examined concentrations. MME revealed 100 times more potent activity than that of MMA on the relaxing catch-tension of ABRM stimulated by acetylcholine. Both MMA and MME potently stimulated a response on the crop and penial retractor muscle of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica, compared with other known mollusks neuropeptides. These results suggest that MMA and MME may be broadly distributed in CNS of Aplysia to function a neuromodulatory role controlled via excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and may be involved in the digestive and reproductive activity in other mollusk.

  3. A Serine Protease Isolated from the Bristles of the Amazonic Caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, Is a Potent Complement System Activator

    PubMed Central

    Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called “Pararamose”, characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Although complement mediated inflammation may aid the host defense, inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system and generation of anaphylatoxins can lead to inflammatory disorder and pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, whether the Premolis semirufa’s bristles extract could interfere with the human complement system. Results The bristles extract was able to inhibit the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, as well as the activation of the lectin pathway, but had no effect on the classical pathway, and this inhibition seemed to be caused by activation and consumption of complement components. The extract induced the production of significant amounts of all three anaphylatoxins, C3a, C4a and C5a, promoted direct cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and induced a significant generation of terminal complement complexes in normal human serum. By using molecular exclusion chromatography, a serine protease of 82 kDa, which activates complement, was isolated from P. semirufa bristles extract. The protease, named here as Ps82, reduced the haemolytic activity of the alternative and classical pathways and inhibited the lectin pathway. In addition, Ps82 induced the cleavage of C3, C4 and C5 and the generation of C3a and C4a in normal human serum and it was capable to cleave human purified C5 and generate C5a. The use of Phenanthroline, metalloprotease inhibitor, in the reactions did not significantly

  4. A novel genetic system to isolate a dominant negative effector on DNA-binding activity of Oct-2.

    PubMed Central

    Terunuma, A; Shiba, K; Noda, T

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that interactions between transcription factors play an important role in regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. To isolate cDNA clones that dominantly inhibit the DNA-binding activity of Oct-2, chosen as a representative factor, we have developed a novel screening system. This employs an Escherichia coli tester strain carrying a modified lac operon as a reporter gene, with the lac operator sequence replaced by an octamer sequence. Oct-2 expressed in this tester strain represses the expression of the reporter gene and changes the phenotype of the cell from Lac+to Lac-. Introduction of a cDNA expression library prepared from a human T-cell line into the Oct-2-harboring tester strain allowed selection of three Lac+clones out of 1 x 10(5) transformants. One of them, hT86, encoding a putative zinc finger protein was found to derepress beta-galactosidase activity in the Oct-2-harboring tester strain at the transcriptional level. In gel mobility shift assays, hT86 attenuated the intensity of the retarded band composed of the octamer probe and Oct-2, suggesting a dominant negative effect on the DNA-binding activity of Oct-2. The strategy described here provides a new approach for studying protein-protein interactions that govern the complex regulation of gene expression. PMID:9115366

  5. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System. Part 3; Addition of Umbilicals to the Nonlinear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupert, J. K.; Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1980s, microgravity researchers began to voice their concern that umbilical-transmitted energy could significantly degrade the acceleration environment of microgravity space science experiments onboard manned spacecraft. Since umbilicals are necessary for many experiments, control designers began to seek ways to compensate for these "indirect" disturbances. Hampton, et al., used the Kane s method to develop a model of the active rack isolation system (ARIS) that includes (1) actuator control forces, (2) direct disturbance forces, and (3) indirect, actuator-transmitted disturbances. Their model does not, however, include the indirect, umbilical-transmitted disturbances. Since the umbilical stiffnesses are not negligible, these indirect disturbances must be included in the model. Until the umbilicals have been appropriately included, the model will be incomplete. This Technical Memorandum presents a nonlinear model of ARIS with umbilicals included. Model verification was achieved by utilizing two commercial-off-the-shelf software tools. Various forces and moments were applied to the model to yield simulated responses of the system. Plots of the simulation results show how various critical points on an ARIS-outfitted international standard payload rack behave under the application of direct disturbances, indirect disturbances, and control forces. Simulations also show system response to a variety of initial conditions.

  6. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  7. Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

  8. Earthquake response reduction of mid-story isolated system due to semi-active control using magnetorheological rotary inertia mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mai; Yoshida, Shohei; Fujitani, Hideo; Sato, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of mid-story isolated buildings and seismic response reduction due to a semi-active control system were investigated using a three-lumped-mass model that simplified the sixteen story building with an isolation layer in the sixth story. A semi-active control method using a rotary inertia mass damper filled with magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) was proposed. The damper shows both mass amplification effect due to rotational inertia and variable damping effect due to the MR fluid. The damping force is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field that is applied to the MR fluid. It is determined by using the electric current, which is calculated by the proposed semi-active control method based on the velocity of the isolation layer relative to the layer just underneath it. Real-time hybrid tests using an actual damper and simulations using a building model were conducted to check the damper model; the test results were in good agreement with the simulation results. The simulation results suggest that the response displacement of the structure above the isolation layer is significantly reduced, without increasing the response acceleration of the entire structure against near-fault pulse and long-period ground motions. The proposed semi-active control using an MR rotary inertia mass damper was confirmed to be effective for mid-story isolated buildings.

  9. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  10. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  11. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  12. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Alix T.

    2015-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-α-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. PMID:26482310

  13. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  14. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  15. Extracellular enzymatic activities of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    PubMed

    Geimba, Mercedes P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2002-01-01

    Several enzymatic activities were investigated in six isolates of the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, originating from different areas of Brazil. Among the glycosidases studied, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and chitobiohydrolase were the major activities. In some isolates, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, and alpha-mannosidase activities were also present. Polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as pectin lyase and carboxymethyl cellulase were detected in significant amounts, and their activities were variable among the different isolates. Other enzymes, namely phosphatases, proteinases and phenol oxidase, were also examined, showing variable amounts depending on the isolate. The pH dependence of all enzymes tested was investigated. Endoproteinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and phenoloxidase had maximum activity in the pH range of 6-8, whilst all other enzymes showed maximum activity at pH 4-6.

  16. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for a preliminary design study and verification procedure for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are established. The system is developed and analyzed, and predesign drawings are created for an isolation system that achieves over 95 percent isolation of all six degrees of freedom.

  17. The ISS Increments 3 and 4 Test Report: For the Active Rack Isolation System ISS Characterization Experiment (ARIS-ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quraishi, Naveed; Allen, Jim; Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of ARIS-ICE is to improve, optimize then operationally test and document the performance of the ARIS system on the International Space Station. The ICE program required testing across a full 3 increments (2 through 4). This paper represents the operational report summarizing our accomplishments through the third and fourth increment of testing. The main objectives and results of the increment two testing are discussed in The Increment two Operational Report. This report can be obtained from the ISS Payloads Office or from (http://iss-www.isc.nasa.gov/sslissapt/payofc/OZ3/ARIS.html). In summary these were to ensure the smooth and successful activation of the system and correct operational issues related to long term testing. Then the follow on increment 3 & 4 testing encompassed the majority of the on orbit performance assessments and improvements made to the ARIS system. The intent here is to report these preliminary results of the increment 3 & 4 ARIS-ICE testing as well as the ARIS system improvements made for our users and customers.

  18. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified. A statistically significant decreasing trend was identified for ISO unreliability. The magnitude of the trend indicated a 1.5 percent decrease in system unreliability over the last 10 years.

  19. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  20. Characteristics and antioxidant activity of water-soluble Maillard reaction products from interactions in a whey protein isolate and sugars system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-qiong; Bao, Yi-hong; Chen, Ying

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities of water-soluble MRPs (Maillard reaction products) from the reactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and xylose (X), glucose (G), fructose (F), lactose (L), maltose (M) and sucrose (S) at different initial pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). MRPs derived from the WPI-X system with increasing of pH rendered the highest browning, reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. SDS-PAGE analyses indicated formation of cross-linked proteins of large molecular mass produced from WPI-X systems. Results of FT-IR analysis indicated that the amide I, II and III bands of WPI from the WPI-X and WPI-G systems were changed by the Maillard reaction. CD spectroscopy showed that β-sheet, β-turns and random coil were increased while the α-helix was decreased after the WPI-G and WPI-X system aqueous solutions were heated. In conclusion, MRPs obtained from the WPI-X system had high antioxidant activity. PMID:23561117

  1. Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, Pamela; Van Solingen, Pieter; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

  2. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  3. Quinoline-degrading strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa KDQ4 isolated from coking activated sludge is capable of the simultaneous removal of phenol in a dual substrate system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panhong; Jia, Rong; Zhang, Yuxiu; Shi, Peili; Chai, Tuanyao

    2016-11-01

    Quinoline is a refractory organic compound in the treatment of coking wastewater. The isolation of high efficiency quinoline-degrading bacteria from activated sludge and the evaluation of their degradation characteristics in the presence of phenol or in the actual coking wastewater are important for the improvement of effluent quality. The novel bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa KDQ4 was isolated from a quinoline enrichment culture obtained from the activated sludge of a coking wastewater treatment plant. The optimum temperature and initial pH for quinoline degradation were 33-38°C and 8-9, respectively. KDQ4 completely degraded 400 mg/L of quinoline within 24 h and 800 mg/L of phenol within 30 h. In the dual-substrate system, the removal efficiencies of quinoline and phenol at the same initial concentration (200 mg/L) by KDQ4 were 89% and 100% within 24 h, respectively, indicating that KDQ4 could simultaneously and quickly degrade quinoline and phenol in a coexistence system. Moreover, KDQ4 was able to adapt to actual coking wastewater containing high quinoline and phenol concentrations and rapidly remove them. KDQ4 also exhibited heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification potential under aerobic conditions. These results suggested a potential bioaugmentation role for KDQ4 in the removal of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds and phenolics from coking wastewater. PMID:27458688

  4. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the ISO results.

  5. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Harries, Marcuslene D; Page, Phaedra N

    2015-05-01

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocard ia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributed as the cause of "earthy-musty" off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 °C) on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production and cellular activity. Cultures of these isolates were monitored over 7 days by measuring culture dry weight, geosmin, and MIB production using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), and ATP production via a luminometer. Compared to the other isolates, S. luridiscabiei had significantly (P < 0.05) higher biomass (8.17 ± 0.35 mg/mL) at 15 °C (water temperature in the RAS) after 7 days incubation. In addition, S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (69,976 ± 15,733 ng/L) at 15 °C. At 25 °C and 30 °C, S. albidoflavus produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (182,074 ± 60,272 ng/L and 399,991 ± 102,262 ng/L, respectively). All isolates produced MIB at 15 °C, but S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher MIB (97,143 ± 28,972 ng/L) and ATP after 7 days. Therefore, S. luridiscabiei appears to be a likely contributor of geosmin and MIB in the RAS.

  6. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  7. Active control of a balanced two-stage pendulum vibration isolation system and its application to laser interferometric gravity wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, P.J.; Robertson, N.A.; Cantley, C.A.; Hough, J. )

    1993-05-01

    The investigation of the servo control of the position of the bottom mass in a balanced two-stage pendulum vibration isolation system is reported. Experimental results for a simple prototype system and predictions based on a model presented in this paper are in good agreement. The application of such a system to a high-sensitivity laser interferometric gravity wave detector is discussed.

  8. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  9. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity.

    PubMed

    Bernardy, Eryn E; Turnsek, Maryann A; Wilson, Sarah K; Tarr, Cheryl L; Hammer, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. PMID:26944842

  10. Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae in Natural Transformation and Contact-Dependent Bacterial Killing Indicative of Type VI Secretion System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bernardy, Eryn E.; Turnsek, Maryann A.; Wilson, Sarah K.; Tarr, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae can occupy both the human gut and aquatic reservoirs, where it may colonize chitinous surfaces that induce the expression of factors for three phenotypes: chitin utilization, DNA uptake by natural transformation, and contact-dependent bacterial killing via a type VI secretion system (T6SS). In this study, we surveyed a diverse set of 53 isolates from different geographic locales collected over the past century from human clinical and environmental specimens for each phenotype outlined above. The set included pandemic isolates of serogroup O1, as well as several serogroup O139 and non-O1/non-O139 strains. We found that while chitin utilization was common, only 22.6% of the isolates tested were proficient at chitin-induced natural transformation, suggesting that transformation is expendable. Constitutive contact-dependent killing of Escherichia coli prey, which is indicative of a functional T6SS, was rare among clinical isolates (only 4 of 29) but common among environmental isolates (22 of 24). These results bolster the pathoadaptive model in which tight regulation of T6SS-mediated bacterial killing is beneficial in a human host, whereas constitutive killing by environmental isolates may give a competitive advantage in natural settings. Future sequence analysis of this set of diverse isolates may identify previously unknown regulators and structural components for both natural transformation and T6SS. PMID:26944842

  11. Study of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Feijoa sellowiana Fruits Against MDMA using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Sodabah; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    liver injury induced by viruses, chemicals and drugs can be protected by different medicinal plants. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen bush native to southern areas of South America, as well as Iran where the fruits are very popular. Feijoa has shown a potent antimicrobial effect. Morever, the antioxidant activity of total Feijoa extract has also been reported. MDMA or ecstasy is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative which has been abused as a widespread recreational drug by the young generation. Liver is a target organ for MDMA toxicity. In fact, this sense MDMA is metabolized by cytochromes P4502D, 2B and 3Aand reactive metabolites are readily oxidized to the corresponding o-qiuinones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated whether methanilic Feijoa sellowiana fruits can produce biochemical changes using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion (IRLP) system. The, the liver was perfused with different concentrations of the extract (10, 20, 40, 50,100 mg/kg), added to the buffer and perfused within 2 h. During the perfusion we tried to find out the antioxidant activity or liver protective effect of Feijoa, by determinining amino-transferases activities (SGOT and SGPT ) and glutathione reductase (GSH) level in comparison with the positive and negative controls. Subsequently, sections of liver tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. The results revealed that the activities of SGOT and SGPT were seriously decreased and GSH level was significantly increased by the Feijoa extract. Overall, necrosis in the liver parenchyma was decreased. These findings revealed that Feijoa sellowiana is an effective hepatoprotective plant. PMID:24250575

  12. Study of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Feijoa sellowiana Fruits Against MDMA using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Sodabah; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    liver injury induced by viruses, chemicals and drugs can be protected by different medicinal plants. Feijoa sellowiana (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen bush native to southern areas of South America, as well as Iran where the fruits are very popular. Feijoa has shown a potent antimicrobial effect. Morever, the antioxidant activity of total Feijoa extract has also been reported. MDMA or ecstasy is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative which has been abused as a widespread recreational drug by the young generation. Liver is a target organ for MDMA toxicity. In fact, this sense MDMA is metabolized by cytochromes P4502D, 2B and 3Aand reactive metabolites are readily oxidized to the corresponding o-qiuinones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated whether methanilic Feijoa sellowiana fruits can produce biochemical changes using the Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion (IRLP) system. The, the liver was perfused with different concentrations of the extract (10, 20, 40, 50,100 mg/kg), added to the buffer and perfused within 2 h. During the perfusion we tried to find out the antioxidant activity or liver protective effect of Feijoa, by determinining amino-transferases activities (SGOT and SGPT ) and glutathione reductase (GSH) level in comparison with the positive and negative controls. Subsequently, sections of liver tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. The results revealed that the activities of SGOT and SGPT were seriously decreased and GSH level was significantly increased by the Feijoa extract. Overall, necrosis in the liver parenchyma was decreased. These findings revealed that Feijoa sellowiana is an effective hepatoprotective plant. PMID:24250575

  13. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocardia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributing to geosmin-related off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 degree...

  14. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  15. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  16. Isolation and characterization of goat ovarian aromatase cDNA: assessment of the activity using an intact cell system and placental expression.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl José; Miranda, Carolina; Pérez-Martinez, Mario; Luu-The, Van; Romano, Marta C

    2004-08-01

    Goat ovarian follicles produce estrone and estradiol from androgens. The synthesis of C18 estrogens from C19 androgens requires cytochrome P450 aromatase, but little information about this key enzyme is available in the goat. We report here for the first time the cDNA sequence of the goat ovarian aromatase, the activity of the enzyme in a cell system, and its expression in the term goat placenta. A cDNA library from goat ovarian poly(A)+ RNA was constructed. Human aromatase cDNA was selected as probe to screen the library; several clones were isolated, but none was complete. The longest clone was 3.1 kb long, but it lacked the sequence coding for a few amino acids in the NH(2)-terminal. To obtain the missing sequence, we performed reverse amplification of the cDNA end (RACE). Sequence analysis indicated that goat aromatase possessed a very long 3'-untranslated region ( approximately 1790 bp), and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) located at position 3320 downstream from the ATG start codon. The coding region of goat cDNA was inserted in an expression vector and transfected into HEK-293 cells that were cultured in presence of [14C]-androstenedione, steroids extracted and further separated by TLC. The transfected cells efficiently transformed [14C]-androstenedione into estrone. This activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyandrostenedione. We also investigated the presence of mRNA for P450 aromatase in the goat placenta, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and primers derived from the cDNA ovarian sequence and confirmed the expression of the mRNA in term placenta.

  17. A TREETOPS Simulation of the STABLE Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G. S.; Whorton, M. S.; Kim, Y. K.

    1999-01-01

    As a research facility for microgravity science, the International Space Station (ISS) will be used for numerous experiments which require a quiescent acceleration environment across a broad spectrum of frequencies. For many micro-gravity science experiments, the ambient acceleration environment on ISS will significantly exceed desirable levels. The ubiquity of acceleration disturbance sources and the difficulty in characterization of these sources precludes source isolation, requiring, vibration isolation to attenuate the disturbances to an acceptable level at the experiment. To provide a more quiescent acceleration environment, a vibration isolation system named STABLE (Suppression of Transient Accelerations By LEvitation) was developed. STABLE was the first successful flight test of an active isolation device for micro-gravity science payloads and was flown on STS-73/USML-2 in October 1995. This report documents the development of the high fidelity, nonlinear, multibody simulation developed using TREETOPS which was used to design the control laws and define the expected performance of the STABLE isolation system.

  18. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  19. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eu Jin; Hossain, Mohammad Tofajjal; Khan, Ajmal; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and YC7010T, with anti-microbial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208) and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022), respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (107 cfu/ml) of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC 15859T (99.67%), Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC 13105T (99.65%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC 17177T (99.60%), and Bacillus tequilensis KACC 15944T (99.45%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YC7010T and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC 15859T was 50.4±3.5%, but it was 91.5±11.0% between two strains YC7007 and YC7010T, indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-C15:0 and iso C15:0. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the two strains YC

  20. Vacuum-cleaning System for Isolation Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Charles E.

    1969-01-01

    To encourage the utilization of the isolation chamber as a research tool, the cost of its use should be lowered. Methods and devices must be developed which make more efficient use of the space within the isolator and allow the operator to work more effectively in this confined area. A simple vacuum-cleaning system is described; it consists of a nozzle and flexible hose which connect through the isolator wall to an externally placed waste tank, attached by way of its outlet filter to a source of vacuum. The cylindrical waste tank [48 inches (1.219 m) high and 36 inches (0.914 m) in diameter] was sterilized in a large autoclave. During a 9-month test period, the system was used to remove soiled corncob bedding from a large isolator containing 90 adult monocontaminated rats. During this period, the microbial flora of the isolator was unchanged, and the time required to clean the cages was reduced by 50%. This vacuum-cleaning system is a safe, convenient, and economical means of increasing the efficiency of an isolation chamber. Images PMID:5775913

  1. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, Ralph W.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  2. A MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ASSAYING CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxic activity assays of Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. Wate...

  3. Experiments on active isolation using distributed PVDF error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, S.; Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    A control system based on a two-channel narrow-band LMS algorithm is used to isolate periodic vibration at low frequencies on a structure composed of a rigid top plate mounted on a flexible receiving plate. The control performance of distributed PVDF error sensors and accelerometer point sensors is compared. For both sensors, high levels of global reduction, up to 32 dB, have been obtained. It is found that, by driving the PVDF strip output voltage to zero, the controller may force the structure to vibrate so that the integration of the strain under the length of the PVDF strip is zero. This ability of the PVDF sensors to act as spatial filters is especially relevant in active control of sound radiation. It is concluded that the PVDF sensors are flexible, nonfragile, and inexpensive and can be used as strain sensors for active control applications of vibration isolation and sound radiation.

  4. Microgravity Vibration Isolation System Based on Parallel Kinematic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russkin, Alexander; Postojuk, Nikolay

    The paper is devoted to the construction of an active vibration isolation system of experimental and technological equipment operating in microgravity conditions. Space experiments associated with obtaining ultrapure materials are required the residual level of microgravity vibration from mmug to mg at the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz in the experiment area. This residual level of microgravity vibration is difficult to achieve by conventional passive protection systems. To date the different types of active vibration isolation systems are constructed, such as STABLE, ARIS, MIM, g-LIMIT and MVIS, but their characteristics and geometrical parameters do not always satisfy the given technological requirements. In this paper, the mechanism with parallel kinematic constraints (MPKS) is proposed for constructing microgravity active vibration isolation system, which provides protection against vibrations in six degrees of freedom and can be scaled depending on the specific tasks. MPKS distinguishing feature is the presence of closed kinematic chain, which provide high rigidity of the structure, reduce the mass of moving parts and reduce the load on the actuator. As a result, this increases the dynamics and positioning accuracy MPKS. The proposed version of microgravity vibration isolation system consists of two main parts: the electromechanical assembly and control unit. The main specifications for the constituent parts of the system are defined. A comparative analysis of different types of actuators and sensors for electromechanical assembly is carried out. The appropriate components to provide the desired specifications are selected. There are proposed to use piezoelectric motors as actuators in electromechanical assembly. Mathematical models of MPKS with six degrees of freedom and control system are considered. The structure of the control system and controller type is selected. A mathematical model of proposed microgravity vibration isolation system is

  5. Optical payload isolation using the Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMickell, M. B.; Kreider, Thom; Hansen, Eric; Davis, Torey; Gonzalez, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Precision satellite payloads commonly require isolation from bus disturbance sources, such as reaction wheels, thrusters, stepper motors, cryo-coolers, solar array drives, thermal popping, and other moving devices. Since nearly every satellite essentially has a unique construction, custom isolation systems are usually designed to attenuate a wide bandwidth of disturbance frequencies. The disadvantage of these custom solutions is that they are not easily reusable or transferable and are generally not robust to changes in payload geometry and mass properties during the development. The MVIS-II isolation system is designed to provide vibration disturbance attenuation over a wide bandwidth, as well as being able to adapt to changes in payload mass properties and geometry, through active control of a smart material. MVIS-II is a collaborative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicle Directorate and Honeywell Defense and Space to validate miniature hybrid (passive/active) vibration isolation of sensitive optical payloads. The original flight experiment was intended to isolate a non-critical representative payload mass for demonstration purposes; however, the MVIS-II has been adapted to support the primary optical payload onboard the Tactical Satellite 2 (TacSat-2). Throughout the program MVIS-II has been able to adapt to changes in the payload geometry and mass properties with modification limited to support structures only. The MVIS-II system consists of a hexapod of hybrid struts, where each strut includes a patented passive 3-parameter DStrut n series with a novel hydraulically amplified piezoelectric actuator with integral load cell. Additionally, Honeywell's Flexible I/O controller electronics and software are used for command and control of the hardware. The passive D-Strut element provides a 40 dB/decade passive roll-off to attenuate mid-to-high frequency disturbances, while the active piezoelectric actuator is used for enhanced low

  6. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; El-Mahdy, Areej M.; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1–V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  7. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; El-Mahdy, Areej M; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1-V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  8. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; El-Mahdy, Areej M; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1-V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  9. Progress in ISOL target ion source systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Frånberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I. S. K.; Kirchner, R.; Targisol Collaboration

    2008-10-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  10. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1992-01-01

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that electrically isolates the...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that electrically isolates the...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that electrically isolates the...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that electrically isolates the...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2600 - Signal isolation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signal isolation system. 870.2600 Section 870.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2600 Signal isolation system. (a) Identification. A signal isolation system is a device that electrically isolates the...

  16. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control synthesis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Manned orbiters will require active vibration isolation for acceleration-sensitive microgravity science experiments. Since umbilicals are highly desirable or even indispensable for many experiments, and since their presence greatly affects the complexity of the isolation problem, they should be considered in control synthesis. A general framework is presented for applying extended H2 synthesis methods to the three-dimensional microgravity isolation problem. The methodology integrates control and state frequency weighting and input and output disturbance accommodation techniques into the basic H2 synthesis approach. The various system models needed for design and analysis are also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of a general design philosophy for the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  17. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control synthesis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Manned orbiters will require active vibration isolation for acceleration-sensitive microgravity science experiments. Since umbilicals are highly desirable or even indispensable for many experiments, and since their presence greatly affects the complexity of the isolation problem, they should be considered in control synthesis. In this paper a general framework is presented for applying extended H2 synthesis methods to the three-dimensional microgravity isolation problem. The methodology integrates control and state frequency weighting and input and output disturbance accommodation techniques into the basic H2 synthesis approach. The various system models needed for design and analysis are also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of a general design philosophy for the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  18. Influence of biologically active substances isolated from Galleria mellonella on neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis in culture.

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, N A; Kostenko, M A; Volkova, S P; Pogorelov, A G; Kondrashova, M N

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolating biologically active substances from Galleria mellonella using a culture of isolated giant neurons of mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis as a test-system is described. Fractions capable of activating neurites and inhibiting aggregation of neuronal cells within a range of concentrations from 1 to 30 micrograms/ml were isolated. The fractions obtained have in their chemical composition about 10.5% N, also contain P and S. They have a carbohydrate component. PMID:6146471

  19. Semi-active control of isolated and damaged structures using online damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Fereidoun; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Javanbakht, Majd

    2015-10-01

    The idea of using semi-active or active control devices within a base isolation system has been developed recently, since applying this system to building structures has some shortcomings such as the creation of large displacements at the base level and the system's lack of adaptability to different seismic excitations. In this study, an integrated structural health monitoring and semi-active control scheme is proposed to enhance the seismic behavior of damaged isolated structures. The nonlinear behavior of an isolated structure is limited to the isolator level and the superstructure is assumed to remain linear. Then, using an online damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters and a semi-active fuzzy controller, the damage in the base isolator is mitigated and the seismic response of the structure is reduced. In addition, a magnetorheological damper is utilized as a well-studied semi-active actuator in the control system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is evaluated through the numerical study of a six-degrees-of-freedom model of base-isolated buildings excited by various near-fault and far-field earthquake records. The results of the simulation show that the integrated algorithm is substantially effective in improving the dynamic behavior of isolated structures and reducing the damage in the isolator.

  20. Activity of faropenem against resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Moland, E S; Chartrand, S A; Thomson, K S

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro study of the activity of 9 agents against 181 US pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified imipenem and faropenem as the most active agents. Overall, faropenem was the most potent oral agent inhibiting 98% of isolates at 1 microg/mL. PMID:11687320

  1. Anti-diabetic activity of active fractions of Stereospermum tetragonum DC and isolation of active principles

    PubMed Central

    Bino Kingsley, Renjit; Mishra, Manisha; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the active principles, determine the anti-diabetes activity of fraction of Stereospermum tetragonum root. Materials and Methods The efficacy was evaluated in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and the anti-hyperglycemic activity was studied by glucose tolerance test. The major active compounds were isolated by solvent fractionation and chromatographic techniques and characterized with spectral data. Results The active fraction of S. tetragonum showed presence of anti-diabetes mellitus activity in type-2 diabetic rats. It did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. Two active principles (active at 2 mg/kg dose) were isolated and characterized with spectral data. One of them was identified as an iridoid type glycoside and the other one was a lapachol like compound (derivative of naphthoquinone). Conclusions Two active principles from the anti-diabetes fraction of S. tetragonum root were isolated and identified as an iridoid glycoside and a naphthoquinone derivative. PMID:24023445

  2. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  3. Fault detection and isolation of sensors in aeration control systems.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Bengt; Zambrano, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of fault detection (FD) and isolation in the aeration system of an activated sludge process. For this study, the dissolved oxygen in each aerated zone is assumed to be controlled automatically. As the basis for an FD method we use the ratio of air flow rates into different zones. The method is evaluated in two scenarios: using the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 (BSM1) by Monte Carlo simulations and using data from a wastewater treatment plant. The FD method shows good results for a correct and early FD and isolation.

  4. Microgravity isolation system design: A modern control analysis framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from the manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. These methods, although more powerful than their classical counterparts, can nonetheless go only so far in meeting the design requirements for practical systems. Once a tentative controller design is available, it must still be evaluated to determine whether or not it is fully acceptable, and to compare it with other possible design candidates. Realistically, such evaluation will be an inherent part of a necessary iterative design process. In this paper, an approach is presented for applying complex mu-analysis methods to a closed-loop vibration isolation system (experiment plus controller). An analysis framework is presented for evaluating nominal stability, nominal performance, robust stability, and robust performance of active microgravity isolation systems, with emphasis on the effective use of mu-analysis methods.

  5. Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenon, Dan; Boyd, Jim; Buchele, Paul; Self, Rick; Davis, Torey; Hintz, Timothy L.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. Previous work, funded by AFRL, DARPA, BMDO and others, developed technology building blocks that provide new methods to control vibrations of spacecraft. The technology of smart materials enables an unprecedented level of integration of sensors, actuators, and structures; this integration provides the opportunity for new structural designs that can adaptively influence their surrounding environment. To date, several demonstrations have been conducted to mature these technologies. Making use of recent advances in smart materials, microelectronics, Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, and Multi-Functional Structures (MFS), the Air Force Research Laboratory along with its partner DARPA, have initiated an aggressive program to develop a Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS) (patent pending) for space applications. The MVIS program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. The current effort has been awarded

  6. Mechanism of action of platelet activating factor in the pulmonary circulation: an investigation using a novel isotopic system in rabbit isolated lung.

    PubMed Central

    Seale, J. P.; Nourshargh, S.; Hellewell, P. G.; Williams, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Rabbit isolated lungs were perfused via the pulmonary artery with Tyrode solution containing 4.5% Ficoll and 0.1% bovine serum albumin at a constant rate of 20 ml min-1. Lung perfusate was drawn for alternating 5 min periods from two reservoirs, one containing 125I-albumin and the other unlabelled albumin to wash out the intravascular label. Microvascular 125I-albumin leakage was determined from the count remaining at the end of the washout phase with an external gamma scintillation probe. In addition, perfusion pressure was monitored continuously. Each experiment comprised 6 cycles over a total period of 60 min. 2. Infusion of platelet activating factor (PAF, 3 nmol min-1 for 10 min) resulted in microvascular 125I-albumin leakage, whereas lyso-PAF was without effect. During PAF infusions there was also an increase in perfusion pressure. Both the permeability and pressor effects of PAF were inhibited by the PAF antagonist L-652731. 3. Infusion of the thromboxane analogue U-46619 (0.6 nmol min-1 for 10 min) caused an increase in perfusion pressure but protein accumulation was not significantly different from that observed with control infusions. 4. Bolus injections of PAF (1 nmol) caused increases in perfusion pressure which were reduced by indomethacin, dazmegrel and BW 755C. Bolus injections of PAF, repeated at 30 min intervals caused reproducible pressor responses; however, repeated injections at 60 min intervals resulted in augmented responses. This augmentation did not occur in the presence of indomethacin. 5. Retrograde perfusion of PAF via the pulmonary vein induced increased perfusion pressure and microvascular 125I-albumin leakage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1786514

  7. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  8. Antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.

  9. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  10. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  11. System and Method for Isolation of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for isolating samples are provided. The system comprises a first membrane and a second membrane disposed within an enclosure. First and second reservoirs can also be disposed within the enclosure and adapted to contain one or more reagents therein. A first valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first reservoir, the second reservoir, or both. The first valve can also be in fluid communication with the first or second membranes or both. The first valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagents from the first reservoir, through at least one of the first and second membranes, and into the second reservoir.

  12. In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico.

  13. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  14. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie R.; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  15. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

  16. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  17. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

  18. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RCIC results.

  19. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RCIC results.

  20. Performance of a new magnetorheological elastomer isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrooz, Majid; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the performance of a new magnetorheological elastomer-based semi-active/passive variable stiffness and damping isolator (VSDI) in a scaled building system. The force of the VSDI can be controlled in real time by varying the applied magnetic field. To demonstrate the performance of the VSDI, four prototypes are built and utilized in a scaled three-story building. A Lyapunov-based control strategy is employed and it is demonstrated that it works well for the scaled building system under the scaled El Centro earthquake motion. Experimental results show that the VSDIs significantly reduce the acceleration and relative displacement of the building floors.

  1. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Ames, K.R.; Gallucci, R.H.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report.

  2. Perylenequinones: Isolation, Synthesis, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooey, Carol A.; O'Brien, Erin M.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The perylenequinones are a novel class of natural products characterized by pentacyclic conjugated chromophore giving rise to photoactivity. Potentially useful light-activated biological activity, targeting protein kinase C (PKC), has been identified for several of the natural products. Recently discovered new members of this class of compound, as well as several related phenanthroperylenequinones, are reviewed. Natural product modifications that improve biological profiles, and avenues for the total synthesis of analogs, which are not available from the natural product series, are outlined. An overview of structure/function relationships is provided. PMID:24039544

  3. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (Taro)

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X. Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  4. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis.

  5. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  6. Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)

  7. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  8. Characterization of Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators for Use in Active Isolation Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1997-01-01

    Active mounts are desirable for isolating spacecraft science instruments from on-board vibrational sources such as motors and release mechanisms. Such active isolation mounts typically employ multilayer piezoelectric actuators to cancel these vibrational disturbances. The actuators selected for spacecraft systems must consume minimal power while exhibiting displacements of 5 to 10 micron under load. This report describes a study that compares the power consumption, displacement, and load characteristics of four commercially available multilayer piezoelectric actuators. The results of this study indicate that commercially available actuators exist that meet or exceed the design requirements used in spacecraft isolation mounts.

  9. Equations of Motion for the g-LIMIT Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Whorton, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    A desirable microgravity environment for experimental science payloads may require an active vibration isolation control system. A vibration isolation system named g-LIMIT (GLovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology) is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support microgravity science experiments using the microgravity science glovebox. In this technical memorandum, the full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear equations of motion for g-LIMIT are derived. Although the motivation for this model development is control design and analysis of g-LIMIT, the equations are derived for a general configuration and may be used for other isolation systems as well.

  10. Structural design of active seismic isolation floor with a charging function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakoji, Hayato; Miura, Nanako

    2016-04-01

    This study shows an optimum structure of a seismic isolation floor against horizontal ground motions. Although a seismic isolation floor is effective with vibration reduction, the response of the floor becomes larger when excited by long-period ground motions. It is shown that caster equipment move and suffer damage in a seismic isolation structure by an experiment. Moreover, the permissible displacement of the floor is limited. Therefore, the focus is on an active seismic isolation. About active control, the system cannot operate without power supply. To solve these problems an energy regeneration is considered in our previous study. These studies only analyze simple model and did not choose the suitable structure for active control and energy regeneration. This research propose a new structure which has regenerated energy exceeds the energy required for the active control by numerical simulation.

  11. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  12. Characterization of the cellulolytic activity of a bacillus isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, L.M.; Chambliss, G.H.

    1984-05-01

    A group I Bacillus strain, DLG, was isolated and characterized as being most closely related to Bacillus subtilis. When grown on any of a variety of sugars, the culture supernatant of this isolate was found to process cellulolytic activity, as demonstrated by degradation of trinitrophenyl-carboxymethyl cellulose. Growth in medium containing cellobiose or glucose resulted in the greatest production of cellulolytic activity. The cellulolytic activity was not produced until the stationary phase of growth, and the addition of glucose or cellobiose to a culture in this phase had no apparent effect on enzyme production. Fractionation of the culture supernatant showed that the molecular weight of the enzymatic activity was less than 100,000. Maximum cellulolytic activity in assays was observed at pH 4.8 and at 58 degrees C, although maximum thermal stability of the activity was observed only up to 45 to 50 degrees C. Neither glucose nor cellobiose inhibited enzymatic activity. Kinetic experiments suggested that more than one enzyme was acting upon trinitrophenyl-carboxymethyl cellulose. Exocellular protein produced by this Bacillus isolate showed roughly one-fifth the cellulolytic activity displayed by Trichoderma reesei C30 on noncrystalline cellulosic substrates. In contrast to T. reesei cellulase, the Bacillus enzymatic activity showed no ability to degrade crystalline forms of cellulose, nor was cellobiase activity detectable. 32 references.

  13. Antioxidant activity of isoflavones and biflavones isolated from Godoya antioquiensis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Weniger, Bernard; Parejo, Irene; Bastida, Jaume; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Lobstein, Annelise; Codina, Caries

    2006-01-01

    Two biflavones, ochnaflavone (1) and 2",3"-dihydroochnaflavone (2), and two isoflavones, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (piscigenin) (3) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyisoflavone (4), a new natural compound, were isolated from the leaves of Godoya antioquiensis (Ochnaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity using the NBT (nitrobluetetrazolium)/hypoxanthine superoxide and the .OH/luminol chemiluminescence methods. The isolated isoflavones were found to exhibit a strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and a moderate inhibition of the superoxide anion, whereas the two biflavones were inactive in the superoxide anion assay and showed a low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.

  14. Beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L; Langlois, B E; Dawson, K A

    1992-01-01

    Research has shown that various percentages of fecal Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy subjects may be beta-glucuronidase negative. The ability to detect beta-glucuronidase activity among fecal E. coli isolates from healthy subjects may be affected by assay conditions. A study was conducted in which agar and broth media containing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) were used to examine beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar plus 100 mg of MUG per liter (MAC-MUG) and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Each of 986 isolates picked from MAC-MUG was inoculated into duplicate tubes of lauryl tryptose broth plus 50 mg of MUG per liter (LT-MUG). One set of tubes was incubated at 35 degrees C and the other set of tubes was incubated at 44.5 degrees C. Gas production and hydrolysis of MUG, indicated by fluorescence when observed with UV light with a wavelength of 360 nm, were determined after incubation for 24 and 48 h. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive at 44.5 degrees C than at 35 degrees C after 24 h of incubation in LT-MUG. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive after 48 h than after 24 h of incubation at both 35 and 44.5 degrees C. A lower percentage of isolates (P less than 0.05) was observed to be MUG positive on MAC-MUG agar compared with their MUG reactions in LT-MUG at 35 and 44.5 degrees C. Approximately 89% of the isolates identified were beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli. The largest proportion of MUG-positive E. coli was detected with LT-MUG at 35 degrees C after 48 h of incubation. PMID:1500519

  15. Optical mapping system for visualizing arrhythmias in isolated mouse atria.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robyn; Nygren, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Optical mapping has become an important technique in the study of cardiac electrophysiology, especially in terms of investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. The increasing availability of transgenic mice as models for cardiovascular disease is driving the need for instrumentation suitable for the study of electrical activity in the mouse heart. In this paper we evaluate our optical mapping system's ability to clearly record induced arrhythmic activity in an isolated mouse atrial preparation. Preliminary results indicate that the signal quality is high enough that individual optically recorded action potentials can be discerned in many pixels, even without post-processing for noise removal. The optical mapping video is clear enough for general observations regarding the patterns of electrical propagation during arrhythmic behaviour. The induced arrhythmias appear to have a regular pattern of activity, and are likely best classified as atrial tachycardias.

  16. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  17. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  18. Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Marja; Kylli, Petri; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Heinonen, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Ellagitannins from red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. The main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by ESI-MS to consist of the dimeric sanguiin H-6 and the trimeric lambertianin C. Monomeric ellagitannins such as casuarictin in raspberries and pedunculagin in cloudberries were also found. The antioxidant activity of the berry phenolic isolate, ellagitannin isolate (mixture), ellagitannin main fraction (dimer and trimer), and ellagic acid was studied in bulk and emulsified methyl linoleate, in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro, and the radical scavenging activity was studied in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Cloudberry and red raspberry ellagitannins were highly effective as radical scavengers. Berry ellagitannins also showed significant antioxidant activity toward oxidation of both human LDL and methyl linoleate emulsions. However, only weak or moderate antioxidant activity was exhibited by ellagitannins toward oxidation of bulk oil. Thus, ellagitannins contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of cloudberries and red raspberries in lipoprotein and lipid emulsion environments, the latter being more relevant for food applications.

  19. Glyceollin I, A Novel Antiestrogenic Phytoalexin Isolated from Activated Soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyceollins, a group of novel phytoalexins isolated from activated soy, have recently been demonstrated to be a novel antiestrogen which bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibit estrogen-induced tumor progression. Our previous publications have focused specifically on inhibition of tumor form...

  20. Xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata with activity against erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A

    2004-07-01

    1,7-Dimethoxy-2-hydroxy-xanthone and 1,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata were tested for their activity on rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. Only the former relaxed the corpus cavernosum by 63% at 1.8 x 10(-5) mg/ml. PMID:15261388

  1. Metabolic activities of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    PubMed

    Yüksekdag, Zehra Nur; Beyath, Yavuz; Aslim, Belma

    2004-06-01

    A total of 21 strains of Lactobacillus species were isolated from Turkish kefir samples, in order to select the most suitable strains according to their metabolic activities including probiotic properties. As a result of the identification tests, 21 Lactobacillus isolates were identified as L. acidophilus (4%), L. helveticus (9%), L. brevis (9%), L. bulgaricus (14%), L. plantarum (14%), L. casei (19%) and L. lactis (28%). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity, and acetaldehyde productions of Lactobacillus spp. were determined. Different amounts of lactic acid were produced by strains studies; however, lactic acid levels were 1.7-11.4 mg/mL. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide. L. bulgaricus Z14L strain showed no proteolytic activity, L. casei Z6L strain produced the maximum amount (0.16 mg/mL) of proteolytic activity. Acetaldehyde concentration produced in Lactobacillus strains ranged between 0.88-3.52 microg/mL.

  2. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of propolis-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Giovanni Gontijo; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; de Moura, Fabiana; Salgado, Mírian; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely known for its medicinal properties. In this work, fungi present on propolis samples were isolated, identified and tested for the production of antimicrobial metabolites. Twenty-two fungal isolates were obtained, some of which were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Fusarium merismoides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Pestalotiopsis palustris, Tetracoccosporium paxianum and Trichoderma koningii. These fungi were grown in liquid media to obtain crude extracts that were evaluated for their antibiotic activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and Cladosporium cladosporioides and A. flavus. The most active extract was obtained from L. theobromae (minimum inhibitory concentration = 64 μg/mL against Listeria monocitogenes). Some extracts showed to be more active than the positive control in the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and L. monocitogenes. Therefore, propolis is a promising source of fungi, which produces active agents against relevant food poisoning bacteria and crop-associated fungi.

  3. Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Spacecraft Exercise Treadmill Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fialho, Ian; Tyer, Craig; Murphy, Bryan; Cotter, Paul; Thampi, Sreekumar

    2011-01-01

    A novel, passive system has been developed for isolating an exercise treadmill device from a spacecraft in a zero-G environment. The Treadmill 2 Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (T2-VIS) mechanically isolates the exercise treadmill from the spacecraft/space station, thereby eliminating the detrimental effect that high impact loads generated during walking/running would have on the spacecraft structure and sensitive microgravity science experiments. This design uses a second stage spring, in series with the first stage, to achieve an order of magnitude higher exercise- frequency isolation than conventional systems have done, while maintaining desirable low-frequency stability performance. This novel isolator design, in conjunction with appropriately configured treadmill platform inertia properties, has been shown (by on-orbit zero-G testing onboard the International Space Station) to deliver exceedingly high levels of isolation/ stability performance.

  4. [Biologically Active Peptides Isolated from Dill Anethum graveolens L].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, O G; Maltsev, D I; Ilyina, A P; Burdina, A V; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Peptide mixtures with molecular weights of 1000-2000 Da and in vivo membrano-trophic activity against mouse hepatocyte culture at very low concentrations were isolated from dill Anethum graveolens L. leaves. It has been found that plant peptides in aqueous solution formed larger nanosized particles of approximately 90 nm with a secondary structure mainly composed of β-structures and random coil structures. We demonstrated that peptides isolated from A. graveolens in vitro at an ultra-low dosage affected the size of the area of pigmented cells of amphibian liver, which are analogous to Kupffer cells of the mammalian liver, using roller organotypic newt liver culture models. PMID:26204780

  5. Optimum Damping in a Non-Linear Base Isolation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, R. S.

    1996-02-01

    Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of the El-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation system. The resilient-friction base isolator (R-FBI) is considered as an isolation system. The non-stationary stochastic response of the system is obtained by the time dependent equivalent linearization technique as the force-deformation of the R-FBI system is non-linear. The optimum damping of the R-FBI system is obtained under important parametric variations; i.e., the coefficient of friction of the R-FBI system, the period and damping of the superstructure; the effective period of base isolation. The criterion selected for optimality is the minimization of the top floor root mean square (r.m.s.) acceleration. It is shown that the above parameters have significant effects on optimum isolation damping.

  6. Isolation of Mammalian Oogonial Stem Cells by Antibody-Based Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Navaroli, Deanna M; Tilly, Jonathan L; Woods, Dori C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to isolate and subsequently culture mitotically active female germ cells from adult ovaries, referred to as either oogonial stem cells (OSCs) or adult female germline stem cells (aFGSCs), has provided a robust system to study female germ cell development under multiple experimental conditions, and in many species. Flow cytometry or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an integral part of many isolation and characterization protocols. Here, we provide methodological details for antibody-based flow cytometric isolation of OSCs using antibodies specific for external epitopes of the proteins Ddx4 or Ifitm3, alone or in combination with the use of fluorescent reporter mice. Beginning with sample preparation, we provide point-by-point instructions to guide researchers on how to isolate OSCs using flow cytometry. PMID:27557587

  7. [Isolation of Actinomycetes synthesizing proteases with thrombolytic activity].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, S V; Salivonik, S M

    1988-01-01

    Proteases with the thrombolytic activity were studied in 212 strains of actinomycetes isolated from different soils of the Soviet Union. The cultures belonged to the genera Micromonospora, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Proteases were synthesized by 41% of the studied actinomycetes and some of their strains completely dissolved in vitro artificially obtained blood thrombi within 120-240 min. In the Streptomyces genus, more active strains were found in the groups Flavus, Fradia and Globisporus. The groups Olivaceus, Violaceus and Viridis had less active strains. PMID:3062331

  8. Model-free fuzzy control of a magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation system: analysis and experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Peidong; Wang, Yuan; Liao, Guanyao; Yu, Miao

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of micro-vibration control of a precision vibration isolation system with a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator and fuzzy control strategy. Firstly, a polyurethane matrix MRE isolator working in the shear-compression mixed mode is introduced. The dynamic characteristic is experimentally tested, and the range of the frequency shift and the model parameters of the MRE isolator are obtained from experimental results. Secondly, a new semi-active control law is proposed, which uses isolation structure displacement and relative displacement between the isolation structure and base as the inputs. Considering the nonlinearity of the MRE isolator and the excitation uncertainty of an isolation system, the designed semi-active fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is independent of a system model and is robust. Finally, the numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the FLC with single-frequency and multiple-frequency excitation, respectively, and the experimental results show that the acceleration transmissibility is reduced by 54.04% at most, which verifies the effectiveness of the designed semi-active FLC. Moreover, the advantages of the approach are demonstrated in comparison to the passive control and ON-OFF control.

  9. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  10. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  11. Isolation of a polysaccharide with anticancer activity from Auricularia polytricha using high-speed countercurrent chromatography with an aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanglei; Du, Qizhen

    2010-09-17

    Polysaccharides from a crude extract of Auricularia polytricha were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The separation was performed with an aqueous two-phase system of PEG1000-K2HPO4-KH2PO4-H2O (0.5:1.25:1.25:7.0, w/w). The crude sample (2.0 g) was successfully separated into three polysaccharide components of AAPS-1 (192 mg), AAPS-2 (137 mg), and AAPS-3 (98 mg) with molecular weights of 162, 259, and 483 kDa, respectively. These compounds were tested for growth inhibition of transplanted S180 sarcoma in mice. AAPS-2 had an inhibition rate of 40.4%. The structure of AAPS-2 was elucidated from partial hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, acetylation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C). These results showed AAPS-2 is a polysaccharide with a backbone of (1-->3)-linked-beta-d-glucopyranosyl and (1-->3, 6)-linked-beta-D-glucopyranosyl residues in a 2:1 ratio, and has one terminal (1-->)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl at the O-6 position of (1-->3, 6)-linked-beta-D-glucopyranosyl of the main chain. PMID:20719324

  12. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mast, Jan; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  13. Damping phenomena in a wire rope vibration isolation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.; Cutchins, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A study is presented of the dynamic characteristics of a wire rope vibration isolation system constructed with helical isolators, with emphasis placed on the analytical modeling of damping mechanisms in the system. An experimental investigation is described in which the static stiffness curve, hysteresis curves, phase plane trajectories, and frequency response curves are obtained. A semiempirical model having nonlinear stiffness, nth-power velocity damping, and variable Coulomb friction damping is developed, and the results are compared to experimental data. Several observations and conclusions are made about the dynamic phenomena in a typical wire rope vibration isolation system based on the experimental and semiempirical results.

  14. Six degree-of-freedom LIVE isolation systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halwes, D. R.; Nicks, C. O.

    1986-01-01

    A Total Main Rotor Isolation System (TRIS) was analyzed, designed, fabricated, and bench tested for the reduction of main rotor vibration levels transmitted to the helicopter fuselage. The TRIS consists of a six degree-of-freedom passive system using six Liquid Inertia Vibration Eliminator (LIVE) units developed by Bell Helicopter Textron. The objective of the program is to develop a helicopter isolation system that will achieve 90% (or greater) isolation at minimum weight with no degradation in vehicle stability, handling qualities, alignment tolerance, and reliability or maintainability.

  15. New Iridoid Glycosides with Antidepressant Activity Isolated from Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Liu; Yin, Wen-Qing; Yang, Ya-Mei; He, Chun-Hong; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Cui-Ping; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Based on bioactive screening results, two new iridoid glycosides, named rotunduside G (1) and rotunduside H (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus, together with four known ones, negundoside (3), nishindaside (4), isooleuropein (5) and neonuezhenide (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and from literature values. In mice models of despair, 1 and 2 showed significant antidepressant activity. PMID:26726748

  16. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  17. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control.

  18. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  19. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  20. Optimization of parasitic isolators in laser fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, J.F.; Phipps, C.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of model calculations for the optimization of the efficiency of high-gain amplifier systems stabilized by saturable absorbers are described. It is shown that the isolator performance can be characterized by a convenient figure of merit.

  1. ISOL Systems: Design and Physics Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Guy

    2005-04-01

    The RIA facility is being proposed to elucidate a number of key questions in the fields of nuclear structure physics, astrophysics and fundamental interaction physics. Many of these key questions are best addressed with beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes at very low energy or reaccelerated to energy in the range from that typical of explosive astrophysical events up to the Coulomb barrier regime. To fulfill its goal, RIA must have far greater capabilities in this energy regime than existing facilities. This is achieved by using a combination of high power ISOL targets and a new approach combining the advantages of the ISOL and fragmentation techniques to yield beams of a broad array of short-lived isotopes at intensity approaching that available so far only with beams of stable isotopes. The physics questions that will be addressed with these beams will be presented together with a detailed description of the concepts and underlying R&D that enable this breakthrough in performance. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Nos. W-31-109-ENG-38 and DE- FG-06-90ER-41132.

  2. Robust Fault Detection and Isolation for Stochastic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jemin; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves precise reconstruction of sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the robust fault detection and isolation system.

  3. Growth characteristics and enzyme activity in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E Pearl; Trott, Darren J; Bird, Philip S; Mills, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a member of the phylum Chytridiomycota and the causative organism chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians associated with global population declines and mass mortality events. The organism targets keratin-forming epithelium in adult and larval amphibians, which suggests that keratinolytic activity may be required to infect amphibian hosts. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested 10 isolates of B. dendrobatidis for their ability to grow on a range of keratin-supplemented agars and measured keratolytic enzyme activity using a commercially available kit (bioMerieux API ZYM). The most dense and fastest growth of isolates were recorded on tryptone agar, followed by growth on frog skin agar and the slowest growth recorded on feather meal and boiled snake skin agar. Growth patterns were distinctive for each nutrient source. All 10 isolates were strongly positive for a range of proteolytic enzymes which may be keratinolytic, including trypsin and chymotrypsin. These findings support the predilection of B. dendrobatidis for amphibian skin. PMID:18568420

  4. Proinflammatory activity of an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Lins, Kézia O A L; Vale, Mariana L; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2013-01-30

    Alginates are unbranched polymers of polysaccharide presented as the structural components of marine brown algae. The proinflammatory activity of SVHV, an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare, was investigated using models of paw edema, mast cells degranulation and neutrophil migration in vivo. SVHV induced a dose dependent paw edema, with a peak at 2 h, associated with an increased myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Pharmacological modulators, remarkably dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited the edema. SVHV (1.0 mg) also led to a significant induction of neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity of rats. This neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by peritoneal resident macrophages depletion, but was not affected by the depletion of mast cells. Our data suggest that SVHV has proinflammatory activity dependent of the activation of resident cells, being the macrophages the main cells involved. PMID:23218314

  5. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces.

  6. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, C S P; Chu, F C S; Leung, W K; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P; Siu, S C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts, and the isolates were further tested for in vitro phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities. The major biotypes of C. albicans isolates from the type 2 DM and control groups were A1R (42.1 %) and J1R (36.0 %), respectively. Significantly higher proteinase and haemolytic activities were found in the isolates from the type 2 DM group (P<0.05). Proteinase activity was higher in isolates from patients with > or =10 years of DM history than those with <10 years (P<0.05). Haemolytic activity was significantly higher in isolates from female DM patients than in those from male counterparts (P<0.05). These data provide evidence of increased extracellular enzyme activity in Candida isolates taken from DM patients.

  7. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of propolis-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Giovanni Gontijo; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; de Moura, Fabiana; Salgado, Mírian; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely known for its medicinal properties. In this work, fungi present on propolis samples were isolated, identified and tested for the production of antimicrobial metabolites. Twenty-two fungal isolates were obtained, some of which were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Fusarium merismoides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Pestalotiopsis palustris, Tetracoccosporium paxianum and Trichoderma koningii. These fungi were grown in liquid media to obtain crude extracts that were evaluated for their antibiotic activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and Cladosporium cladosporioides and A. flavus. The most active extract was obtained from L. theobromae (minimum inhibitory concentration = 64 μg/mL against Listeria monocitogenes). Some extracts showed to be more active than the positive control in the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and L. monocitogenes. Therefore, propolis is a promising source of fungi, which produces active agents against relevant food poisoning bacteria and crop-associated fungi. PMID:23439233

  8. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  9. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-12-29

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  10. Dopaminergic parameters during social isolation in low- and high-active mice.

    PubMed

    Rilke, O; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    1998-06-01

    Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to locomotor activity, [3H]-spiperone binding in the striatum, striatal, and cortical dopamine metabolism, and presynaptic dopaminergic sensitivity to apomorphine (0.75 mg/kg; i.p.). Isolated HAM and LAM showed increased locomotor activity compared to group-housed mice after long-term isolation (6-18 weeks). Considering the studied dopaminergic parameters, it has been found that social isolation did not affect striatal D2 receptors, striatal and cortical dopamine metabolism, and apomorphine-mediated reduction of dopaminergic metabolism. The change of housing conditions was generally associated with an increase of cortical dopamine metabolism after 1 week. Activity type specific differences in group-housed LAM and HAM were found in the basal striatal dopamine metabolism and in the sensitivity of the nigrostriatal system to autoreceptor activation. The reduced striatal dopamine metabolism and the higher presynaptic sensitivity of HAM may be related to their high active running wheel behavior.

  11. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  12. Impact of isolation method on the antioxidant activity of rapeseed meal phenolics.

    PubMed

    Vuorela, Satu; Meyer, Anne S; Heinonen, Marina

    2004-12-29

    Rapeseed meal is the byproduct of the rapeseed deoiling process. Among oilseed plants, rapeseed contains the greatest amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the rapeseed phenolics were isolated with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol, hot water, and enzymatically with ferulic acid esterase. These isolates were tested for radical scavenging and for liposome and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) model systems. The radical scavenging activities of all isolates were >60% at a concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. In the liposome model system the formation of hexanal was inhibited by all rapeseed meal isolates by >90% and the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides by >80% (8.4 microg/mL concentration). All rapeseed meal isolates also inhibited oxidation of LDL particles by >90% inhibition (4.2 microg/mL concentration). Isolation of rapeseed meal phenolics with either water or enzyme is a very suitable method devoid of organic solvents. Thus, rapeseed meal phenolics constitute an interesting source for food and cosmetic applications with antioxidant effect.

  13. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare.

  14. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    On the night of 6/7 July 1988 a major oil production platform known as Piper Alpha in the UK sector of the North Sea was destroyed by explosion and fire, with the loss of 167 lives. This led to the appointment of Lord Cullen, a senior Scottish Judge, to hold a Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. The Cullen Enquiry Report consisting of 23 chapters set out in 2 volumes, was published on 12 November 1990. One of the important conclusions drawn by Lord Cullen resulted in a recommendation for studies to be conducted to consider ways of improving the reliability and reducing the costs of SSIVs (Subsea Isolation Valves) so that it is more often reasonably practicable to install them. To address the Cullen recommendations, a joint industry study was conducted by UKOOA (United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association) and the HSE/OSD (Health and Safety Executive Offshore Safety Division) in conjunction with independent consultants. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  15. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim. PMID:18062653

  16. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim.

  17. Isolation of osteogenic cells from the trauma-activated periosteum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hsiao; Bullock, John

    1987-12-01

    Closed, greenstick type fractures were created in adult male white New Zealand rabbits. After a waiting period of 5 days the developing callous and bone approximately 1 cm to each side of the callous was harvested and cell cultures established. Biochemical assays for total protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and glycosamino-glycan content were performed on spent media collected at each change and upon the cells after their termination, in an attempt to more fully characterize the osteoblast population. Since little is known about bone forming cells isolated from this source it is important to establish baseline data so as to be able to relate reactions of these cells to altered environmental conditions.

  18. Microbiological evaluation of the mobile biological isolator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. M.; Morelli, F.; Neiderheiser, W.; Tratz, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluations on critical components of the mobile biological isolation system were performed. High efficiency particulate air filter efficiency and suit integrity were found to withstand repeated ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizations. The minimum ETO sterilization time required to inactivate all contaminant organisms was established at four hours. Two days of aerating at 120 F was found to dissipate all harmful ETO residuals from the suit. Donning and doffing procedures were clarified and written specifically for isolation rooms.

  19. Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 isolates that cause bacteremia in humans stimulate less inflammasome activation than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Carden, Sarah; Okoro, Chinyere; Dougan, Gordon; Monack, Denise

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella is an enteric pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium generally cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis whereas typhoidal serovars cause a systemic disease, typhoid fever. However, S. Typhimurium isolates within the multi-locus sequence type ST313 have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of bacteremia in humans. The S. Typhimurium ST313 lineage is phylogenetically distinct from classical S. Typhimurium lineages, such as ST19, that cause zoonotic gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the ST313 lineage has undergone genome degradation when compared to the ST19 lineage, similar to that observed for typhoidal serovars. Currently, little is known about phenotypic differences between ST313 isolates and other NTS isolates. We find that representative ST313 isolates invade non-phagocytic cells less efficiently than the classical ST19 isolates that are more commonly associated with gastroenteritis. In addition, ST313 isolates induce less Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death and IL-1β release than ST19 isolates. ST313 isolates also express relatively lower levels of mRNA of the genes encoding the SPI-1 effector sopE2 and the flagellin, fliC, providing possible explanations for the decrease in invasion and inflammasome activation. The ST313 isolates have invasion and inflammatory phenotypes that are intermediate; more invasive and inflammatory than Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and less than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis. This suggests that both phenotypically and at the genomic level ST313 isolates are evolving signatures that facilitate a systemic lifestyle in humans.

  20. Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 isolates that cause bacteremia in humans stimulate less inflammasome activation than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Carden, Sarah; Okoro, Chinyere; Dougan, Gordon; Monack, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an enteric pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium generally cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis whereas typhoidal serovars cause a systemic disease, typhoid fever. However, S. Typhimurium isolates within the multi-locus sequence type ST313 have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of bacteremia in humans. The S. Typhimurium ST313 lineage is phylogenetically distinct from classical S. Typhimurium lineages, such as ST19, that cause zoonotic gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the ST313 lineage has undergone genome degradation when compared to the ST19 lineage, similar to that observed for typhoidal serovars. Currently, little is known about phenotypic differences between ST313 isolates and other NTS isolates. We find that representative ST313 isolates invade non-phagocytic cells less efficiently than the classical ST19 isolates that are more commonly associated with gastroenteritis. In addition, ST313 isolates induce less Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death and IL-1β release than ST19 isolates. ST313 isolates also express relatively lower levels of mRNA of the genes encoding the SPI-1 effector sopE2 and the flagellin, fliC, providing possible explanations for the decrease in invasion and inflammasome activation. The ST313 isolates have invasion and inflammatory phenotypes that are intermediate; more invasive and inflammatory than Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and less than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis. This suggests that both phenotypically and at the genomic level ST313 isolates are evolving signatures that facilitate a systemic lifestyle in humans. PMID:25808600

  1. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  2. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  3. Improved thermal isolation for superconducting magnet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiebe, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    Closed-cycle refrigerating system for superconductive magnet and maser is operated in vacuum environment. Each wire leading from external power source passes through cooling station which blocks heat conduction. In connection with these stations, switch with small incandescent light bulb, which generates heat, is used to stop superconduction.

  4. Accumulator isolator prevents malfunctioning of faulty hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, G. D.

    1967-01-01

    Special isolator valve prevents malfunction of a closed hydraulic system by converting the initial accumulator-reservoir to a reservoir function only when the system loses oil, or gaseous nitrogen precharge, or has a jammed piston. This permits near-normal operation until the defect is corrected.

  5. Antiproliferative activity of xanthones isolated from Artocarpus obtusus.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Oktima, Winda; Ali, Abd Manaf; Go, Rusea

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the chemical constituents in Artocarpus obtusus species led to the isolation of three new xanthones, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1), dihydroartoindonesianin C (2), and pyranocycloartobiloxanthone B (3). The compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60), human chronic myeloid leukemia (K562), and human estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) consistently showed strong cytotoxic activity against the three cell lines compared to the other two with IC(50) values of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Compound (1) was also observed to exert antiproliferative activity and apoptotic promoter towards HL60 and MCF7 cell lines at respective IC(50) values. The compound (1) was not toxic towards normal cell lines human nontumorigenic breast cell line (MCF10A) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IC(50) values of more than 30 μg/mL.

  6. Antileishmanial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Divya; Steinberg, Kelly Marie; Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania parasitic protozoa, which currently lacks efficient treatment. Natural products have shown promise as a potential source for antiprotozoal drugs. This work focuses on the antileishmanial potential of Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) bark extract. The crude bark extract of S. albidum showed excellent antileishmanial activity with an IC50 value less than 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes of L. amazonensis. The chloroform stem bark extract of S. albidum was subjected to preparative column chromatography. Five compounds were isolated, purified by recrystallization, and identified as sesamin, spinescin, β-sitosterol, hexatriacontanal, and 1-triacontanol. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic screening were performed on these compounds. Sesamin exhibited the best activity against L. amazonensis with an IC50 of 15.8 μg/mL and was not cytotoxic to mouse macrophage cells (CC50 > 100 μg/mL).

  7. On the transmissibilities of nonlinear vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Brennan, Michael J.; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    Transmissibility is a key parameter to quantify the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Under harmonic excitation, the force transmissibility of a linear vibration isolation system is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the force transmitted to the host structure and the excitation force amplitude, and the displacement transmissibility is the ratio between the displacement amplitude of the payload and that of the base. For a nonlinear vibration isolation system, the force or the displacement responses usually have more frequency components than the excitation. For a harmonic excitation, the response may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. Therefore, the amplitude ratio cannot well define the transmissibility. The root-mean-square ratio of the response to the excitation is suggested to define the transmissibility. The significance of the modified transmissibility is highlighted in a nonlinear two-stage vibration isolation system consisting of two linear spring connected linear vibration isolators with two additional horizontal linear springs. Harmonic balance method (HBM) is applied to determine the responses with the fundamental and third harmonic. Numerical simulations reveal that chaos may occur in the responses. In both cases, the modified transmissibility works while the original definition cannot be applied to chaotic response.

  8. Dynamics of Aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Martone-Rocha, S; Piveli, R P; Matté, G R; Dória, M C; Dropa, M; Morita, M; Peternella, F A; Matté, M H

    2010-12-01

    Aeromonas are widely distributed in the aquatic environment, and are considered to be emerging organisms that can produce a series of virulence factors. The present study was carried out in a sanitary sewage stabilization pond treatment system, located in Lins, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Most probable number was applied for estimation of the genus Aeromonas. Colony isolation was carried out on blood agar ampicillin and confirmed by biochemical characterization. Aeromonas species were isolated in 72.4% of influent samples, and in 55.2 and 48.3% of effluent from anaerobic and facultative lagoons, respectively. Thirteen Aeromonas species were isolated, representing most of the recognized species of these organisms. Even though it was possible to observe a tendency of decrease, total elimination of these organisms from the studied system was not achieved. Understanding of the pathogenic organism's dynamics in wastewater treatment systems with a reuse potential is especially important because of the risk it represents. PMID:20705981

  9. Charging system with galvanic isolation and multiple operating modes

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-01-08

    Systems and methods are provided for operating a charging system with galvanic isolation adapted for multiple operating modes. A vehicle charging system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the DC interface, and a second conversion module coupled to the AC interface. An isolation module is coupled between the first conversion module and the second conversion module. The isolation module comprises a transformer and a switching element coupled between the transformer and the second conversion module. The transformer and the switching element are cooperatively configured for a plurality of operating modes, wherein each operating mode of the plurality of operating modes corresponds to a respective turns ratio of the transformer.

  10. Recovery of an isolated coral reef system following severe disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James P; Smith, Luke D; Heyward, Andrew J; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2013-04-01

    Coral reef recovery from major disturbance is hypothesized to depend on the arrival of propagules from nearby undisturbed reefs. Therefore, reefs isolated by distance or current patterns are thought to be highly vulnerable to catastrophic disturbance. We found that on an isolated reef system in north Western Australia, coral cover increased from 9% to 44% within 12 years of a coral bleaching event, despite a 94% reduction in larval supply for 6 years after the bleaching. The initial increase in coral cover was the result of high rates of growth and survival of remnant colonies, followed by a rapid increase in juvenile recruitment as colonies matured. We show that isolated reefs can recover from major disturbance, and that the benefits of their isolation from chronic anthropogenic pressures can outweigh the costs of limited connectivity. PMID:23559247

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 North American and European Lawsonia intracellularis isolates.

    PubMed

    Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Singer, Randall S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials against 10 isolates of Lawsonia intracellularis, the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE). Antimicrobials tested included carbadox, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, tiamulin, tylosin and valnemulin. The MIC of each antimicrobial against L. intracellularis was determined using a tissue culture system and was identified as the lowest concentration that inhibited 99% of L. intracellularis growth, as compared to the antimicrobial-free control. Each antimicrobial concentration was evaluated for both intracellular and extracellular activity against L. intracellularis, an obligately intracellular bacterium. When tested for intracellular activity, carbadox, tiamulin, and valnemulin were the most active antimicrobials with MICs of < or =0.5microg/ml. Tylosin (MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32microg/ml) and chlortetracycline (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 64microg/ml) showed intermediate activities and lincomycin (MICs ranging from 8 to >128mIcog/ml) showed the least activity. When tested for extracellular activity, valnemulin (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 4microg/ml) was the most active against most L. intracellularis isolates. Chlortetracycline (MICs ranging from 16 to 64microg/ml), tylosin (MICs ranging from 1 to >128microg/ml), and tiamulin (MICs ranging from 1 to 32microg/ml) showed intermediate activities. Lincomycin (MICs ranging from 32 to >128microg/ml) showed the least activity. Our in vitro results showed that each L. intracellularis isolate had a different antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and these data can be utilized as an in vitro guideline for the further antimicrobial evaluation of field L. intracellularis isolates. PMID:18823723

  12. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  13. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  14. Modeling of a new semi-active/passive magnetorheological elastomer isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrooz, Majid; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents theoretical modeling of a new magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) base isolator and its performance for vibration control. The elastomeric element of the traditional steel-rubber base isolator is modified to a composite layer of passive elastomer and MRE which makes the isolator controllable with respect to its stiffness and damping. The proposed variable stiffness and damping isolator (VSDI) is designed based on an optimized magnetic field passing through MRE layers to achieve maximum changes in mechanical properties. The controllability of the VSDI is investigated experimentally under double lap shear tests. A model employing the Bouc-Wen hysteresis element is proposed to characterize the force-displacement relationship of the VSDI. An integrated system which consists of four VSDIs is designed, built and tested. Dynamic testing on the integrated system is performed to investigate the effectiveness of the VSDIs for vibration control. Experimental results show significant shift in natural frequency, when VSDIs are activated and the possibility of using the VSDIs as a controllable base isolator.

  15. Robust fault detection and isolation in stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jemin

    2012-07-01

    This article outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves estimating sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the proposed robust FDI system.

  16. Digital control algorithms for microgravity isolation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Alok; Wang, Yung-Peng

    1992-01-01

    transformation. The stability of the resulting Z-domain closed loop system is analyzed. Also, the frequency response of the Z-domain closed-loop transfer function is determined to evaluate the performance of the control system.

  17. Antioxidative activities of aroma extracts isolated from natural plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Natural leaves and flowers containing numerous aroma chemicals are widely used in aromatherapy since ancient times. In addition to their pleasant smells, aroma chemicals might have some beneficial health effects. Aroma extracts, isolated from coffee beans, soybeans, and mung beans by steam distillation under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 85 mm Hg) were examined for their antioxidative activities. The inhibitory effect of these extracts toward hexanal/hexanoic acid conversion was measured in the testing solution over prolonged time periods. The inhibitory effects of these extracts toward malonaldehyde formation from lipids oxidized by Fenton's reagent were also measured. The antioxidative activity of these extracts, in particular coffee bean extract, was consistent with that of BHT or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Soybeans and mung beans extract contained maltol, which inhibits hexanal oxidation significantly. Eugenol, which is one of the major constituents of mung bean extract, exhibited potent antioxidative activity in an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Antioxidants such as eugenol and maltol may play an important role in the pharmaceutical activities of natural plant extracts used for aromatherapy. PMID:11237179

  18. Anti-septic activity of α-cubebenoate isolated from Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kook, Minsoo; Lee, Sung Kyun; Kim, Sang Doo; Lee, Ha Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening, infectious, systemic inflammatory disease. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of α-cubebenoate, a novel compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis against polymicrobial sepsis in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental model. Administration of α-cubebenoate strongly enhanced survival in the CLP model. α-cubebenoate administration also markedly blocked CLP-induced lung inflammation and increased bactericidal activity by enhancing phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and neutrophils. Expression of two important inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, was strongly increased in the CLP model, and this was dramatically blocked by α-cubebenoate. Lymphocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activation, which are associated with immune paralysis during sepsis, were markedly attenuated by α-cubebenoate. Taken together, our findings indicate that α-cubebenoate, a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, is a powerful potential anti-septic agent.

  19. [Susceptibility to antibiotics and biochemical activity of strains of Acinetobacter sp. isolated from various sources].

    PubMed

    Gospodarek, E

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed on 576 Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical material, objects from hospital, environment, soil, water and from animals. Applying API 20NE system identification was following: A. baumanii (61.1%), A. junii (19.4%), A. haemolyticus (4.3%), A. lwoffii (3.3%), A. johnsonii (0.52%) and not belonging to above genus strains (11.3%). Over 47% strains of Acinetobacter were isolated from clinical material as the only bacteria (mainly from samples received from intensive care units and surgical and urological wards). Out of 23 antibiotics and antimicrobials used for investigation of 535 strains of Acinetobacter, most active were imipenem (99%) of susceptible strains, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (95%) and netilmicin (88%). Multiple resistant strains were isolated more frequently from hospital environment than from other sources--these were mostly A. baumanii and A. junii. PMID:8189806

  20. Average diagonal entropy in nonequilibrium isolated quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Olivier; García-Mata, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    The diagonal entropy was introduced as a good entropy candidate especially for isolated quantum systems out of equilibrium. Here we present an analytical calculation of the average diagonal entropy for systems undergoing unitary evolution and an external perturbation in the form of a cyclic quench. We compare our analytical findings with numerical simulations of various quantum systems. Our calculations elucidate various heuristic relations proposed recently in the literature. PMID:27575092

  1. Average diagonal entropy in nonequilibrium isolated quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Olivier; García-Mata, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    The diagonal entropy was introduced as a good entropy candidate especially for isolated quantum systems out of equilibrium. Here we present an analytical calculation of the average diagonal entropy for systems undergoing unitary evolution and an external perturbation in the form of a cyclic quench. We compare our analytical findings with numerical simulations of various quantum systems. Our calculations elucidate various heuristic relations proposed recently in the literature.

  2. Rhodomycin analogues from Streptomyces purpurascens: isolation, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Sunita; Begde, Deovrat; Nashikkar, Nandita; Kadam, Tukaram; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2013-12-01

    During a screening program for bioactive natural products, a potential Streptomyces sp was isolated from soil. On the basis of biochemical, cultural, physiological and 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was identified as Streptomyces purpurascens. The isolate was grown in liquid medium and the crude antibiotic complex was obtained by ethyl acetate extraction. Seven purified fractions were obtained by preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Acid hydrolysis of each fraction and subsequent TLC led to the identification of aglycones and sugars indicating these compounds to be Rhodomycin and its analogues. The identity of these compounds was established on the basis of UV-visible and FT-IR spectra and comparison with published data. The compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria. Compound E, identified as Rhodomycin B, was found to be the most potent compound with an MIC of 2 μg/ml against Bacillus subtilis. Compounds A and F identified as α2-Rhodomycin II and Obelmycin respectively, and Compound E exhibited an IC50 of 8.8 μg/ml against HeLa cell line but no cytotoxicity was found against L929.

  3. Isolation of Cytoplasmic Pituitary Granules with Gonadotropic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Marshall W.; McShan, W. H.; Ris, Hans

    1960-01-01

    A fraction isolated from the anterior pituitary glands of rats castrate for 8 weeks contained essentially a single cytoplasmic constituent with which the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity was associated. The glands were homogenized in an 0.25 M sucrose + 7.3 per cent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution and fractionated by differential centrifugation to give a heterogeneous small granule fraction which contained almost all the gonadotropic hormone activity. The active supernatant containing this small granule fraction was separated into layers by isopycnic gradient centrifugation on a continuous 6 to 45 per cent sucrose + 17.5 per cent "diodrast" + 5 x 10-4 M "versene" gradient at 100,000 g for 2 hours. Three layers were obtained and the pellet from the active bottom layer was sectioned, examined with the electron microscope, and found to contain 200 mµ granules, mitochondria, ergastoplasm, and other cellular debris. This layer was fractionated further by isopycnic and differential centrifugation to obtain a pellet which contained the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity. Because of the heterogeneity of this fraction, due to the contamination of the 200 mµ granules with mitochondria and other cellular debris, the active layer and the resuspended active pellet, obtained by centrifuging this layer first at 17,000 g then diluting the supernatant and centrifuging at 30,000 g for 1 hour, were filtered through Millipore HA paper with a pore size of 0.45 µ. The cytoplasmic material containing the gonadotropic hormone activity passed through the filter paper and this activity was recovered in the pellets obtained by centrifuging at 100,000 g for 1 hour. These active pellets consisted almost entirely of 200 mµ granules with a minimum amount of contamination, and they contained the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity with practically none remaining in the supernatant fraction. These results are discussed in view of their

  4. Antimalarial activity of nepodin isolated from Rumex crispus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keyong Ho; Rhee, Ki-Hyeong

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the antimalarial activity of Rumex crispus. To identify an active compound that is isolated from R. crispus, bioassay-based chromatographic fractionation and purification is carried out from 70 % ethanol extract of R. crispus; then, an active compound, nepodin, is identified by spectroscopic analysis. Anitmalarial activity is measured by PfNDH2 assay, cytotoxicity, and animal test. From NADH:quinone oxidoreductase enzyme (PfNDAH2) assay, nepodin exhibited significant IC50 values that were 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.79 ± 0.06 μg/ml against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant (S20), respectively. Nepodin showed a potential selective inhibition (SI index: ratio of 50 % cytotoxic concentration to 50 % effective anti-plasmodial concentration) of 161.6 and 151.4 against P. falciparum 3D7 and P. falciparum S20. In the animal test, all groups of nepodin treatment of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg were active with a parasitemia suppression of 97.1 ± 3.3, 99.1 ± 3.7, and 99.1 ± 2.6 %, respectively. The survival time with nepodin treatment was increased by 14.6 ± 2.5, 16.2 ± 1.5, and 19.8 ± 1.7 days at each dose, respectively. This study newly identified the plant R. crispus containing nepodin, which is a potential antimalarial compound. It exhibited the inhibitory activity of PfNDH2 and prolonged the survival time on the group of nepodin treatment; moreover, it inhibited the parasitemia in the animal test.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of phenethyl isothiocyanate isolated from horseradish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Xijuan

    2012-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was obtained from horseradish. The preparation procedure was as follows: the horseradish powder was hydrolysed in the water first, and then, after filtration, the residue was extracted by petroleum ether; finally, PEITC was isolated by silica gel column. The structure of PEITC was identified by IR, MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR chromatography methods. The inhibitory activities of PEITC against Gibberella zeae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv . citri, Cytospora sp . and Phytophthora capsisi showed that PEITC had good inhibition effects. The EC₅₀ values of G. zeae, X. axonopodis pv . citri, Cytospora sp . and P. capsisi were 13.92, 1.20, 0.73 and 3.69 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21815843

  6. Improving active seismic isolation in aLIGO using a ground rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles; Ross, Michael; Gundlach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    The active seismic isolation in Advanced LIGO achieves a factor of 10 -104 isolation from ground displacement in the frequency range from 0.1-10 Hz enabling stable low noise interferometer operation. It uses seismometers on the ground and the optics platform in feedback loops to reduce the transmission of ground motion to the platform. However, due to the inability of a seismometer to distinguish between horizontal acceleration and rotation (coupling through gravity), wind-induced tilt limits the performance of the active isolation in the 10-500 mHz frequency range, thereby reducing the duty-cycle of the detectors. We describe a ground rotation sensor, consisting of a low frequency beam-balance and an autocollimator readout with better than 0.4 nrad/rt(Hz) sensitivity above 10 mHz, which can be used to subtract tilt-noise from a horizontal seismometer, thus improving the active seismic isolation system. This work was supported by NSF Grant: 1306613.

  7. Anticancer activity of flavane gallates isolated from Plicosepalus curviflorus

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Perveen, Shagufta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous investigation of the methanol extract of Plicosepalus curviflorus leaves led to the isolation of two new flavane gallates (1, 2), together with other compounds including quercetin (3). The stems of P. curviflorus are used traditionally for the treatment of cancer in Yemen. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of the plant methanol extract as well as isolated compounds (1-3). Materials and Methods: The human cancer cell lines used were; MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116, Hep-2, HeLa and normal, Vero cell line using the Crystal Violet Staining method (CVS). Results: Quercetin (3) possessed the highest anticancer effect against all five cell lines (IC50 ranging from 3.6 to 16.2 μg/ml). It was followed by 2S, 3R-3, 3′, 4′, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1), with IC50 ranging from 11.6 to 38.8 μg/ml. The weakest anticancer activity was given by 2S, 3R-3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavane-3′,5-di-O-gallate (2) with IC50 ranging from 39.8 to above 50 μg/ml, compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug. Colon, liver and breast cell lines seemed to be more sensitive to the tested compounds than the cervical and laryngeal cell lines. Concerning the cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line, the pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1) showed the highest IC50 ( 138.2 μg/ml), while quercetin exhibited the lowest IC50 to Vero cells (30.5 μg/ml), compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug (IC50: 39.7 μg/ml). Conclusion: The results suggest the possible use of compounds 1 and 3 as anticancer drugs especially against colon and liver cancers. PMID:25298669

  8. Anticholinesterase activity of 7-methoxyflavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Pattara; Sabphon, Chalisa; Sitthiwongwanit, Duangporn; Kokpol, Udom

    2009-12-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora or kra-chai-dum (in Thai) is used traditionally as a folk medicine. The preliminary cholinesterase inhibitory screening of this plant extract exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Thirteen known methoxyflavones (1-13) were isolated and their structures were completely elucidated based on NMR analysis and compared with literature reports. Minor compounds 12-13 were reported for the first time from this species. The cholinesterase inhibitory test results showed that the highest potential inhibitors toward AChE and BChE were 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6) and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7), respectively, with the percentage inhibitory activity varying over 43-85%. The structure-activity relationship study led to the conclusion that compounds bearing 5,7-dimethoxy groups and a free substituent at C-3 had a significant inhibitory effect at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, but those bearing a 5-hydroxyl group reduced the inhibitory potency. On the other hand, flavones bearing a 3'- or 5'-methoxy group did not influence the inhibitory effect. Interestingly, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7) exhibited strong selectivity for BChE over AChE which may be of great interest to modify as a treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19548291

  9. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Vignolo, G M; Suriani, F; Pesce de Ruiz Holgado, A; Oliver, G

    1993-10-01

    One hundred strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry cured sausages were tested for antagonistic activity against a set of test strains. Nine of 52 strains of Lactobacillus casei and three of 48 strains of Lact. plantarun produced inhibition zones against the indicator species. The substance excreted by Lact. casei CRL 705 was active against Lact. plantarum, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. The activity of the antibacterial compound from Lact. casei CRL 705 was destroyed by papain, trypsin and pepsin, but was resistant to heat (100 degrees C for 20 min), lysozyme and catalase. The agent was produced during the growth cycle and when the concentrated and neutralized supernatant fluid was added to a fresh culture of sensitive cells it produced a rapid inactivation. A decrease in optical density (O.D.) over time, indicative of cell lysis, was also observed. These characteristics allowed us to identify the inhibitory compound as a bacteriocin which we termed Lactocin 705. PMID:8226391

  10. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  11. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  12. Positioning and Microvibration Control by Electromagnets of an Air Spring Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Katsuhide; Cui, Weimin; Haga, Takahide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Yano, Kenichi

    1996-01-01

    Active positioning and microvibration control has been attempted by electromagnets equipped in a bellows-type, air-spring vibration isolation system. Performance tests have been carried out to study the effects. The main components of the system's isolation table were four electromagnetic actuators and controllers. The vibration isolation table was also equipped with six acceleration sensors for detecting microvibration of the table. The electromagnetic actuators were equipped with bellows-type air springs for passive support of the weight of the item placed on the table, with electromagnets for active positioning, as well as for microvibration control, and relative displacement sensors. The controller constituted a relative feedback system for positioning control and an absolute feedback system for vibration isolation control. In the performance test, a 1,490 kg load (net weight of 1,820 kg) was placed on the vibration isolation table, and both the positioning and microvibration control were carried out electromagnetically. Test results revealed that the vibration transmission was reduced by 95%.

  13. Isolated elliptical galaxies, their globular cluster systems, and LCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-08-01

    The globular cluster (GC) systems of isolated elliptical galaxies (IEs) have only recently begun to be studied in detail, and may exhibit morphological connections to the evolutionary histories of their hosts. In fact evidence is mounting that the GC systems of massive galaxies in clusters are largely assembled by infall/accretion processes. IEs are their counterparts in low density environments and a comparison of their GC systems should directly highlight environmental effects. Are GCs the answer to unlocking the evolution of isolated galaxies? In addition, the GC systems of reasonably nearby galaxies are detectable out to large radii, making them useful tracers for producing dynamical models of their hosts. How much dark matter is contained within IEs? Very little it seems, at least in some cases. GCs are, therefore, also one of the most important tools we have for testing Lambda CDM models observationally.

  14. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  15. Seismic base isolation: Elastomer characterization, bearing modeling and system response

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Hughes, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses several major aspects of seismic base isolation systems that employ laminated elastomer bearings. Elastomer constitutive models currently being used to represent the nonlinear elastic and hysteretic behavior are discussed. Some aspects of mechanical characterization testing of elastomers is presented along with representative tests results. The development of a finite element based mesh generator for laminated elastomer bearings is presented. Recent advances in the simulation of base isolated structures to earthquake motions are presented along with a sample problem. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems.

    PubMed

    Beker, M G; Bertolini, A; van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Hennes, E; Rabeling, D S

    2014-03-01

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system. PMID:24689604

  17. State observers and Kalman filtering for high performance vibration isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beker, M. G. Bertolini, A.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.; Brand, J. F. J. van den; Bulten, H. J.

    2014-03-15

    There is a strong scientific case for the study of gravitational waves at or below the lower end of current detection bands. To take advantage of this scientific benefit, future generations of ground based gravitational wave detectors will need to expand the limit of their detection bands towards lower frequencies. Seismic motion presents a major challenge at these frequencies and vibration isolation systems will play a crucial role in achieving the desired low-frequency sensitivity. A compact vibration isolation system designed to isolate in-vacuum optical benches for Advanced Virgo will be introduced and measurements on this system are used to present its performance. All high performance isolation systems employ an active feedback control system to reduce the residual motion of their suspended payloads. The development of novel control schemes is needed to improve the performance beyond what is currently feasible. Here, we present a multi-channel feedback approach that is novel to the field. It utilizes a linear quadratic regulator in combination with a Kalman state observer and is shown to provide effective suppression of residual motion of the suspended payload. The application of state observer based feedback control for vibration isolation will be demonstrated with measurement results from the Advanced Virgo optical bench suspension system.

  18. A shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Dennis, A.W.; Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Tillerson, J.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Galbraith, D.

    1996-07-01

    As part of the demonstration of compliance with federal regulations, a shaft seal system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The system completely fills the 650 m shafts with components consisting of the common engineering materials, each of which possesses low permeability, longevity, and can be constructed using available technology. Design investigations couple rock mechanics and fluid flow analysis and tests of these materials within the natural geological setting, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  19. Isolation, antimicrobial activities, and primary structures of hamster neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Wójcik, K; Thogersen, I B; Dubin, A

    1996-01-01

    Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) neutrophil granules contain at least four microbicidal peptides belonging to the defensin family. These compounds were purified from granule acid extracts by reverse-phase chromatography and termed HaNP-1 to -4 (hamster neutrophil peptide). HaNP-1 and HaNP-3 revealed the most bactericidal activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3 to 0.8 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The HaNP-4 was always isolated in concentrations exceeding about 10 times the concentrations of other hamster peptides, but its antibacterial activity as well as that of HaNP-2 was relatively lower, probably as a result of conserved Arg residue substitutions. Other microorganisms were also tested, and generally, hamster defensins exhibited less potency against gram-negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of hamster defensins showed a high percentage of identity to the sequence of mouse enteric defensins, reaching about 60% identical residues in the case of HaNP-3 and cryptdin 3. PMID:8890190

  20. Isolation, screening, and molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma and their beneficial activities

    PubMed Central

    Kasa, Parameswari; Modugapalem, Hemalatha; Battini, Kishori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted for isolation, screening, and identification of Azotobacter and Trichoderma from different soil samples. Methods: A total of 10 isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soils. The test isolates were biochemically characterized and screened in in-vitro conditions for their plant growth promoting properties. DNA polymorphism of isolates was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Results: A total of 41 bands were scored, out of which 35 bands were found to be 85.59% polymorphic in Azotobacter and in Trichoderma among total 37 bands scored of which 29 were found to be 78.37% polymorphic. The influence of isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains on plant growth was studied using different parameters such as height of the plant, number of leaves, and number of branches, and bio-control activity was studied. Conclusion: The present results concluded that the multiple beneficial activities of PGPR traits increase the plant growth and bio-control activity. PMID:26283830

  1. Design of a vibration isolation system for a cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Lillian; Tait, Steven; Trevino, Maurice

    1991-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations generated during exercise using the cycle ergometer onboard the Space Shuttle are disrupting sensitive microgravity experiments. The design team is asked by NASA/USRA to generate alternatives for the design of a vibration isolation system for the cycle ergometer. It is the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a vibration isolation system for an exercise cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle. In the development of alternative designs, the design team emphasizes passive systems as opposed to active control systems. This decision is made because the team feels that passive systems are less complex than active control systems, external energy sources are not required, and mass is reduced due to the lack of machinery such as servomotors or compressors typical of active control systems. Eleven alternative designs are developed by the design team. From these alternatives, three active control systems are included to compare the benefits of active and passive systems. Also included in the alternatives is an isolation system designed by an independent engineer that was acquired late in the project. The eight alternatives using passive isolation systems are narrowed down by selection criteria to four considered to be the most promising by the design team. A feasibility analysis is performed on these four passive isolation systems. Based on the feasibility analysis, a final design solution is chosen and further developed. From the development of the design, the design team has concluded that passive systems are not effective at isolating vibrations for the low frequencies considered for this project. Recommendations are made for guidelines of passive isolation design and application of such systems.

  2. Characterization of caulobacters isolated from wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, J D; Smit, J

    1991-01-01

    Caulobacters are generally assumed to be found only in environments of low organic content; however, we readily isolated strains from a variety of sewage treatment system designs and locations, and 33 distinct strains were characterized. Most were morphologically similar, having the crescent-shaped cell body, short stalk, and hexagonally packed, paracrystalline surface (S) layer characteristic of several Caulobacter crescentus laboratory strains. Upon closer examination, they were distinguishable on the basis of protein band profiles on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gross colony characteristics, or holdfast composition or by DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with flagellin and S-layer gene probes. Most of the isolates contained one or more high-molecular-weight plasmids and were resistant to a number of antibiotics, characteristics generally not shared with caulobacters isolated from other sources. Six of the 33 strains were retained because they did not fit the typical isolate profile; these strains are overrepresented in our collection compared with their relative proportion in wastewater treatment systems. By colony hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, all of these and one typical isolate showed less homology than the others to the surface array gene of a laboratory strain (C. crescentus CB15), and three hybridized less strongly with the flagellin gene from the same strain. In sum, although the strains were distinguishable, caulobacters from the wastewater treatment systems we examined were relatively homogenous, were similar to characterized laboratory strains, and, with exceptions, could probably be reliably detected as a group by gene probes derived from C. crescentus strains. Images PMID:1674851

  3. LC-MS Guided Isolation of Bioactive Principles from Iris hookeriana and Bioevaluation of Isolates for Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Dar, B A; Lone, S H; Shah, W A; Bhat, K A

    2016-08-01

    The genus Iris is diverse both in the abundance of secondary metabolities as well as the biological activities. The rhizomes of Iris hookeriana exhibit significant anthelminthic activity against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Although Iris hookeriana has been a subject of the study of so many phytochemical studies, yet we report some constituents for the first time from this plant using a different isolation approach. This manuscript presents the isolation, antimicrobial and antioxidant evaluation of bioactive principles from Iris hookeriana. LC-MS guided isolation technique was applied for the separation of target constituents. The isolates were characterised by spectral techniques and subjected to antioxidant evaluation by DPPH assay. Four compounds; resveratrol, resveratroloside, junipeginin C and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside were isolated for the first time along with 3 known compounds viz piceid, irigenin and iridin from I. hookeriana using this approach. The antioxidant activity screening of the isolates revealed that all the 4 constituents isolated for the first time, have strong antioxidant potential with IC50 of 14.0 µg/ml (resveratroloside), 19.7 µg/ml (junipeginen C), 12.8 µg/ml (resveratrol) and 19.8 µg/ml (isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperodoside). So it can be safely concluded that LC-MS guided isolation of chemical compounds from Iris hookeriana has furnished 4 antioxidant constituents. Thus Iris hookeriana can act as as a good source of wonder molecule resveratrol and its 2 glycosides, resveratrolside and piceid which upon hydrolysis can be converted into the parent drug resveratrol. PMID:27281447

  4. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  5. Synergistic Activity of Chloroquine with Fluconazole against Fluconazole-Resistant Isolates of Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates. PMID:25512426

  6. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    PubMed

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  7. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    PubMed Central

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  8. Robust Control for The G-Limit Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Many microgravity science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent acceleration environment. The g-LIMIT vibration isolation system will provide isolation for Microgravity Science Glovebox experiments in the International Space Station. While standard control system technologies have been demonstrated for these applications, modern control methods have the potential for meeting performance requirements while providing robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H infinity methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/mu controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  9. Stable isolated metal atoms as active sites for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jun; Chen, Jian Fu; Li, Yu Hang; Yuan, Wen Tao; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Li Rong; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P; Wang, Yun; Zhao, Hui Jun; Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua Gui

    2014-02-17

    The process of using solar energy to split water to produce hydrogen assisted by an inorganic semiconductor is crucial for solving our energy crisis and environmental problems in the future. However, most semiconductor photocatalysts would not exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity without loading suitable co-catalysts. Generally, the noble metals have been widely applied as co-catalysts, but always agglomerate during the loading process or photocatalytic reaction. Therefore, the utilization efficiency of the noble co-catalysts is still very low on a per metal atom basis if no obvious size effect exists, because heterogeneous catalytic reactions occur on the surface active atoms. Here, for the first time, we have synthesized isolated metal atoms (Pt, Pd, Rh, or Ru) stably by anchoring on TiO2 , a model photocatalystic system, by a facile one-step method. The isolated metal atom based photocatalysts show excellent stability for H2 evolution and can lead to a 6-13-fold increase in photocatalytic activity over the metal clusters loaded on TiO2 by the traditional method. Furthermore, the configurations of isolated atoms as well as the originality of their unusual stability were analyzed by a collaborative work from both experiments and theoretical calculations.

  10. Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 μM without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound. PMID:22104600

  11. Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha A; Brahma, Manoja K; Padmanabhan, Prabhu; Mishra, Prabhu D; Parab, Rajashri R; Gaikwad, Nitin V; Thakkar, Chandni S; Tokdar, Pradipta; Ranadive, Prafull V; Nair, Amrutha S; Damre, Anagha A; Bahirat, Umakant A; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Doshi, Lalit S; Dixit, Amol V; George, Saji D; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Nemmani, Kumar Vs; Mahajan, Girish B

    2011-11-21

    Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 μM without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound.

  12. Inhibition effects of isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes Nakai of the classical pathway on the complement system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes Nakai from South Korea on the classical pathway. In the previous works, Artemisia rubripes chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system. The chromatographic separation of a chloroform chloride extract of Artemisia rubripes led to the isolation of three compounds. Their structures were characterized to be scopoletin (1), 11,(13)-triene-6,12-olide (2), and 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene (3) by spectroscopic data. This is the first report of anticomplement activity of isolated compounds from Artemisia rubripes.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel B cell activation gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.X.; Wilson, G.L.; Fox, C.H.; Kehrl, J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    Using subtractive cDNA cloning, the authors have isolated a series of cDNA clones that are differentially expressed between B and T lymphocytes. Whereas some of the isolated cDNA are from known B cell-specific genes, many of them represent previously uncharacterized genes. One of these unknown genes was denoted as BL34. Northern blot analysis performed with the BL34 cDNA revealed a 1.6-kb mRNA transcript that was present at low levels in RNA extracted from resting B lymphocytes, but whose expression was markedly increased in RNA prepared from mitogen-activated B cells. Similarly, RNA prepared from several B cell lines treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) contained high levels of BL34 mRNA. In contrast, RNA from purified T cells treated with phytohemagglutinin and PMA had undetectable amounts of BL34 mRNA. In addition, high levels of BL34 mRNA were detected in RNA purified from PBMC of a patient with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Southern blot analysis of human DNA from various tissues and cells lines demonstrated that BL34 is a single-copy gene without evidence of rearrangement. Two full length BL34 cDNA were sequenced, and an open reading frame of 588 bp was identified that was predicted to encode for a 196 amino acid protein. Searches of several protein data bases failed to find any homologous proteins. To directly analyze the expression of BL34 mRNA in lymphoid tissues in situ, hybridization studies with human tonsil tissue sections were performed. BL34 mRNA was detected in a portion of the cells in the germinal center region and adjacent to the mantle region. Further characterization of the BL34 gene and its protein should lead to insights to its role in B cell function and the consequences of its over-expression in acute lymphocytic leukemia. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system s described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber.

  15. Isolation of Legionella anisa from a hospital hot water system.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, N; Vieilly, C; Marmet, D; Surgot, M; Fleurette, J

    1985-06-01

    Several cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in a French hospital in 1982. Thirteen strains of a legionella-like organism with several unusual characteristics were subsequently isolated from the hospital hot water system. The various features of these strains show that they are identical to the new species 'Legionella anisa' described by the Centers for Disease Control. The possible pathogenicity of these strains to man and their relationship with the recently described Legionella bozemanii serogroup 2 are discussed. PMID:3894018

  16. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  17. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Devash, Y.; Reichman, M.; Sela, I.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Suhadolnik, R.J.

    1985-01-29

    An enzyme that converts (/sup 3/H, /sup 32/P)ATP, with a /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems.

  18. NIST torsion oscillator viscometer response: Performance on the LeRC active vibration isolation platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1992-01-01

    Critical point viscosity measurements are limited to their reduced temperature approach to T(sub c) in an Earth bound system, because of density gradients imposed by gravity. Therefore, these classes of experiments have been proposed as good candidates for 'microgravity' science experiments where this limitation is not present. The nature of these viscosity measurements dictate hardware that is sensitive to low frequency excitations. Because of the vibratory acceleration sensitivity of a torsion oscillator viscometer, used to acquire such measurements, a vibration isolation sensitivity test was performed on candidate 'microgravity' hardware to study the possibility of meeting the stringent oscillatory sensitivity requirements of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) torsion oscillator viscometer. A prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation system, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used as the isolation system. The ambient acceleration levels of the platform were reduced to the noise floor levels of its control sensors, about one microgravity in the 0.1 to 10 Hz bandwidth.

  19. Halotolerant Ability and α-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  20. Active vibration isolation of macro-micro motion stage disturbances using a floating stator platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lufan; Long, Zhili; Cai, Jiandong; Liu, Yang; Fang, Jiwen; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-10-01

    Macro-micro motion stage is mainly applied in microelectronics manufacturing to realize a high-acceleration, high-speed and nano-positioning motion. The high acceleration and nano-positioning accuracy would be influenced by the vibration of the motion stage. In the paper, a concept of floating stage is introduced in the macro-micro motion for isolating vibration disturbances. The design model of the floating stage is established and its theoretical analyses including natural frequency, transient and frequency response analyses are investigated, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the floating stator platform as a vibration isolator for the macro-micro motion stage. Moreover, an optimal design of the floating stator is conducted and then verified by experiments. In order to characterize and quantify the performance of isolation obtained from the traditional fixed stator and the floating stator, the acceleration responses at different accelerations, speeds and displacements are measured in x, y and z directions. The theoretical and experimental analyses in time and frequency domains indicate that the floating stator platform is effective to actively isolate the vibration in the macro-micro motion stage. In macro-micro motion stage, high acceleration motion is provided by VCM. Vibration is induced from VCM, that is, VCM is a source system, the vibration response or force is felt by a receiver system. Generally, VCM is fixed on the base, which means that the base is the receiver system which absorbs or transfers the vibration. However, the vibration cannot completely disappear and the base vibration is inevitable. In the paper, a floated stator platform as isolation system is developed to decrease or isolate vibration between VCM and base. The floated stator platform consists of damper, stopper, floated lock, spring, limiter, sub base, etc. Unlike the traditional stator of VCM fixed on the base, the floated stator can be moved on the linear guide under vibration

  1. Cerium Binding Activity of Pectins Isolated from the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Phyllospadix iwatensis

    PubMed Central

    Khotimchenko, Yuri; Khozhaenko, Elena; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Cerium binding activity of three different water soluble pectin compounds of different origin was studied in a batch sorption system. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were adopted to describe the binding reactions between metal ions and pectin molecules. The Langmuir model provided the best fit. Within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0, the largest amount of the cerium ions was bound by pectin isolated from the seagrass Phylospadix iwatensis in comparison to pectin extracted from the seagrass Zostera marina and pectin obtained from citrus peel (commercial grade). The Langmuir constants were also highest for the pectin samples isolated from the seagrass P. iwatensis. The results obtained from this study suggest that pectin is a prospective source for the development of radioisotope-removing pharmaceuticals. PMID:22690146

  2. Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenghong; Deng, Shikai; Liu, Xin; Yao, Li; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; He, Jian; Li, Jiayou

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, ivory-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated strain BUT-5T, was isolated from activated sludge of an herbicides-manufacturing wastewater treatment facility in Jiangsu Province, China. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 2-OH and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The polar lipids profile of strain BUT-5T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BUT-5T showed the highest sequence similarities to Roseomonas soli 5N26T (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), followed by Roseomonas lacus TH-G33T (97.3 %) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48T (97.1 %). Strain BUT-5T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Roseomonas soli KACC 16376T (41 %), Roseomonas lacus KACC 11678T (46 %) and Roseomonas terrae KACC 12677T (42 %), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, as well as chemotaxonomic data, strain BUT-5T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BUT-5T ( = CCTCC AB2013276T = KACC 17166T).

  3. In Vitro Antifungal Activities against Moulds Isolated from Dermatological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nizam, Tzar; Binting, Rabiatul Adawiyah AG.; Mohd Saari, Shafika; Kumar, Thivyananthini Vijaya; Muhammad, Marianayati; Satim, Hartini; Yusoff, Hamidah; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. Methods We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document. Results Most antifungal agents were active against the dermatophytes, except for terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum (geometric mean MIC, MICGM 3.17 μg/mL). The dematiaceous moulds were relatively susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles (MICGM 0.17–0.34 μg/mL), but not to terbinafine (MICGM 3.62 μg/mL). Septate hyaline moulds showed variable results between the relatively more susceptible Aspergillus spp. (MICGM 0.25–4 μg/mL) and the more resistant Fusarium spp. (MICGM 5.66–32 μg/mL). The zygomycetes were susceptible to amphotericin B (MICGM 0.5 μg/mL) and clotrimazole (MICGM 0.08 μg/mL), but not to other azoles (MICGM 2.52–4 μg/mL). Conclusion Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were the most effective antifungal agents against all moulds excepting Fusarium spp., while terbinafine was useful against dermatophytes (except T. rubrum) and Aspergillus spp. However, a larger study is required to draw more solid conclusions. PMID:27418867

  4. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  5. Detecting and isolating abrupt changes in linear switching systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Sohail; Zhao, Qing; Huang, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for switching linear systems is developed. All input and output signals are assumed to be corrupted with measurement noises. In the proposed method, a 'lifted' linear model named as stochastic hybrid decoupling polynomial (SHDP) is introduced. The SHDP model governs the dynamics of the switching linear system with all different modes, and is independent of the switching sequence. The error-in-variable (EIV) representation of SHDP is derived, and is used for the fault residual generation and isolation following the well-adopted local approach. The proposed FDI method can detect and isolate the fault-induced abrupt changes in switching models' parameters without estimating the switching modes. Furthermore, in this paper, the analytical expressions of the gradient vector and Hessian matrix are obtained based on the EIV SHDP formulation, so that they can be used to implement the online fault detection scheme. The performance of the proposed method is then illustrated by simulation examples.

  6. Variable-Tension-Cord Suspension/Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemarette, Mark L.; Boston, Joshua; RInks, Judith; Felice, Pat; Stein, Tim; Payne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A system for mechanical suspension and vibration isolation of a machine or instrument is based on the use of Kevlar (or equivalent aromatic polyamide) cord held in variable tension between the machine or instrument and a surrounding frame. The basic concept of such a tensioned-cord suspension system (including one in which the cords are made of aromatic polyamide fibers) is not new by itself; what is new here is the additional provision for adjusting the tension during operation to optimize vibration- isolation properties. In the original application for which this system was conceived, the objective is to suspend a reciprocating cryocooler aboard a space shuttle and to prevent both (1) transmission of launch vibrations to the cryocooler and (2) transmission of vibrations from the cryocooler to samples in a chamber cooled by the cryocooler. The basic mechanical principle of this system can also be expected to be applicable to a variety of other systems in which there are requirements for cord suspension and vibration isolation. The reciprocating cryocooler of the original application is a generally axisymmetric object, and the surrounding frame is a generally axisymmetric object with windows (see figure). Two cords are threaded into a spoke-like pattern between attachment rings on the cryocooler, holes in the cage, and cord-tension- adjusting assemblies. Initially, the cord tensions are adjusted to at least the level necessary to suspend the cryocooler against gravitation. Accelerometers for measuring vibrations are mounted (1) on the cold tip of the cryocooler and (2) adjacent to the cage, on a structure that supports the cage. During operation, a technician observes the accelerometer outputs on an oscilloscope while manually adjusting the cord tensions in an effort to minimize the amount of vibration transmitted to and/or from the cryocooler. A contemplated future version of the system would include a microprocessor-based control subsystem that would include cord

  7. Development of Seismic Isolation Systems Using Periodic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yiqun; Mo, Yi-Lung; Menq, Farn-Yuh; Stokoe, II, Kenneth H.; Perkins, Judy; Tang, Yu

    2014-12-10

    Advanced fast nuclear power plants and small modular fast reactors are composed of thin-walled structures such as pipes; as a result, they do not have sufficient inherent strength to resist seismic loads. Seismic isolation, therefore, is an effective solution for mitigating earthquake hazards for these types of structures. Base isolation, on which numerous studies have been conducted, is a well-defined structure protection system against earthquakes. In conventional isolators, such as high-damping rubber bearings, lead-rubber bearings, and friction pendulum bearings, large relative displacements occur between upper structures and foundations. Only isolation in a horizontal direction is provided; these features are not desirable for the piping systems. The concept of periodic materials, based on the theory of solid-state physics, can be applied to earthquake engineering. The periodic material is a material that possesses distinct characteristics that prevent waves with certain frequencies from being transmitted through it; therefore, this material can be used in structural foundations to block unwanted seismic waves with certain frequencies. The frequency band of periodic material that can filter out waves is called the band gap, and the structural foundation made of periodic material is referred to as the periodic foundation. The design of a nuclear power plant, therefore, can be unified around the desirable feature of a periodic foundation, while the continuous maintenance of the structure is not needed. In this research project, three different types of periodic foundations were studied: one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. The basic theories of periodic foundations are introduced first to find the band gaps; then the finite element methods are used, to perform parametric analysis, and obtain attenuation zones; finally, experimental programs are conducted, and the test data are analyzed to verify the theory. This procedure shows that the

  8. Lysing activity of an indigenous algicidal bacterium Aeromonas sp. against Microcystis spp. isolated from Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Li, Xiaoqin; Li, Yunhui; Wei, Haiyan; Yu, Guang; Yin, Lihong; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize an indigenous algicidal bacterium named LTH-1 and its algae-lysing compounds active against three Microcystis aeruginosa strains (toxic TH1, nontoxic TH2 and standard FACHB 905). The LTH-1 isolated from Lake Taihu, near Wuxi City in China, was identified as Aeromonas sp. based on its morphological characteristic features and phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of 16S rDNA. Extracellular compounds produced by LTH-1 showed strong algaelysing activity, and they were water-soluble and heat-tolerant, with a molecular mass lower than 2 kDa. Two algae-lysing compounds were isolated and purified from extracellular filtrate using silica gel column chromatography. One of these was identified as phenylalanine (C9H11NO2, m/z 166.0862) and the other (C8H16N2O3, m/z 189.1232) was unidentified by hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-IT-TOF) system. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of phenylalanine produced by LTH-1 against FACHB 905 was 68.2 +/- 8.2 microg mL(-1) in 48h. These results suggest that the algicidal Aeromonas sp. LTH-1 could play a role in controlling Microcystis blooms, and its extracellular compounds are also potentially useful for regulating blooms of the harmful M. aeruginosa. PMID:24191475

  9. Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic Bacillus sp. with protease activity isolated from hot spring of Tarabalo, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Mrunmaya Kumar; Sahu, Mahesh Kumar; Tayung, Kumananda

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrial enzymes. Materials and Methods In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Tarabalo, India. A bacterium that could tolerate high temperatures was characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene. The isolate was screened for protease and amylase activity. Phylogenetic affiliations and G+C content of the isolate was studied. Results The bacterium with the ability to tolerate high temperatures was identified as Bacillus sp. both by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene. BLAST search analysis of the sequence showed maximum identity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (99% similarity). Strain exhibited considerable protease activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolate revealed close affiliation with thermophilic Bacillus species. The G+C content was found to be 54.7%. Conclusion The study confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of thermostable protease which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. PMID:23825735

  10. Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonovi, F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Santos, L. F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano- and micro-scale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through inter-particle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.

  11. Vibration isolation system for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kunz, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Vibration Isolation System for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is studied. Included are discussions of the various concepts, design goals, concerns, and the proposed configuration for the Vibration Isolation System.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Trichoderma spp. for Antagonistic Activity Against Root Rot and Foliar Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishna; Amaresan, N; Bhagat, S; Madhuri, K; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    Trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of South Andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. The sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. The isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. However, the isolates, TND1, TWN1, TWC1, TGD1 and TSD1 were most effective in percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of test pathogens. Significant chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities of all Trichoderma isolates has been recorded in growth medium. T. viride was found with highest chitinase whereas T. harzianum was recorded with highest β-1,3-glucanase activities. PMID:23729873

  13. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  14. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  15. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-11-09

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  16. Wound healing and protease inhibition activity of Bacoside-A, isolated from Bacopa monnieri wettest.

    PubMed

    Sharath, R; Harish, B G; Krishna, V; Sathyanarayana, B N; Swamy, H M Kumara

    2010-08-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettest. (Scrophulariaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb. In the Indian system of medicine it is known as Brahmi (Sanskrit) and Indian water hyssop. Methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri and its isolated constituent Bacoside-A were screened for wound healing activity. Bacoside-A was screened for wound healing activity by excision, incision and dead space wound on Swiss albino rats. Significant wound healing activity was observed in both extract and the Bacoside-A treated groups. The SDS-PAGE caseinolytic zymogram analysis of inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) enzyme from the excision wound by Bacoside-A, an isolated constituent, was done with the concentrations 100 and 200 micromg/ml. In Bacoside-A treated groups, epithelialization of the excision wound was faster with a high rate (18.30 +/- 0.01 days) of wound contraction. The tensile strength of the incision wound was increased (538.47 +/- 0.14 g) in the Bacoside-A treated group. In the dead space wound model, the weight of the granuloma was also increased (89.15 +/- 0.08 g). The histological examination of the granuloma tissue of the Bacoside-A treated group showed increased cross-linking of collagen fibers and absence of monocytes. The wound healing activity of Bacoside-A was more effective in various wound models compared to the standard skin ointment Nitrofurazone.

  17. Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

    1985-05-01

    Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

  18. Magnetic microfluidic system for isolation of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitterboeck, Richard; Kokkinis, Georgios; Berris, Theocharis; Keplinger, Franz; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a compact, portable and cost effective microfluidic system for isolation and detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in suspension. The innovative aspect of the proposed isolation method is that it utilizes superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) to label CTCs and then isolate those using microtraps with integrated current carrying microconductors. The magnetically labeled and trapped CTCs can then be detected by integrated magnetic microsensors e.g. giant magnetoresistive (GMR) or giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensors. The channel and trap dimensions are optimized to protect the cells from shear stress and achieve high trapping efficiency. These intact single CTCs can then be used for additional analysis, testing and patient specific drug screening. Being able to analyze the CTCs metastasis-driving capabilities on the single cell level is considered of great importance for developing patient specific therapies. Experiments showed that it is possible to capture single labeled cells in multiple microtraps and hold them there without permanent electric current and magnetic field.

  19. Isolation and neuroprotective activities of acylated iridoids from Valeriana jatamansi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Gao, Jie; Gui, Liping

    2012-07-01

    Three new iridoids, jatairidoids A-C (1-3, resp.), have been isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi (V. wallichii). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). Compounds 1 and 2 are C(3)-epimers. The three compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell death in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. All the isolates exhibited moderate neuroprotective effects.

  20. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  1. Biodegradation of haloacetic acids by bacterial isolates and enrichment cultures from drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Lapara, Timothy M; Goslan, Emma H; Xie, Yuefeng; Parsons, Simon A; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2009-05-01

    Biodegradation is a potentially important loss process for haloacetic acids (HAAs), a class of chlorination byproducts, in water treatment and distribution systems, but little is known about the organisms involved (i.e., identity, substrate range, biodegradation kinetics). In this research, 10 biomass samples (i.e., tap water, distribution system biofilms, and prechlorinated granular activated carbon filters) from nine drinking water systems were used to inoculate a total of thirty enrichment cultures fed monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), or trichloroacetic (TCAA) as sole carbon and energy source. HAA degraders were successfully enriched from the biofilm samples (GAC and distribution system) but rarely from tap water. Half of the MCAA and DCAA enrichment cultures were positive, whereas only one TCAA culture was positive (two were inconclusive). Eight unique HAA-degrading isolates were obtained including several Afipia spp. and a Methylobacterium sp.; all isolates were members of the phylum Proteobacteria. MCAA, monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), and monoiodoacetic acid (MIAA) were rapidly degraded by all isolates, and DCAA and tribromoacetic (TBAA) were also relatively labile. TCAA and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA)were degraded by only three isolates and degradation lagged behind the other HAAs. Detailed DCAA biodegradation kinetics were obtained for two selected isolates and two enrichment cultures. The maximum biomass-normalized degradation rates (Vm) were 0.27 and 0.97 microg DCAA/ microg protein/h for Methylobacterium fujisawaense strain PAWDI and Afipia felis strain EMD2, respectively, which were comparable to the values obtained for the enrichment cultures from which those organisms were isolated (0.39 and 1.37 microg DCAN/microg protein/h, respectively). The half-saturation constant (Km) values ranged from 4.38 to 77.91 microg DCAA/L and the cell yields ranged from 14.4 to 36.1 mg protein/g DCAA.

  2. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. PMID:22017108

  3. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  4. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay.

  5. Eigenstate thermalization within isolated spin-chain systems.

    PubMed

    Steinigeweg, R; Herbrych, J; Prelovšek, P

    2013-01-01

    The thermalization phenomenon and many-body quantum statistical properties are studied on the example of several observables in isolated spin-chain systems, both integrable and generic nonintegrable. While diagonal matrix elements for nonintegrable models comply with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, the integrable systems show evident deviations and similarity to properties of noninteracting many-fermion models. The finite-size scaling reveals that the crossover between the two regimes is given by a scale closely related to the scattering length. Low-frequency off-diagonal matrix elements related to dc transport quantities also follow in a generic system a behavior analogous to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, however, unrelated to one of the diagonal matrix elements.

  6. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accesssories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accesssories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  10. Antibacterial Activities of Actinomycete Isolates Collected from Soils of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ajijur; Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Islam, Md. Anwar Ul

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to isolate actinomycete colonies having antibacterial activity from soil samples collected from different places around Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Thirty actinomycete colonies were isolated in pure culture from five soil samples using Starch-casein-nitrate-agar medium. The isolates were grouped in five color series based on their aerial mycelia color and screened for their antibacterial activity against a range of test bacteria. Sixteen isolates (53.3%) were found to have moderate to high activity against four gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria. Since many isolates showed inhibitory activity against indicator bacteria, it is suggestive that Bangladeshi soil could be an interesting source to explore for antibacterial secondary metabolites. PMID:21904683

  11. Fast isolation of highly active photosystem II core complexes from spinach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Gai; Xu, Tian-Hua; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Chun-Hong

    2010-09-01

    Purification of photosystem II (PSII) core complexes is a time-consuming and low-efficiency process. In order to isolate pure and active PSII core complexes in large amounts, we have developed a fast method to isolate highly active monomeric and dimeric PSII core complexes from spinach leaves by using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. By using a vertical rotor the process was completed significantly faster compared with a swing-out rotor. In order to keep the core complexes in high activity, the whole isolation procedure was performed in the presence of glycine betain and pH at 6.3. The isolated pigment-protein complexes were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, absorption spectroscopy, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that this method is a better choice for quick and efficient isolation of functionally active PSII core complexes. PMID:20738723

  12. The occurrence of killer activity in yeasts isolated from natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Monika; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Yeast's ability to restrict the growth and kill other yeasts, fungi and bacteria has been known for over 50 years. Killer activity was detected in yeasts deposited in the world collections or isolated from natural habitats. In this study, isolates from the forest environment, leaves of fruit trees, flower petals, cereals and frozen fruit have been screened in terms of their killer activities. Killer activity was tested on strains belonging to six yeast species: Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Pachysolen, Yarrowia, Trichosporon. The reference strains were Kluyveromyces lactis Y-6682 and Kluyveromyces marxinanus Y-8281, well-known to be sensitive to yeast killer toxins. Among one hundred and two tested strains, 24 (23.5% of isolates) showed positive killer action, and 10 (9.8% of the isolates) a weak killer action against at least one sensitive reference strain. The highest killer activity was observed among isolates from forest soil and flowers. PMID:26636138

  13. Semi-active variable stiffness vibration control of vehicle seat suspension using an MR elastomer isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a study on continuously variable stiffness control of vehicle seat suspension using a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator. A concept design for an MRE isolator is proposed in the paper and its behavior is experimentally evaluated. An integrated seat suspension model, which includes a quarter-car suspension and a seat suspension with a driver body model, is used to design a sub-optimal H_{\\infty } controller for an active isolator. The desired control force generated by this active isolator is then emulated by the MRE isolator through its continuously variable stiffness property when the actuating condition is met. The vibration control effect of the MRE isolator is evaluated in terms of driver body acceleration responses under both bump and random road conditions. The results show that the proposed control strategy achieves better vibration reduction performance than conventional on-off control.

  14. Wheat root colonization and nitrogenase activity by Azospirillum isolates from crop plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungwoo; Kecskés, Mihály L; Deaker, Rosalind J; Gilchrist, Kate; New, Peter B; Kennedy, Ivan R; Kim, Seunghwan; Sa, Tongmin

    2005-11-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops of Korea. A total of 16 isolates were selected and characterized. Thirteen of the isolates produced characteristics similar to those of the reference strains of Azospirillum, and the remaining 3 isolates were found to be Enterobacter spp. The isolates could be categorized into 3 groups based on their ARDRA patterns, and the first 2 groups comprised Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) of these isolates was determined for free cultures and in association with wheat roots. There was no correlation between pure culture and plant-associated nitrogenase activity of the different strains. The isolates that showed higher nitrogenase activities in association with wheat roots in each group were selected and sequenced. Isolates of Azospirillum brasilense CW301, Azospirillum brasilense CW903, and Azospirillum lipoferum CW1503 were selected to study colonization in association with wheat roots. We observed higher expression of beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense strains than in A. lipoferum strains, which could be attributed to their higher population in association with wheat roots. All strains tested colonized and exhibited the strongest beta-galactosidase activity at the sites of lateral roots emergence.

  15. A Discussion of Zero Spring Rate Mechanisms Used for the Active Isolation Mount Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1995 the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Langley Research Center set out to conceive a small, lightweight, low frequency isolation mount that could be used for spaceflight experiments. The Engineering Design Branch undertook the task of developing the isolation mount. This report describes the engineering process that led to three phases of a study entitled "Active Isolation Mounts" (AIM). A zero spring rate mechanism was used to achieve low fundamental frequencies for a payloads in the 1 to 10 pound range. It worked by balancing both a positive and a negative stiffness so that the net result was a small positive stiffness. The study demonstrated devices that could reduce the initial corner frequency by a factor of six for brief periods and a factor of two for extended periods. The designs were relatively simple and minimized weight, volume, and power. They could be scaled down and they were made of spaceflight compatible materials. All designs offered the ability to continuously vary the fundamental frequency. Yet, the goal of reducing the frequency by an order of magnitude was not achieved because the systems were too unstable at low frequencies. There was a trade between performance and stability.

  16. An automated data acquisition system for isolated tissue studies.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Weitz, D

    1982-09-01

    The automation of an isolated atria assay is described. Data acquisition, operation of the strip chart recorder, data reduction and manipulation and generation of notebook pages showing final EC50's, dose-ratios and local pA2's has been completely automated. The data are acquired via a SYM-1 (6502 CPU) 8-bit single board computer running an assembly language program stored on an EPROM chip. The data from a physiological recorder system are stored by the SYM-1 and, at the conclusion of the experiment, transmitted to a DEC MINC-11 microminicomputer running a sequence of programs in BASIC for the mathematical manipulation of the data and the automatic generation of lab notebook pages. The automated system totally eliminates hand transcription of data, manual plotting of curves and mathematical errors.

  17. Arbekacin activity against contemporary clinical bacteria isolated from patients hospitalized with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Rhomberg, Paul R; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2015-01-01

    Arbekacin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside licensed for systemic use in Japan and under clinical development as an inhalation solution in the United States. We evaluated the occurrence of organisms isolated from pneumonias in U.S. hospitalized patients (PHP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and the in vitro activity of arbekacin. Organism frequency was evaluated from a collection of 2,203 bacterial isolates (339 from VAP) consecutively collected from 25 medical centers in 2012 through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Arbekacin activity was tested against 904 isolates from PHP collected in 2012 from 62 U.S. medical centers and 303 multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms collected worldwide in 2009 and 2010 from various infection types. Susceptibility to arbekacin and comparator agents was evaluated by the reference broth microdilution method. The four most common organisms from PHP were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. The highest arbekacin MIC among S. aureus isolates from PHP (43% methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) was 4 μg/ml. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from PHP, only one had an arbekacin MIC of >16 μg/ml (MIC50 and MIC90, 1 and 4 μg/ml), and susceptibility rates for gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were 88.0, 90.0, and 98.0%, respectively. Arbekacin (MIC50, 2 μg/ml) and tobramycin (MIC50, 4 μg/ml) were the most potent aminoglycosides tested against Acinetobacter baumannii. Against Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, arbekacin and gentamicin (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 to 1 and 1 to 8 μg/ml for both compounds) were generally more potent than tobramycin (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 to 2 and 1 to 32 μg/ml) and amikacin (MIC50 and MIC90, 1 to 2 and 2 to 32 μg/ml). Arbekacin also demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a worldwide collection of well-characterized MDR Gram-negative and MRSA strains.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of orbifloxacin against Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from canine skin and ear infections.

    PubMed

    Ganière, Jean-Pierre; Médaille, Christine; Etoré, Florence

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of orbifloxacin against Staphylococcus intermedius strains isolated in France from canine skin and ear infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of orbifloxacin against 240 field S. intermedius isolates (69 skin and 171 ear isolates) ranged from 0.016 to 8 mg l(-1), with MIC50 and MIC90 equal to 0.5 and 1 mg l(-1), respectively. Only one strain, a pyoderma isolate was resistant (MIC=8 mg l(-1)). Orbifloxacin was tested at different concentrations for killing rate against five isolates obtained from pyoderma cases and against a reference strain (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Orbifloxacin expressed a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against the S. aureus reference strain, but a time-dependent bactericidal activity against S. intermedius. Orbifloxacin induced bactericidal effect against the S. intermedius strains tested with concentrations equal to or two times MIC.

  20. Isolation and characterization of some moderately halophilic bacteria with lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Kazemi, A; Zarrinic, G; Morowvat, M H; Kargar, M

    2011-01-01

    Lipases are an important class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and constitute the most prominent group ofbiocatalysts for biotechnological applications. There are a number of lipases, produced by some halophilic microorganisms. In this study, some lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu salt lake located in south of Iran were isolated. All isolates were screened for true lipase activity on plates containing olive oil. The lipase activity was measured using titrimetric methods. Among thirty three isolates, thirteen strains demonstrating orange zone around colonies under UV light, were selected for identification using the molecular methods and some morphological characteristics. The bacterium Bacillus vallismortis BCCS 007 with 3.41 +/- 0.14 U/mL lipase activity was selected as the highest lipase producing isolate. This is the first report of isolation and molecular identification of lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu lake. PMID:22073547

  1. Using FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) to isolate active regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jeremy M.; Giresi, Paul G.; Davis, Ian J.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Eviction or destabilization of nucleosomes from chromatin is a hallmark of functional regulatory elements of the eukaryotic genome. Historically identified by nuclease hypersensitivity, these regulatory elements are typically bound by transcription factors or other regulatory proteins. FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) is an alternative approach to identify these genomic regions and has proven successful in a multitude of eukaryotic cell and tissue types. Cells or dissociated tissues are crosslinked briefly with formaldehyde, lysed, and sonicated. Sheared chromatin is subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and the isolated DNA, typically encompassing 1–3% of the human genome, is purified. We provide guidelines for quantitative analysis by PCR, microarrays, or next-generation sequencing. Regulatory elements enriched by FAIRE display high concordance with those identified by nuclease hypersensitivity or ChIP, and the entire procedure can be completed in three days. FAIRE exhibits low technical variability, which allows its use in large-scale studies of chromatin from normal or diseased tissues. PMID:22262007

  2. Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S

    2014-04-24

    This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.

  3. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    PubMed Central

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Martino, Virginia S.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.; Muschietti, Liliana V.

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of euparin against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with EC50 values of 0.47, 0.12, and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this compound showed high selectivity indexes of 284.9, 1068, and 854.7, respectively. In order to identify the mechanism by which euparin exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the pretreatment of Vero cells, and the time of action on one viral replication cycle were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that euparin exerts its effect during the early events of the replication cycle, from the virus adsorption to cells up to the first twenty minutes after infection. This is the first report on the presence of euparin in E. buniifolium and its antiviral activity. PMID:23956770

  4. Newly isolated alkalophilic Advenella species bioaugmented in activated sludge for high p-cresol removal.

    PubMed

    Xenofontos, Eleni; Tanase, Ana-Maria; Stoica, Ileana; Vyrides, Ioannis

    2016-03-25

    In this work, an alkalophilic bacterium (LVX-4) capable of using p-cresol as sole source of carbon and energy was screened and isolated from soil polluted by used oil. Phylogenetic (16S rRNA) and phenotypic characterization using Biolog GN microplates and API 20NE strips indicated that LVX-4 strain is a new Advenella species. It showed both the capability to degrade of p-cresol at high concentrations (750 mg/L) and to use p-cresol for growth in a pH from 7 to 10, although the optimum pH was 9. Moreover bioaugmentation of activated sludge with this strain lead to the complete removal of p-cresol in less than 100 h. This is the first study that shows the potential of Advenella sp. to be bioaugmented in activated sludge system for p-cresol biodegradation. PMID:26596887

  5. Dynamic alterations of serotonergic metabolism and receptors during social isolation of low- and high-active mice.

    PubMed

    Rilke, O; Freier, D; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    1998-04-01

    Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to serotonin metabolism, [3H]-8-OH-DPAT binding of presynaptic (midbrain), postsynaptic (hippocampus) 5-HT1A receptors and [3H]-ketanserin binding of cortical 5-HT2A receptors. Individual housing of mice was associated with reduction of serotonin metabolism, depending on isolation time and brain structure. Whereas a transient decrease in the striatum and cortex was detected between 1 week and 6 weeks, reduction of cerebellar and hippocampal serotonin metabolism was found later (12-18 weeks). Serotonergic systems of HAM were found to be more reactive to environmental disturbances, and their serotonin metabolism was more affected by social isolation. Isolation-induced upregulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors was measured only in HAM. Densities of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus did differ either in grouped or isolated mice. However, there were significant differences in hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor affinity, especially between 1 day and 3 weeks. Transient downregulation of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the midbrain was found in isolated mice between 3 and 6 weeks. These results are discussed in terms of interactions between serotonergic alterations and isolation-induced aggression.

  6. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R B; Noble, J M; Vonsattel, J P; Delapaz, R; Wright, C B

    2007-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases; presentation in an isolated CNS distribution is rare. We present a case of eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. Case report A 39‐year‐old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution (located in the borough of Queens, New York, USA; no academic affiliation) in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left‐sided weakness and numbness. Laboratory evaluation showed increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but an otherwise unremarkable serological investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral‐enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over 2 weeks without residual deficit. After 18 months, later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings involving territories different from those in her first episode. Again, the CSF protein level was high. She had a raised C reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates of medium‐sized leptomeningeal arteries without granulomas. She improved, without recurrence, when treated with a prolonged course of corticosteroids. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first case of non‐granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient's primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. Spontaneous resolution and recurrence of her syndrome is an unusual feature of the typical CNS vasculitis and may suggest an environmental epitope with immune reaction as the cause. PMID:16926236

  7. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  8. In Vitro Activities of Garenoxacin (BMS 284756) against 108 Clinical Isolates of Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2002-01-01

    Garenoxacin (BMS 284756) was active against 105 of 108 (97%) recent clinical Gardnerella vaginalis isolates at ≤2 μg/ml by using the reference agar dilution method for anaerobes. Twenty-eight percent of isolates (31 of 108) were resistant to metronidazole, and 44% were resistant to doxycycline. All were susceptible to clindamycin and ampicillin-sulbactam. PMID:12435709

  9. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  10. Lessons from isolable nickel(I) precursor complexes for small molecule activation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2012-02-21

    Small-molecule activation by transition metals is essential to numerous organic transformations, both biological and industrial. Creating useful metal-mediated activation systems often depends on stabilizing the metal with uncommon low oxidation states and low coordination numbers. This provides a redox-active metal center with vacant coordination sites well suited for interacting with small molecules. Monovalent nickel species, with their d(9) electronic configuration, are moderately strong one-electron reducing agents that are synthetically attractive if they can be isolated. They represent suitable reagents for closing the knowledge gap in nickel-mediated activation of small molecules. Recently, the first strikingly stable dinuclear β-diketiminate nickel(I) precursor complexes were synthesized, proving to be suitable promoters for small-molecule binding and activation. They have led to many unprecedented nickel complexes bearing activated small molecules in different reduction stages. In this Account, we describe selected achievements in the activation of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), O(2), the heavier chalcogens (S, Se, and Te), and white phosphorus (P(4)) through this β-diketiminatonickel(I) precursor species. We emphasize the reductive activation of O(2), owing to its promise in oxidation processes. The one-electron-reduced O(2) activation product, that is, the corresponding β-diketiminato-supported Ni-O(2) complex, is a genuine superoxonickel(II) complex, representing an important intermediate in the early stages of O(2) activation. It selectively acts as an oxygen-atom transfer agent, hydrogen-atom scavenger, or both towards exogenous organic substrates to yield oxidation products. The one-electron reduction of the superoxonickel(II) moiety was examined by using elemental potassium, β-diketiminatozinc(II) chloride, and β-diketiminatoiron(I) complexes, affording the first heterobimetallic complexes featuring a [NiO(2)M] subunit (M is K, Zn, or Fe). Through

  11. Cardiovascular Actions and Therapeutic Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine (Active Component Isolated from Rhizoma Chuanxiong): Roles and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a pharmacologically active component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese herb Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong), has been clinically used in China and Southeast Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for about fifty years. The pharmacological effects of TMP on the cardiovascular system have attracted great interest. Emerging experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that TMP prevents atherosclerosis as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effects of TMP are mainly related to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or calcium-homeostasis effects. This review focuses on the roles and mechanisms of action of TMP in the cardiovascular system and provides a novel perspective on TMP's clinical use. PMID:27314011

  12. Cardiovascular Actions and Therapeutic Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine (Active Component Isolated from Rhizoma Chuanxiong): Roles and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a pharmacologically active component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese herb Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong), has been clinically used in China and Southeast Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for about fifty years. The pharmacological effects of TMP on the cardiovascular system have attracted great interest. Emerging experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that TMP prevents atherosclerosis as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effects of TMP are mainly related to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or calcium-homeostasis effects. This review focuses on the roles and mechanisms of action of TMP in the cardiovascular system and provides a novel perspective on TMP's clinical use. PMID:27314011

  13. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  14. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M.; Pozo, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  15. Thermalization and its mechanism for generic quantum isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanii, Maxim; Dunjko, Vanja; Rigol, Marcos

    2008-05-01

    Time dynamics of isolated many-body quantum systems has long been an elusive subject, perhaps most urgently needed in the foundations of quantum statistical mechanics. In generic systems, one expects the nonequilibrium dynamics to lead to thermalization: a relaxation to states where the values of macroscopic quantities are stationary, universal with respect to widely differing initial conditions, and predictable through the time-tested recipe of statistical mechanics. The relaxation mechanism is not obvious, however; dynamical chaos cannot play the key role as it does in classical systems since quantum evolution is linear. Here we demonstrateootnotetextM. Rigol, V. Dunjko, and M. Olshanii, to appear in Nature (2008), using the results of an ab initio numerical experiment with 5 hard-core bosons moving in a 5x5 lattice, that in quantum systems thermalization happens not in course of time evolution but instead at the level of individual eigenstates, as first proposed by DeutschootnotetextJ. M. Deutsch, Phys.Rev. A 43, 2046 (1991) and SrednickiootnotetextM. Srednicki, Phys. Rev. E 50, 888 (1994).

  16. Screening of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from human faeces for antagonistic activities against potentially bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Lorella; Ovidi, Monia; Di Mattia, Elena; Trovatelli, Luigi Daniele; Canganella, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    As probiotic bacteria, strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium colonise the gastro-intestinal tract of humans and animals at the time of birth, and they are found in young as well as in adult individuals in great numbers. Moreover, they can interact with the development of enteric infections by the production of antimicrobial metabolites. In this work 281 strains of bifidobacteria were anaerobically isolated from human faecal samples, supplied by volunteers of different ages (youngs, adults, elders), and preliminarly described by microscopic observation. All strains were screened by the fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) test in order to confirm their classification within the genus Bifidobacterium. Selected strains were used to evaluate their antagonistic activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyphimurium, Staphylococcus lentus, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes. Experiments were performed in vitro by different methods based on the observation of growth inhibition in Petri dishes. The strains that showed the highest inhibiting activities were compared by SDS-PAGE for total cell proteins, using type strains of human origin as references. Representative isolates were metabolically characterised by the BIOLOG system; a specific database was created with strains obtained from our collection and a statistical evaluation for metabolic patterns was carried out.

  17. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, I; Blandino, G; Caccamo, F; Musumeci, R; Nicoletti, G; Speciale, A

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro activity of faropenem, an oral penem, was compared with those of penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefoxitin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole against 106 isolates of anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. The organisms tested comprised Porphyromonas gingivalis (29), Prevotella spp. (eight), Prevotella melaninogenica (seven), Prevotella intermedia (five), Actinomyces spp. (25), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14), Peptostreptococcus spp. (11), Bacteroides ureolyticus (five) and Bacteroides forsythus (two). The antimicrobial properties of faropenem were investigated by studying MICs, MBCs, time-kill kinetics and post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Faropenem was highly active against all the anaerobes tested (MIC(90) < or = 0.5 mg/L) and was bactericidal against both beta-lactamase-positive and -negative anaerobes, with a maximum bactericidal effect at 10 x MIC at between 12 and 24 h. In addition, faropenem had an in vitro PAE on all the tested isolates and this was not influenced by beta-lactamase production. Faropenem may be useful for treating infections caused by periodontal bacteria or oral flora. PMID:12615878

  18. Sympathoadrenal Activation is Associated with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy and Endotheliopathy in Isolated Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Alex P.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Lejnieks, Brandon; Min, Arimie; Shiu, Maria Y.; Peng, Henry T.; Baker, Andrew J.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Churchill, Nathan; Inaba, Kenji; Nascimento, Bartolomeu B.; de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Beckett, Andrew; Rhind, Shawn G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Acute coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a complex multifactorial hemostatic response that is poorly characterized. Objectives: To examine early posttraumatic alterations in coagulofibrinolytic, endothelial, and inflammatory blood biomarkers in relation to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and 6-month patient outcomes, using multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. Patients and Methods: A multicenter observational study of 159 adult isolated TBI patients admitted to the emergency department at an urban level I trauma center, was performed. Plasma concentrations of 6 coagulofibrinolytic, 10 vascular endothelial, 19 inflammatory, and 2 catecholamine biomarkers were measured by immunoassay on admission and 24 h postinjury. Neurological outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. PLS-discriminant analysis was used to identify salient biomarker contributions to unfavorable outcome, whereas PLS regression analysis was used to evaluate the covariance between SNS correlates (catecholamines) and biomarkers of coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and inflammation. Results: Biomarker profiles in patients with an unfavorable outcome displayed procoagulation, hyperfibrinolysis, glycocalyx and endothelial damage, vasculature activation, and inflammation. A strong covariant relationship was evident between catecholamines and biomarkers of coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and inflammation at both admission and 24 h postinjury. Conclusions: Biomarkers of coagulopathy and endotheliopathy are associated with poor outcome after TBI. Catecholamine levels were highly correlated with endotheliopathy and coagulopathy markers within the first 24 h after injury. Further research is warranted to characterize the pathogenic role of SNS-mediated hemostatic alterations in isolated TBI. PMID:27206278

  19. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup.

  20. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  1. Isolated central nervous system relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sang-Hyun; Jang, In-Seok

    2014-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer and may exhibit central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Advances in chemotherapy and effective CNS prophylaxis have significantly decreased the incidence of CNS relapse of ALL to 5-10%. Here, we report the case of a patient with isolated CNS relapse of standard risk group pre-B-cell type ALL in an 11-year-old girl, relapsed 3 years after successful completion of chemotherapy. An 11-year-old girl visited our hospital complaining of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed left-side homonymous hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large irregular dural-based sulcal hematoma in the right parietal and occipital lobes. Surgery to remove the hematoma revealed the existence of hematopoietic malignancy after pathologic evaluation. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed but showed no evidence of malignancy. PMID:25408936

  2. Semi-active magnetorheological seat suspensions for enhanced crashworthiness and vibration isolation of rotorcraft seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemenz, Gregory J.

    current state-of-the-art rotorcraft seat suspensions which can provide no better than 20% risk of occupant injury. Finally, an MR-based seat suspension designed solely for the purposes of vibration isolation was designed, analyzed, and experimentally demonstrated. MR dampers were integrated into the current crashworthy SH-60 crew seat with minimal weight impact such that the original crashworthy capabilities were maintained. Then, utilizing semi-active control, experimental vibration testing demonstrated that the system reduced vertical cockpit vibrations transmitted to the occupant by 76%. This is a significant advance over current state-of-the-art rotorcraft seats which provide no attenuation of cockpit vibrations.

  3. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Streptomyces spp. with Antibacterial Activity from Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Hadi; Dehnad, Alireza; Hanifian, Shahram; Khani, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Streptomyces are a group of prokaryotes that are usually found in all types of ecosystems including water and soil. This group of bacteria is noteworthy as antibiotic producers; so the isolation and characterization of new species seemed to be crucial in introduction of markedly favorable antibiotics. Therefore, in this study we aim to isolate and characterize novel strains of Streptomyces with high antibiotic production capability. Methods: To achieve this goal, from 140 isolates collected throughout northwest of Iran, 12 selected Streptomyces isolates which exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria were subjected to PCR reaction for identification via 16S rDNA gene and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) pattern analysis. Results: Analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and the 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that all 12 selected isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Moreover, screening of the isolates with regard to their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria as well as their classification using RAPD analysis revealed that G614C1 and K36C5 isolates have considerable antimicrobial activity and high similarity to Streptomyces coelicolor and Sreptomyces albogriseolus, respectively. Conclusion: Since many isolates in this study showed inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria, soil of northwest of Iran could be used as a rich source to be explored for novel Streptomyces strains with high potency of antibiotic production. PMID:24163805

  4. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    PubMed

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (< 1 μg/ml). We detected in vitro synergy using the ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination and thus, its efficacy was confirmed in the treatment of severe infections by E. faecalis.

  5. Lactobacillus isolates from healthy volunteers exert immunomodulatory effects on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keyi; Xie, Chao; Xu, Donghua; Yang, Xiaofan; Tang, James; Ji, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    As probiotics in the gut, Lactobacilli are believed to play important roles in the development and maintenance of both the mucosal and systemic immune system of the host. This study was aimed to investigate the immuno-modulatory function of candiate lactobacilli on T cells. Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy human feces and the microbiological characteristics were identified by API 50 CHL and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays. Anti-CD3 antibody activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated by viable, heat-killed lactobacilli and genomic DNA of lactobacilli, and cytokine profiles were tested by ELISA. Isolated lactobacilli C44 and C48 were identified as L. acidophilus and L. paracacei, which have properties of acid and bile tolerance and inhibitor effects on pathogens. Viable and heat-killed C44 and C48 induced low levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8) and high levels of IFN-γ and IL-12p70 in PBMCs. In anti-CD3 antibody activated PBMCs, viable and heat-killed C44 increased Th2 cytokine levels (IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10), and simultaneously enhanced Th1 responses by inducing IFN-γ and IL-12p70 production. Different from that of lactabacillus strains, their genomic DNA induced low levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ and proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs with or without anti-CD3 antibody activation. These results provided in vitro evidence that the genomic DNA of strains of C44 and C48, especially C44, induced weaker inflammation, and may be potentially applied for treating allergic diseases. PMID:23554802

  6. Antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of diterpenoids isolated from the roots of Salvia deserta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...

  7. Quorum sensing activity of Hafnia alvei isolated from packed food.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei.

  8. Quorum Sensing Activity of Hafnia alvei Isolated from Packed Food

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei. PMID:24736131

  9. Quorum sensing activity of Hafnia alvei isolated from packed food.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei. PMID:24736131

  10. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.

  11. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  12. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-11-01

    The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied.

  13. Modeling approaches for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

    2006-03-01

    To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control

  14. Unique Activity Spectrum of Colicin FY: All 110 Characterized Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates Were Colicin FY Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Dědičová, Daniela; Garzetti, Debora; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY. PMID:24339971

  15. Immunomodulatory Activity of Oenothein B Isolated from Epilobium angustifolium1

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Jakiw, Larissa; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Blaskovich, Christie L.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Epilobium angustifolium has been traditionally used to treat of a number of diseases; however, not much is known regarding its effect on innate immune cells. Here, we report that extracts of E. angustifolium activated functional responses in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. Activity-guided fractionation, followed by mass spectroscopy and NMR analysis, resulted in the identification of oenothein B as the primary component responsible for phagocyte activation. Oenothein B, a dimeric hydrolysable tannin, dose-dependently induced a number of phagocyte functions in vitro, including intracellular Ca2+ flux, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), chemotaxis, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, oenothein B was active in vivo, inducing keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production and neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum after intraperitoneal administration. Biological activity required the full oenothein B structure, as substructures of oenothein B (pyrocatechol, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) were all inactive. The ability of oenothein B to modulate phagocyte functions in vitro and in vivo suggests that this compound is responsible for at least part of the therapeutic properties of E. angustifolium extracts. PMID:19846877

  16. A New Method for the Isolation of Ergosterol and Peroxyergosterol as Active Compounds of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca and in Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Isolated Ergosterol Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Renata; Drozd, Marta; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Lemieszek, Marta; Krakowiak, Olga; Kisiel, Wanda; Rzeski, Wojciech; Szewczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, ergosterol peroxide and ergosterol were isolated for the first time from fresh fruit bodies of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (False Chanterelle). The substances were characterized mainly by spectroscopic methods (¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, DEPT-45, DEPT-90, DEPT-135, 2D-NMR). In our study, a new specific thin layer chromatographic method was developed for determination of ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide in H. aurantiaca extract. The method is based on the separation of n-hexane extract on silica gel (Silica Gel G) TLC plates using the optimized solvent system toluene/ethyl acetate (3:1; v/v). The main advantages of the developed method are the simplicity of operation and the low cost. The in vitro study results revealed the antiproliferative properties of ergosterol peroxide against LS180 human colon cancer cells. The described effect was attributed both to altered mitochondrial activity and decreased DNA synthesis. Additionally, in the same concentration range the investigated compound was not toxic to CCD 841 CoTr human colon epithelial cells. The present study suggests that fruit bodies of H. aurantiaca have great potential for producing substances and extracts with potential applications in medicine. PMID:27455215

  17. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  18. The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  19. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  20. Evaluation of arabinofuranosidase and xylanase activities of Geobacillus spp. isolated from some hot springs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Sabriye; Inan, Kadriye; Kacagan, Murat; Belduz, Ali Osman

    2007-08-01

    Some hot springs located in the west of Turkey were investigated with respect to the presence of thermophilic microorganisms. Based on phenotyping characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 16 of the isolates belonged to the genus Geobacillus and grew optimally at about 60 degrees C on nutrient agar. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates resembled Geobacillus species by > or = 97%, but SDS-PAGE profiles of these 16 isolates differ from some of the other species of the genus Geobacillus. However, it is also known that analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences may be insufficient to distinguish between some species. It is proposed that recN sequence comparisons could accurately measure genome similarities for the Geobacillus genus. Based on recN sequence analysis, isolates 11, IT3, and 12 are strains of G stearothermophilus; isolate 14.3 is a strain of G thermodenitrificans; isolates 9.1, IT4.1, and 4.5 are uncertain and it is required to make further analysis. The presence of xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, and their optimum temperature and pH were also investigated. These results showed that 7 of the strains have both xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, 4 of them has only xylanase, and the remaning 5 strains have neither of these activities. The isolates 9.1, 7.1, and 3.3 have the highest temperature optima (80 degrees C), and 7.2, 9.1, AO4, 9.2, and AO17 have the highest pH optima (pH 8) of xylanase. Isolates 7.2, AO4, AC15, and 12 have optimum arabinofuranosidase activities at 75 degrees C, and only isolate AC 15 has the lowest pH of 5.5. PMID:18051594

  1. Chitinophaga vermicomposti sp. nov., with antifungal activity, isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729T, was isolated from the vermicompost (VC) collected at Masan, Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729T grew optimally at 30 degrees C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. Most closely related species are Chitinophaga terra KP01T (96.4 %), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040T (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650T (96.1 %). Strain YC6729T contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The major fatty acids of strain YC6729T C15:0 iso, C16:1omega5c and C17:0 iso 3-OH. The total DNA G+C content was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729T (= KACC 13774T = DSM 22224T).

  2. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses, pullulan production and xylanase activity of tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Leathers, Timothy D; Peterson, Stephen W; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Li, Xin-Liang; Eveleigh, Douglas E; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Dunlap, Christopher A; Vermillion, Karl E; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2009-10-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of the commercially valuable polysaccharide pullulan and the enzyme xylanase. Isolates are typically off-white to pale pink or black on solid media, while some tropical isolates have been described as 'color variants' with bright pigments of red, yellow or purple. We sequenced 5 loci (internal transcribed spacer, intergenic spacer 1, translation elongation factor-1 alpha, beta tubulin, and RNA polymerase II) from 45 new isolates from Thailand. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, isolates were classified into 12 clades. Each clade showed different colors on different culture media including two clades with 'color variants' and some clades exhibited high levels of pullulan production or xylanase activity. Colony characteristics do not correlate perfectly with DNA sequence phylogeny or the physiological characters, but DNA sequence differences rapidly identify isolates with genetic novelty. PMID:19619651

  3. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates. PMID:27280049

  5. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients. PMID:27305898

  6. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. PMID:26217333

  7. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  8. Finite element code-based modeling of a multi-feature isolation system and passive alleviation of possible inner pounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohammed; López-Almansa, Francesc; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Pujades-Beneit, Luis G.

    2014-09-01

    The existing seismic isolation systems are based on well-known and accepted physical principles, but they are still having some functional drawbacks. As an attempt of improvement, the Roll-N-Cage (RNC) isolator has been recently proposed. It is designed to achieve a balance in controlling isolator displacement demands and structural accelerations. It provides in a single unit all the necessary functions of vertical rigid support, horizontal flexibility with enhanced stability, resistance to low service loads and minor vibration, and hysteretic energy dissipation characteristics. It is characterized by two unique features that are a self-braking (buffer) and a self-recentering mechanism. This paper presents an advanced representation of the main and unique features of the RNC isolator using an available finite element code called SAP2000. The validity of the obtained SAP2000 model is then checked using experimental, numerical and analytical results. Then, the paper investigates the merits and demerits of activating the built-in buffer mechanism on both structural pounding mitigation and isolation efficiency. The paper addresses the problem of passive alleviation of possible inner pounding within the RNC isolator, which may arise due to the activation of its self-braking mechanism under sever excitations such as near-fault earthquakes. The results show that the obtained finite element code-based model can closely match and accurately predict the overall behavior of the RNC isolator with effectively small errors. Moreover, the inherent buffer mechanism of the RNC isolator could mitigate or even eliminate direct structure-to-structure pounding under severe excitation considering limited septation gaps between adjacent structures. In addition, the increase of inherent hysteretic damping of the RNC isolator can efficiently limit its peak displacement together with the severity of the possibly developed inner pounding and, therefore, alleviate or even eliminate the

  9. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Functional Fault Models For Fault Isolation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This project implements functional fault models (FFM) to automate the isolation of failures during ground systems operations. FFMs will also be used to recommend sensor placement to improve fault isolation capabilities. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators.

  10. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  11. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

  12. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dias, Joana; Teixeira, Vânia; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The present review reports the antifungal activity of mushroom extracts and isolated compounds including high (e.g. peptides and proteins) and low (e.g. sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, organic acids, acylcyclopentenediones and quinolines) molecular weight compounds. Most of the studies available on literature focused on screening of antifungal activity of mushroom extracts, rather than of isolated compounds. Data indicate that mushroom extracts are mainly tested against different Candida species, while mushroom compounds are mostly tested upon other fungi. Therefore, the potential of these compounds might be more useful in food industry than in clinics. Oudemansiella canarii and Agaricus bisporus methanolic extracts proved to be the most active mushroom extracts against Candida spp. Grifolin, isolated from Albatrellus dispansus, seemed to be the most active compound against phytopathogenic fungi. Further studies should be performed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of this and other antifungal compounds as well as safety issues.

  13. Adjuvant-activity of `diphtheroid' organisms isolated from the joints of cases of rhemumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Gordon, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two isolates of `diphtheroid' organisms from the joints of cases of rheumatoid arthritis were found to possess a surface network of filaments (125 Å wide) resembling the adjuvant-active peptidoglycolipid filaments of mycobacteria and some Nocardia spp. Tests for adjuvant activity in guinea-pigs showed that both isolates possessed the ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity to a simultaneously injected immunogen (ovalbumin) and to increase serum anti-ovalbumin levels (in particular γ2-immunoglobulin). The relationship of adjuvant-active bacilli to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 1 PMID:5477931

  14. Characteristics of a nitrogen-jet system in KUR-ISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Sharshar; Okano, Kotoyuki; Kawase, Yoichi

    1992-08-01

    The basic characteristics of a N 2-jet system coupled with a surface-ionization type ion source have been investigated at KUR-ISOL. The yields of transported activities and ionized ions have been measured under various conditions for both the He- and N 2-jets. The effects of N 2 gas upon the ionization and skimmer efficiency have been investigated. It was found that N 2 gas has almost no effect upon the ionization efficiency, but causes poorer skimmer efficiency than He gas owing to the large opening angle of aerosol particles at the outlet of a capillary. A mixture of He and N 2 gases was also tested.

  15. Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.: isolation, diversity, and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vijay C; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Mishra, Ashish; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Gange, Alan C

    2009-05-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. were screened and evaluated for their anti-microbial activity against an array of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. A total of 55 separate isolates were obtained from 20 plants, and 60% of these showed inhibitory activity against one or more pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Actinomycetes were most commonly recovered from roots (54.5% of all isolates), followed by stems (23.6%), and leaves (21.8%). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (49.09% of all isolates), while Streptosporangium (14.5%), Microbispora (10.9%), Streptoverticillium (5.5%), Sacchromonospora sp. (5.5%), and Nocardia (3.6%) were also recovered. Streptomyces isolates AzR 006, 011, and 031 (all from roots) had acute activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, while AzR027, 032, and 051 (also all from roots) showed activity against Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, an isolate of Nocardia sp. from leaves (AzL025) showed antagonism against Bacillus subtilis. Overall, 32 of the 55 were found to have broad spectrum significant antimicrobial activity, while about 4% of them showed strong and acute inhibition to pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Isolates of Streptomyces AzR031, 008, and 047, Nocardia sp. AzL025, and Streptosporangium sp. AzR 021 and 048 are of particular interest because they showed significant antagonistic activity against root pathogens, including Pythium and Phytophthora sp. Thus, many of the isolates recovered from A. indica in this study may be used in developing potential bio-control agents against a range of pathogenic fungi and bacteria and in the production of novel natural antimicrobial compounds. These results not only further our understanding of plant-microbe interactions but also indicate that there is an untapped resource of endophytic microorganisms that could be exploited in the biotechnological, medicinal, and agricultural industries.

  16. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin Tested against Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Huband, Michael D; Farrell, David J

    2016-10-01

    Delafloxacin, an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone, is active against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae (plus 30 levofloxacin-resistant isolates), 200 Haemophilus influenzae, and 100 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates selected primarily from the United States (2014) were tested against delafloxacin and comparator agents. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested. MIC50 and MIC90 values against all S. pneumoniae isolates were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml. Delafloxacin susceptibility was not affected by β-lactamase status against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

  17. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nazia Masood Ahmed; Tariq, Perween

    2006-07-01

    Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) against 176 bacterial isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals. The disc diffusion technique was employed. Overall aqueous decoction of black pepper was the most bacterial-toxic exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates.

  18. Note: A three-dimension active vibration isolator for precision atom gravimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Min-Kang; Xiong, Xin; Chen, Le-Le; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-15

    An ultra-low frequency active vibration isolator, simultaneously suppressing three-dimensional vibration noise, is demonstrated experimentally. The equivalent natural period of the isolator is 100 s and 12 s for the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively. The vibration noise in the vertical direction is about 50 times reduced during 0.2 and 2 Hz, and 5 times reduced in the other two orthogonal directions in the same frequency range. This isolator is designed for atom gravimeters, especially suitable for the gravimeter whose sensitivity is limited by vibration couplings.

  19. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

  1. An isolated working heart system for large animal models.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Matthew A; Southerland, Kevin W; Feger, Bryan J; Linder, Dean; Ali, Ayyaz A; Njoroge, Linda; Milano, Carmelo A; Bowles, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the late 19(th) century, the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus, and the subsequent development of the working heart model, have been invaluable tools for studying cardiovascular function and disease(1-15). Although the Langendorff heart preparation can be used for any mammalian heart, most studies involving this apparatus use small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals(1,3,11). One major difficulty is ensuring a constant coronary perfusion pressure over a range of different heart sizes - a key component of any experiment utilizing this device(1,11). By replacing the classic hydrostatic afterload column with a centrifugal pump, the Langendorff working heart apparatus described below allows for easy adjustment and tight regulation of perfusion pressures, meaning the same set-up can be used for various species or heart sizes. Furthermore, this configuration can also seamlessly switch between constant pressure or constant flow during reperfusion, depending on the user's preferences. The open nature of this setup, despite making temperature regulation more difficult than other designs, allows for easy collection of effluent and ventricular pressure-volume data. PMID:24962492

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of constituents isolated from Terminalia chebula ***waiting for publication date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of twelve compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia chebula. The activity was determined in terms of their ability to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in L...

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Rubus ulmifolius.

    PubMed

    Panizzi, L; Caponi, C; Catalano, S; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I

    2002-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity on bacteria and fungi of increasing polarity extracts of Rubus ulmifolius and that of some isolated constituents, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide; kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, gallic acid, ferulic acid and tiliroside was evaluated. The phenolic and tannins fractions showed an high antimicrobial activity.

  4. [In vitro activities of faropenem against clarithromycin resistance Helicobacter pylori isolates].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Saika, T; Matsuzaki, K; Kobayashi, I; Fujioka, T; Nasu, M; Saionji, K; Igari, J

    1998-03-01

    Agar dilution and semi-solid agar dilution were used to determine the MIC of faropenem (FRPM) against 24 H. pylori isolates. FRPM was active against clarithromycin resistance H. pylori isolates. And, the MICs obtained by both methods were in agreement. The results suggest that FRPM was not affected by pH and is a clinically useful oral antibiotic for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infections. PMID:9585692

  5. Versatile optical manipulation system for inspection, laser processing, and isolation of individual living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Jahnke, H.-G.; Schmidt, M.; Jähn, K.; Betz, T.; Müller, K.; Rothermel, A.; Käs, J.; Robitzki, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Isolation of individual cells from a heterogeneous cell population is an invaluable step in the analysis of single cell properties. The demands in molecular and cellular biology as well as molecular medicine are the selection, isolation, and monitoring of single cells and cell clusters of biopsy material. Of particular interest are methods which complement a passive optical or spectroscopic selection with a variety of active single cell processing techniques such as mechanical, biochemical, or genetic manipulation prior to isolation. Sophisticated laser-based cell processing systems are available which can perform single cell processing in a contact-free and sterile manner. Until now, however, these multipurpose turnkey systems offer only basic micromanipulation and are not easily modified or upgraded, whereas laboratory situations often demand simple but versatile and adaptable solutions. We built a flexible laser micromanipulation platform combining contact-free microdissection and catapulting capabilities using a pulsed ultraviolet (337nm) laser with simultaneous generation of optical tweezing forces using a continuous wave infrared (1064nm) laser. The potential of our platform is exemplified with techniques such as local laser-induced injection of biomolecules into individual living cells, laser surgery, isolation of single cells by laser catapulting, and control of neuronal growth using optical gradient forces. Arbitrary dynamic optical force patterns can be created by fast laser scanning with acousto-optical deflectors and galvanometer mirrors, allowing multibeam contact-free micromanipulation, a prerequisite for reliable handling of material in laboratory-on-a-chip applications. All common microscopy techniques can be used simultaneously with the offered palette of micromanipulation methods. Taken together, we show that advanced optical micromanipulation systems can be designed which combine quality, cost efficiency, and adaptability.

  6. Ice nucleation activity of bacteria isolated from cloud water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Muriel; Attard, Eléonore; Sancelme, Martine; Deguillaume, Laurent; Guilbaud, Caroline; Morris, Cindy E.; Amato, Pierre; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2013-05-01

    Some Gamma-Proteobacteria can catalyze ice formation thereby potentially contributing to the induction of precipitation in supercooled clouds and subsequently to bacterial deposition. Forty-four bacterial strains from cloud water were screened for their capacity to induce freezing. Seven strains (16%) were active at -8 °C or warmer and were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas spp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the P. syringae strains in clouds at the Puy de Dôme belonged to clades that are among the most infrequently detected in the environment, while widespread clades were absent suggesting some extent of selection or unusual biogeography of the bacteria at the sampling site. Three strains induced freezing at -3 °C while the others nucleated ice at -4 °C to -6 °C. The freezing profiles revealed that the peaks of activity were centered around -3.5 °C, -5 °C and/or -8.5 °C depending on the strain. The frequency of ice-nuclei (IN) per cell at -6 °C was generally below 0.5% and reached up to 4.2% in one strain. We estimated that clouds influenced by vegetated areas would carry between less than 1 and ˜500 bacterial IN mL-1 of water active between -3 °C and -10 °C depending on the season. These data will contribute to modeling the impact of bacterial IN on precipitation at regional scales.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398.

    PubMed

    Lapenda, J C; Silva, P A; Vicalvi, M C; Sena, K X F R; Nascimento, S C

    2015-02-01

    Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 ± 0.6), E. faecalis (22 ± 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 ± 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 μg/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA. PMID:25549906

  8. Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398.

    PubMed

    Lapenda, J C; Silva, P A; Vicalvi, M C; Sena, K X F R; Nascimento, S C

    2015-02-01

    Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 ± 0.6), E. faecalis (22 ± 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 ± 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 μg/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA.

  9. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  10. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    PubMed Central

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains. PMID:26167534

  11. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    PubMed Central

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  12. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils.

    PubMed

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  13. Removal of odorous sulphur-containing gases by a new isolate from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Chen, X G; Gould, W D; Ng, Y L; Yan, R; Lee, C C; Liang, D T

    2004-01-01

    Biological treatment of odorous sulphur-containing compounds is attracting attention due to its benign eco-friendliness, energy-savings and low operating costs. As the biological treatment efficiency of dimethylsulphide (DMS) reported was often low and variable, selection of useful DMS-degrading microorganisms is of importance for the enhancement of the biological deodorizing process. This paper reports the successful isolation of a DMS-degrading bacterium from activated sludge, using the enrichment isolation technique. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and found to belong to the alpha group of Proteobacteria, with an identity of 99.4% and 99.1% to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Afipia felis and Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena, respectively. The isolate was able to metabolize DMS as well as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). A batch experiment was performed to assess the removal characteristics of DMS by the isolate. The results showed that over half of DMS could be removed by the isolate in 3 hours when the initial DMS amount was approximately 10 micromol and 25 micromol. Removal of H2S by the isolate was evaluated by a continuous test in a 2-L gas-bubbling bottle. Although part of the H2S removal by the mineral medium itself was observed in the control test, the majority of H2S removal was believed to be attributed to the metabolic activity of the isolate. In conclusion, the isolate might be potentially useful for the enhancement of the biological deodorizing processes. PMID:15484773

  14. Evaluation of isolator system and large-volume centrifugation method for culturing body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Elston, H R; Wang, M; Philip, A

    1990-01-01

    The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body fluids other than blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. A total of 155 body fluid samples were processed for the recovery of clinically significant organisms. Of the 55 positive cultures, Isolator detected 94% and the large-volume centrifugation method detected 64%. The time necessary to indicate positivity was not significantly different in the two methods; however, in five cases, the Isolator system yielded clinically significant organisms 24 h sooner than the conventional method. The Isolator system was found to be a more sensitive alternative than the conventional large-volume centrifugation method. PMID:2405006

  15. A multiaxis passive isolation system for a magnetic bearing reaction wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Davis, P.

    The design and testing of a six-degree-of-freedom isolation system using viscous damping is presented. To avoid interactions with the reaction wheel's magnetic bearing and output torque control loops, an isolation system is required to provide very specific and tightly controlled values for the natural-frequency and damping (Q) in all degrees of freedom. Low natural frequency requirements and launch tools, together with 1-G testability, require that isolators be capable of unusually large deflections. Analaysis shows that the combination of requirements can be met with a symmetric arrangement of three isolator pairs -- a hexapod. A prototype system has been fabricated. A design description and test results are included.

  16. Overview of seismic base isolation systems, applications, and performance during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Trummer, D.J.; Sommer, S.C.

    1993-08-01

    Seismic base isolation is a technique for mitigating the effects of earthquakes on structures. A structure is decoupled from the potentially damaging forces of an earthquake by placing a flexible isolation system between the structure and the ground. A data base has been created for the US Department of Energy which contains information about systems used to achieve seismic isolation, their applications in structures, and how they have performed during earthquakes. This paper will present and overview of the database.

  17. Systems and methods for bi-directional energy delivery with galvanic isolation

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2013-06-18

    Systems and methods are provided for bi-directional energy delivery. A charging system comprises a first bi-directional conversion module, a second bi-directional conversion module, and an isolation module coupled between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module. The isolation module provides galvanic isolation between the first bi-directional conversion module and the second bi-directional conversion module.

  18. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  19. The antagonism activity of bacteria isolated from potato cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Mezaache-Aichour, S; Sayah, N; Zerroug, M M; Guechi, A

    2012-01-01

    Soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. Resistant plant varieties are not available for several soil-borne pathogens and chemical control is often insufficiently effective in soil. The enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. The aim of this research is to find and identify suppressive soils in the Sétif's areas (potato field located in different regions of Sétif); this allows the selection of the indigenous soil bacteria that are able to develop several mechanisms of action related to biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting potato crops. Among 50 bacterial strains only 14 showed a wide range of antifungal action against the tested phytopathogenic fungi. With a range of inhibition percent from 0 to 92.30% especially Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis with 92% inhibition.

  20. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these

  1. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Verjan, J.C.; Estrella-Parra, E.A.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Vazquez-Martinez, R.; Magos-Guerrero, G.; Mendoza-Villanueva, D.; Cerbón-Cervantes, M.A.; Reyes-Chilpa, R.

    2015-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755. PMID:26697389

  2. Morphine attenuates cholinergic nerve activity in human isolated colonic muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, D. E.; Trout, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The action of morphine on cholinergic nerves in human sigmoid taenia coli muscle strips (taenia) was investigated using a radiolabelling technique. Basal release of tritiated material from taenia was increased by electrical field stimulation (EFS). This increase was tetrodotoxin (3.14 microM)-sensitive and calcium-dependent. Analysis of basal and stimulated release of tritiated material indicated that evoked release (i.e. stimulated minus basal) is almost entirely due to an increase in [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) output. Evoked release of [3H]-ACh was dependent on the current strength and could be greatly reduced by exposing taenia to hemicholinium (34.8, 87.0 microM) before and during incubation with [3H]-choline (4 microCi ml-1, 15 Ci mmol-1). Spontaneous activity, muscle tone and the motor response of taenia to EFS were unaffected by morphine. Evoked, but not basal, release of tritiated material was inhibited by morphine (1.32-13.20 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition of release was frequency-dependent and naloxone (0.28 microM)-sensitive. The possible relationship between the effects of morphine on cholinergic nerves in taenia muscle and its actions in vivo are discussed. PMID:2873856

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2015-12-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  4. Characterization of pyrene degradation by Pseudomonas sp. strain Jpyr-1 isolated from active sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2013-07-01

    Using pyrene as a sole carbon, a new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from the active sewage sludge. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Jpyr-1 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The maximum degradation rate of pyrene was 3.07 mg L(-1)h(-1) in 48 h incubation with initial pyrene concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Moreover, in binary system consisting of pyrene and another PAH, the enzyme system of Jpyr-1 showed a preference toward pyrene. Furthermore, competitive inhibition of pyrene degradation by other PAH compounds occurred in the binary system. Jpyr-1 could also rapidly degrade other PAHs, such as benzanthracene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. Moreover, several metabolites were detected during pyrene degradation which indicated that Jpyr-1 degraded pyrene through the o-phthalate pathway. Taken together, these results indicated that Pseudomonas sp. Jpyr-1 was a new PAHs-degrading strain that might be useful in the bioremediation of sites contaminated with PAHs.

  5. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.

  6. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of the constituents isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Janki; Shrivastava, Atul; Khanna, A K; Bhatia, G; Awasthi, S K; Narender, T

    2012-11-15

    In continuation of our drug discovery program on Indian medicinal plants, we isolated bioactive compounds (1-5) from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum and evaluated their antidyslipidemic activity in triton induced hyperlipidemia model. The calophyllic acid (1A) and isocalophyllic acid (1B) mixture, canophyllic acid (4) and amentoflavone (5) showed dose dependent lipid lowering activity in in vivo experiments. The compounds 1A+1B mixture and 3 also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity. PMID:23083817

  7. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  8. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  9. Isolation and analysis of mannose/trehalose/maltose specific lectin from jack bean with antibruchid activity.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavel, Sakthivelkumar; Velayutham, Veeramani; Kamalanathan, Tamilarasan; Periasamy, Mullainadhan; Munusamy, Arumugam; Sundaram, Janarthanan

    2016-10-01

    A lectin with insecticidal property against the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus was successfully isolated from the seeds of Canavalia virosa using standard affinity chromatography. The isolated molecule typically behaved like a lectin in its characteristics. It agglutinated indicator red blood cells (RBC) in its native as well as enzyme treated conditions. The enzyme treated RBC types exhibited a very high hemagglutination (HA) titre values and this property of isolated molecule behaved like arcelin, the lectin-like molecules reported from several species of Phaseolus. As a characteristic feature of a lectin, the isolated molecule effectively inhibited the agglutination of indicator RBC types with simple and complex carbohydrates including glycoproteins. This nature of the isolated molecule also relate with characteristic feature of arcelin isoforms in inhibiting HA activity with complex glycoproteins as reported in many studies. Most interestingly, the present study disclosed trehalose as a potent inhibitor of C. virosa lectin. Therefore, feeding insect pests on the lectin like arcelin could serve as antibiosis factor/anti-insect activity. The molecular characteristics of this isolated molecule and its mass studies too revealed its homology with arcelin, arcelin-1, 2 and 6 isoforms of P. vulgaris and lectin from Canavalia cathartica, C. lineata and C. brasiliensis. PMID:27238584

  10. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge–associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  11. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  12. Status and needs for tank isolation system contingencies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document assesses the need for additional tank isolation systems and tooling at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Locations for future operations at ORNL include the South and North Tank Farms and various Federal Facilities Agreement tanks. The goal of this report is to identify future needs for development of remote tools and systems to isolate inactive waste storage tanks.

  13. The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Awji, Elias Gebru; Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Young-Hoan; Park, Seung-Chun

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp. and Streptococcus canis from dogs was investigated. For Staphylococcus spp., the highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin, followed by ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The highest frequency of resistance in E. coli isolates was recorded for tetracycline and streptomycin. Pasteurella spp. and S. canis had the highest resistance rate for tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Most isolates showed full susceptibility to low-level resistance to colistin, florfenicol and fluoroquinolones. Further studies using larger number of isolates from both healthy and diseased dogs would provide a broader picture of antimicrobial resistance at a national level and promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents in companion animals. PMID:22516694

  14. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  15. Development of newer methods for the isolation and identification of certain components found in complex mixtures derived from energy sources and the determination of their biological activity via bioassay systems. Progress report, August 1980-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.R.

    1981-07-01

    A composite sample of Paraho crude oil was fractionated and the fractions chemically identified by multidimensional gas chromatography. The fractions were then bioassayed to determine their biological activity. (ACR)

  16. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong

    2013-10-01

    Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95 % sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92 % to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp

  17. Antioxidant defense system parameters in isolated fish hepatocytes exposed to bisphenol A - Effect of vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Özlem; Kaptaner, Burak

    2016-09-01

    In this study, isolated hepatocytes of pearl mullet (Alburnus tarichi) were exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM for 24 h. Moreover, an in vitro antioxidant concentration of vitamin C (50 μM) was administrated to the culture medium along with the BPA exposures. Next, the antioxidant defense system parameters were analyzed. According to the results, the highest concentration of BPA (200 μM) proved to be severely toxic for the cells. The increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the fluctuated activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the decreased content of reduced glutathione (GSH) were compared to the control group after the BPA exposures. Vitamin C co-administration was found to cause further increases in the SOD, GPx, and GST activities in some of the experimental groups and vitamin C could not restore the GSH content. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed to be unaffected in all exposure groups. These results show that BPA causes alterations in the antioxidant defenses of the isolated fish hepatocytes. In addition, vitamin C co-administration along with BPA was found to be non-protective against BPA-induced oxidative stress, consequently, aggravated a negative BPA impact. PMID:27630046

  18. Highly reliable heterologous system for evaluating resistance of clinical herpes simplex virus isolates to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Bestman-Smith, J; Schmit, I; Papadopoulou, B; Boivin, G

    2001-04-01

    Clinical resistance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 to acyclovir (ACV) is usually caused by the presence of point mutations within the coding region of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene. The distinction between viral TK mutations involved in ACV resistance or part of viral polymorphism can be difficult to evaluate with current methodologies based on transfection and homologous recombination. We have developed and validated a new heterologous system based on the expression of the viral TK gene by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, normally devoid of TK activity. The viral TK genes from 5 ACV-susceptible and 13 ACV-resistant clinical HSV isolates and from the reference strains MS2 (type 2) and KOS (type 1) were transfected as part of an episomal expression vector in Leishmania. The susceptibility of TK-recombinant parasites to ganciclovir (GCV), a closely related nucleoside analogue, was evaluated by a simple measurement of the absorbance of Leishmania cultures grown in the presence of the drug. Expression of the TK gene from ACV-susceptible clinical isolates resulted in Leishmania susceptibility to GCV, whereas expression of a TK gene with frameshift mutations or nucleotide substitutions from ACV-resistant isolates gave rise to parasites with high levels of GCV resistance. The expression of the HSV TK gene in Leishmania provides an easy, reliable, and sensitive assay for evaluating HSV susceptibility to nucleoside analogues and for assessing the role of specific viral TK mutations.

  19. In Search of Alternative Antibiotic Drugs: Quorum-Quenching Activity in Sponges and their Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saurav, Kumar; Bar-Shalom, Rinat; Haber, Markus; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Oliviero, Giorgia; Costantino, Valeria; Morgenstern, David; Steindler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS), because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of 14 sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ) potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that ≈20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not correlate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts), and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater, and marine sediments). Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges and may simply have been trapped in the filtration channels of the

  20. In Search of Alternative Antibiotic Drugs: Quorum-Quenching Activity in Sponges and their Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Saurav, Kumar; Bar-Shalom, Rinat; Haber, Markus; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Oliviero, Giorgia; Costantino, Valeria; Morgenstern, David; Steindler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extensive development of drug resistance in pathogens against the available antibiotic arsenal, antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging major threat to public healthcare. Anti-virulence drugs are a new type of therapeutic agent aiming at virulence factors rather than killing the pathogen, thus providing less selective pressure for evolution of resistance. One promising example of this therapeutic concept targets bacterial quorum sensing (QS), because QS controls many virulence factors responsible for bacterial infections. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria are considered a still untapped source for unique chemical leads with a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we screened extracts of 14 sponge species collected from the Red and Mediterranean Sea for their quorum-quenching (QQ) potential. Half of the species showed QQ activity in at least 2 out of 3 replicates. Six out of the 14 species were selected for bacteria isolation, to test for QQ activity also in isolates, which, once cultured, represent an unlimited source of compounds. We show that ≈20% of the isolates showed QQ activity based on a Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 screen, and that the presence or absence of QQ activity in a sponge extract did not correlate with the abundance of isolates with the same activity from the same sponge species. This can be explained by the unknown source of QQ compounds in sponge-holobionts (host or symbionts), and further by the possible non-symbiotic nature of bacteria isolated from sponges. The potential symbiotic nature of the isolates showing QQ activity was tested according to the distribution and abundance of taxonomically close bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in a dataset including 97 sponge species and 178 environmental samples (i.e., seawater, freshwater, and marine sediments). Most isolates were found not to be enriched in sponges and may simply have been trapped in the filtration channels of the

  1. Contribution of Social Isolation, Restraint, and Hindlimb Unloading to Changes in Hemodynamic Parameters and Motion Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Darya; Bourreau, Jennifer; Mieuset, Aurélie; Garo, Florian; Vinogradova, Olga; Larina, Irina; Navasiolava, Nastassia; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The most accepted animal model for simulation of the physiological and morphological consequences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system is one of head-down hindlimb unloading. Experimental conditions surrounding this model include not only head-down tilting of rats, but also social and restraint stresses that have their own influences on cardiovascular system function. Here, we studied levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during 14 days under the following experimental conditions: cage control, social isolation in standard rat housing, social isolation in special cages for hindlimb unloading, horizontal attachment (restraint), and head-down hindlimb unloading. General activity and hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored in conscious rats by telemetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were both evaluated during treadmill running to reveal cardiovascular deconditioning development as a result of unloading. The main findings of our work are that: social isolation and restraint induced persistent physical inactivity, while unloading in rats resulted in initial inactivity followed by normalization and increased locomotion after one week. Moreover, 14 days of hindlimb unloading showed significant elevation of blood pressure and slight elevation of heart rate. Hemodynamic changes in isolated and restrained rats largely reproduced the trends observed during unloading. Finally, we detected no augmentation of tachycardia during moderate exercise in rats after 14 days of unloading. Thus, we concluded that both social isolation and restraint, as an integral part of the model conditions, contribute essentially to cardiovascular reactions during head-down hindlimb unloading, compared to the little changes in the hydrostatic gradient. PMID:22768322

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jami, Mansooreh; Ghanbari, Mahdi; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria isolated from the gut microbiota of two freshwater fish species namely Schizothorax zarudnyi and Schizocypris altidorsalis was investigated employing classical cultivation techniques, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), partial and full 16S rDNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 277 isolates were cultured by applying three different agar media. Based on rep-PCR profile analysis a subset of 33 strains was selected for further phylogenetic investigations, antimicrobial activity testing and diversity analysis of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic genes. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belong to eight genera distributed among six families. At the family level, 72% of the 277 isolates belong to the family Streptomycetaceae. Among the non-streptomycetes group, the most dominant group could be allocated to the family of Pseudonocardiaceae followed by the members of Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that many of the isolates in the genera Streptomyces, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium and Agromyces formed a single and distinct cluster with the type strains. Notably, there is no report so far about the occurrence of these Actinobacteria in the microbiota of freshwater fish. Of the 33 isolates, all the strains exhibited antibacterial activity against a set of tested human and fish pathogenic bacteria. Then, to study their associated potential capacity to synthesize diverse bioactive natural products, diversity of genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis including PKS I, PKS II, NRPS, the enzyme PhzE of the phenazine pathways, the enzyme dTGD of 6-deoxyhexoses glycosylation pathway, the enzyme Halo of halogenation pathway and the enzyme CYP in polyene polyketide biosynthesis were investigated among the isolates. All the strains possess at least two types of the investigated

  3. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jami, Mansooreh; Ghanbari, Mahdi; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria isolated from the gut microbiota of two freshwater fish species namely Schizothorax zarudnyi and Schizocypris altidorsalis was investigated employing classical cultivation techniques, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), partial and full 16S rDNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 277 isolates were cultured by applying three different agar media. Based on rep-PCR profile analysis a subset of 33 strains was selected for further phylogenetic investigations, antimicrobial activity testing and diversity analysis of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic genes. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belong to eight genera distributed among six families. At the family level, 72% of the 277 isolates belong to the family Streptomycetaceae. Among the non-streptomycetes group, the most dominant group could be allocated to the family of Pseudonocardiaceae followed by the members of Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that many of the isolates in the genera Streptomyces, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium and Agromyces formed a single and distinct cluster with the type strains. Notably, there is no report so far about the occurrence of these Actinobacteria in the microbiota of freshwater fish. Of the 33 isolates, all the strains exhibited antibacterial activity against a set of tested human and fish pathogenic bacteria. Then, to study their associated potential capacity to synthesize diverse bioactive natural products, diversity of genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis including PKS I, PKS II, NRPS, the enzyme PhzE of the phenazine pathways, the enzyme dTGD of 6-deoxyhexoses glycosylation pathway, the enzyme Halo of halogenation pathway and the enzyme CYP in polyene polyketide biosynthesis were investigated among the isolates. All the strains possess at least two types of the investigated

  4. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  5. Antilisterial activity of a Carnobacterium piscicola isolated from Brazilian smoked fish (surubim [Pseudoplatystoma sp.]) and its activity against a persistent strain of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from surubim.

    PubMed

    Alves, Virgínia F; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Destro, Maria Teresa; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2005-10-01

    Data on the prevalence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products from subtropical and tropical regions are very scarce. Our research describes L. monocytogenes that was detected in 5% of the packages of cold-smoked surubim, a native Brazilian freshwater fish that we analyzed, and shows that the strains isolated were of the same random amplified polymorphic DNA subtype as the strains that were isolated from the same factory 4 years earlier. A bacteriocinogenic strain of Carnobacterium piscicola (strain C2), isolated from vacuum-packed cold-smoked surubim, and two C. piscicola strains, isolated from vacuum-packed, cold-smoked salmon, were capable of limiting or completely inhibiting the growth of an L. monocytogenes (strain V2) isolated from surubim in fish peptone model systems incubated at 10 degrees C. Monocultures of L. monocytogenes reached 108 CFU/ml (g), whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was completely inhibited by C. piscicola C2. The bacteriocinogenic C. piscicola A9b+ and its nonbacteriocinogenic mutant A9b- reduced maximum Listeria levels by 2 to 3 log units. Both bacteriocinogenic C. piscicola strains prevented listerial growth in cold-smoked fish juices (surubim and salmon). Although the carnobacteria grew poorly on cold-smoked surubim at 10 degrees C, the strains were able to reduce maximum Listeria counts by 1 to 3 log units in an artificially inoculated product (surubim). We conclude that Brazilian smoked fish products harbor L. monocytogenes and should be stabilized against the growth of the organism. C. piscicola C2 has the potential for use as a bioprotective culture in surubim and other lightly preserved fish, but further studies are required to optimize its effect.

  6. A biomolecular isolation framework for eco-systems biology.

    PubMed

    Roume, Hugo; Muller, Emilie E L; Cordes, Thekla; Renaut, Jenny; Hiller, Karsten; Wilmes, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Mixed microbial communities are complex, dynamic and heterogeneous. It is therefore essential that biomolecular fractions obtained for high-throughput omic analyses are representative of single samples to facilitate meaningful data integration, analysis and modeling. We have developed a new methodological framework for the reproducible isolation of high-quality genomic DNA, large and small RNA, proteins, and polar and non-polar metabolites from single unique mixed microbial community samples. The methodology is based around reproducible cryogenic sample preservation and cell lysis. Metabolites are extracted first using organic solvents, followed by the sequential isolation of nucleic acids and proteins using chromatographic spin columns. The methodology was validated by comparison to traditional dedicated and simultaneous biomolecular isolation methods. To prove the broad applicability of the methodology, we applied it to microbial consortia of biotechnological, environmental and biomedical research interest. The developed methodological framework lays the foundation for standardized molecular eco-systematic studies on a range of different microbial communities in the future.

  7. Protease activities of Candida spp. isolated from otitis externa: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Arsović, N A; Banko, A V; Dimitrijević, M V; Djordjević, V Z; Milovanović, J P; Arsenijević, V A

    2009-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the ear predominantly caused by Candida and Aspergillus spp. The possible virulence factors of Candida spp. are enzymes, such as proteases, phospholipases, phosphatases and esterase. According to our knowledge, protease production in Candida strains isolated from patients with otomycosis has not been investigated. The present study was aimed at determining in vitro protease activity in 8 strains of Candida spp. (C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii and C. albicans) isolated from children with otomycosis. A majority of isolated strains 7/8 (87.5%) were protease positive. The protease activity ranged from Pz 0.61 to 0.78. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the contribution of protease production to Candida virulence associated with otomycosis.

  8. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Anouar, El Hassane; Shilpi, Jamil A; Trabolsy, Zuhra Bashir Khalifa Al; Zain, Sharifuddin Bin Md; Zakaria, Nur Shahidatul Shida; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Malek, Sri Nurestri A; Rahman, Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-01-01

    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.

  9. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  12. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates to Hydrogel Contact Lens Disinfection Correlates with Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lakkis, Carol; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most common pathogens in infection of hydrogel contact lens wearers is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can gain access to the eye via contamination of the lens, lens case, and lens care solutions. Only one strain per species is used in current regulatory testing for the marketing of chemical contact lens disinfectants. The aim of this study was to determine whether P. aeruginosa strains vary in their susceptibility to hydrogel contact lens disinfectants. A method for rapidly screening bacterial susceptibility to contact lens disinfectants was developed, based on measurement of the MIC. The susceptibility of 35 P. aeruginosa isolates to two chemical disinfectants was found to vary among strains. MICs ranged from 6.25 to 100% for both disinfectants at 37°C, and a number of strains were not inhibited by a 100% disinfectant concentration in the lens case environment at room temperature (22°C). Resistance to disinfection appeared to be an inherent rather than acquired trait, since some resistant strains had been isolated prior to the introduction of the disinfectants and some susceptible P. aeruginosa strains could not be made more resistant by repeated disinfectant exposure. A number of P. aeruginosa strains which were comparatively more resistant to short-term disinfectant exposure also demonstrated the ability to grow to levels above the initial inoculum in one chemical disinfectant after long-term (24 to 48 h) disinfectant exposure. Resistance was correlated with acute cytotoxic activity toward corneal epithelial cells and with exsA, which encodes a protein that regulates cytotoxicity via a complex type III secretion system. These results suggest that chemical disinfection solutions may select for contamination with cytotoxic strains. Further investigation of the mechanisms and factors responsible for resistance may also lead to strategies for reducing adverse responses to contact lens wear. PMID:11283074

  13. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  14. Higher Caspase-like activity in symptomatic isolates of Blastocystis spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biochemical evidence of a caspase-like execution pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of protozoan parasites, including Blastocystis spp. The distinct differences in the phenotypic characterization reported previously have prompted us to compare the rate of apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. isolated from individuals who were symptomatic and asymptomatic. In the current study, we analysed the caspase activation involved in PCD mediated by a cytotoxic drug, (metronidazole) in both symptomatic & asymptomatic isolates. Methods Apoptosis was induced in Blastocystis spp. by treating cultures of symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates of 3 sub-types namely 1, 3 and 5 with two different concentrations, 0.1 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (with and without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk). The experiment was repeated to assess the number of apoptotic cells in all the isolates of both conditions. Results Symptomatic isolates of subtype 3 (without pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk) showed high fluorescence intensity for active caspase-like proteases [0.0001 mg/ml, 88% (p < 0.001) at 0.1 mg/ml, 70% (p < 0.001)] at the 72nd hour in vitro culture in comparison with asymptomatic isolates [0.0001 mg/ml, 65%, at 0.1 mg/ml, 55%]. The number of apoptotic cells was higher [0.0001 mg/ml, 89% (p < 0.001) and at 0.1 mg/ml, 70% (p < 0.001)] at the 72nd hour of in vitro culture in comparison with asymptomatic isolates [0.0001 mg/ml, 66% (p < 0.001) and at 0.1 mg/ml, 45% (p < 0.01)]. Cells treated with metronidazole in the presence of zVAD.fmk showed less than 10% caspase activation. Conclusion The high number of symptomatic cells expressing active caspase-like proteases and becoming apoptotic compared to asymptomatic cells clearly demonstrates that the response to metronidazole treatment is isolate dependent. Hence this justifies the conflicting reports on the curative success rates when treated with

  15. A hierarchically distributed architecture for fault isolation expert systems on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miksell, Steve; Coffer, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Axiomatic Fault Isolating Expert Systems (SAFTIES) system deals with the hierarchical distribution of control and knowledge among independent expert systems doing fault isolation and scheduling of Space Station subsystems. On its lower level, fault isolation is performed on individual subsystems. These fault isolation expert systems contain knowledge about the performance requirements of their particular subsystem and corrective procedures which may be involved in repsonse to certain performance errors. They can control the functions of equipment in their system and coordinate system task schedules. On a higher level, the Executive contains knowledge of all resources, task schedules for all systems, and the relative priority of all resources and tasks. The executive can override any subsystem task schedule in order to resolve use conflicts or resolve errors that require resources from multiple subsystems. Interprocessor communication is implemented using the SAFTIES Communications Interface (SCI). The SCI is an application layer protocol which supports the SAFTIES distributed multi-level architecture.

  16. Activity systems in the inquiry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortham, Donald William

    Inquiry science, as called for by reform-minded organizations such as the National Research Council (1996), offers a platform with the potential for introducing all students to the practice of science while maintaining focus on key concepts and theories. This project followed two small groups as they completed an inquiry unit on genetics at a Midwestern high school. I investigated whether levels of student-to-teacher, student-to-student, student-apparatus, and student-concept connections were approximately equal across all students in each of the two groups. I found differences among students in levels of student-to-teacher, student-to-student, and student-concept connections. From a situated idiopathic perspective, these differences may indicate different levels of opportunity-to-learn. At a more abstract (nomothetic) level, these differences may be due to emergent divisions of labor (roles) within the two groups. From the perspective of Activity Theory (Leont'ev, 1978; Engestrom, 1987), roles serve as important mediators that simultaneously allow the social unit to accomplish its objectives, while shaping the development of participants. I describe three roles that capture modes of participation for students interacting in the small groups, and that may contribute to what Engestrom (2001) calls subject-producing activity systems: networked contributor, social member, and isolate. This paper also describes tools for teachers and researchers to use in identifying levels of mediation and roles as they occur in small groups.

  17. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R.; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds. PMID:25999928

  18. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae).

    PubMed

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds.

  19. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  20. Screening of bacterial isolates for mannose-specific lectin activity by agglutination of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, D; Altmann, G; Eshdat, Y

    1980-01-01

    A total of 393 clinical bacterial isolates were tested for their ability to agglutinate yeast cells of either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida albicans. A positive agglutination of yeasts that could be prevented by methyl alpha-D-mannoside was taken as an indication for the possible presence of a mannose-specific lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) on the surface of the tested bacteria. Agglutination tests on glass slides showed that 38% of all the isolates tested were positive in their capacity to agglutinate yeasts. Among the various strains tested, all isolates of Serratia marcescens, Proteus morganii, and Citrobacter diversus, as well as 94% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, were positive. On the other hand, only 46% of the Escherichia coli, 48% of the salmonellae, 44% of the Citrobacter freundii, and 71% of the Aeromonas hydrophila isolates were positive. A quantitative determination of the lectin activity done by observing the agglutination of yeasts in microtiter plates showed that S. marcescens isolates were the most avid binders to the yeast, whereas Klebsiella and Citrobacter isolates were the weakest. PMID:6989854

  1. Hydramycin, a new antitumor antibiotic. Taxonomy, isolation, physico-chemical properties, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kaneta, K; Nishiyama, Y; Hoshino, Y; Konishi, M; Oki, T

    1991-08-01

    A new antitumor antibiotic hydramycin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces violaceus P950-4 (ATCC 53807). It showed potent antibacterial and cytotoxic activity and increased the survival time of mice inoculated with P388 leukemia. A new structure related to the pluramycin group antibiotics was assigned by its spectroscopic experiments. PMID:1833366

  2. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  3. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY FROM SPIRODELA OLIGORHIZA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acid phosphatase activity from the aquatic plant Spirodela oligorhiza (duckweed) was isolated and partially characterized. S. oligorhiza was grown in a hydroponic growth medium, harvested, and ground up in liquid nitrogen. The ground plant material was added to a biological ...

  4. The diversity and antimicrobial activity of Preussia sp. endophytes isolated from Australian dry rainforests.

    PubMed

    Mapperson, Rachel R; Kotiw, Michael; Davis, Rohan A; Dearnaley, John D W

    2014-01-01

    Limited knowledge currently exists regarding species diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic isolates of Preussia within Australia. This report describes endophytic Preussia species that were identified through molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. Screening for antimicrobial secondary metabolites was determined by testing crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts derived from fungal mycelia against a panel of ATCC type strains which included Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the opportunist yeast pathogen Candida albicans. Subsequently, high-performance liquid chromatography generated fractions of bioactive EtOAc extracts which were subject to confirmatory testing using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference microdilution antimicrobial activity assay. A total of 18 Preussia were isolated from nine host plants with 6/18 having a <97 % sequence similarity to other known species in Genbank, suggesting that they are new species. In preliminary screening, 13/18 Preussia isolates revealed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the microbes tested, whilst 6/18 isolates, including 4/6 putative new species showed specific antimicrobial activity against MRSA and C. albicans. These results highlight the antimicrobial potential of Australian Preussia spp. and also the importance of Australian dry rainforests as an untapped repository of potentially significant bioactive compounds.

  5. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica

    DOEpatents

    Jarvis, E.E.; Roessler, P.G.

    1999-07-27

    The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities. 8 figs.

  6. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica

    DOEpatents

    Jarvis, Eric E.; Roessler, Paul G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities.

  7. Characteristics of a mixed-gas jet system in KUR-ISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Okano, Kotoyuki; Sharshar, Taher; Kawase, Yoichi

    1994-12-01

    The characteristics of N 2- and He-N 2 mixed-gas jet systems have been investigated when a target chamber was located in a strong radiation field at KUR-ISOL. The ion yields have been much enhanced using the He-N 2 mixed-gas jet coupled with PbI 2 as aerosol material. The characteristics of these gas jet systems have been studied by measuring the amount of transported activities and by detecting representative γ-rays from mass-separated fission products. The dependence of the ion yields on the aerosol materials (DOP, NaCl and PbI 2) and on the volumetric mixing ratio of He and N 2 gases has been investigated.

  8. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of xanthones isolated from Artocarpus obtusus F.M. Jarrett.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Amin, Muhamad Aizat Mohd; Ali, Abd Manaf; Go, Rusea

    2012-05-21

    One of the most promising plants in biological screening test results of thirteen Artocarpus species was Artocarpus obtusus FM Jarrett and detailed phytochemical investigation of powdered dried bark of the plant has led to the isolation and identification of three xanthones; pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1), dihydroartoindonesianin C (2) and pyranocycloartobiloxanthone B (3). These compounds were screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) exhibited a strong free radical scavenger towards DPPH free radicals with IC50 value of 2 µg/mL with prominent discoloration observed in comparison with standard ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and quercetin, The compound also exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC3359) and Bacillus subtilis (clinically isolated) with inhibition zone of 20 and 12 mm, respectively. However the other two xanthones were found to be inactive. For the tyrosinase inhibitory activity, again compound (1) displayed strong activity comparable with the standard kojic acid.

  9. Isolation of a New Mexican Strain of Bacillus subtilis with Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Basurto-Cadena, M. G. L.; Vázquez-Arista, M.; García-Jiménez, J.; Salcedo-Hernández, R.; Bideshi, D. K.; Barboza-Corona, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 21 produced augment in the number of leaves per plant and an increment in the length of healthy leaves in comparison with untreated plants. In addition, B. subtilis 21 showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. Secreted proteins by B. subtilis 21 were studied, detecting the presence of proteases and bacteriocin-like inhibitor substances that could be implicated in its antagonistic activity. Chitinases and zwittermicin production could not be detected. Then, B. subtilis 21 could potentially be used to control phytopathogenic fungi that infect strawberry plants. PMID:22593682

  10. Isolation of a new Mexican strain of Bacillus subtilis with antifungal and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Basurto-Cadena, M G L; Vázquez-Arista, M; García-Jiménez, J; Salcedo-Hernández, R; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2012-01-01

    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 21 produced augment in the number of leaves per plant and an increment in the length of healthy leaves in comparison with untreated plants. In addition, B. subtilis 21 showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. Secreted proteins by B. subtilis 21 were studied, detecting the presence of proteases and bacteriocin-like inhibitor substances that could be implicated in its antagonistic activity. Chitinases and zwittermicin production could not be detected. Then, B. subtilis 21 could potentially be used to control phytopathogenic fungi that infect strawberry plants. PMID:22593682

  11. In vitro activity of sparfloxacin (CI-978; AT-4140) against clinical isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, K V; Nguyen, H; Messer, M; LeBlanc, B; Ho, D H; Bodey, G P

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new quinolone, was compared with those of ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, greater than 90% of which were isolated from blood culture specimens of cancer patients. Sparfloxacin was extremely active against Acinetobacter species, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens (inhibiting greater than 90% of these isolates at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml) and moderately active against Pseudomonas species, other Proteus species, and Citrobacter freundii. Sparfloxacin inhibited greater than 90% of staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant and coagulase-negative strains) at a concentration of 0.12 microgram/ml and greater than 90% of streptococci (including Streptococcus pneumoniae) at a concentration of 1.0 microgram/ml. It was also active against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus species, and Corynebacterium jeikeium, organisms that have become fairly common in cancer patients. PMID:2127348

  12. Exopolysaccharides isolated from hydrothermal vent bacteria can modulate the complement system.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Anthony; Berthou, Christian; Guézennec, Jean; Boisset, Claire; Bordron, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is involved in the defence against bacterial infection, or in the elimination of tumour cells. However, disturbances in this system contributes to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. The efficiency of therapeutic anti-tumour antibodies is enhanced when the complement system is stimulated. In contrast, cancer cells are able to inhibit the complement system and thus proliferate. Some marine molecules are currently being developed as new drugs for use in humans. Among them, known exopolyssacharides (EPSs) generally originate from fungi, but few studies have been performed on bacterial EPSs and even fewer on EPSs extracted from deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbes. For use in humans, these high molecular weight EPSs must be depolymerised. Furthermore, the over-sulphation of EPSs can modify their biological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulation of the complement system by either native or over-sulphated low molecular weight EPSs isolated from vent bacteria in order to find pro or anti-activators of complement.

  13. Evaluating the Biodeterioration Enzymatic Activities of Fungal Contamination Isolated from Some Ancient Yemeni Mummies Preserved in the National Museum

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Abdullah, Qais Yusuf M.; AL-Zaqri, Aida Qaseem M.; Alghalibi, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana'a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%). Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4), Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2) and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11) were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14) was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration. PMID:25478228

  14. Sea foam as a source of fungal inoculum for the isolation of biologically active natural products

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Berrue, Fabrice; Correa, Hebelin; Hanif, Novriyandi; Hay, Kathryn; Lanteigne, Martin; Mquilian, Kathrine; Duffy, Stephanie; Boland, Patricia; Jagannathan, Ramesh; Carr, Gavin S.; Vansteeland, Marieke; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a rate increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to currently used antibiotics, there is a need in society for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. Historically, fungi are a proven source for antimicrobial compounds. The main goals of this study were to investigate the fungal diversity associated with sea foam collected around the coast of Prince Edward Island and the utility of this resource for the production of antimicrobial natural products. Obtained isolates were identified using ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, fermented on four media, extracted and fractions enriched in secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity. The majority of the isolates obtained were ascomycetes, consisting of four recognized marine taxa along with other ubiquitous genera and many ‘unknown’ isolates that could not be identified to the species level using rDNA gene sequences. Secondary metabolite isolation efforts lead to the purification of the metabolites epolones A and B, pycnidione and coniothyrione from a strain of Neosetophoma samarorum; brefeldin A, leptosin J and the metabolite TMC-264 from an unknown fungus (probably representative of an Edenia sp.); and 1-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone, chrysophanol and chrysophanol bianthrone from a Phaeospheria spartinae isolate. The biological activity of each of these metabolites was assessed against a panel of microbial pathogens as well as several cell lines. PMID:25379337

  15. [Characteristics of microbial community structure during isolation of electrical active bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Yang- Guo; Lu, Shan-Shan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of selective culturing on microorganisms and functional role of electrical active bacteria in biofilm, some exoelectrogens were isolated from microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodic biofilm using Hungate roll-tube technique with iron oxide as indicator. At the same time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure was monitored during the pure culture isolation. The results show that maximum voltages of MFCs feeding with lactic acid, acetic acid and steroid wastewater are 0.57, 0.60 and 0.40 V respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated from seed sludge and anodic films feeding with acetate and lactate belong to phylum Proteobacteria; while steroid wastewater contains relative high diversity of bacteria, i. e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. After enriching and culturing, two bacteria were consequently obtained, which shared the highest similarity with Enterobacter ludwigii and Citrobacter freundii respectively. When inoculated in MFC with lactic acid as the substrate, they produced maximum voltage of 0.10 and 0.17 V individually. This study shows that electrical active bacteria can be isolated from the MFC anodic biofilm using anaerobic gradient dilution culture techniques with iron oxide as indicator. Microbial community structure presents markedly shifting during the bacteria isolation owing to its selectivity.

  16. ROVER: A prototype active vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, David J.; Marsh, Brian D.

    1987-08-01

    The Roving Eyes project is an experiment in active vision. We present the design and implementation of a prototype that tracks colored balls in images from an on-line charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Rover is designed to keep up with its rapidly changing environment by handling best and average case conditions and ignoring the worst case. This allows Rover's techniques to be less sophisticated and consequently faster. Each of Rover's major functional units is relatively isolated from the others, and an executive which knows all the functional units directs the computation by deciding which jobs would be most effective to run. This organization is realized with a priority queue of jobs and their arguments. Rover's structure not only allows it to adapt its strategy to the environment, but also makes the system extensible. A capability can be added to the system by adding a functional module with a well defined interface and by modifying the executive to make use of the new module. The current implementation is discussed in the appendices.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm (Costaceae) is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin) from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 μg/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. μg/ml against T. simii, 31.25 μg/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 μg/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 μg/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 μg/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 μg/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 μg/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 μg/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity. PMID:22397713

  18. Isolation, characterization, and biological properties of a tuberculin-active peptidoglycan isolated from the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K C; Landi, S

    1980-02-01

    A water-soluble tuberculin-active peptidoglycan (TAPG) with a molecular weight of ca. 28,000 to 30,000 was isolated from the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TAPG was approximately four to five times more potent than tuberculin purified protein derivative S in guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis or M. bovis (freeze-dried BCG). It showed little or no cross-reactivity at a dose of 0.1 to 0.4 microgram in guinea pigs sensitized with M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, or M. avium. TAPG did not show any adjuvant activity when injected in guinea pigs in a water-in-oil emulsion containing ovalbumin. TAPG, in Freund incomplete adjuvant, proved to be an effective immunogen for inducing delayed hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Chemical analysis of TAPG showed that it contains proline, glutamic acid, alanine, diaminopimelic acid, tyrosine, threonine, glucosamine, and the reducing sugars, arabinose and galactose. In immunoelectrophoretic studies with reference M. tuberculosis H37Rv antiserum, TAPG did not show any precipitin bands.

  19. Comparison of helper component-protease RNA silencing suppression activity, subcellular localization, and aggregation of three Korean isolates of Turnip mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Yeong; Chung, Jinsoo; Kim, Jungkyu; Seo, Eun-Young; Kilcrease, James P; Bauchan, Gary R; Lim, Seungmo; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2016-08-01

    In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in Korean radish fields to investigate the distribution and variability of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis sap-inoculated with three isolates of TuMV from infected radish tissue showed different symptom severities, whereas symptoms in Raphanus sativus were similar for each isolate. The helper component-protease (HC-Pro) genes of each isolate were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Korean isolates were clustered into the basal-BR group. The HC-Pro proteins of these isolates were tested for their RNA silencing suppressor (VSR) activity and subcellular localization in Nicotiana benthamiana. A VSR assay by co-agroinfiltration of HC-Pro with soluble-modified GFP (smGFP) showed that HC-Pro of isolate R007 and R041 showed stronger VSR activity than R065. The HC-Pros showed 98.25 % amino acid identity, and weak VSR isolate (R065) has a single variant residue in the C-terminal domain associated with protease activity and self-interaction compared to isolates with strong VSR activity. Formation of large subcellular aggregates of GFP:HC-Pro fusion proteins in N. benthamiana was only observed for HC-Pro from isolates with strong VSR activity, suggesting that R065 'weak' HC-Pro may have diminished self-association; substitution of the variant C-terminal residue largely reversed the HC-Pro aggregation and silencing suppressor characteristics. The lack of correlation between VSR efficiency and induction of systemic necrosis (SN) suggests that differences in viral accumulation due to HC-Pro are not responsible for SN.

  20. Comparison of helper component-protease RNA silencing suppression activity, subcellular localization, and aggregation of three Korean isolates of Turnip mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Yeong; Chung, Jinsoo; Kim, Jungkyu; Seo, Eun-Young; Kilcrease, James P; Bauchan, Gary R; Lim, Seungmo; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2016-08-01

    In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in Korean radish fields to investigate the distribution and variability of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis sap-inoculated with three isolates of TuMV from infected radish tissue showed different symptom severities, whereas symptoms in Raphanus sativus were similar for each isolate. The helper component-protease (HC-Pro) genes of each isolate were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the three Korean isolates were clustered into the basal-BR group. The HC-Pro proteins of these isolates were tested for their RNA silencing suppressor (VSR) activity and subcellular localization in Nicotiana benthamiana. A VSR assay by co-agroinfiltration of HC-Pro with soluble-modified GFP (smGFP) showed that HC-Pro of isolate R007 and R041 showed stronger VSR activity than R065. The HC-Pros showed 98.25 % amino acid identity, and weak VSR isolate (R065) has a single variant residue in the C-terminal domain associated with protease activity and self-interaction compared to isolates with strong VSR activity. Formation of large subcellular aggregates of GFP:HC-Pro fusion proteins in N. benthamiana was only observed for HC-Pro from isolates with strong VSR activity, suggesting that R065 'weak' HC-Pro may have diminished self-association; substitution of the variant C-terminal residue largely reversed the HC-Pro aggregation and silencing suppressor characteristics. The lack of correlation between VSR efficiency and induction of systemic necrosis (SN) suggests that differences in viral accumulation due to HC-Pro are not responsible for SN. PMID:27059238

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents.

  3. [Antimicrobial activity of tebipenem against various clinical isolates from various specimen, mainly urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Muratani, Tetsuro; Doi, Kazutake; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tamaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2009-04-01

    Tebipenem is the active metabolite of ME1211, tebipenem pivoxil, a novel oral carbapenem that possesses potent activity against almost pathogens except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we compared the susceptibility of tebipenem with current antibiotics against various organisms isolated from various specimen, mainly urinary tract. Tebipenem had a potent activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae; its activity was comparable to it of cefixime that has most potent activity among oral antibiotics. Against Enterococcus faecalis, the activity of tebipenem was comparable to the activities of ampicillin and amoxicillin, and superior to it of faropenem. Against Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, tebipenem had a potent activity with or without ceftazidime-resistance. PMID:19673353

  4. Characterization of Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Mohammad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Ekrami, Alireza; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most problematic hospital and community-acquired pathogens. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are maintenance regulatory systems in bacteria and have recently been considered new targets for antimicrobial therapy. The prevalence and transcription of these systems in clinical isolates are still unknown. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize three types of TA systems (parDE, relBE, and higBA) among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: We typed our clinical isolates by ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction) and BOX-PCR. We then investigated 174 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from three hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, for the presence of TA system genes, and determined whether these systems were encoded on chromosomes or plasmids by amplification of the flanking regions. Results: Our results showed that in the 174 P. aeruginosa isolates, relBE and higBA were universal, but parDE was less prevalent. Both of the flanking regions of the parDE genes in all positive isolates were amplified. The flanking regions of nearly all relBE genes were amplified. Amplification was observed for the downstream sequence of every higBA locus, as well as for the region upstream of higBA, except in 14 strains. Conclusions: Based on the presence of TA systems in the majority of P. aeruginosa isolates, these could be used as a novel target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27099681

  5. UIO design for singular delayed LPV systems with application to actuator fault detection and isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, Amir Hossein; Shafiee, Masoud; Puig, Vicenc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the unknown input observer (UIO) design for singular delayed linear parameter varying (LPV) systems is considered regarding its application to actuator fault detection and isolation. The design procedure assumes that the LPV system is represented in the polytopic framework. Existence and convergence conditions for the UIO are established. The design procedure is formulated by means of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Actuator fault detection and isolation is based on using the UIO approach for designing a residual generator that is completely decoupled from unknown inputs and exclusively sensitive to faults. Fault isolation is addressed considering two different strategies: dedicated and generalised bank of observers' schemes. The applicability of these two schemes for the fault isolation is discussed. An open flow canal system is considered as a case study to illustrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed fault detection and isolation method in different fault scenarios.

  6. Diterpene Constituents of Euphorbia exigua L. and Multidrug Resistance Reversing Activity of the Isolated Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dóra; Boros, Klára; Forgo, Peter; Molnár, Joseph; Kele, Zoltán; Pálinkó, István; Pinke, Gyula; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract obtained from the aerial parts of the annual weed Euphorbia exigua L. resulted in the isolation of two novel (1, 2) and one known (3) jatrophane diterpenes. Their structures were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing activity on human MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma cells; and all three compounds were found to modulate the intracellular drug accumulation.

  7. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  8. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  9. Antileishmanial activity of prenylated coumarins isolated from Ferulago angulata and Prangos asperula

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Eskandarian, Abbas-Ali; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Yousefi, Hosein-Ali; Mansourian, Marjan; Asgarian-Nasab, Hasan; Mohseni, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms due to infection to numbers of Leishmania species and makes enormous mortality and morbidity. There are clues of antileishmanial effects of prenylated coumarins. Apiaceae family is one of the most important sources of coumarins. Air-dried aerial parts of Ferulago angulata and fruits of Prangos asperula were extracted with n-hexane, using a soxhlet apparatus. The solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure. Column chromatography and crystallization process resulted to isolation of three prenylated coumarins. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization Mass and Infrared spectra were used for elucidation of isolated compounds. Leishmanicidal activity of isolated coumarins was assessed on Leishmania major strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER) for the first time. Suberosin epoxide and suberosin were isolated from aerial parts of F. angulata and osthol was extracted from grounded fruits of P. asperula. Osthol showed a significant antileishmanial effect on promastigotes in early hours of exposure with IC50 of 14.40 µg/mL but suberosin epoxide showed only a weak antileishmanial activity. IC50 of osthol and suberosin epoxide after 48 h were 10.79 and 54.0 µg/mL, respectively. Suberosin showed no remarkable effect in these concentrations. This is the first report on the pharmacological activity of suberosin epoxide. Substantial difference between efficacies of two isomers, osthol and suberosin remarks the importance of prenyl substituent location on C-8. PMID:27651813

  10. Antileishmanial activity of prenylated coumarins isolated from Ferulago angulata and Prangos asperula.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Eskandarian, Abbas-Ali; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Yousefi, Hosein-Ali; Mansourian, Marjan; Asgarian-Nasab, Hasan; Mohseni, Negar

    2016-07-01

    Leishmaniasis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms due to infection to numbers of Leishmania species and makes enormous mortality and morbidity. There are clues of antileishmanial effects of prenylated coumarins. Apiaceae family is one of the most important sources of coumarins. Air-dried aerial parts of Ferulago angulata and fruits of Prangos asperula were extracted with n-hexane, using a soxhlet apparatus. The solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure. Column chromatography and crystallization process resulted to isolation of three prenylated coumarins. (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization Mass and Infrared spectra were used for elucidation of isolated compounds. Leishmanicidal activity of isolated coumarins was assessed on Leishmania major strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER) for the first time. Suberosin epoxide and suberosin were isolated from aerial parts of F. angulata and osthol was extracted from grounded fruits of P. asperula. Osthol showed a significant antileishmanial effect on promastigotes in early hours of exposure with IC50 of 14.40 µg/mL but suberosin epoxide showed only a weak antileishmanial activity. IC50 of osthol and suberosin epoxide after 48 h were 10.79 and 54.0 µg/mL, respectively. Suberosin showed no remarkable effect in these concentrations. This is the first report on the pharmacological activity of suberosin epoxide. Substantial difference between efficacies of two isomers, osthol and suberosin remarks the importance of prenyl substituent location on C-8. PMID:27651813

  11. Influence of salinity and temperature on the activity of biosurfactants by polychaete-associated isolates.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; De Domenico, Emilio; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2014-02-01

    Influence of different parameters on biosurfactant (BS) activity was carried out on strains that were isolated from the polychaetes Megalomma claparedei, Sabella spallanzanii and Branchiomma luctuosum and additional 30 strains that were previously identified as potential BS producers from crude oil enrichments of the same polychaete specimens. The selection of BS-producing strains from polychaete natural samples was carried out by using standard screening tests. The BS activity by each isolate was evaluated for the effect of salinity and temperature on emulsion production and surface tension reduction, during incubation in mineral medium supplemented with tetradecane or diesel oil. All isolates showed a similar time course of BS activity, and the latter was more influenced by salinity rather than temperature. Some of the BS producers belonged to genera that have not (i.e. Citricoccus, Cellulophaga, Tenacibaculum and Maribacter) or have poorly been (Psychrobacter, Vibrio, and Pseudoalteromonas) reported as able to produce BSs. This is remarkable as some of them have previously been detected in hydrocarbon-enriched samples. Results confirm that filter-feeding polychaetes are an efficient source for the isolation of BS producers. PMID:24170506

  12. Isolation of the protein and RNA content of active sites of transcription from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Svitlana; Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Brant, Lilija; Carr, Ian M; Rippe, Karsten; Cook, Peter R; Papantonis, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian cell nuclei contain three RNA polymerases (RNAP I, RNAP II and RNAP III), which transcribe different gene subsets, and whose active forms are contained in supramolecular complexes known as 'transcription factories.' These complexes are difficult to isolate because they are embedded in the 3D structure of the nucleus. Factories exchange components with the soluble nucleoplasmic pool over time as gene expression programs change during development or disease. Analysis of their content can provide information on the nascent transcriptome and its regulators. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of large factory fragments under isotonic salt concentrations in <72 h. It relies on DNase I-mediated detachment of chromatin from the nuclear substructure of freshly isolated, unfixed cells, followed by caspase treatment to release multi-megadalton factory complexes. These complexes retain transcriptional activity, and isolation of their contents is compatible with downstream analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) or RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to catalog the proteins and RNA associated with sites of active transcription. PMID:26914315

  13. Antileishmanial activity of prenylated coumarins isolated from Ferulago angulata and Prangos asperula

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Eskandarian, Abbas-Ali; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Yousefi, Hosein-Ali; Mansourian, Marjan; Asgarian-Nasab, Hasan; Mohseni, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms due to infection to numbers of Leishmania species and makes enormous mortality and morbidity. There are clues of antileishmanial effects of prenylated coumarins. Apiaceae family is one of the most important sources of coumarins. Air-dried aerial parts of Ferulago angulata and fruits of Prangos asperula were extracted with n-hexane, using a soxhlet apparatus. The solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure. Column chromatography and crystallization process resulted to isolation of three prenylated coumarins. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization Mass and Infrared spectra were used for elucidation of isolated compounds. Leishmanicidal activity of isolated coumarins was assessed on Leishmania major strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER) for the first time. Suberosin epoxide and suberosin were isolated from aerial parts of F. angulata and osthol was extracted from grounded fruits of P. asperula. Osthol showed a significant antileishmanial effect on promastigotes in early hours of exposure with IC50 of 14.40 µg/mL but suberosin epoxide showed only a weak antileishmanial activity. IC50 of osthol and suberosin epoxide after 48 h were 10.79 and 54.0 µg/mL, respectively. Suberosin showed no remarkable effect in these concentrations. This is the first report on the pharmacological activity of suberosin epoxide. Substantial difference between efficacies of two isomers, osthol and suberosin remarks the importance of prenyl substituent location on C-8.

  14. Development of newer methods for the isolation and identification of certain components found in complex mixtures derived from energy sources and the determination of their biological activity via bioassay systems. Final summary, December 1, 1980-November 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.R.

    1983-11-01

    Multidimensional capillary column gas chromatography proved to be capable of readily separating more individual components of complex mixtures than any other system. By utilizing the technique of Sample Trapping and/or Sample Transfer, a single component or a series of components can be held in obeyence and at will, be quantitatively transferred to either/or (1) another column (2) another detector (3) a mass spectrometer (or any other appropriate identification device) and (4) finally and most importantly, to a suitable bioassay system. With Sample Trapping, the segment of sample of interest is first trapped out in a small volume loop of inert tubing at liquid CO/sub 2/ temperatures and at an appropriate time it is rapidly heated. The volatilized is directed to the inlet of column No. 2. Under these circumstances, oft times band broadening is minimized and superior resolution of all of the component bands is achieved on the second column. For Sample Enrichment, repeated injections of the same are automatically cut for components of interest until sufficient sample is present in the trap for analysis via High Resolution Mass Spectrometry or NMR.

  15. Isolated optic nerve infiltration in systemic lymphoma--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Usha R; Shah, Akash D; Arora, Vipul; Solanki, Urvashi

    2010-01-01

    Ocular involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs either as primary ocular, central nervous system lymphoma or isolated intraocular lymphoma. Recurrence of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the form of CNS lymphoma has been reported. However, recurrence as an isolated optic nerve lesion without involving CNS has never been reported in the pediatric age group. We report a case of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 2-year-old female, which primarily occurred as suprapubic mass and later recurred in the form of isolated optic nerve infiltration, after remission of the primary disease. Early detection and prompt treatment resulted in complete reversal of the disease. PMID:20523257

  16. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. ); Swift, P.N. )

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel; Barakat, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals. PMID:23569933

  18. Structure-activity relationship study of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis on lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Han, Na; Yao, Xuechun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis to their anti-inflammatory activities, series of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated and assessed by testing their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 mouse microglia. It was found, for the first time, that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans which have S-biphenyl and methylenedioxy groups strongly inhibited LPS-induced microglia activation. The methoxy group on the cyclooctadiene introduced more effectiveness, but the presence of an acetyl group on the cyclooctadiene or hydroxyl group on C-7 decreased the inhibitory activity.

  19. Geochemical assessment of nuclear waste isolation. Report of activities during fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The status of the following investigations is reported: canister/overpack-backfill chemical interactions and mechanisms; backfill and near-field host rock chemical interactions mechanisms; far-field host rock geochemical interactions; verification and improvement of predictive algorithms for radionuclide migration; and geologic systems as analogues for long-term radioactive waste isolation.

  20. The isolation, Characterization and Preclinical Studies of Metal Complex of Thespesia populnea for the Potential Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors-γ Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    Phanse, Mohini Ashok; Patil, Manohar Janardhan; Abbulu, Konde

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is an international public health problem since ancient days. The condition is predominantly more severe in developing countries like India where, life is more sedentary due to the even changing lifestyles in this fast-paced global scenario. Thespesia populnea is widely used in the ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus in India for years. The aim of this work is to explore the anti-diabetic activity of the isolated compound. Materials and Methods: The sesquiterpene isolated from hexane fraction of bark of T. populnea modified synthetically then identified by using analytical techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance spectra for confirmation and the anti-diabetic activity was evaluated by anti-hyperglycemic, hypoglycemic potential. Result: In the present work, we have studied the anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity of the vanadium complex in glucose loaded and normal animals were shown significantly decreased in plasma blood glucose level. The results derived from preclinical studies confirm the potential of new sesquiterpene. Conclusion: The findings could provide evidence regarding the anti-diabetic potential of T. populnea by lowering blood glucose level. SUMMARY Thespesia populnea is widely used in the ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of diabetes in India. Present study aimed to explore the anti diabetic potential of isolated compound. Isolation of sesquiterpene from hexane fraction of bark of Thespesia populnea and modified synthetically then authenticated by using analytical techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance spectra for confirmation. The modified complex was further assessed for its anti diabetic property in glucose loaded rats. Vanadium complex demonstrated significant reduction in plasma blood glucose level in glucose loaded animals. The results derived from preclinical studies confirm the potential of new sesquiterpene. The present findings conclude that

  1. Activation, Isolation, and Analysis of the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michelle A; Langlais, Claudia; Cain, Kelvin; MacFarlane, Marion

    2015-12-02

    This protocol describes activation, isolation, and analysis of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) using affinity purification. Activation is achieved using a biotin-labeled anti-CD95 antibody and the native DISC complex is captured using streptavidin beads. This approach minimizes both the number of steps involved and any potential nonspecific interactions or cross-reactivity of antibodies commonly seen in immunoprecipitations using unlabeled antibodies and protein A/G beads. Composition of the isolated complex is analyzed via western blot to identify known DISC components, and dimerization-induced autocatalytic processing of procaspase-8 at the DISC can be confirmed by detection of caspase-8 cleavage products. The potential for DISC-associated caspase-8 to activate the caspase cascade can be determined by measuring caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the fluorigenic substrate Ac-IETD.AFC, or by performing a bioassay using exogenous protein substrates.

  2. [In vitro bactericidal activities of new oral penem, faropenem against the various clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, K; Nishiyama, T; Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, I; Kaneko, A; Sasaki, J

    1999-05-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of faropenem (FRPM) more compared with those of various oral beta-lactams against 15 isolates each of 6 species of microorganism. FRPM possessed potent in vitro antibacterial activity against both aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria tested. FRPM showed the same activity as new oral cephems such as cefdinir, cefditoren and cefcapene against all Gram-negative bacteria, but K. pneumoniae strains were less susceptible. The MBC of FRPM against S. pneumoniae and the other strains tested equal and were within 1 dilution the MIC of that, respectively. These results suggest that FRPM has excellent in vitro bactericidal activity against clinical isolates and is a clinically useful for the chemotherapy of bacterial infections. PMID:10480050

  3. Use of metagenomic approaches to isolate lipolytic genes from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Ren-Bao; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wu, Ming-Che; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were to access the bacterial diversity and isolate lipolytic genes using the metagenomic approach in activated sludge of a swine wastewater treatment facility. On the basis of BLASTN analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones, most of these communities (90%) were of uncultivated bacteria. The metagenomic library was constructed using a plasmid vector and DNA extracted directly from activated sludge samples. The average insert size was approximately 5.1 kb. A total of 12 unique and lipolytic clones were obtained using the tributyrin plate assay. The rate of discovering a lipolytic clone in this study was as high as 0.31%. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the 16 putative lipolytic enzymes showed 28-55% identity with non-redundant protein sequences in the database. Briefly, this study demonstrates that activated sludge is an ideal bioresource for isolating new lipolytic enzymes. PMID:20639117

  4. In Vitro Activities of Garenoxacin (BMS-284756) against 170 Clinical Isolates of Nine Pasteurella Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 170 clinical isolates plus 12 American Type Culture Collection strains of Pasteurella species comprising nine species and three Pasteurella multocida subspecies were studied by an agar dilution method. Garenoxacin (BMS-284756), a new des-fluoro(6) quinolone, was active at ≤0.06 μg/ml against all isolates, including four β-lactamase-producing strains, with >90% of the strains susceptible to ≤0.008 μg/ml. Garenoxacin was generally 1 to 2 dilutions more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin and was the most active agent tested. Cefoxitin required 1 μg/ml for inhibition of 51 of 182 (29%) of strains, and 3 strains (also β-lactamase producers) were resistant to doxycycline. PMID:12183274

  5. Comparative Activities of TR-700 (Torezolid) against Staphylococcal Blood Isolates Collected in Spain▿

    PubMed Central

    Betriu, Carmen; Morales, Gracia; Rodríguez-Avial, Icíar; Culebras, Esther; Gómez, María; López-Fabal, Fátima; Picazo, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activity of TR-700 (torezolid) was evaluated against a collection of 660 staphylococcal blood isolates. TR-700 showed excellent activity against all the staphylococci tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of TR-700, linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were 0.25 and 0.5, 2 and 4, 0.5 and 0.5, and 1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. TR-700 demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against staphylococci, including linezolid-resistant and vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains, and was 32-fold more active than linezolid against the seven cfr-positive MRSA strains tested. PMID:20176900

  6. Antifungal activity and identification of Lactobacilli, isolated from traditional dairy product "katak".

    PubMed

    Tropcheva, Rositsa; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana; Danova, Svetla

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous moulds are the main spoilage microorganisms, responsible for significant economic losses and several healthy risks in human food chain. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially lactobacilli could be a natural antagonist of these dangerous organisms. In Bulgaria, a very limited data exists on the antifungal activity of LAB microbiota of fermented dairy products. In the present study, four active strains were isolated from traditional fermented curd/yogurt-like product "katak", produced in Bulgaria from centuries. The new isolates KR3, KR4, KR51 and KR53 were identified by API 50 CH biochemical test and different molecular methods (species-specific PCR, RAPD-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis) as Lactobacillus brevis. According to our knowledge, this is the first data on the molecular characterization of the Lactobacillus microbiota of "katak". A broad spectrum of antifungal activity of the four L. brevis KR strains against test-cultures representatives of carcinogenic, toxigenic, deteriorative and allergenic fungi from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma was estimated. Strains L. brevis KR3, KR4 and KR51 completely suppress the growth of Penicillium claviforme, Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus niger. With regard to Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride, a lower and strain-specific inhibitory activity was observed. The antifungal activity of our new L. brevis isolates seems to be a promising advantage of these four strains, suggesting their potential applications in different food technologies as bio-preservative agents against moulds. PMID:24887637

  7. In vitro activities of natural products against oral Candida isolates from denture wearers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a frequent infectious disease. Treatment of this oral condition is difficult because failures and recurrences are common. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro antifungal activity of pure constituents of essentials oils. Methods Eight terpenic derivatives (carvacrol, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, menthol, menthone, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol), a phenylpropanoid (eugenol), a phenethyl alcohol (tyrosol) and fluconazole were evaluated against 38 Candida isolated from denture-wearers and 10 collection Candida strains by the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. Results Almost all the tested compounds showed antifungal activity with MIC ranges of 0.03-0.25% for eugenol and linalool, 0.03-0.12% for geraniol, 0.06-0.5% for menthol, α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, 0.03-0.5% for carvacrol, and 0.06-4% for menthone. These compounds, with the exception of farnesol, menthone and tyrosol, showed important in vitro activities against the fluconazole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent Candida isolates. Conclusions Carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, linalool and terpinen-4-ol were very active in vitro against oral Candida isolates. Their fungistatic and fungicidal activities might convert them into promising alternatives for the topic treatment of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis. PMID:22118215

  8. Antibiofilm activity of biosurfactant producing coral associated bacteria isolated from gulf of mannar.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Alwar Ramanujam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-12-01

    Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp., and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Their cell surface hydrophobicity was determined by Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and the biosurfactants produced were extracted and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Since the biosurfactants are known for their surface modifying capabilities, antibiofilm activity of positive isolates was evaluated against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. Stability of the active principle exhibiting antibiofilm activity was tested through various temperature treatments ranging from 60 to 100 °C and Proteinase K treatment. CAB isolates U7 and U9 exhibited stable antibiofilm activity even after exposure to higher temperatures which is promising for the development of novel antifouling agents for diverse industrial applications. Further, this is the first report on biosurfactant production by a coral symbiont. PMID:25320434

  9. Remote vacuum or pressure sealing device and method for critical isolated systems

    DOEpatents

    Brock, James David; Keith, Christopher D.

    2012-07-10

    A remote vacuum or pressure sealing apparatus and method for making a radiation tolerant, remotely prepared seal that maintains a vacuum or pressure tight seal throughout a wide temperature range. The remote sealing apparatus includes a fixed threaded sealing surface on an isolated system, a gasket, and an insert consisting of a plug with a protruding sample holder. An insert coupling device, provided for inserting samples within the isolated system, includes a threaded fastener for cooperating with the fixed threaded sealing surface on the isolated system. The insert coupling device includes a locating pin for azimuthal orientation, coupling pins, a tooted coaxial socket wrench, and an insert coupling actuator for actuating the coupling pins. The remote aspect of the sealing apparatus maintains the isolation of the system from the user's environment, safely preserving the user and the system from detrimental effect from each respectively.

  10. Isolation, antimicrobial activity, and metabolites of fungus Cladosporium sp. associated with red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Qin, Song; Li, Fuchao; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Cladosporium sp. isolate N5 was isolated as a dominant fungus from the healthy conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis. In the re-infection test, it did not cause any pathogenic symptoms in the alga. Twenty-one cultural conditions were chosen to test its antimicrobial activity in order to obtain the best condition for large-scale fermentation. Phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol, and L-beta-phenyllactic acid were isolated from the crude extract as strong antimicrobial compounds and they are the first reported secondary metabolites for the genus Cladosporium. In addition, the Cladosporium sp. produced the reported Porphyra yezoensis growth regulators phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. No cytotoxicity was found in the brine shrimp lethality test, which indicated that the environmental-friendly Cladosporium sp. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to protect the alga from pathogens.

  11. Safe, Advanced, Adaptable Isolation System Eliminates the Need for Critical Lifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The Starr Soft Support isolation system incorporates an automatically reconfigurable aircraft jack into NASA's existing 1-Hertz isolators. This enables an aircraft to float in mid-air without the need for a critical lift during ground vibration testing (GVT), significantly reducing testing risk, time, and costs. Currently incorporating the most advanced technology available, the 60,000-poundcapacity (27-metric-ton) isolation system is used for weight and measurement tests, control-surface free-play tests, and structural mode interaction tests without the need for any major reconfiguration, often saving days of time and significantly reducing labor costs. The Starr Soft Support isolation system consists of an aircraft-jacking device with three jacking points, each of which has an individual motor and accommodates up to 20,000 pounds (9 metric tons) for a total 60,000-pound (27-metric-ton) capacity. The system can be transported to the aircraft by forklift and placed at its jacking points using a pallet jack. The motors power the electric actuators, raising the aircraft above the ground until the landing gear can retract. Inflatable isolators then deploy, enabling the aircraft to float in mid-air, simulating a 1-Hertz free-free boundary condition. Inflatable isolators have been in use at NASA for years, enabling aircraft to literally float unsupported for highly accurate GVT. These isolators must be placed underneath the aircraft for this to occur. Traditionally, this is achieved by a critical lift a high-risk procedure in which a crane and flexible cord system are used to lift the aircraft. In contrast, the Starr Soft Support isolation system eliminates the need for critical lift by integrating the inflatable isolators into an aircraft jacking system. The system maintains vertical and horizontal isolating capabilities. The aircraft can be rolled onto the system, jacked up, and then the isolators can be inflated and positioned without any personnel needing to work

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic

  13. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  14. Highly effective bacterial agents against Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): isolation of bacteria and their insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Cakici, Filiz Ozkan; Ozgen, İnanc; Bolu, Halil; Erbas, Zeynep; Demirbağ, Zihni; Demir, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) is one of the serious pests of almonds in Turkey and worldwide. Since there is no effective control application against this pest, it has been a serious problem up to now. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective bacterium that can be utilized as a biocontrol agent against C. quadrimaculatus in pest management. We isolated seven bacteria from dead and live C. quadrimaculatus larvae, and evaluated the larvicidal potency of all isolates on the respective pest. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular properties (partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene), the isolates were identified to be Bacillus safensis (CQ1), Bacillus subtilis (CQ2), Bacillus tequilensis (CQ3), Enterobacter sp. (CQ4), Kurthia gibsonii (CQ5), Staphylococcus sp. (CQ6) and Staphylococcus sciuri (CQ7). The results of the larvicidal activities of these isolates indicated that the mortality value obtained from all treatments changed from 58 to 100 %, and reached 100 % with B. safensis (CQ1) and B. subtilis (CQ2) on the 3rd instar larvae within 10 days of application of 1.89 × 10(9) cfu/mL bacterial concentration at 25 °C under laboratory conditions. Findings from this study indicate that these isolates appear to be a promising biocontrol agent for C. quadrimaculatus.

  15. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms PMID:24031396

  16. In vitro activity of paldimycin (U-70138F) against gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, K V; LeBlanc, B; Ho, D H; Bodey, G P

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro activity of paldimycin, a novel antimicrobial agent, was compared with that of vancomycin against 306 gram-positive isolates (representing 12 bacterial species) obtained from patients with cancer. Paldimycin had lower MICs for 90% of isolates than vancomycin did against most isolates tested. Its activity, however, was medium and pH dependent, being greatest in Nutrient broth at a pH of 6.8. PMID:3606069

  17. Isolation and sequencing of active origins of DNA replication by nascent strand capture and release (NSCR)

    PubMed Central

    Kunnev, Dimiter; Freeland, Amy; Qin, Maochun; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent strand capture and release (NSCR) is a method for isolation of short nascent strands to identify origins of DNA replication. The protocol provided involves isolation of total DNA, denaturation, size fractionation on a sucrose gradient, 5′-biotinylation of the appropriate size nucleic acids, binding to a streptavidin coated magnetic beads, intensive washing, and specific release of only the RNA-containing chimeric nascent strand DNA using ribonuclease I (RNase I). The method has been applied to mammalian cells derived from proliferative tissues and cell culture but could be used for any system where DNA replication is primed by a small RNA resulting in chimeric RNA-DNA molecules. PMID:26949711

  18. Theory and experiment of an inertia-type vertical isolation system for seismic protection of equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lyan-Ywan; Chen, Pei-Rong; Pong, Kuan-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Although it has been proven that seismic isolation is an effective technology for seismic protection of structures and equipment, most existing isolation systems are for mitigating horizontal ground motions, and in practice there are very few vertical isolation systems. Part of the reason is due to the conflict with regard to the demand for isolation stiffness. In other words, a vertical isolation system must have sufficient vertical rigidity to sustain the weight of the isolated object, while it must also have sufficient flexibility in order to elongate the vibration period under seismic excitation. In order to overcome this difficulty, a novel system is proposed in this study, called an inertia-type vertical isolation system (IVIS). The primary difference between the IVIS and a traditional system is that the former has an additional leverage mechanism with a counterweight. The counterweight will provide a static uplifting force and an extra dynamic inertia force, such that the effective vertical stiffness of the IVIS becomes higher in its static state and lower in the dynamic one. The theory underlying the IVIS is developed and verified experimentally by a seismic simulation test in this work. The results show that the IVIS leads to a less static settlement and at the same time a lower effective isolation frequency. The test results also demonstrate that the isolator displacement demand of the IVIS is only about 30-40 percent that of the traditional one in all kinds of earthquakes. With regard to the reduction of acceleration response, the IVIS is particularly effective for near-fault earthquakes or near-resonant excitations, but is less effective for far-field earthquakes with more high-frequency contents, as compared with the traditional system.

  19. Rev-RRE Functional Activity Differs Substantially Among Primary HIV-1 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Patrick E; Tebit, Denis M; Rekosh, David; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise

    2016-09-01

    The HIV-1 replication cycle requires the nucleocytoplasmic export of intron-containing viral RNAs, a process that is ordinarily restricted. HIV overcomes this by means of the viral Rev protein, which binds to an RNA secondary structure called the Rev response element (RRE) present in all unspliced or incompletely spliced viral RNA transcripts. The resulting mRNP complex is exported through interaction with cellular factors. The Rev-RRE binding interaction is increasingly understood to display remarkable structural plasticity, but little is known about how Rev-RRE sequence differences affect functional activity. To study this issue, we utilized a lentiviral vector assay in which vector titer is dependent on the activity of selected Rev-RRE pairs. We found that Rev-RRE functional activity varies significantly (up to 24-fold) between naturally occurring viral isolates. The activity differences of the Rev-RRE cognate pairs track closely with Rev, but not with RRE activity. This variation in Rev activity is not correlated with differences in Rev steady state protein levels. These data suggest that Rev sequence differences drive substantial variation in Rev-RRE functional activity between patients. Such variation may play a role in viral adaptation to different immune milieus within and between patients and may be significant in the establishment of latency. The identification of differences in Rev-RRE functional activity in naturally occurring isolates may also permit more efficient production of lentiviral vectors. PMID:27147495

  20. Edge Detection to Isolate Motion in Adaptive Optics Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C W

    2003-07-11

    Adaptive optics uses signal processing techniques and deformable mirrors to minimize image degradation caused by phase aberrations. In the case of telescope imaging, the atmosphere causes phase aberrations. In the case of satellite imaging, errors due to the ultra-light-weight characteristics of the primary mirror cause phase aberrations. Scene-based Shack-Hartmann Wave Front Sensing takes the correlation between successive wavelets to determine these phase aberrations. A large problem with the scene-based approach is that motion, such as a moving car, can cause the correlation of two lenslets to peak, not where the scenes align, but where the moving object in each frame aligns. As such, the continued use of scene-based Wave Front Sensing necessitates successful isolation of moving objects from a stationary background scene. With the knowledge of which pixels are immobile, one should avoid the problem of locking onto a moving object when taking the correlation of two successive frames in time. Two main requirements of isolation are consistency and efficiency. In this document I will discuss the different edge detection algorithms explored for moving object isolation and how I came to the conclusion that, for our purposes of scene-based Shack-Hartmann WFS, edge detection is too inconsistent to be of any use. Because the Shack-Hartmann lenslets limits us to low resolutions, edge detection that works on higher resolution images will not work on our images. The results of each algorithm will show that with so few pixels per subaperature, edge detection is a poor method of identifying moving objects.

  1. Mechanical beam isolator for high-power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.; Vann, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanical beam isolator uses rod-shaped elements having a Gaussian configuration to interrupt the path of a beam of photons or particles when the time-scale of the needed interruption is of the order of a microsecond or less. One or more of these rods is mounted transversely to, and penetrates through, a rotating shaft supported by bearings. Owing to the Gaussian geometry of the rods, they are able to withstand much higher rotation speeds, without tensile failure, than rods having any other geometrical shape.

  2. Mechanical beam isolator for high-power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1998-07-07

    A mechanical beam isolator uses rod-shaped elements having a Gaussian configuration to interrupt the path of a beam of photons or particles when the time-scale of the needed interruption is of the order of a microsecond or less. One or more of these rods is mounted transversely to, and penetrates through, a rotating shaft supported by bearings. Owing to the Gaussian geometry of the rods, they are able to withstand much higher rotation speeds, without tensile failure, than rods having any other geometrical shape. 3 figs.

  3. Molecular characterization and its antioxidant activity of a newly isolated Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 from mangrove soil

    PubMed Central

    Raghava Rao, Kothagorla Venkata; Raghava Rao, Tamanam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the biologically active strain of Streptomyces species from mangrove soil of Visakhapatnam region. Materials and methods Actinomycetes are isolated by using starch casein agar media and four potential strains were selected to evaluate the antioxidant activity by using the standard methods DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity. Further, significant antioxidant activity strain characterized by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Results 20 actinomycetes strains were isolated, among them four active isolates designated as BC 01, BC 02, BC 03 and BC 04 were studied for antioxidant activities. Of these four isolates, BC 01 showed a potent antioxidant activity when compared with other isolates. The morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the active isolate BC 01 belongs to the genus Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and nucleotide blast in search indicated that the strain is 99.7% similarity with Streptomyces coelicoflavus. Conclusion The results of the present investigation proven that actinomycetes isolated from mangroves are potent source of antioxidants. The strain BC 01 exhibited a potential in vitro antioxidant activity; studies of actinomycetes from mangrove soil can be useful in discovery of novel species to get novel drugs. PMID:24563589

  4. Quorum sensing activity of Aeromonas caviae strain YL12, a bacterium isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-04-22

    Quorum sensing is a well-studied cell-to-cell communication method that involves a cell-density dependent regulation of genes expression mediated by signalling molecules. In this study, a bacterium isolated from a plant material compost pile was found to possess quorum sensing activity based on bioassay screening. Isolate YL12 was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular typing using rpoD gene which identified the isolate as Aeromonas caviae. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry was subsequently employed to identify the N-acyl homoserine lactone profile of Aeromonas caviae YL12 and confirmed that this isolate produced two short chain N-acyl homoserine lactones, namely C4-HSL and C6, and the production was observed to be cell density-dependent. Using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, both AHLs were found to activate C. violaceum CV026, whereas only C6-HSL was revealed to induce bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401]. The data presented in this study will be the leading steps in understanding the role of quorum sensing in Aeromonas caviae strain YL12.

  5. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  6. Possible mechanism of cardiac depressant activity of Berberis orthobotrys roots in isolated rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Karim, Sabeha; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Rasool, Shahid; Latif, Fozia; Tabbasum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Berberis orhob, otrvs Bien. ex Aitch. (B.o.) has been reported to have antihypertensive effect in different experimental models. The aim of present study was to evaluate the possible antihypertensive mechanism. Aqueous methanolic extract of B.o. roots and its various fractions namely (ethyl acetate, n-butanol or aqueous) in different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, I pg/mL, 10 pg/mL, 100 pg/mL ) were evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart to assess their effect on force of contraction, HR and perfusion pressure. The crude extract of B.o. and its fractions exhibited a significant decrease in heart rate, contractility and perfusion pressure of isolated rabbit heart, however, butanolic fraction produced more prominent effect and was selected for further study. The effects of butanol fraction were not blocked by atropine (10' M) in isolated perfused heart. However, butanol fraction significantly blocked the effects of adrenaline (10' M). It is therefore conceivable that cardiac depressant activity of B.o. butanol fraction might be due to the presence of certain 3-blocking agents which might be responsible for antihypertensive effect However, further experiments are required to isolate the active compound(s) and elucidate exact mechanism of action.

  7. Assessment of probiotic potential and anticancer activity of newly isolated vaginal bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 5BL.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Haghshenas, Babak; Radiah, Dayang; Rosli, Rozita; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous bacteria in and on its external parts protect the human body from harmful threats. This study aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of the vaginal ecosystem microbiota. A type of bacteria was isolated from vaginal secretions of adolescent and young adult women, cultured on an appropriate specific culture medium, and then molecularly identified through 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the isolate belongs to the Lactobacillus plantarum species. The isolated strain exhibited probiotic properties such as low pH and high bile salt concentration tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The anticancer effects of the strain on human cancer cell lines (cervical, HeLa; gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; breast, MCF-7) and on a human normal cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVEC]) were investigated. Toxic side effects were assessed by studying apoptosis in the treated cells. The strain exhibited desirable probiotic properties and remarkable anticancer activity against the tested human cancer cell lines (P ≤ 0.05) with no significant cytotoxic effects on HUVEC normal cells (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, the isolated strain showed favorable potential as a bioactive therapeutic agent. Therefore, this strain should be subjected to the other required tests to prove its suitability for clinical therapeutic application.

  8. Assessment of probiotic potential and anticancer activity of newly isolated vaginal bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 5BL.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Haghshenas, Babak; Radiah, Dayang; Rosli, Rozita; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-09-01

    Numerous bacteria in and on its external parts protect the human body from harmful threats. This study aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of the vaginal ecosystem microbiota. A type of bacteria was isolated from vaginal secretions of adolescent and young adult women, cultured on an appropriate specific culture medium, and then molecularly identified through 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the isolate belongs to the Lactobacillus plantarum species. The isolated strain exhibited probiotic properties such as low pH and high bile salt concentration tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The anticancer effects of the strain on human cancer cell lines (cervical, HeLa; gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; breast, MCF-7) and on a human normal cell line (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVEC]) were investigated. Toxic side effects were assessed by studying apoptosis in the treated cells. The strain exhibited desirable probiotic properties and remarkable anticancer activity against the tested human cancer cell lines (P ≤ 0.05) with no significant cytotoxic effects on HUVEC normal cells (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, the isolated strain showed favorable potential as a bioactive therapeutic agent. Therefore, this strain should be subjected to the other required tests to prove its suitability for clinical therapeutic application. PMID:25039934

  9. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. Results All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm). Conclusion Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary. PMID:21406097

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5) using the broth macrodilution method. Results: The tested essential oils produced variable antibacterial effect, while Chamomile blue oil demonstrated no antibacterial activity. Origanum, Thyme, and Basil oils were ineffective on P. aeruginosa isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 0.12% to 1.50% (v/v) for tea tree oil, 0.25-4% (v/v) for origanum and thyme oil, 0.50% to >4% for basil oil and >4% for chamomile blue oil. Compared to literature data on reference strains, the reported MIC values were different by 2SD, denoting less successful antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils are influenced by the strain origin (wild, reference, drug sensitive, or resistant) and it should be taken into consideration whenever investigating the plants’ potential for developing new antimicrobials. PMID:27366345

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus species isolated from meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pieniz, S; Andreazza, R; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O; Brandelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an important role in a great variety of fermented foods. In addition to their contribution to sensory characteristics, they enhance food preservation and can be used as probiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culture supernatants and cell free extracts of 16 LAB isolated from meat and dairy products were investigated. The bacterial were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all the isolates belong to Enterococcus faecium species. Antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganism (Listeria monocytogenes) was observed at 11 culture supernatants and 4 cell free extracts. The sensibility of culture supernatant was evaluated by proteinase K and trypsin and it was observed that activity of antimicrobial substance was completely lost after the treatment. All of the isolates showed antioxidant activity as determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method with both types of extracts. When the antioxidant capacity was investigated using ABTS•+ method (2,2 azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) it was observed that only culture supernatants showed antioxidant capacity. These bacteria could particularly help to reduce or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms as well as oxidative spoilage in foods and feed.

  12. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Enterococcus species isolated from meat and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Pieniz, S; Andreazza, R; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O; Brandelli, A

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have an important role in a great variety of fermented foods. In addition to their contribution to sensory characteristics, they enhance food preservation and can be used as probiotics. In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culture supernatants and cell free extracts of 16 LAB isolated from meat and dairy products were investigated. The bacterial were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. GenBank BLAST analysis revealed that all the isolates belong to Enterococcus faecium species. Antimicrobial activity against the indicator microorganism (Listeria monocytogenes) was observed at 11 culture supernatants and 4 cell free extracts. The sensibility of culture supernatant was evaluated by proteinase K and trypsin and it was observed that activity of antimicrobial substance was completely lost after the treatment. All of the isolates showed antioxidant activity as determined by the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) method with both types of extracts. When the antioxidant capacity was investigated using ABTS•+ method (2,2 azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) it was observed that only culture supernatants showed antioxidant capacity. These bacteria could particularly help to reduce or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms as well as oxidative spoilage in foods and feed. PMID:26675908

  14. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-04-24

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period.

  15. Innovative systems for waste isolation and containment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, A.G.; Huyck, C.A.; Oliphint, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    Native soils amended to enhance their chemical isolation and containment properties were tested in a laboratory column leaching study to determine their effectiveness at containing leachates from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) and spray dryer byproducts. Levels of arsenic, boron, cadmium, calcium, chloride, selenium, silicon, sodium, sulfate, vanadium, pH, and electrical conductivity in the column leachates were measured. These tests indicate that native soil liners that have high levels of clay and iron, or are amended with alkaline-resistant bentonite, are the best choices for isolating and containing highly alkaline coal combustion byproducts such as AFBC and spray dryer byproducts. All of the liners tested attenuated calcium and sulfate from the AFBC byproducts. Some of the amended soil liners also attenuated chloride, boron, selenium, and cadmium from the AFBC byproducts. All of the liners attenuated calcium, sodium, and chloride from the spray dryer byproducts. Most of the amended soil liners also attenuated boron, selenium, silicon, and vanadium from the spray dryer byproducts.

  16. Isolation and identification of kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate as active constituents of green coffee beans that enhance glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lam, L K; Sparnins, V L; Wattenberg, L W

    1982-04-01

    Glutathione (GSH) S-transferase is a major detoxification enzyme system that catalyzes the binding of a variety of electrophiles, including reactive forms of chemical carcinogens, to GSH. Green coffee beans fed in the diet induced increased GSH S-transferase activity in the mucosa of the small intestine and in the liver of mice. A potent compound that induces increased GSH S-transferase activity was isolated from green coffee beans and identified as kahweol palmitate. The corresponding free alcohol, kahweol, and its synthetic monoacetate are also potent inducers of the activity of GSH S-transferase. A similar diterpene ester, cafestol palmitate, isolated from green coffee beans was active but less so than was kahweol palmitate. Likewise, the corresponding alcohol, cafestol, and its monoacetate showed moderate potency as inducers of increased GSH S-transferase activity. Kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate were extracted from green coffee beans into petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract was fractionated by preparative normal-phase and reverse-phase liquid chromatographies successively. Final purification with silver nitrate-impregnated thin-layer chromatography yielded the pure palmitates of cafestol and kahweol. The structures were determined by examination of the spectroscopic data of the esters and their parent alcohols and by derivative comparison. PMID:7059995

  17. Electromagnetically levitated vibration isolation system for the manufacturing process of silicon monocrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemitsu, Yoichi; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Yano, Kenichi; Mizuno, Takayuki

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a study on an Electromagnetically Levitated Vibration Isolation System (ELVIS) for isolation control of large-scale vibration. This system features no mechanical contact between the isolation table and the installation floor, using a total of four electromagnetic actuators which generate magnetic levitation force in the vertical and horizontal directions. The configuration of the magnet for the vertical direction is designed to prevent any generation of restoring vibratory force in the horizontal direction. The isolation system is set so that vibration control effects due to small earthquakes can be regulated to below 5(gal) versus horizontal vibration levels of the installation floor of up t 25(gal), and those in the horizontal relative displacement of up to 30 (mm) between the floor and levitated isolation table. In particular, studies on the relative displacement between the installation floor and the levitated isolation table have been made for vibration control in the horizontal direction. In case of small-scale earthquakes (Taft wave scaled: max. 25 gal), the present system has been confirmed to achieve a vibration isolation to a level below 5 gal. The vibration transmission ratio of below 1/10 has been achieved versus continuous micro-vibration (approx. one gal) in the horizontal direction on the installation floor.

  18. Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning

    SciTech Connect

    BASABILVAZO,GEORGE; JOW,HONG-NIAN; LARSON,KURT W.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    1999-09-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998, two separate, but related, lawsuits were filed, one against DOE and one against EPA. On March 22, 1999, the court ruled in favor of DOE, and on March 26, 1999, DOE formally began disposal operations at the WIPP for non-mixed (non-hazardous) TRU waste. Before the WIPP can begin receiving mixed (hazardous) TRU waste, a permit from the State of New Mexico for hazardous waste disposal needs to be issued. It is anticipated that the State of New Mexico will issue a hazardous waste permit by November 1999. It is further anticipated that the EPA lawsuit will be resolved by July 1999. Congress (Public Law 102-579, Section 8(f)) requires the WIPP project to be recertified by the EPA at least as frequently as once every five years from the first receipt of TRU waste at the WIPP site. As part of the DOE's WIPP project recertification strategy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has used systems analysis and performance assessment to prioritize its scientific and engineering research activities. Two 1998 analyses, the near-field systems analysis and the annual sensitivity analysis, are discussed here. Independently, the two analyses arrived at similar conclusions regarding important scientific activities associated with the WIPP. The use of these techniques for the recent funding allocations at SNL's WIPP project had several beneficial effects. It increased the level of acceptance among project scientists that management had fairly and credibly compared alternatives when making prioritization decisions. It improved the ability of SNL and its project sponsor, the Carlsbad Area Office of the DOE, to

  19. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  20. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  1. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  2. In Vitro Activity of Retapamulin and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in a Longitudinal Collection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jennifer A.; Clarridge, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial used to decolonize patients who carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the topical agent retapamulin may be a potential alternative therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of retapamulin as well as a panel of 15 antimicrobial agents, including mupirocin, for 403 MRSA isolates collected longitudinally from a naive population at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System. The MICs for retapamulin had a unimodal distribution, ranging from 0.008 to 0.5 μg/ml. One isolate had an MIC of >16 μg/ml, was also resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, and was recovered from the nares of a patient undergoing hemodialysis. Twenty-four isolates (6%) and 11 isolates (3%) demonstrated low-level resistance (MICs of 8 to 64 μg/ml) and high-level resistance (MICs of ≥512 μg/ml), respectively, to mupirocin. Isolates were recovered from 10 patients both before and after mupirocin therapy. Of those, isolates from 2 patients demonstrated MIC changes postmupirocin therapy; in both cases, however, strain typing demonstrated that the pre- and postmupirocin strains were different. A total of 386 isolates (96%) had vancomycin MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml; 340 isolates (84%) were resistant to levofloxacin, 18 isolates (4.5%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 135 isolates (33%) had elevated MICs of 4 μg/ml for linezolid. The baseline levels of resistance were low for mupirocin (9%) and even lower for retapamulin (0.25%) Although the use of mupirocin is currently the standard therapy for decolonization practices, the activity of retapamulin warrants its consideration as an alternative therapy in MRSA decolonization regimens. PMID:26666950

  3. Activity-guided isolation of an antiandrogenic compound of Pygeum africanum.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Sonja; Papaioannou, Maria; Baniahmad, Aria; Matusch, Rudolf

    2006-05-01

    Inactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) through androgen ablation and treatment with antiandrogens is a major goal in the therapy for prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a selective dichloromethane extract from the stem bark of Pygeum africanum led to the isolation of the antiandrogenic compound atraric acid. Its activity was examined by an androgen receptor responsive reporter gene assay. For lead structure optimization we transformed the natural occurring compound atraric acid into its ethyl, N-propyl and N-butyl esters and their antiandrogenic activities were examined as well. In addition, benzoic acid was isolated. The structures of all compounds were determined and characterized by means of 1H- and 13C-NMR, HR-EI-mass, IR and UV spectroscopy.

  4. Isolation of major components from the roots of Godmania aesculifolia and determination of their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Vásquez, Víctor; Ríos, María Isabel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Solano, Godofredo; Zacchino, Susana; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2013-12-01

    From the methanol root extract of Godmania aesculifolia, a species selected in a multinational OAS program aimed at discovering antifungal compounds from Latin American plants, a new chavicol diglycoside (1), the known 3,4-dihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (2), and lapachol (3) were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Only 3 exhibited fairly good activity against a panel of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC50 between 7.8 and 31.2 µg/mL) and moderate activities against Candida spp. and non-albicans Candida spp. PMID:24356871

  5. Isolation and antimicrobial activity of two phenolic compounds from Pulicaria odora L.

    PubMed

    Ezoubeiri, A; Gadhi, C A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Vanhaelen, M

    2005-06-01

    The essential oil of Pulicaria odora, a Moroccan medicinal plant; was analyzed by GC-MS, and subjected to column chromatography on silica gel. Two major constituents were isolated and identified as 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) and isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2), by analysis of spectroscopic data (MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments). The isolated compounds are reported for the first time from Pulicaria genus. The essential oil and its major constituents (compounds 1 and 2) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the diffusion and dilution methods. Results showed that the essential oil and the 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) exhibited a very significant antibacterial and antifungal activity, while the isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2) was inactive for all tested strains.

  6. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Carola; Marangoni, Antonella; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Calonghi, Natalia; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  7. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    PubMed

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems. PMID:26664068

  8. [Virulence and biochemical activity of Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from cow fetuses].

    PubMed

    Venev, S

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the virulence of 20 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from cow fetuses. All laboratory mice injected with them died, and the pregnant guinea pigs aborted. It was demonstrated that these strains contain exogenic and endotoxic substances which are extracted effectively with alcohol and ether. The mould cultures showed proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulose, and organic acid activity. The biochemical and pathogenic potential of the strains were of great importance for causing abortion. PMID:339512

  9. A new flavone and cytotoxic activity of flavonoid constituents isolated from Miliusa balansae (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Huong, D T; Luong, D V; Thao, T T P; Sung, T V

    2005-08-01

    A new flavone named miliufavol [8-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one or 8-C-(o)-hydroxybenzylpachypodol] from Miliusa balansae (Annonaceae) was isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic means besides four known flavones: ombuine, chrysosplenol B, pachypodol and chrysosplenol C. These flavonoids exhibited interesting cytotoxic activity against three human cell lines (KB, Hep-G2, RD) with IC50 values < 5 microg/ml.

  10. Sedative activity of two flavonol glycosides isolated from the flowers of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz.

    PubMed

    Kang, T H; Jeong, S J; Kim, N Y; Higuchi, R; Kim, Y C

    2000-07-01

    The flowers of Albizzia julibrissin are used as a sedative in oriental traditional medicine. The phytochemical study of this plant allowed the isolation of two flavonol glycosides, quercitrin (1) and isoquercitrin (2). The sedative activity of these compounds was evaluated, and both compounds 1 and 2 increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in dose-dependent manner in mice. These results support the use of the flowers of this plant as a sedative agent. PMID:10904180

  11. A planar shock isolation system with high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness characteristic based on cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanhui; He, Minghua; Shen, Wenhou; Ren, Gexue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a simple and designable shock isolation system with ideal high-static-low-dynamic-stiffness (HSLDS) is proposed, which is intended for the horizontal plane shock isolation application. In this system, the isolated object is suspended by several bearing cables and constrained by a number of uniformly distributed pretensioned cables in the horizontal plane, where the low dynamic stiffness of the system is main controlled by the pretension of the planar cables, whilst the high static stiffness is determined by the axial stiffness of the planar cables and their geometric settings. To obtain the HSLDS characteristic of the system, a brief theoretical description of the relationship between the restoring force and displacement is derived. By obtaining the three-order Taylor expansion with sufficient accuracy of the restoring force, influence of planar cable parameters on the low dynamic and high static stiffness is thus given, therefore, the required HSLDS isolator can be easily designed by adjusting the planar cable length, pretension and tensile stiffness. Finally, the isotropy characteristic of the restoring force of the system with different numbers of planar cables is investigated. To evaluate the performance of the system, a rigid isolated object and flexible cables coupling simulation model considering the contacts of the system is established by using multibody dynamics approach. In this model, flexible cables are simulated by 3-node cable element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation; the contact between cable and isolated object is simulated based on Hertz contact theory. Finally, the time-domain shock excitation is converted from the design shock spectrum on the basis of BV043/85 criterion. The design procedure of this isolator and some useful guidelines for choosing cable parameters are presented. In addition, a summary about the performance of the isolators with different numbers of cables shocking in an arbitrary direction is

  12. Mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium of some known genotoxic agents, activated by isolated hepatocytes of monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Comparison with isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Neis, J M; Roelofs, H M; van Gemert, P J; Henderson, P T

    1986-06-01

    This paper describes some striking differences between isolated human and monkey hepatocytes in their capacity to activate some known genotoxic agents into products mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium. Isolated monkey hepatocytes, in contrast to human hepatocytes, appeared to activate benzidine (BZ), N-acetylbenzidine (MABZ), N,N'-diacetylbenzidine (DABZ), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) poorly. With monkey hepatocytes BZ was slightly more mutagenic than DABZ, whereas with human hepatocytes DABZ was more active than BZ. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) were also found to be poorly mutagenic when activated by monkey hepatocytes, unlike the human hepatocytes. However, the polycyclic arylhydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (7,12-DMBA) were highly active in the presence of monkey hepatocytes, unlike the human hepatocytes. A metabolic study showed that monkey liver preparations seem to possess a higher monooxygenase activity towards B[a]P than human liver preparations.

  13. A novel isoquinoline alkaloid, DD-carboxypeptidase inhibitor, with antibacterial activity isolated from Streptomyces sp. 8812. Part I: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Solecka, Jolanta; Rajnisz, Aleksandra; Laudy, Agnieszka E

    2009-10-01

    A novel isoquinoline alkaloid of molecular formula C10H9NO4, labeled JS-1, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. 8812. It was purified by acetone protein precipitation from the culture supernatant, followed by anion exchange and C18 RP HPLC columns. JS-1 is an inhibitor of exocellular DD-carboxypeptidases/transpeptidases (DD-peptidases) 64-575 II from Saccharopolyspora erythraea 64-575 II, and R39 from Actinomadura R39. JS-1 exhibits activity against Gram-negative bacteria, such as Bordetella bronchiseptica, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Burkholderia cepacia and Acinetobacter baumanii, with MIC values 10-160 microg ml(-1), and against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC values 40-206 microg ml(-1).

  14. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437

  15. [Reliability of extracellular protease and lipase activities of Beauveria bassiana isolates used as their virulence indices].

    PubMed

    Feng, M

    1998-12-01

    The extracellular protease and lipase activities of 17 Beauveria bassiana isolates from different hosts and countries were evaluated for the reliability for the indices of their virulence to the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes. Virulence assay of each isolate included about 30 10-d-old grasshoppers receiving topical inoculation with the suspension of 10(7) conidia/ml. In the assays of the enzymes, N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and p-nitrophenyl palmitate were used as a substrate to measure the activities of protease (3 replicates) and lipase (4 replicates) in the filtrates of gelatin-based and sunflower oil-based liquid cultures of each isolate, respectively. Varying among the isolates assayed, the estimates of LT50's, protease units (PU), and lipase units (LU) were 5.27-16.89 d, 0.47-3.37 x 10(-2) mumol.ml-1.min-1, and 0.00-56.75 mumol.ml-1.h-1, respectively. Regression analysis revealed that PU was significantly (P < 0.01) correlated to the daily cumulative mortality of M. sanguinipes 5-17 d after inoculation and the LT50's whereas LU had little correlation to either the mortalities or the LT50's (P > 0.10). Based on the determination coefficients (r2) from the regression, PU alone interpreted at most 67% of the variation in the mortality 7d after inoculation but less than 50% in most of the days considered and only 38% in LT50's. Thus, the author suggested that PU could be used as virulence index only for early-stage selection of candidate isolates in large quantity and could not entirely replace conventional virulence assay method that remains most reliable.

  16. Isolation and characterization of muscle fatigue substance with anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Ruben M; Han, Haiyong; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Konstantinos; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Hoffman, Stanley A

    2013-01-01

    Research during the 1950's indicated that exercise played a role in the reduction of tumor growth. In the 1960's our studies confirmed that tumor-bearing rats, exercised to fatigue, demonstrated tumor inhibition. Our further studies isolated an extract (Fatigue Substance, or F-Substance) from rectus femoris muscles of rats which had been electrically stimulated to fatigue. This extract significantly inhibited growth of transplanted rat tumors. Research continued until 1978 when it became apparent the methodology at that time was not able to further identify the substance's active components. Using current technology, we now report on the further isolation and characterization of F-Substance. In cell proliferation assays, extracts from electrically stimulated rat rectus femoris muscles had more significant inhibitory effect on the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 than those isolated from unstimulated muscles. To identify the molecule(s) responsible for the antitumor activity, a rat cytokine antibody array was used to profile the cytokines in the substances. Among the 29 different cytokines contained on the array, 3 showed greater than 3-fold difference between the substances isolated from the stimulated and unstimulated muscles. LIX (also known as CXCL5) is 6-fold higher in the substances isolated from stimulated muscles than those from the unstimulated muscles. TIMP-1 is 4.6 fold higher and sICAM is 3.6 fold higher in the substances from the stimulated muscles. Our results indicated that cytokines released from contracting muscles might be responsible for the antitumor effect of F-Substance.

  17. Isolated metal active site concentration and stability control catalytic CO2 reduction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Matsubu, John C; Yang, Vanessa N; Christopher, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    CO2 reduction by H2 on heterogeneous catalysts is an important class of reactions that has been studied for decades. However, atomic scale details of structure-function relationships are still poorly understood. Particularly, it has been suggested that metal particle size plays a unique role in controlling the stability of CO2 hydrogenation catalysts and the distribution of active sites, which dictates reactivity and selectivity. These studies often have not considered the possible role of isolated metal active sites in the observed dependences. Here, we utilize probe molecule diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with known site-specific extinction coefficients to quantify the fraction of Rh sites residing as atomically dispersed isolated sites (Rhiso), as well as Rh sites on the surface of Rh nanoparticles (RhNP) for a series of TiO2 supported Rh catalysts. Strong correlations were observed between the catalytic reverse water gas shift turn over frequency (TOF) and the fraction of Rhiso sites and between catalytic methanation TOF and the fraction of RhNP sites. Furthermore, it was observed that reaction condition-induced disintegration of Rh nanoparticles, forming Rhiso active sites, controls the changing reactivity with time on stream. This work demonstrates that isolated atoms and nanoparticles of the same metal on the same support can exhibit uniquely different catalytic selectivity in competing parallel reaction pathways and that disintegration of nanoparticles under reaction conditions can play a significant role in controlling stability.

  18. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a quorum quenching yeast exhibiting lactonase activity isolated from a tropical shoreline.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Norshazliza Ab; Sulaiman, Joanita; Ismail, Zahidah; Chan, Xin-Yue; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-04-09

    Two microbial isolates from a Malaysian shoreline were found to be capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones. Both Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry and 18S rDNA phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these isolates are Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Quorum quenching activities were detected by a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. The isolates were able to degrade various quorum sensing molecules namely N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Using a relactonisation assay to verify the quorum quenching mechanism, it is confirmed that Rh. mucilaginosa degrades the quorum sensing molecules via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the fact that Rh. mucilaginosa has activity against a broad range of AHLs namely C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-hydroxy-C6-HSL.

  19. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  20. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.