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Sample records for active joint count

  1. Reducing periprosthetic joint infection: what really counts?

    PubMed Central

    SOLARINO, GIUSEPPE; ABATE, ANTONELLA; VICENTI, GIOVANNI; SPINARELLI, ANTONIO; PIAZZOLLA, ANDREA; MORETTI, BIAGIO

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most challenging complications after joint arthroplasty. Despite improvements in surgical techniques and in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, it remains a major cause of implant failure and need for revision. PJI is associated with both human host-related and bacterial agent-related factors that can interact in all the phases of the procedure (preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative). Prevention is the first strategy to implement in order to minimize this catastrophic complication. The present review focuses on the preoperative period, and on what to do once risk factors are fully understood and have been identified. PMID:26904527

  2. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, E; Ceccarelli, F; Massaro, L; Spinelli, F R; Alessandri, C; Perricone, C; Valesini, G; Conti, F

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint) were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28) and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0). We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD) age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7) and 1 (IQR 2.5), respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6). According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001). The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index. PMID:26492964

  3. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  4. Ultrasound-detected joint inflammation and B cell count: related variables for rituximab-treated RA patients?

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Janta, Iustina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; González-Fernández, Carlos; Del Rio, Tamara; Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Monteagudo, Indalecio; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional observational study aimed to explore the relationship between B cell count and ultrasound (US)-detected synovitis, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab. Thirty-seven consecutive RA patients treated with RTX were recruited for the study. The patients underwent clinical [i.e., Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28)], laboratory, and US assessment of 12 joints. Each joint was semiquantitatively (0-3) scored on B-mode and power Doppler mode. The scores were summed, and a global index was created for BM (BMS) and PD scores (PDI) synovitis. BM subclinical synovitis was evident in all patients, with PD synovial signal detected in 16 patients (43.2 %). No correlation was found between DAS28 and US scores. B cells were detected in 27 (72.9 %) patients, but there was no association in the mean B cell count and disease activity as measured by DAS28 (DAS28 < 2.6 = 34.53, DAS28 > 2.6 = 49.45, p = 0.52) and PDI score (PDI < 1 = 49.48, PDI > 1 = 35.44, p = 0.54). There was no correlation between the B cell count and DAS28, BMS, and PDI (r = 0.020, p = 0.907; r = -0.151, p = 0.371; r = -0.099, p = 0.558, respectively). In RTX-treated RA patients, no relationship could be established between US-detected synovitis and peripheral blood B cell count. PMID:27072348

  5. Suspending and Reinstating Joint Activities with Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalley, Eric; Bangerter, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are common in joint activities like conversations. Typically, interrupted participants suspend the activity, address the interruption, and then reinstate the activity. In conversation, people jointly commit to interact and to talk about a topic, establishing these commitments sequentially. When a commitment is suspended, face is…

  6. Measurement of the light-field amplitude-correlation function through joint photon-count distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furcinitti, P.; Kuppenheimer, J. D.; Narducci, L. M.; Tuft , R. A.

    1972-01-01

    When an amplitude-stabilized He-Ne laser beam is scattered by a rotating ground glass with small surface inhomogeneities, the probability density of the instantaneous scattered-wave amplitude is Gaussian. In this paper, we suggest the use of the joint photon-count probability distribution to measure the absolute value of the electric-field amplitude-correlation function for random Gaussian light fields, and report the results of an experiment in which the Gaussian field is produced by scattering a light beam through a rotating ground glass. This procedure offers an alternative to other conventional methods, such as self-beating spectroscopy and irradiance-correlation techniques. The correlation time of the scattered-field amplitude in the present experiment has been measured with an accuracy of approximately 0.8%.

  7. Organization of Counting in Joint Counting Tasks and the Emergence of Cooperation in Pairs of Kindergarten Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegel, Heide G.

    This study investigated manifestations of collaborative work with pairs of kindergarten children during counting tasks designed to promote early number development. The data were collected by means of classroom observations, interviews with individual students, and teaching sessions with pairs of students. Ten students were paired to be compatible…

  8. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  9. Physical Activity After Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Laura A.; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Basti, John J.; Levine, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common surgical option to treat painful degenerative joint disease. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after TJA or how physical activity level affects the rate of revision surgery. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding physical or athletic activity after TJA was performed to determine current clinical opinion and recommendations regarding appropriate activity levels after TJA, as well as variables affecting successful surgery and improved outcomes. Results: Many studies in the literature regarding athletic activity after TJA focus on total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The literature reports contradictory results regarding rates of physical activity after TJA as well as the relationship between physical activity and rates of revision surgery. The current trend in expert opinion shows more liberal recommendations for patients to engage in athletic activity after TJA. Conclusions: Individual characteristics, lifestyle, and patient preferences must be taken into account when one considers appropriate recommendations for athletic activity after TJA. Current trends in clinical opinion favor a higher level of athletic activity after TJA, but clinicians should caution patients not to participate in contact sports or sports that create high joint loads in the replaced joint. PMID:23016041

  10. Non-linear joint dynamics and controls of jointed flexible structures with active and viscoelastic joint actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.

    1990-12-01

    Studies on joint dominated flexible space structures have attracted much interest recently due to the rapid developments in large deployable space systems. This paper describes a study of the non-linear structural dynamics of jointed flexible structures with initial joint clearance and subjected to external excitations. Methods of using viscoelastic and active vibration control technologies, joint actuators, to reduce dynamic contact force and to stabilize the systems are proposed and evaluated. System dynamic equations of a discretized multi-degrees-of-freedom flexible system with initial joint clearances and joint actuators (active and viscoelastic passive) are derived. Dynamic contacts in an elastic joint are simulated by a non-linear joint model comprised of a non-linear spring and damper. A pseudo-force approximation method is used in numerical time-domain integration. Dynamic responses of a jointed flexible structure with and without viscoelastic and active joint actuators are presented and compared. Effectiveness of active/passive joint actuators is demonstrated.

  11. Active Well Counting Using New PSD Plastic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2015-11-01

    This report presents results and analysis from a series of proof-of-concept measurements to assess the suitability of segmented detectors constructed from Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability for the purposes of quantifying uranium via active neutron coincidence counting. Present quantification of bulk uranium materials for international safeguards and domestic materials control and accounting relies on active neutron coincidence counting systems, such as the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL), that use moderated He-3 proportional counters along with necessarily low-intensity 241Am(Li) neutron sources. Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are a potentially superior technology to the existing AWCC and UNCL designs due to their spectroscopic capability and their inherently short neutron coincidence times that largely eliminate random coincidences and enable interrogation by stronger sources. One of the past impediments to the investigation and adoption of scintillation counters for the purpose of quantifying bulk uranium was the commercial availability of scintillators having the necessary neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination properties only as flammable liquids. Recently, Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator became commercially available. The present work is the first assessment of an array of PSD-plastic detectors for the purposes of quantifying bulk uranium. The detector panel used in the present work was originally built as the focal plane for a fast-neutron imager, but it was repurposed for the present investigation by construction of a stand to support the inner well of an AWCC immediately in front of the detector panel. The detector panel and data acquisition of this system are particularly well suited for performing active-well fast-neutron counting of LEU and HEU samples because the active detector volume is solid, the 241Am(Li) interrogating

  12. Invariant joint distribution of a stationary random field and its derivatives: Euler characteristic and critical point counts in 2 and 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitry; Gay, Christophe; Pichon, Christophe

    2009-10-15

    The full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian are presented in 2 and 3D. It allows for explicit expression for the Euler characteristic in ND and computation of extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold and the spectral parameter, as illustrated on model examples.

  13. Optical imaging of the prefrontal activity in joint attention experience

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lina; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure the prefrontal activity in joint attention experience. 16 healthy adults participated in the experiment in which 42 optical channels were fixed over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and a small anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Video stimuli were used to engender joint or non-joint attention experience in observers. Cortical hemodynamic response and functional connectivity were measured and averaged across all subjects for each stimulus condition. Our data showed the activation in joint attention located in the aPFC and DLPFC bilaterally, but dominantly in the left hemisphere. This observation, together with the previous findings on infants and children, provides a clear developmental scenario on the prefrontal activation associated with joint attention process. In the case of non-joint attention condition, only a small region of the right DLPFC was activated. Functional connectivity was observed to be enhanced, but differently in joint and non-joint attention condition. PMID:26417513

  14. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  15. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz. PMID:26635347

  16. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  17. Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation to joint attention experience.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Banghe; Yadav, Nitin; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2009-08-24

    In the early development of social cognition and language, infants tend to participate in face-to-face interactions engaging in joint attention exchanges. Joint attention is vital to social competence at all ages, lacking which is a primary feature to distinguish autistic from non-autistic population. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is used for the first time to investigate the joint attention experience in normal adults. Imaging studies were performed in the frontal regions of the brain (BA9 and BA10) in order to study the differences in the brain activation in response to video clips corresponding to joint attention based skills. The frontal regions of the brain were non-invasively imaged using a novel optical cap coupled to a frequency-domain optical imaging system. The statistical analysis from 11 normal adult subjects, with three repetitions from each subject, indicated that the averaged changes in the cerebral blood oxygenation levels were different under the joint and non-joint attention based stimulus. The preliminary studies demonstrate the feasibility of implementing diffuse optical imaging towards autism-related research to study the brain activation in response to socio-communication skills. PMID:19447278

  18. Comparison of two HPGe counting system used in activation studies for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2014-05-09

    The activation method is a widely used technique to measure charged-particle induced cross sections for astrophys-ical applications. This two step technique is used for example to measure alpha-induced cross sections in γ-process related studies. The first step – in which a target is irradiated with a proton/alpha beam – is followed by the determination of the produced activity. Especially in p-process related studies in the heavier mass range, the produced radioactive nuclei decays mainly with electron-capture, resulting intense x-rays. The activity of the reaction products hence can be determine via the counting of these x-rays, and not only by counting the usually much weaker γ-rays. In this paper we compare the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used for x- and γ-ray counting in activation experiments.

  19. Protein farnesyltransferase: measurement of enzymatic activity in 96-well format using TopCount microplate scintillation counting technology.

    PubMed

    Harwood, H J

    1995-04-10

    Protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) catalyzes the transfer of the farnesyl group of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to proteins ending with a carboxy-terminal CAAX motif, forming a thioether linkage to the cysteine residue of the protein. A method is described herein for measurement of PFT activity in 96-well format using TopCount microplate scintillation counting technology. This method has the advantages of requiring only a single transfer from reaction vessels or wells of a 96-well reaction plate to the filtration wells of a 96-well Packard UniFilter GF/B filtration plate following acid precipitation and of allowing liquid scintillation counting to be conducted directly in the filtration plate without the need for either removal of the filter from the plate or transfer of the filter to liquid scintillation vials prior to radioactivity assessment. Using rat brain cytosol as the source of PFT, H-ras as the source of farnesyl acceptor protein, and [1-3H]FPP as the farnesyl donor, the incorporation of radiolabeled farnesyl residues into H-ras was found to be a linear function of both the time of incubation at 37 degrees C (up to 75 min) and the concentration of rat brain cytosolic protein present during incubation (up to 40 micrograms protein), and to be dependent on the concentration of H-ras (Km = 1.1 microM) and FPP (Km = 0.6 microM) present in the incubation reaction. In the presence of 4 microM H-ras, 0.5 microM FPP, 4 mM MgCl2, and 20 microM ZnCl2, the specific activity of rat brain cytosolic PFT measured using this methodology was 0.253 +/- 0.036 (SD; n = 30) pmol H-ras farnesylated per minute of incubation at 37 degrees C per milligram cytosolic protein. The signal-to-noise ratio for H-ras farnesylation using this methodology averaged 25 relative to incubation in the absence of H-ras (background farnesylation of cytosolic proteins) and 50 relative to incubation in the absence of both H-ras and rat brain cytosol (background filter associated radioactivity

  20. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  1. Shoulder model validation and joint contact forces during wheelchair activities

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melissa M.B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Chronic shoulder impingement is a common problem for manual wheelchair users. The loading associated with performing manual wheelchair activities of daily living is substantial and often at a high frequency. Musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques can be used to estimate the joint contact forces occurring at the shoulder to assess the soft tissue loading during an activity and to possibly identify activities and strategies that place manual wheelchair users at risk for shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity musculoskeletal model and apply the model to wheelchair activities for analysis of the estimated joint contact forces. Upper extremity kinematics and handrim wheelchair kinetics were measured over three conditions: level propulsion, ramp propulsion, and a weight relief lift. The experimental data were used as input to a subject-specific musculoskeletal model utilizing optimization to predict joint contact forces of the shoulder during all conditions. The model was validated using a mean absolute error calculation. Model results confirmed that ramp propulsion and weight relief lifts place the shoulder under significantly higher joint contact loading than level propulsion. In addition, they exhibit large superior contact forces that could contribute to impingement. This study highlights the potential impingement risk associated with both the ramp and weight relief lift activities. Level propulsion was shown to have a low relative risk of causing injury, but with consideration of the frequency with which propulsion is performed, this observation is not conclusive. PMID:20840833

  2. Measuring the activity of inhaled ²²²Rn using a lung counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhiwei, Cheng; Mingyan, Jia; Maoquan, Shen

    2015-02-01

    A new method of directly measuring (222)Rn progeny in a worker's lung using a lung counting system is introduced. To determine the efficiency of the lung counting system, a torso phantom manufactured by the China Institute for Radiation Protection was used, where activated carbon that had been loaded in a radon chamber with a defined quantity of radon represented the lungs, which were usually made of urethane foam. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of (214)Bi, one of the (222)Rn progenies, was estimated to be 7.3 Bq for a measurement time of 4000 s. Based on the time (222)Rn progenies stay in the lung, it may be concluded that the lung counting system described can be well used for directly measuring the activity of (214)Bi in the lung short time after a worker inhaled (222)Rn at his/her workplace. PMID:24803514

  3. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  4. Active Volcanism Late in Martian History - Evidence from Crater Counts in the Tharsis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J. A.; Berman, D. C.; Hartmann, W. K.; Bottke, W. F.; Kesthelyi, L. P.

    2001-11-01

    The current hypothesis of young Martian volcanism is based on several lines of evidence including analyses of Martian meteorites, photogeologic examination of the planet's surface and detailed crater count studies of high resolution images from MGS/MOC. In addition, some possible signs of recent liquid water on Mars may be evidence of active volcanism as a heat source. Early crater count studies were questioned on the basis of two major uncertainties: very small sampling of counts on young flows, and poor absolute surface age estimates on Mars. Our attack on these uncertainties includes both improving the detailed crater count statistics on the large Martian shield volcanoes and their surrounding lava plains, and refining the absolute ages of counted units using new estimates of the crater production rate on Mars. We have obtained counts on Olympus Mons, Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons. We have targeted areas both on the slopes and inter-volcanic plains, and have begun examining the caldera regions. Our initial examination of the counts of caldera floors indicates terrains with statistically significant age differences, suggesting for some volcanoes sustained episodes of caldera collapse or resurfacing. Our slope and inter-volcanic plains data when plotted with the latest calibrated isochrons yield some very young ages, 10 My or younger for some small flows. The estimated uncertainty in the age data is about a factor of two. Our preliminary conclusions therefore appear to support the hypothesis of very recent volcanism on Mars. However, it is clear that a critical issue regarding crater counting on high resolution MOC images is the necessity of avoiding the ubiquitous dust on the Martian surface. TES data have shown that dust mantles exist over much of the Tharsis region, and it is critical that the ages of the terrains counted do not appear artificially young due to dust cover of some of the craters. We have begun a systematic review of counted MOC images and

  5. Intercomparison of activity size distributions of thoron progeny by alpha- and gamma-counting methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Yu, C C; Tu, K W

    1994-01-01

    It is difficult to calibrate sampling devices using radon or thoron progeny or particles measuring 1-4 nm; therefore, an interlaboratory comparison is important to verify the performance of graded diffusion batteries for the activity size distributions of the "unattached" progeny. This paper describes the results of an interlaboratory comparison of 220Rn progeny size distributions using graded diffusion batteries by alpha- and gamma-counting methods with different data inversion schemes. Graded diffusion batteries designed at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute and at the Environmental Measurement Laboratory were used in the study. Screens and backup filters from the Environmental Measurement Laboratory-graded diffusion batteries were counted simultaneously in alpha counters for total alpha activities, and those of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute-graded diffusion batteries were counted in a gamma detector for gamma activities from 212Pb. Because of the different counting methods and data analysis procedures used, this interlaboratory study of 220Rn progeny allows a more rigorous way of testing instrument performance. 212Pb particles generated in well-controlled environments of oxygen, nitrogen, or oxygen with 1 ppm of nitrogen oxide were measured. In general, good agreement in activity size distributions was obtained from these two methods. Some differences observed in individual size spectra were attributable to the data inversion programs used in each laboratory. When the data were analyzed by the same computer program, most differences disappeared. PMID:8253581

  6. 45 CFR 286.100 - What activities count towards the work participation rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What activities count towards the work participation rate? 286.100 Section 286.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS...

  7. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  8. Correlation of Direct Viable Counts with Heterotrophic Activity for Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Kazuhiro; Simidu, Usio; Taga, Nobuo; Colwell, Rita R.

    1987-01-01

    Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly 14C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste. PMID:16347454

  9. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  10. Accuracy of platelet counting by automated hematologic analyzers in acute leukemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation: potential effects of platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Han, Kyou-Sup; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2010-10-01

    Platelet counting in patients with acute leukemia or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may have a risk for erroneous counts owing to the presence of nonplatelet particles or platelet activation. We evaluated automated platelet counting methods using the Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA), Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), ADVIA 2120 (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY), and Beckman Coulter LH 750 (Beckman Coulter, Miami, FL) compared with the international reference method (IRM). Automated platelet counting methods were inaccurate compared with the IRM, without evidence of interfering nonplatelet particles. It is interesting that platelet activation markers were associated with DIC severity and erroneous platelet counting, suggesting that platelet activation is a potential source of inaccuracy. Furthermore, the artifactual in vitro platelet activation induced a high degree of intermethod variation in platelet counts. The inaccuracy of automated platelet counts increased the risk for misdiagnosis of DIC. More attention needs to be given to the accuracy of platelet counts, especially in clinical conditions with florid platelet activation. PMID:20855645

  11. Activated charcoal filter counting for radioiodine effluent concentration determination in protein iodinations.

    PubMed

    Button, T M; Hamilton, R G

    1982-12-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently placed emphasis upon quantification of 125I released to the environment during protein iodinations at radioiodination facilities. This necessitates air sampling in order to determine the concentration of 125I in the effluent. Air sample trapping mechanisms generally employed are activated charcoal filters. Difficulty arises in quantifying the activity of 125I trapped because of the attenuation of the 125I decay photons by the charcoal. Evaluation of the activity incident upon commercially available filters using a scintillation detector and large detector source separation is considered here. It is demonstrated that the activity in the filter may be treated as an exponential distribution within an attentuating matrix. This treatment essentially adds a constant correction factor to the counting efficiency of a given geometry for a filter-affluent flow rate combination. Finally, it is shown that an approximation assuming a uniform distribution of activity produces a large error in correction factor to the counting efficiency for the filters examined. PMID:7152949

  12. Primary activity measurements with a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude J; Bochud, François O

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba solutions have been standardised using a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system we have recently set up. The detection in the beta channel is performed using various geometries of a UPS-89 plastic scintillator optically coupled to a selected low-noise 1in. diameter photomultiplier tube. The light-tight thin capsule that encloses this beta detector is housed within the well of a 5in.×5in. NaI(Tl) monocrystal detector. The beta detection efficiency can be varied either by optical filtering or electronic discrimination when the electrons loose all their energy in the plastic scintillator. This 4πβ-4πγ coincidence system improves on our 4πβ(PC)-γ system in that its sample preparation is less labour intensive, it yields larger beta- and gamma-counting efficiencies thus enabling the standardisation of low activity sources with good statistics in reasonable time, and it makes standardising short-lived radionuclides easier. The resulting radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba are found to agree with those measured with other primary measurement methods thus validating our 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system. PMID:21840220

  13. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  14. Radon-gas extraction and counting system for analyzing radon and radium in groundwater in seismically active areas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.

    1980-12-08

    A high concentration of radon in groundwater has attracted recent attention as a precursor of seismic activity. We have constructed a system that extracts and counts radon gas from solid, liquid, and gas samples. The radon is extracted in a closed system onto activated charcoal. The desorbed radon is then measured in a phosphored acrylic cell by scintillation counting of gross alpha radiation. The efficiency of the total system (extraction plus counting) is 90 +- 3% or better. Compact design and sturdy construction make the system completely portable and well suited to field operations in remote loations. Results are given for radon and radium in groundwaters in the Livermore area.

  15. Elbow Joint Active Replication in College Pitchers Following Simulated Game Throwing

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Robert; Stovak, Mark; Cox, Kara; Smith, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elbow injuries are common in college baseball players. Pitching creates stress and fatigue in and around the elbow. Lack of joint proprioception can contribute to nonphysiological joint loading and injury. Hypothesis: There will be no difference in elbow joint active reproduction sense following a simulated 3-inning pitching sequence. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Seventeen collegiate pitchers participated. Each pitcher was bilaterally tested for active elbow range of motion using goniometric technique. Percentages of motion determined positions for further study of elbow joint active replication sense (20%, 35%, 50%, 80%). The elbow was passively taken to a position and held for 10 seconds, then returned to full extension. Pitchers were asked to actively reproduce the angle. The opposite elbow was tested in the same manner. One week later, prethrowing joint position reproduction was tested; then a simulated 3-inning game was thrown. Immediately afterward, elbow joint active replication testing was performed. A repeated-measures analysis of variance analyzed differences. Results: No change in active joint reproduction occurred in the nondominant elbow at any angle tested. Dominant elbows demonstrated significant losses of active joint reproduction following throwing. Significant differences occurred at the 35% and 80% angles (P < .05). Conclusion: Active elbow joint replication sense may be compromised following 3 innings of throwing. Because joint proprioception is thought to be an important component of joint stabilization, an alteration in joint position sense may increase the risk of elbow injury during throwing. Clinical Relevance: Pitching may cause a loss of active elbow joint replication. PMID:23015958

  16. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  17. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  18. Frequency Count Attribute Oriented Induction of Corporate Network Data for Mapping Business Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanutama, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Companies increasingly rely on Internet for effective and efficient business communication. As Information Technology infrastructure backbone for business activities, corporate network connects the company to Internet and enables its activities globally. It carries data packets generated by the activities of the users performing their business tasks. Traditionally, infrastructure operations mainly maintain data carrying capacity and network devices performance. It would be advantageous if a company knows what activities are running in its network. The research provides a simple method of mapping the business activity reflected by the network data. To map corporate users' activities, a slightly modified Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) approach to mine the network data was applied. The frequency of each protocol invoked were counted to show what the user intended to do. The collected data was samples taken within a certain sampling period. Samples were taken due to the enormous data packets generated. Protocols of interest are only Internet related while intranet protocols are ignored. It can be concluded that the method could provide the management a general overview of the usage of its infrastructure and lead to efficient, effective and secure ICT infrastructure.

  19. Translation equations to compare ActiGraph GT3X and Actical accelerometers activity counts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a translation equation to enable comparison between Actical and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer counts recorded minute by minute. Methods Five males and five females of variable height, weight, body mass index and age participated in this investigation. Participants simultaneously wore an Actical and an ActiGraph accelerometer for two days. Conversion algorithms and R2 were calculated day by day for each subject between the omnidirectional Actical and three different ActiGraph (three-dimensional) outputs: 1) vertical direction, 2) combined vector, and 3) a custom vector. Three conversion algorithms suitable for minute/minute conversions were then calculated from the full data set. Results The vertical ActiGraph activity counts demonstrated the closest relationship with the Actical, with consistent moderate to strong conversions using the algorithm: y = 0.905x, in the day by day data (R2 range: 0.514 to 0.989 and average: 0.822) and full data set (R2 = 0.865). Conclusions The Actical is most sensitive to accelerations in the vertical direction, and does not closely correlate with three-dimensional ActiGraph output. Minute by minute conversions between the Actical and ActiGraph vertical component can be confidently performed between data sets and might allow further synthesis of information between studies. PMID:22520344

  20. Passive Joint Forces Are Tuned to Limb Use in Insects and Drive Movements without Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.; Matheson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Limb movements are generally driven by active muscular contractions working with and against passive forces arising in muscles and other structures. In relatively heavy limbs, the effects of gravity and inertia predominate, whereas in lighter limbs, passive forces intrinsic to the limb are of greater consequence. The roles of passive forces generated by muscles and tendons are well understood, but there has been little recognition that forces originating within joints themselves may also be important, and less still that these joint forces may be adapted through evolution to complement active muscle forces acting at the same joint. Results We examined the roles of passive joint forces in insect legs with different arrangements of antagonist muscles. We first show that passive forces modify actively generated movements of a joint across its working range, and that they can be sufficiently strong to generate completely passive movements that are faster than active movements observed in natural behaviors. We further demonstrate that some of these forces originate within the joint itself. In legs of different species adapted to different uses (walking, jumping), these passive joint forces complement the balance of strength of the antagonist muscles acting on the joint. We show that passive joint forces are stronger where they assist the weaker of two antagonist muscles. Conclusions In limbs where the dictates of a key behavior produce asymmetry in muscle forces, passive joint forces can be coadapted to provide the balance needed for the effective generation of other behaviors. PMID:23871240

  1. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  2. Biomechanical Examination of the ‘Plateau Phenomenon’ in ActiGraph Vertical Activity Counts

    PubMed Central

    John, Dinesh; Miller, Ross; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Caldwell, Graham; Freedson, Patty

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determine if the leveling off (‘plateau/inverted-U’ phenomenon) of vertical ActiGraph activity counts during running at higher speeds is attributable to the monitor’s signal filtering and acceleration detection characteristics. Methods Ten endurance-trained male participants [mean (SD) age= 28.2 (4.7) yrs] walked at 3, 5 and 7 km˙hr−1, and ran at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 km˙hr−1 on a force treadmill while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X monitor at the waist. Triaxial accelerations of the body’s center of mass (CoM) and frequency content of these accelerations were computed from the force treadmill data. Results GT3X vertical activity counts demonstrated the expected ‘plateau/inverted-U’ phenomenon. In contrast, vertical CoM accelerations increased with increasing speed (1.32 ± 0.26 g at 10 km˙hr−1 and 1.68 ± 0.24 g at 20 km˙hr−1). The dominant frequency in the CoM acceleration signals increased with running speed (14.8 ± 3.2 Hz at 10 km˙hr−1 and 24.8 ± 3.2 Hz at 20 km˙hr−1) and lay beyond the ActiGraph bandpass filter (0.25 to 2.5 Hz) limits. Conclusion CoM acceleration magnitudes during walking and running lie within the ActiGraph monitor’s dynamic acceleration detecting capability. Acceleration signals of higher frequencies that are eliminated by the ActiGraph bandpass filter may be necessary to distinguish among exercise intensity at higher running speeds. PMID:22260902

  3. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  4. Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Kelly, A L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2015-11-01

    Individual caprine milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC) were studied with the aim of investigating the percentage distribution of leukocyte cell types and the activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes; proteolysis of casein was also studied in relation to cell type following recovery from milk. The experiment was conducted on 5 intensively managed dairy flocks of Garganica goats; on the basis of SCC, the experimental groups were denoted low (L-SCC; <700,000 cells/mL), medium (M-SCC; from 701,000 to 1,500,000 cells/mL), and high (H-SCC; >1,501,000 cells/mL) SCC. Leukocyte distribution differed between groups; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were higher in M-SCC and H-SCC milk samples, the percentage macrophages was the highest in H-SCC, and levels of nonviable cells significantly decreased with increasing SCC. Activities of all the main proteolytic enzymes were affected by SCC; plasmin activity was the highest in H-SCC milk and the lowest in L-SCC, and elastase and cathepsin D activities were the highest in M-SCC. Somatic cell count influenced casein hydrolysis patterns, with less intact α- and β-casein in H-SCC milk. Higher levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides were detected in sodium caseinate incubated with leukocytes isolated from L-SCC milk, independent of cell type, whereas among cells recovered from M-SCC milk, macrophages yielded the highest levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides from sodium caseinate. The level of high electrophoretic mobility peptides was higher in sodium caseinate incubated with polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes and macrophages isolated from M-SCC, whereas the same fraction of peptides was always the highest, independent of leukocyte type, for cells recovered from H-SCC milk. In caprine milk, a level of 700,000 cells/mL represented the threshold for changes in leukocyte distribution, which is presumably related to the immune status of the mammary gland. Differences in the profile of

  5. Using joint activity schedules to promote peer engagement in preschoolers with autism.

    PubMed

    Betz, Alison; Higbee, Thomas S; Reagon, Kara A

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the use of a joint activity schedule to increase peer engagement for preschoolers with autism. We taught 3 dyads of preschoolers with autism to follow joint activity schedules that cued both members of the pair to play a sequence of interactive games together. Results indicated that joint activity schedules increased peer engagement and the number of games completed for all dyads. Schedule following was maintained without additional prompting when activities were resequenced and when new games were introduced for 2 of the 3 dyads. PMID:18595287

  6. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  7. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  8. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098

  9. Three-dimensional motion of the upper extremity joints during various activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Koyama, Takayuki; Nakamaru, Koji; Isozaki, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi; Morita, Sadao

    2010-11-16

    Highly reliable information on the range of motion (ROM) required to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is important to allow rehabilitation professionals to make appropriate clinical judgments of patients with limited ROM of the upper extremity joints. There are, however, no data available that take full account of corrections for gimbal-lock and soft tissue artifacts, which affect estimation errors for joint angles. We used an electromagnetic three-dimensional tracking system (FASTRAK) to measure the three-dimensional ROM of the upper extremity joints of healthy adults (N=20, age range 18-34) during 16 ADL movement tasks. The ROM required for the performance of each movement was shown in terms of the joint angle at the completion of the task, using a new definition of joint angle and regression analysis to compensate for estimation errors. The results of this study may be useful in setting goals for the treatment of upper extremity joint function. PMID:20727523

  10. Biological activity of polyethylene wear debris produced in the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Peter; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M; Fisher, John

    2012-05-01

    Polyethylene wear is considered a threat to the long-term survival of total knee replacements. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution that resurfacing the patella makes to wear debris-induced osteolysis following total knee replacement. Ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles were isolated from simulator lubricant. Particle shape, size, and volume distributions were recorded allowing the osteolytic potential of the wear debris produced in the patellofemoral joint to be estimated using the concept of specific biological activity and functional biological activity. Values were compared with those reported for the tibiofemoral joint. Specific biological activity for the patellofemoral joint was not significantly different from the values for the tibiofemoral joint of total knee replacement devices, and therefore, has a similar potential to stimulate osteolytic cytokine release from macrophages. Functional biological activity was significantly lower for the patellofemoral joint compared with the tibiofemoral joint. Functional biological activity was significantly lower for the patellofemoral joint compared with the fixed bearing and rotating platform total knee replacement devices. However, as patellar resurfacing is commonly fitted as part of a total knee replacement system, this results in a 20% increase in overall functional biological activity for the system. Therefore, implanting a patellar resurfacing will increase the potential for osteolysis in the knee. PMID:22720390

  11. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Rory P; Murphy, Brenda; Larkin, John O; Mehigan, Brian J; McCormick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ2 tests where appropriate. RESULTS Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9 (P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio (≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated. PMID:27574555

  12. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Promoting Pedometer Use and Step Count Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2010-01-01

    Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…

  13. Liquid scintillation counting of polycarbonates: a sensitive technique for measurement of activity concentration of some radioactive noble gases.

    PubMed

    Mitev, K; Zhivkova, V; Pressyanov, D; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Gerganov, G; Boshkova, T

    2014-11-01

    This work explores the application of the liquid scintillation counting of polycarbonates for measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive noble gases. Results from experimental studies of the method are presented. Potential applications in the monitoring of radioactive noble gases are discussed. PMID:24559941

  14. Understanding walking activity in multiple sclerosis: step count, walking intensity and uninterrupted walking activity duration related to degree of disability.

    PubMed

    Neven, An; Vanderstraeten, Annelien; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity (PA) is most commonly measured as number of steps, while also walking intensity and walking activity duration are keys for a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the number of steps persons with MS (PwMS) take; (2) the number of steps they take at low and moderate intensity; and (3) their walking activity duration for 2, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 uninterrupted minutes; all related to the degree of disability. 64 PwMS participated, distinguished in a mild (n = 31) and moderate MS subgroup (n = 34) based on their ambulatory dysfunction (Disease Steps). Standardized clinical tests were performed, and step data from the StepWatch Activity Monitor were collected for seven consecutive days. The results showed that (1) step count in PwMS was lower than PA recommendations, and is negatively influenced by a higher disability degree. (2) No walking was registered during 77 % of the day. PwMS are making steps for 22 % at low and only 1 % at moderate intensity. (3) Both MS subgroups rarely walk for more than six uninterrupted minutes, especially not at moderate intensity. PwMS need to be encouraged to make steps at moderate intensity, and to make steps for longer periods of time (minimal ten uninterrupted minutes). PMID:27207680

  15. Textured bearing surface in artificial joints to reduce macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Nishi, Naoki; Chikaura, Hiroto; Nakashima, Yuta; Miura, Hiromasa; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Micro slurry-jet erosion has been proposed as a precision machining technique for the bearing surfaces of artificial joints in order to reduce the total amount of polyethylene wear and to enlarge the size of the wear debris. The micro slurry-jet erosion method is a wet blasting technique which uses alumina particles as the abrasive medium along with compressed air and water to create an ideal surface. Pin-on-disc wear tests with multidirectional sliding motion on the textured surface of a \\text{Co}-\\text{Cr}-\\text{Mo} alloy counterface for polyethylene resulted in both a reduction of wear as well as enlargement of the polyethylene debris size. In this study, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes were incubated with the debris, and it was elucidated that the wear debris generated on the textured surface regulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating a reduction in the induced tissue reaction and joint loosening.

  16. Activity standardisation of ²²⁶Ra by 4πα liquid scintillation counting method.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav; Bluďovský, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4πα liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%. PMID:23602705

  17. Total Lymphocyte Count and Haemoglobin Concentration Combined as a Surrogate Marker for Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-limited Setting as against CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-naïve adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283

  18. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  19. Internal sample attenuator counting (ISAC). A new technique for separating and measuring bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, J.I.

    1981-12-01

    A new method for the separation counting of bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays is described. Particles containing a radiation-abosrbing (attenuating) material are added to the assay. They shield the radiation from either the antibody-bound or the free radioligand. This obviates such manipulations conventionally involved in the separation and counting steps of radioimmunoassays as centrifugation decanting. Bismuth oxide is used as the attenuator. Particles with different properties are described. In one type, bismuth oxide is combined with active charcoal in an agarose matrix and serves as an absorbant for the free radioligand. In another type bismuth oxide is trapped within a polyacrylamide matrix to which antibodies are coupled. This particle can be used with a first- or a second-antibody bound activity. Application of the technique is illustrated with radioimmunoassays for thyroxin, triiodothyronine, human choriogonadotropin, and lutropin (luteinizing hormone).

  20. Effects of exercise and training on natural killer cell counts and cytolytic activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J; Shek, P N

    1999-09-01

    Meta-analysis techniques have been used to accumulate data from 94 studies describing the natural killer (NK) cell response of some 900 volunteers to acute and chronic exercise. NK cell numbers have been indicated in terms of CD3-CD16+CD56+, CD16+ or CD56+ phenotypes, and cytolytic activity has been expressed per 10,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in terms of lytic units. Acute exercise has been categorised as sustained moderate (50 to 65% of aerobic power), sustained vigorous (>75% of aerobic power), brief maximal or 'supramaximal', prolonged, eccentric or resistance, and repeated exercise. In general, there was a marked increase in NK cell count at the end of exercise, probably attributable to a catecholamine-mediated demargination of cells. Following exercise, cell counts dropped to less than half of normal levels for a couple of hours but, except in unusual circumstances (e.g. prolonged, intense and stressful exercise), normal resting values are restored within 24 hours. If activity is both prolonged and vigorous, the decrease in NK cell counts and cytolytic activity may begin during the exercise session. Although the usual depression of NK cell count seems too brief to have major practical importance for health, there could be a cumulative adverse effect on immunosurveillance and health experience in athletes who induce such changes several times per week. There is a weak suggestion of an offsetting increase in resting NK cell counts and cytolytic action in trained individuals, and this merits further exploration in studies where effects of recent training sessions are carefully controlled. PMID:10541441

  1. Semi-active damping of large space truss structures using friction joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Lothar; Albrecht, Hans; Wirnitzer, Jan

    2002-11-01

    The low structural damping of large space structures and the stringent positioning requirements in missions demand effective vibration suppression. The semi-active approach at hand is based on friction damping due to interfacial slip in semi-active joints which can be controlled by varying the normal pressure in the contact area using a piezo-stack actuator. This paper focuses on the modeling, identification and model reduction of a large space structure with semi-active joints. For the purpose of model identification and model reduction, the nonlinear friction forces transmitted in the joints are considered as external forces acting on the linear tress structure. Experimental Modal Analysis results are used to update the FE model of the truss structure and the parameters of the nonlinear friction model are identified from measured responses of an isolated joint. The model of the linear subsystem is reduced by a combination of balanced reduction and matching moments method. The modal truncation is based on controllability and observability gramians. To improve the fidelity locations conventional connections are replaced by adaptive joints, each with a local feedback controller for the adaptation of the normal force. Simulation results of a 10-bay truss structure with semi-active joints show the potential of the present approach.

  2. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600). Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158). Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male

  3. Exploring the Neural Basis of Real-Life Joint Action: Measuring Brain Activation during Joint Table Setting with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egetemeir, Johanna; Stenneken, Prisca; Koehler, Saskia; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Many every-day life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table setting tasks, either alone (solo action) or in cooperation with a partner (joint action), or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation). Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration) during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner. PMID:21927603

  4. Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Olivier A.; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Millett, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. PMID:22536514

  5. Abdominal muscle activity according to knee joint angle during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Juri; Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the activity of the abdominal muscles according to the angle of the knee joints during sit-to-stand. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult males participated in this study. Subjects initiated sit-to-stand at knee joint angles of 60°, 90°, or 120°. An electromyography system was used to measure the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Results] Percent contraction differed significantly among the three knee joint angles, most notably for the internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Conclusion] Wider knee joint angles more effectively activate the abdominal muscles, especially those in the deep abdomen, than do narrower angles. PMID:27390431

  6. Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Catherine S; Symonds, Andrew; Suzuki, Tatsuto; Gall, Angela; Smitham, Peter; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if push-rim kinetics could be used as markers of glenohumeral joint demand during manual wheelchair accessibility activities; demonstrating a method of biomechanical analysis that could be used away from the laboratory. Propulsion forces, trunk and upper limb kinematics and surface electromyography were recorded during four propulsion tasks (level, 2.5% cross slope, 6.5% incline and 12% incline). Kinetic and kinematic data were applied to an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the trunk and upper limb, to enable calculation of glenohumeral joint contact force. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between propulsion forces and glenohumeral joint contact forces. Both propulsion forces and joint contact forces increased as the task became more challenging. Participants demonstrated increases in trunk flexion angle as the requirement for force application increased, significantly so in the 12% incline. There were significant increases in both resultant glenohumeral joint contact forces and peak and mean normalized muscle activity levels during the incline tasks. This study demonstrated the high demand placed on the glenohumeral joint during accessibility tasks, especially as the gradient of incline increases. A lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel has potential to guide the user to minimize upper limb demand during daily activity. PMID:26736796

  7. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  8. Locations of Joint Physical Activity in Parent-Child Pairs Based on Accelerometer and GPS Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Micheal; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental factors may play an important role in influencing children’s physical activity levels. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to describe the locations of joint physical activity among parents and children. Methods Parent-child pairs (N = 291) wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer and GlobalSat BT-335 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) device over the same 7-day period. Children were ages 8–14 years. Joint behavior was defined by a linear separation distance of less than 50m between parent and child. Land use classifications were assigned to GPS data points. Results Joint physical activity was spread across residential locations (35%), and commercial venues (24%), and open spaces/parks (20%). Obese children and parents performed less joint physical activity in open spaces/parks than under/normal weight children and parents (p’s < .01). Conclusions Understanding where joint parent-child physical activity naturally occurs may inform location-based interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23011914

  9. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint. PMID:27504021

  10. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint. PMID:27504021

  11. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service that is not reasonably required to conduct the research and development that is the purpose of... INNOVATION PROGRAM General § 296.9 Activities not permitted for joint ventures. The following activities are... restrict or require the sale, licensing, or sharing of inventions or developments not developed...

  12. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  13. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  14. Elbow and wrist joint contact forces during occupational pick and place activities.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C

    2000-05-01

    A three-dimensional, mathematical model of the elbow and wrist joints, including 15 muscle units, 3 ligaments and 4 joint forces, has been developed. A new strain gauge transducer has been developed to measure functional grip forces. The device measures radial forces divided into six components and forces of up to 250N per segment can be measured with an accuracy of +/-1%. Ten normal volunteers were asked to complete four tasks representing occupational activities, during which time their grip force was monitored. Together with kinematic information from the six-camera Vicon data, the moment effect of these loads at the joints was calculated. These external moments are assumed to be balanced by the internal moments, generated by the muscles, passive soft tissue and bone contact. The effectiveness of the body's internal structures in generating joint moments was assessed by studying the geometry of a simplified model of the structures, where information about the lines of action and moment arms of muscles, tendons and ligaments is contained. The assumption of equilibrium between these external and internal joint moments allows formulation of a set of equations from which muscle and joint forces can be calculated. A two stage, linear optimisation routine minimising the overall muscle stress and the sum of the joint forces has been used to overcome the force-sharing problem. Humero-ulnar forces of up to 1600N, humero-radial forces of up to 800N and wrist joint forces of up to 2800N were found for moderate level activity. The model was validated by comparison with other studies. PMID:10708780

  15. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-C, task 3: Identification of joint activities and estimation of resources in preparation for joint flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Payload mission control concepts are developed for real time flight operations of STS. Flight planning, training, simulations, and other flight preparations are included. Payload activities for the preflight phase, activity sequences and organizational allocations, and traffic and experience factors to establish composite man-loading for joint STS payload activities are identified for flight operations from 1980 to 1985.

  16. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  17. Pre-formed urease activity of Helicobacter pylori as determined by a viable cell count technique--clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Xia, H X; Keane, C T; O'Morain, C A

    1994-06-01

    The pre-formed urease activity of three NCTC reference strains and five clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori was determined at room temperature (21 degrees C) and 37 degrees C by a viable cell count technique with a conventional urea slope test (Christensen's agar) as well as the commercial CLO-test. The urease activity of two gastroduodenal commensals, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was also tested. H. pylori strains produced positive reactions with viable cell counts of 10(6)-10(8) cfu within 30 min and with counts of 10(3)-10(6) cfu within 2 h. For some strains, smaller numbers of organisms were needed with the CLO-test than with the conventional test, and incubation of the CLO-test strips at 37 degrees C slightly decreased the number of organisms required for positive results. P. mirabilis produced a positive result on urea slopes with an initial inoculum of 10(7)-10(8) cfu at 2 h, but no positive reaction occurred for K. pneumoniae at 12 h, even with an initial inoculum of 10(11) cfu. However, both P. mirabilis and K. pneumoniae gave a positive result after incubation for 24 h with initial inocula of < 10(1) cfu and 10(3)-10(4) cfu respectively. Incubation at 37 degrees C significantly reduced the inoculum size of these organisms required for a positive result after incubation for 4 h when tested with the slopes, but not with the CLO-test. These findings indicate that H. pylori possesses much greater pre-formed urease activity than P. mirabilis and K. pneumoniae. False negative results for clinical detection of H. pylori in gastroduodenal biopsies may be due to small numbers of organisms, especially after treatment with antimicrobial agents, and false positive results may arise from gastroduodenal commensals or contaminants. PMID:8006937

  18. Pacific Northwest USDA-ARS Jointed Goatgrass Research and Extension Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS weed scientists have conducted research and extension activities on six research projects funded by the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program (NJGGRP). This poster reviews the objectives and major research findings from these federally funded projects. Most of these projects wer...

  19. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... 20420 or email to ] nancy.kessinger@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0704'' in any... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim) Activity: Comment...: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing...

  20. In vitro activity of dalbavancin against biofilms of staphylococci isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The in vitro activity of dalbavancin was tested against biofilms of 171 staphylococci associated with prosthetic joint infection. Dalbavancin minimum biofilm bactericidal concentration (MBBC) values were: MBBC50 for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1μg/mL; MBBC90 for S. aureus, 2μg/mL; MBBC90 for S. epidermidis, 4μg/mL. PMID:27241369

  1. Processes and Outcomes of Joint Activity with E-Books for Promoting Kindergarteners' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of an educational electronic book (e-book) on low socioeconomic status (SES) kindergarteners' emergent literacy while focusing on the relationship between process and outcomes during joint learning. The sample (96 kindergarteners, aged five to six) was randomly assigned to experimental (e-book activation) and…

  2. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  3. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  4. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  5. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  6. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  7. Relative contribution of contact and complement activation to inflammatory reactions in arthritic joints.

    PubMed Central

    Abbink, J J; Kamp, A M; Nuijens, J H; Erenberg, A J; Swaak, A J; Hack, C E

    1992-01-01

    Although both the complement and contact system are thought to contribute to the inflammatory reaction in arthritic joints, only activation of complement has so far been well established, whereas contact activation and its contribution to arthritis has not been systematically explored. Complement and contact activation were assessed in 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies and 11 with osteoarthritis using sensitive assays for C3a, and C1-inhibitor (C1INH)-kallikrein and C1INH-factor XIIa complexes respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of kallikrein-and factor XIIa-C1INH complexes were found in two and seven of the 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies, respectively, and in none of the patients with osteoarthritis. Increased synovial fluid concentrations of kallikrein and factor XIIa complexes occurred in 13 and 15 patients with inflammatory joint diseases respectively, and in two patients with osteoarthritis. Contact system parameters did not correlate with clinical symptoms, local activity, or neutrophil activation. In contrast, synovial fluid concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes were increased in all patients and in 20 patients with inflammatory arthropathies respectively, and were higher in patients with a higher local activity score. Synovial fluid C3a correlated with parameters of neutrophil activation such as lactoferrin. Increased plasma concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes occurred in 13 and 11 patients with inflammatory joint diseases, and in one and two patients with osteoarthritis respectively. Plasma concentrations of C3a correlated with the number of painful joints. Thus contact activation occurs only sporadically in patients with arthritis and contributes little if anything to the local inflammatory reaction and neutrophil activation. These latter events are significantly related to the extent of complement activation. PMID:1444625

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  9. How does a child solve 7 + 8? Decoding brain activity patterns associated with counting and retrieval strategies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soohyun; Ryali, Srikanth; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive development and learning are characterized by diminished reliance on effortful procedures and increased use of memory-based problem solving. Here we identify the neural correlates of this strategy shift in 7-9-year-old children at an important developmental period for arithmetic skill acquisition. Univariate and multivariate approaches were used to contrast brain responses between two groups of children who relied primarily on either retrieval or procedural counting strategies. Children who used retrieval strategies showed greater responses in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; notably, this was the only brain region which showed univariate differences in signal intensity between the two groups. In contrast, multivariate analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns in bilateral hippocampus, posterior parietal cortex and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex regions between the two groups. These results demonstrate that retrieval and counting strategies during early learning are characterized by distinct patterns of activity in a distributed network of brain regions involved in arithmetic problem solving and controlled retrieval of arithmetic facts. Our findings suggest that the reorganization and refinement of neural activity patterns in multiple brain regions plays a dominant role in the transition to memory-based arithmetic problem solving. Our findings further demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into fine-scale developmental changes in the brain. More generally, our study illustrates how brain imaging and developmental research can be integrated to investigate fundamental aspects of neurocognitive development. PMID:21884315

  10. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  11. A count model to study the correlates of 60 min of daily physical activity in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9-11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane-Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p<0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates' roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  12. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. Active books: the design of an implantable stimulator that minimizes cable count using integrated circuits very close to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Demosthenous, Andreas; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Jiang, Dai; Donaldson, Nick

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated stimulator that can be embedded in implantable electrode books for interfacing with nerve roots at the cauda equina. The Active Book overcomes the limitation of conventional nerve root stimulators which can only support a small number of stimulating electrodes due to cable count restriction through the dura. Instead, a distributed stimulation system with many tripole electrodes can be configured using several Active Books which are addressed sequentially. The stimulator was fabricated in a 0.6-μm high-voltage CMOS process and occupies a silicon area of 4.2 × 6.5 mm(2). The circuit was designed to deliver up to 8 mA stimulus current to tripole electrodes from an 18 V power supply. Input pad count is limited to five (two power and three control lines) hence requiring a specific procedure for downloading stimulation commands to the chip and extracting information from it. Supported commands include adjusting the amplitude of stimulus current, varying the current ratio at the two anodes in each channel, and measuring relative humidity inside the chip package. In addition to stimulation mode, the chip supports quiescent mode, dissipating less than 100 nA current from the power supply. The performance of the stimulator chip was verified with bench tests including measurements using tripoles in saline. PMID:23853144

  15. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the period 1 Oct. 1995 - 30 Sept. 1996. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics and high lift modeling studies. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the high lift activities.

  16. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  17. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  18. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  19. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  20. Aberrant Activation of TGF-β in Subchondral Bone at the Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis Joint Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Zheng, Liwei; Bian, Qin; Xie, Liang; Liu, Wenlong; Zhen, Gehua; Crane, Janet L; Zhou, Xuedong; Cao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that often leads to joint destruction. A myriad of drugs targeting the immune abnormalities and downstream inflammatory cascades have been developed, but the joint destruction is not effectively halted. Here we report that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone marrow by immune response increases osteoprogenitors and uncoupled bone resorption and formation in RA mouse/rat models. Importantly, either systemic or local blockade of TGF-β activity in the subchondral bone attenuated articular cartilage degeneration in RA. Moreover, conditional deletion of TGF-β receptor II (Tgfbr2) in nestin-positive cells also effectively halted progression of RA joint destruction. Our data demonstrate that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone is involved at the onset of RA joint cartilage degeneration. Thus, modulation of subchondral bone TGF-β activity could be a potential therapy for RA joint destruction. PMID:25967237

  1. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes. PMID:26902805

  2. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: it's the (accessible) thought that counts.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L

    2010-04-01

    Prior research has found that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotype activation. In four experiments the authors explore whether the link between affect and stereotype activation depends on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, the authors measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1 and 2) and counterstereotypic thoughts (Experiments 2 through 4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation-consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counterstereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. Implications of these results for existing affect-cognition models are discussed. PMID:20363909

  3. A Joint Model for the Kinetics of CTC Count and PSA Concentration During Treatment in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Wilbaux, M; Tod, M; De Bono, J; Lorente, D; Mateo, J; Freyer, G; You, B; Hénin, E

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of treatment efficacy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is limited by frequent nonmeasurable bone metastases. The count of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a promising surrogate marker that may replace the widely used prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The purpose of this study was to quantify the dynamic relationships between the longitudinal kinetics of these markers during treatment in patients with mCRPC. Data from 223 patients with mCRPC treated by chemotherapy and/or hormonotherapy were analyzed for up to 6 months of treatment. A semimechanistic model was built, combining the following several pharmacometric advanced features: (1) Kinetic-Pharmacodynamic (K-PD) compartments for treatments (chemotherapy and hormonotherapy); (2) a latent variable linking both marker kinetics; (3) modeling of CTC kinetics with a cell lifespan model; and (4) a negative binomial distribution for the CTC random sampling. Linked with survival, this model would potentially be useful for predicting treatment efficacy during drug development or for therapeutic adjustment in treated patients. PMID:26225253

  4. A Joint Model for the Kinetics of CTC Count and PSA Concentration During Treatment in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilbaux, M; Tod, M; De Bono, J; Lorente, D; Mateo, J; Freyer, G; You, B; Hénin, E

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of treatment efficacy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is limited by frequent nonmeasurable bone metastases. The count of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a promising surrogate marker that may replace the widely used prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The purpose of this study was to quantify the dynamic relationships between the longitudinal kinetics of these markers during treatment in patients with mCRPC. Data from 223 patients with mCRPC treated by chemotherapy and/or hormonotherapy were analyzed for up to 6 months of treatment. A semimechanistic model was built, combining the following several pharmacometric advanced features: (1) Kinetic-Pharmacodynamic (K-PD) compartments for treatments (chemotherapy and hormonotherapy); (2) a latent variable linking both marker kinetics; (3) modeling of CTC kinetics with a cell lifespan model; and (4) a negative binomial distribution for the CTC random sampling. Linked with survival, this model would potentially be useful for predicting treatment efficacy during drug development or for therapeutic adjustment in treated patients. PMID:26225253

  5. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  6. PACE VII. Curriculum Counts: Planning for Success through Developmentally Appropriate Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This volume contains summaries of 13 presentations at the PACE (Positive Approaches to Children's Education) conference. The titles are: "Fabulous Fitness Fun" (Deborah L. Arfman); "Manipulative Equipment Modified for Success" (Noel Bewley); "Fitness Play-Focus on Fun" (Noel Bewley); "Keeping Them All Moving: Strategies and Activities for…

  7. Optimal placement of semi-active joints in large-space truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirnitzer, Jan; Kistner, A.; Gaul, Lothar

    2002-06-01

    The low structural damping of large space structures and the stringent positioning requirements in missions demand effective vibration suppression. The semi-active approach at hand is based on friction damping due to interfacial slip in semi-active joints which can be controlled by varying the normal pressure in the contact area using a piezo-disc actuator. This paper focuses on the optimal placement of semi-active joints for vibration suppression. The proposed method uses optimality criteria for actuator and sensor locations based on eigenvalues of the controllability and observability gramians. It is stated as a nonlinear multicriteria optimization problem with discrete variables which is solved by a stochastic search algorithm. As final step in the design procedure, parameters of the local feedback controllers assigned to each adaptive joint are optimized with respect to transient response of the structure. The present method is applied to a 10-bay truss structure. Simulation runs of the controlled structure are used to verify the optimization results.

  8. Incidence of joint replacement among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Taubman, Stephen B; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-05-01

    In the U.S., joint replacements have become more common and the average age of individuals who undergo joint replacements has decreased. Joint replacements among active component service members increased 10.5% during 2004-2009, then 61.9% during 2009-2014. Knees and hips were the most frequently replaced joints among service members. During the surveillance period (and particularly after 2009), incidence rates increased in each age group of service members 30 years or older. Relative to their respective counterparts, rates of joint replacement overall--and of the hip and knee specifically--were higher among service members who were black, non-Hispanic; officers; and healthcare workers. One year after joint replacement, 18.2% had retired; 5.2% had been medically disqualified from service; 6.3% had otherwise left service; and 70.3% were still in service. By 2 years post-joint replacement, 30.2% had retired; 13.0% had been medically disqualified; 10.0% had otherwise left service; and 46.8% were still in service. Service members aged 30-44 years were the most likely to remain in service post-joint replacement. Given the increases in the frequency of joint replacement among younger service members, the number of service members who remain in service post-joint replacement may continue to increase. PMID:25996170

  9. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  10. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  11. Spinal Inflammation in the Absence of Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Active Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Sieper, Joachim; Maksymowych, Walter P; Brown, Matthew A; Lambert, Robert G W; Rathmann, Suchitrita S; Pangan, Aileen L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence of spinal inflammation with and without sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to compare the disease characteristics of these subgroups. Methods ABILITY-1 is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of adalimumab versus placebo in patients with nonradiographic axial SpA classified using the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society axial SpA criteria. Baseline MRIs were centrally scored independently by 2 readers using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) method for the SI joints and the SPARCC 6–discovertebral unit method for the spine. Positive evidence of inflammation on MRI was defined as a SPARCC score of ≥2 for either the SI joints or the spine. Results Among patients with baseline SPARCC scores, 40% had an SI joint score of ≥2 and 52% had a spine score of ≥2. Forty-nine percent of patients with baseline SI joint scores of <2, and 58% of those with baseline SI joint scores of ≥2, had a spine score of ≥2. Comparison of baseline disease characteristics by baseline SI joint and spine scores showed that a greater proportion of patients in the subgroup with a baseline SPARCC score of ≥2 for both SI joints and spine were male, and patients with spine and SI joint scores of <2 were younger and had shorter symptom duration. SPARCC spine scores correlated with baseline symptom duration, and SI joint scores correlated negatively with the baseline Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, but neither correlated with the baseline Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score, total back pain, the patient's global assessment of disease activity, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, morning stiffness, nocturnal pain, or C-reactive protein level. Conclusion Assessment by experienced readers showed that spinal inflammation on MRI might be observed in half of

  12. Differential activation by cytokines of mitogen-activated protein kinases in bovine temporomandibular-joint disc cells.

    PubMed

    Landesberg, R; Takeuchi, E; Puzas, J E

    1999-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders affect a significant proportion of the population. While their aetiology is not well defined, recent histological studies suggest that the majority are similar to the osteoarthritis seen in other joints. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha appear to be important in the cascade of events leading to joint destruction in osteoarthritis. Here, cells from the disc of bovine temporomandibular joint were used to examine the response to various cytokines in vitro. Disc cells were stimulated with interleukin-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Their effects were monitored by assessing the phosphorylation of selected signal-transduction intermediates using western blot. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk 1, Erk 2) were rapidly phosphorylated by exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, while interleukin-1alpha showed a weak response. Transforming growth factor-beta failed to activate these kinases. Examination of the effect of these cytokines on p38 (an intermediate in the stress-activated protein-kinase pathway) showed an increase in phosphorylated p38 when stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1alpha. The amounts of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 did not significantly increase when the cells were exposed to any of the cytokines. PMID:10075149

  13. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin Methyldopa Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to: Anemia Bleeding Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by ...

  14. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  15. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H. N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed invivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. PMID:25817731

  16. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  17. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  18. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  19. Considerations concerning the use of counting active personal dosimeters in pulsed fields of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Peter; Borowski, Markus; Iwatschenko, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Active personal electronic dosimeters (APDs) exhibit limitations in pulsed radiation fields, which cannot be overcome without the use of new detection technology. As an interim solution, this paper proposes a method by which some conventional dosimeters can be operated in a way such that, based on the basic knowledge about the pulsed radiation field, any dosimetric failure of the dosimeter is signalised by the instrument itself. This method is not applicable to all combinations of APD and pulsed radiation field. The necessary requirements for the APD and for the parameters of the pulsed radiation field are given in the paper. Up to now, all such requirements for APDs have not been tested or verified in a type test. The suitability of the method is verified for the use of one APD used in two clinical pulsed fields. PMID:20083488

  20. In vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-02-01

    We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline by Etest against staphylococci recovered from patients with prosthetic joint infection, including 97 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (36%, oxacillin resistant) and 74 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (74%, oxacillin resistant). Ceftaroline inhibited all staphylococci at ≤0.5 μg/mL. The ceftaroline MIC(90/50) values for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were 0.19/0.125, 0.094/0.047, 0.5/0.38, and 0.38/0.19 μg/mL, respectively. Based on these in vitro findings, ceftaroline should be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis. PMID:26602948

  1. Sports activity after total joint arthroplasty: recommendations for the counseling physician.

    PubMed

    Buza, John A; Fink, Leslie A; Levine, William N

    2013-02-01

    Sports activity after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has become an increasingly important topic, as many younger patients seeking TJA have higher postoperative expectations with regard to return to athletic activity. Our current knowledge of this area is largely based on retrospective clinical studies and surveys of surgeon recommendations. The decision to participate in sports after TJA depends on the patient's general health, prior athletic experience, type of TJA, and desired sporting activity. Ultimately, patients should discuss these factors with their physician in order to make an educated decision regarding sports activity after TJA. This article summarizes the best available evidence to help guide physicians in their conversation with patients regarding safe and appropriate sports activity after TJA. PMID:23445855

  2. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  3. IVIg immune reconstitution treatment alleviates the state of persistent immune activation and suppressed CD4 T cell counts in CVID.

    PubMed

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Santos, Bianca A N; Carvalho, Karina I; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes; Barreto de Oliveira, Ana Karolina; Kokron, Cristina M; Kalil, Jorge; Moll, Markus; Kallas, Esper G; Sandberg, Johan K

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by defective B cell function, impaired antibody production, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections may result in substantial perturbations in the T cell compartment. Newly diagnosed CVID patients were sampled before, and 6-12 months after, initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Treatment-naïve CVID patients displayed suppressed CD4 T cell counts and myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) levels, as well as high levels of immune activation in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. Expression of co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD83 was elevated in mDCs and correlated with T cell activation. Levels of both FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and iNKT cells were low, whereas soluble CD14 (sCD14), indicative of monocyte activation, was elevated. Importantly, immune reconstitution treatment with IVIg partially restored the CD4 T cell and mDC compartments. Treatment furthermore reduced the levels of CD8 T cell activation and mDC activation, whereas levels of Treg cells and iNKT cells remained low. Thus, primary deficiency in humoral immunity with impaired control of microbial infections is associated with significant pathological changes in cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, therapeutic enhancement of humoral immunity with IVIg infusions alleviates several of these defects, indicating a relationship between poor antibody-mediated immune control of infections and the occurrence of abnormalities in the T cell and mDC compartments. These findings help our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of primary immunodeficiency, as well as acquired immunodeficiency caused by HIV-1 infection. PMID:24130688

  4. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active

  5. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively.

  6. Structural health monitoring of multi-spot welded joints using a lead zirconate titanate based active sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ping; Kong, Qingzhao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Tianyong; Huo, Lin-sheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Failures of spot welded joints directly reduce the load capacity of adjacent structures. Due to their complexity and invisibility, real-time health monitoring of spot welded joints is still a challenge. In this paper, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based active sensing approach was proposed to monitor the structural health of multi-spot welded joints in real time. In the active sensing approach, one PZT transducer was used as an actuator to generate a guided stress wave, while another one, as a sensor, detected the wave response. Failure of a spot welded joint reduces the stress wave paths and attenuates the wave propagation energy from the actuator to the sensor. A total of four specimens made of dual phase steel with spot welds, including two specimens with 20 mm intervals of spot welded joints and two with 25 mm intervals, were designed and fabricated for this research. Under tensile tests, the spot welded joints successively failed, resulting in the PZT sensor reporting decreased received energy. The energy attenuations due to the failures of joints were clearly observed by the PZT sensor signal in both the time domain and frequency domain. In addition, a wavelet packet-based spot-weld failure indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the failure condition corresponding to the number of failed joints.

  7. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the institute include the following: To conduct basic and applied research. To promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community To provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute. To provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute. To disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  8. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the Institute include the following: (1) To conduct basic and applied research; (2) to promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community; (3) to provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute; (4) to provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute; and (5) to disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  9. Imaging the magmatic system of Newberry Volcano using Joint active source and teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Benjamin A.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we combine active and passive source P wave seismic data to tomographically image the magmatic system beneath Newberry Volcano, located east of the Cascade arc. By using both travel times from local active sources and delay times from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on closely spaced seismometers (300-800 m), we significantly improve recovery of upper crustal velocity structure (<10 km depth). The tomographic model reveals a low-velocity feature between 3 and 5 km depth that lies beneath the caldera, consistent with a magma body. In contrast to earlier tomographic studies, where elevated temperatures were sufficient to explain the recovered low velocities, the larger amplitude low-velocity anomalies in our joint tomography model require low degrees of partial melt (˜10%), and a minimum melt volume of ˜2.5 km3. Furthermore, synthetic tests suggest that even greater magnitude low-velocity anomalies, and by inference larger volumes of magma (up to 8 km3), are needed to explain the observed waveform variability. The lateral extent and shape of the inferred magma body indicates that the extensional tectonic regime at Newberry influences the emplacement of magmatic intrusions. Our study shows that jointly inverting active source and passive source seismic data improves tomographic imaging of the shallow crustal seismic structure of volcanic systems and that active source experiments would benefit from longer deployment times to also record teleseismic sources.

  10. Muscular Activation During Plyometric Exercises in 90° of Glenohumeral Joint Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Hypothesis: Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Results: Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°. PMID:25553216

  11. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles. PMID:26357447

  12. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  14. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  15. Kinematic Characteristics of the Tibiofemoral Joint during a Step-up Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Hosseini, Ali; Cancre, Lucile; Ryan, Nolan; Rubash, Harry E; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    The step-up activity (stair-ascending) is an important daily function of the knee. This study aimed to investigate the articular cartilage contact kinematics on both tibial and femoral cartilage surfaces and describe the femoral condylar motion using the transepicondylar axis (TEA) and the geometric center axis (GCA) during a step-up activity. Twenty-one healthy subjects were included and their knee joint models were reconstructed using MR images. A single-stair step-up activity was imaged using a dual-fluoroscopic imaging system. Three-dimensional knee joint contact points were determined and projected onto the tibial plateau and femoral condyle surfaces. The contact points on the medial and lateral tibial plateau moved anteriorly (by 13.5 ± 3.2 and 10.7 ± 5.0 mm, respectively, p>0.05) with knee extension. The contact points on the medial and lateral femoral condyle moved from the posterior to the anterior portion (by 32.2 ± 4.9 mm and 25.5 ± 4.2 mm, respectively, p<0.05) and were located on the inner half of the femoral cartilage throughout the activity. The data on articular contact kinematics and the femoral condylar motion described using the TEA and GCA indicated that the medial and lateral compartments had similar motion patterns during the step-up activity. The knee does not demonstrate a medial-pivoting motion character during the step-up activity. The data may provide insight to contemporary TKA development. PMID:23541765

  16. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  17. Comparison of facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT with facet joint signal change on MRI with fat suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Vance T.; Murphy, Robert C.; Schenck, Louis A.; Carter, Rickey E.; Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Kotsenas, Amy L.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Nathan, Mark A.; Wald, John T.; Maus, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We compared signal change on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fat suppression and bone scan activity of lumbar facet joints to determine if these two imaging findings are correlated. METHODS We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent imaging of the lumbar spine for pain evaluation using both technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT) and MRI with at least one fat-suppressed T2- or T1-weighted sequence with gadolinium enhancement within a 180-day interval, at our institution between 1 January 2008 and 19 February 2013. Facet joint activity on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and peri-facet signal change on MRI were rated as normal or increased. Agreement between the two examination types were determined with the κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) statistics. RESULTS This study included 60 patients (28 male, 47%), with a mean age of 49±19.7 years (range, 12–93 years). The κ value indicated no agreement between 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI (κ=−0.026; 95% confidence interval: −0.051, 0.000). The PABAK values were fair to high at each spinal level, which suggests that relatively low disease prevalence lowered the κ values. Together, the κ and PABAK values indicate that there is some degree of intermodality agreement, but that it is not consistent. CONCLUSION Overall, facet joint signal change on fat-suppressed MRI did not always correlate with increased 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT activity. MRI and 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for facet joint evaluation should not be considered interchangeable examinations in clinical practice or research. PMID:27035592

  18. The effect of co-stabilizer muscle activation on knee joint position sense: a single group pre-post test

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yeongyo; Lee, Ho Jun; Choi, Myongryol; Chung, Sangmi; Park, Junhyung; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of co-stabilizer muscle activation on knee joint position sense. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a pre-post, single-blinded randomly controlled trial (angle sequence randomly selected) design. Seven healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. Knee joint position sense was measured by a target matching test at target angles of 30°, 45° and 80° of knee flexion a using digital inclinometer under two conditions: erect sitting, which is known to highly activate co-stabilizer muscle and slump sitting, which is known to little activate the co-stabilizer muscle. [Results] A significant difference in joint position matching error at the knee flexion angle of 45° was founded between two conditions erect sitting: (3.83 ± 1.47) and slump sitting: (1.00 ± 0.63). There were no significant differences in joint position matching error at the other target angles. [Conclusion] Knee joint position sense at 45° is likely to be affected by activation of co-stabilizer muscle, and this value is suitable for facilitation of joint position sense with skilled movement. PMID:27512279

  19. Counting Active Sites on Titanium Oxide-Silica Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Activation through In Situ Poisoning with Phenylphosphonic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Todd R.; Boston, Andrew M.; Thompson, Anthony B.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2015-06-04

    Quantifying specific active sites in supported catalysts improves our understanding and assists in rational design. Supported oxides can undergo significant structural changes as surface densities increase from site-isolated cations to monolayers and crystallites, which changes the number of kinetically relevant sites. Herein, TiOx domains are titrated on TiOx–SiO2 selectively with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). An ex situ method quantifies all fluid-accessible TiOx, whereas an in situ titration during cis-cyclooctene epoxidation provides previously unavailable values for the number of tetrahedral Ti sites on which H2O2 activation occurs. We use this method to determine the active site densities of 22 different catalysts with different synthesis methods, loadings, and characteristic spectra and find a single intrinsic turnover frequency for cis-cyclooctene epoxidation of (40±7) h-1. This simple method gives molecular-level insight into catalyst structure that is otherwise hidden when bulk techniques are used.

  20. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  1. Habitual hip joint activity level of the penned EMU (Dromaius novaehollandie).

    PubMed

    Troy, Karen L; Lundberg, Hannah J; Conzemius, Michael G; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Orthopaedic management of femoral head osteonecrosis remains problematic, partly because of inability to systematically compare treatments in an animal model whose natural history parallels the human in terms of progression to femoral head collapse. Recently, it was determined that collapse could be consistently achieved for cryogenically induced osteonecrosis in the emu. Toward delineating the comparative hip joint biomechanics of emus versus humans, for purposes of establishing the emu as a model for human femoral head osteonecrosis, habitual hip joint activity level was quantified for a group of seven healthy adult emus housed in an outdoor research pen typical of those used in emu farming operations. The daily number of steps taken, and the time spent with the hips loaded (standing, or squatting/sitting) versus unloaded (recumbent), were quantified from 24-hour videotape recordings, analyzed by four independent observers. The average number of steps taken per day was 9563, which extrapolates to 1.8 million hip loadings per year, a value that falls in the same general range as seen in normal adult humans. On average, the emus spent 4:05 hours per day idly standing, 2:12 hours squatting/sitting, and 10:44 hours recumbent; they underwent an average of 37 transitions per day between the respective posture/activity states. PMID:17907425

  2. How do people with chronically painful joint hypermobility syndrome make decisions about activity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anne; Corcoran, Kelley; Grahame, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background: The model of activity avoidance prompted by fear of increased pain and/or harm dominates understanding and research into activity limitation in chronic pain. Yet, the accounts of people with chronic pain on decisions about activity limitation are rarely heard beyond the confines of fear and avoidance questionnaires. Methods: We used semi-structured interviews to explore the decisions of 11 women attending a pain management clinic with chronically painful Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). Results: Six themes emerged from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: the overall aim of keeping pain to a manageable level, considering whether the planned activity was worth it and, running through all judgements, the influence of pain intensity. The decision was tipped towards avoidance by unpredictability of pain and by high emotional cost and towards going ahead with the activity by the wish to exert control and by low emotional cost. Many accounts described a specifiable cost–benefit analysis of individual decisions, weighing the importance of each activity against its potential aversive consequences, which only in a minority of cases was dominated by fear of pain or injury. Conclusion: Assumptions of fear as the basis of activity avoidance should not be used uncritically in clinical settings. Decisions about activity should explore beyond pain expectancy, incorporating goals, values, and decision processes. Summary points The model of fear of pain or re/injury and associated avoidance, an important insight that has generated effective therapeutic interventions, risks being over-applied and assumed rather than demonstrated. Patients’ own accounts, using qualitative analysis of interview in 11 women with long term chronic pain associated with joint hypermobility, give a more nuanced description of complex decision-making around activity. While a few activities were unquestionably avoided because of such fears, others were undertaken when benefits

  3. Active graph matching for automatic joint segmentation and annotation of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kainmueller, Dagmar; Jug, Florian; Rother, Carsten; Myers, Gene

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel technique we term active graph matching, which integrates the popular active shape model into a sparse graph matching problem. This way we are able to combine the benefits of a global, statistical deformation model with the benefits of a local deformation model in form of a second-order random field. We present a new iterative energy minimization technique which achieves empirically good results. This enables us to exceed state-of-the art results for the task of annotating nuclei in 3D microscopic images of C. elegans. Furthermore with the help of the generalized Hough transform we are able to jointly segment and annotate a large set of nuclei in a fully automatic fashion for the first time. PMID:25333104

  4. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  5. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD. PMID:22505330

  6. Effect of lower-limb joint models on subject-specific musculoskeletal models and simulations of daily motor activities.

    PubMed

    Valente, Giordano; Pitto, Lorenzo; Stagni, Rita; Taddei, Fulvia

    2015-12-16

    Understanding the validity of using musculoskeletal models is critical, making important to assess how model parameters affect predictions. In particular, assumptions on joint models can affect predictions from simulations of movement, and the identification of image-based joints is unavoidably affected by uncertainty that can decrease the benefits of increasing model complexity. We evaluated the effect of different lower-limb joint models on muscle and joint contact forces during four motor tasks, and assessed the sensitivity to the uncertainties in the identification of anatomical four-bar-linkage joints. Three MRI-based musculoskeletal models having different knee and ankle joint models were created and used for the purpose. Model predictions were compared against a baseline model including simpler and widely-adopted joints. In addition, a probabilistic analysis was performed by perturbing four-bar-linkage joint parameters according to their uncertainty. The differences between models depended on the motor task analyzed, and there could be marked differences at peak loading (up to 2.40 BW at the knee and 1.54 BW at the ankle), although they were rather small over the motor task cycles (up to 0.59 BW at the knee and 0.31 BW at the ankle). The model including more degrees of freedom showed more discrepancies in predicted muscle activations compared to measured muscle activity. Further, including image-based four-bar-linkages was robust to simulate walking, chair rise and stair ascent, but not stair descent (peak standard deviation of 2.66 BW), suggesting that joint model complexity should be set according to the imaging dataset available and the intended application, performing sensitivity analyses. PMID:26506255

  7. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-min; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability. PMID:27313386

  8. Peripheral and spinal activation of cannabinoid receptors by joint mobilization alleviates postoperative pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, D F; Mazzardo-Martins, L; Cidral-Filho, F J; Gadotti, V M; Santos, A R S

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relative contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) subtypes and to analyze cannabimimetic mechanisms involved in the inhibition of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol degradation on the antihyperalgesic effect of ankle joint mobilization (AJM). Mice (25-35g) were subjected to plantar incision (PI) and 24h after surgery animals received the following treatments, AJM for 9min, AEA (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), WIN 55,212-2 (1.5mg/kg, i.p.), URB937 (0.01-1mg/kg, i.p.; a fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH] inhibitor) or JZL184 (0.016-16mg/kg, i.p.; a monoacylglycerol lipase [MAGL] inhibitor). Withdrawal frequency to mechanical stimuli was assessed 24h after PI and at different time intervals after treatments. Receptor specificity was investigated using selective CB1R (AM281) and CB2R (AM630) antagonists. In addition, the effect of the FAAH and MAGL inhibitors on the antihyperalgesic action of AJM was investigated. AJM, AEA, WIN 55,212-2, URB937 and JZL184 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PI. The antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was reversed by pretreatment with AM281 given by intraperitoneal and intrathecal routes, but not intraplantarly. Additionally, intraperitoneal and intraplantar, but not intrathecal administration of AM630 blocked AJM-induced antihyperalgesia. Interestingly, in mice pretreated with FAAH or the MAGL inhibitor the antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was significantly longer. This article presents data addressing the CBR mechanisms underlying the antihyperalgesic activity of joint mobilization as well as of the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in the mouse postoperative pain model. Joint mobilization and these enzymes offer potential targets to treat postoperative pain. PMID:24120553

  9. Role of Synchronous Activation of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Ensembles in Multi-joint Movement Control

    PubMed Central

    Hoogland, Tycho M.; De Gruijl, Jornt R.; Witter, Laurens; Canto, Cathrin B.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is a longstanding question in neuroscience how elaborate multi-joint movements are coordinated coherently. Microzones of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are thought to mediate this coordination by controlling the timing of particular motor domains. However, it remains to be elucidated to what extent motor coordination deficits can be correlated with abnormalities in coherent activity within these microzones and to what extent artificially evoked synchronous activity within PC ensembles can elicit multi-joint motor behavior. To study PC ensemble correlates of limb, trunk, and tail movements, we developed a transparent disk treadmill that allows quantitative readout of locomotion and posture parameters in head-fixed mice and simultaneous cellular-resolution imaging and/or optogenetic manipulation. We show that PC ensembles in the ataxic and dystonic mouse mutant tottering have a reduced level of complex spike co-activation, which is delayed relative to movement onset and co-occurs with prolonged swing duration and reduced phase coupling of limb movements as well as with enlarged deflections of body-axis and tail movements. Using optogenetics to increase simple spike rate in PC ensembles, we find that preferred locomotion and posture patterns can be elicited or perturbed depending on the behavioral state. At rest, preferred sequences of limb movements can be elicited, whereas during locomotion, preferred gait-inhibition patterns are evoked. Our findings indicate that synchronous activation of PC ensembles can facilitate initiation and coordination of limb and trunk movements, presumably by tuning downstream systems involved in the execution of behavioral patterns. PMID:25843032

  10. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. PMID:27104932

  11. Active Joint Mechanism Driven by Multiple Actuators Made of Flexible Bags: A Proposal of Dual Structural Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input. PMID:24385868

  12. Active joint mechanism driven by multiple actuators made of flexible bags: a proposal of dual structural actuator.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kataoka, Mokutaro; Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input. PMID:24385868

  13. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  14. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays. PMID:27505749

  15. Temporal Expectation and Attention Jointly Modulate Auditory Oscillatory Activity in the Beta Band

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing. PMID:25799572

  16. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Hedgehog inhibits β-catenin activity in synovial joint development and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rockel, Jason S.; Yu, Chunying; Whetstone, Heather; Craft, April M.; Reilly, Katherine; Ma, Henry; Tsushima, Hidetoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Al-Jazrawe, Mushriq; Keller, Gordon M.; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin–induced Fgf18 expression. Stabilization of β-catenin or treatment with FGF18 rescued hedgehog-induced phenotypes. Hedgehog signaling induced expression of a dominant negative isoform of TCF7L2 (dnTCF7L2) in interzone progeny, which may account for the selective regulation of β-catenin target genes observed. Knockdown of TCF7L2 isoforms in mouse chondrocytes rescued hedgehog signaling–induced Fgf18 downregulation, while overexpression of the human dnTCF7L2 orthologue (dnTCF4) in human chondrocytes promoted the expression of catabolic enzymes associated with OA. Similarly, expression of dnTCF4 in human chondrocytes positively correlated with the aggrecanase ADAMTS4. Consistent with our developmental findings, activation of β-catenin also attenuated hedgehog-induced or surgically induced articular cartilage degeneration in mouse models of OA. Thus, our results demonstrate that hedgehog inhibits selective β-catenin target gene expression to direct interzone progeny fates and articular cartilage development and disease. Moreover, agents that increase β-catenin activity have the potential to therapeutically attenuate articular cartilage degeneration as part of OA. PMID:27018594

  18. Joint maximum likelihood estimation of activation and Hemodynamic Response Function for fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Negar; Nosratinia, Aria

    2014-07-01

    Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the brain activity by measuring blood oxygenation level, which is related to brain activity via a temporal impulse response function known as the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF). The HRF varies from subject to subject and within areas of the brain, therefore a knowledge of HRF is necessary for accurately computing voxel activations. Conversely a knowledge of active voxels is highly beneficial for estimating the HRF. This work presents a joint maximum likelihood estimation of HRF and activation based on low-rank matrix approximations operating on regions of interest (ROI). Since each ROI has limited data, a smoothing constraint on the HRF is employed via Tikhonov regularization. The method is analyzed under both white noise and colored noise. Experiments with synthetic data show that accurate estimation of the HRF is possible with this method without prior assumptions on the exact shape of the HRF. Further experiments involving real fMRI experiments with auditory stimuli are used to validate the proposed method. PMID:24835179

  19. Motion analysis of the glenohumeral joint during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Lovern, B; Stroud, L A; Ferran, N A; Evans, S L; Evans, R O; Holt, C A

    2010-12-01

    The shoulder complex has a larger range of motion (ROM) than any other joint complex in the human body, leaving it prone to numerous injuries. Objective kinematic analysis could yield useful functional insights that may assist clinical practice. Non-invasive optoelectronic motion analysis techniques have been used to assess the shoulders of five healthy subjects performing ROM tasks and 10 functional tasks of daily living. The four most demanding tasks - touching the side and back of the head, brushing the opposite side of the head, lifting an object to shoulder height and lifting an object to head height, required 78%, 60%, 61% and 71%, respectively, of the glenohumeral elevation necessary for full abduction in the scapular plane for the 10 shoulders. This has implications for clinical practice where maximum arm elevation is commonly used to determine a patient's ability to return to work and other everyday activities. PMID:21153974

  20. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…

  1. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  2. The Effects of Vibration Stimuli Applied to the Shoulder Joint on the Activity of the Muscles Around the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study compared the muscle activity of the upper trapezius with those of the serratus anterior and the lower trapezius when slings, unstable surfaces, were laterally vibrated, to examine the effects of vibration during sling exercises on shoulder stabilization muscles. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises on a sling and maintained isometric contraction in the final stage, while vibration was manually administered to the rope of the sling during the isometric-contraction stage. Vibration within a range of 10 cm was delivered for five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz in time with a metronome. Vibrations were applied for five seconds at 3 Hz and 3.5 Hz, respectively. [Results] The serratus anterior showed a significant differences between isometric contraction with vibration of 3 Hz and isometric contraction with vibration of 3.5 Hz. [Conclusion] The upper trapezius and the lower trapezius showed prominent changes in muscle activity at 3.5 Hz, and the serratus anterior showed prominent changes in muscle activity at 3 Hz and 3.5 Hz. Therefore, as vibration frequency increased, making the load-bearing surface more unstable, the recruitment of the upper trapezius, the lower trapezius, and the serratus anterior increased. To perform exercises that selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, the exercises should be performed at a vibration frequency of 3 Hz. PMID:24396199

  3. A New Tritium Gas Generator for the Activity Standardization of Tritiated Water by Internal Gas Proportional Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Stanga, D.; Moreau, L.; Picolo, J.L.; Cassette, P

    2005-07-15

    Tritiated water can be standardized by internal gas proportional counting following its chemical reduction, by means of a tritium gas generator, to produce tritiated hydrogen. In this paper a new tritium gas generator is described in detail together with the method of measurement based on the internal gas counting. It has new and improved features and offers the advantage of being simpler and easier to operate than other tritium generators available. Thus, this tritium generator has the following new features: (i) it performs the water reduction at a lower temperature (450 deg. C) than the other generators which need 600 deg. C ; (ii) the reduction yield is always unitary. Also, it has a simple and compact construction by using the same components for water degassing and water reduction. Its simple disassembly and reassembly allow for easy maintenance.

  4. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  5. Evaluation of nitroxynil and closantel activity using ELISA and egg counts against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Boulard, C; Carreras, F; Van Gool, F

    1995-01-01

    The responses of cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica to treatment with nitroxynil or closantel were monitored by faecal egg counts and by ELISA assay of anti-fluke antibodies. A first trial with experimentally infected heifers showed an increase in anti-fluke antibody titre as early as 2 weeks post-infection. Eggs were first detected in the faeces 10 weeks after infection. Egg output increased steadily over the next 8 weeks and then rapidly decreased. Treatment of a 20-week infection with nitroxynil was followed by a slow decrease in antibody titre 4 weeks later. This decrease continued over the next 40 weeks, but returned to pre-infection levels in only 2 out of 4 animals. The faecal egg count fell to zero 2 weeks after treatment and remained so for the following 30 weeks, although 1 animal produced a few eggs 32 and 34 weeks post-treatment. Within this period, neither diagnostic technique discriminated between this persistently infected animal and the others. In a second trial, 45 cattle from a naturally infected herd were treated with nitroxynil or closantel. The faecal egg counts of the treated cattle were zero within the following 2 months, whereas there were eggs in the faeces of the control (untreated) group. Nevertheless, the treated cattle showed a small, non-significant drop in anti-fluke antibody titre. These results demonstrate the need for new tools to monitor and evaluate accurately the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment. PMID:7550396

  6. Joint Spatial-Spectral Feature Space Clustering for Speech Activity Detection from ECoG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kanas, Vasileios G.; Mporas, Iosif; Benz, Heather L.; Sgarbas, Kyriakos N.; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Crone, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain machine interfaces for speech restoration have been extensively studied for more than two decades. The success of such a system will depend in part on selecting the best brain recording sites and signal features corresponding to speech production. The purpose of this study was to detect speech activity automatically from electrocorticographic signals based on joint spatial-frequency clustering of the ECoG feature space. For this study, the ECoG signals were recorded while a subject performed two different syllable repetition tasks. We found that the optimal frequency resolution to detect speech activity from ECoG signals was 8 Hz, achieving 98.8% accuracy by employing support vector machines (SVM) as a classifier. We also defined the cortical areas that held the most information about the discrimination of speech and non-speech time intervals. Additionally, the results shed light on the distinct cortical areas associated with the two syllable repetition tasks and may contribute to the development of portable ECoG-based communication. PMID:24658248

  7. [Jointed estrogenic activities of bisphenol A and three of its analogs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-chang; Chen, Liang-yan; Liu, Shu-shen; Yin, Da-qiang

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) is one of the hottest topics. The estrogenic activities of BPA, BPAF, BPAP, BPF were tested based on recombinant gene yeast assay. Six mixtures were designed based on the result of the test,each of which had an equitoxic ratio ray (EC10 or EC50). The EC50 values are 6.81 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1), 7.44 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1), 1.43 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), 7.52 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) for BPA, BPAF, BPAP and BPF respectively,which reveals that the estrogenic activities order among the four bisphenols was BPAF> BPA> BPF> BPAP. The experiment shows that when BPA mixes with BPAF, BPAP and BPF in different ratios individually, different combination effects are produced. It reveals that the combined ratios of the components may affect the combined effect. The dose addition model and the independent action model are used to identify the combined effect. They are testified to be more intuitionistic and more comprehensive than other joint effect indices. PMID:19353891

  8. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation < 25th percentile of daily precipitation amounts. The anticyclonic activity is determined by the density of the anticyclonic systems over the greater Mediterranean region, which, during summer, is maximized over the Balkans and the northern African coast. The anticyclonic system density has resulted from the comprehensive climatology of Mediterranean anticyclones that was assembled with the aid of the finding and tracking scheme of the University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  9. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  10. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G. N.; Asthana, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSiI. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading. A tube-on-plate tensile test was used to evaluate joint strength of Ti-tube/ C-C composite joints. The load-carrying ability was greatest for the Cu-ABA braze joint structures. This system appeared to have the best braze spreading which resulted in a larger braze/C-C composite bonded area compared to the other two braze materials. Also, joint loadcarrying ability was found to be higher for joint structures where the fiber tows in the outer ply of the C-C composite were aligned perpendicular to the tube axis when compared to the case where fiber tows were aligned parallel to the tube axis.

  11. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  12. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  13. The mechanics of activated semitendinosus are not representative of the pathological knee joint condition of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Temelli, Yener; Yucesoy, Can A

    2016-06-01

    Characteristic cerebral palsy effects in the knee include a restricted joint range of motion and forcefully kept joint in a flexed position. To show whether the mechanics of activated spastic semitendinosus muscle are contributing to these effects, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle's joint range of force exertion is narrow and force production capacity in flexed positions is high. The isometric semitendinosus forces of children with cerebral palsy (n=7, mean (SD)=7years (8months), GMFCS levels III-IV, 12 limbs tested) were measured intra-operatively as a function of knee angle, from flexion (120°) to full extension (0°). Peak force measured in the most flexed position was considered as the benchmark. However, peak force (mean (SD)=112.4N (54.3N)) was measured either at intermediate or even full knee extension (three limbs) indicating no narrow joint range of force exertion. Lack of high force production capacity in flexed knee positions (e.g., at 120° negligible or below 22% of the peak force) was shown except for one limb. Therefore, our hypothesis was rejected for a vast majority of the limbs. These findings and those reported for spastic gracilis agree, indicating that the patients' pathological joint condition must rely on a more complex mechanism than the mechanics of individual spastic muscles. PMID:27128957

  14. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  15. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  16. Joint Identification of Genetic Variants for Physical Activity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoun; Kim, Jaehee; Min, Haesook; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Yeonjung; Lee, Andy H.; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on genome-wide association with physical activity (PA). This study ascertained genetic associations between PA and 344,893 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 8842 Korean samples. PA data were obtained from a validated questionnaire that included information on PA intensity and duration. Metabolic equivalent of tasks were calculated to estimate the total daily PA level for each individual. In addition to single- and multiple-SNP association tests, a pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify the biological significance of SNP markers. Although no significant SNP was found at genome-wide significance level via single-SNP association tests, 59 genetic variants mapped to 76 genes were identified via a multiple SNP approach using a bootstrap selection stability measure. Pathway analysis for these 59 variants showed that maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) was enriched. Joint identification of SNPs could enable the identification of multiple SNPs with good predictive power for PA and a pathway enriched for PA. PMID:25026172

  17. Lipoproteins and their subfractions in psoriatic arthritis: identification of an atherogenic profile with active joint disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S; Harris, C; Lloyd, J; Stirling, C; Reckless, J; McHugh, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—(a) To characterise the lipid profile in psoriatic arthritis and investigate whether there are similarities to the dyslipoproteinaemia reported in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory forms of joint disease; (b) to investigate whether there is an atherogenic lipid profile in psoriatic arthritis, which may have a bearing on mortality.
METHODS—Fasting lipids, lipoproteins, and their subfractions were measured in 50 patients with psoriatic arthritis and their age and sex matched controls.
RESULTS—High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and its third subfraction, HDL3 cholesterol, were significantly reduced and the most dense subfraction of low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL3, was significantly increased in the patients with psoriatic arthritis. Twenty patients with active synovitis had significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL3 cholesterol than their controls. 25% of the patients with psoriatic arthritis had raised Lp(a) lipoprotein levels (>300 mg/l) compared with 19% of controls, but this was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION—Raised levels of LDL3 and low levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with coronary artery disease. Such an atherogenic profile in a chronic inflammatory form of arthritis is reported, which may be associated with accelerated mortality.

 PMID:11053070

  18. Partial Antiviral Activities Detection of Chicken Mx Jointing with Neuraminidase Gene (NA) against Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yani; Fu, Dezhi; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Li, Bichun

    2013-01-01

    As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA) gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx) and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05), indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects. PMID:23977111

  19. Activity vs. rest in the treatment of bone, soft tissue and joint injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important advances in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries has come from understanding that controlled early resumption of activity can promote restoration of function, and that treatment of injuries with prolonged rest may delay recovery and adversely affect normal tissues. In the last decade of the nineteenth century two widely respected orthopaedists with extensive clinical experience strongly advocated opposing treatments of musculoskeletal injuries. Hugh Owen Thomas in Liverpool believed that enforced, uninterrupted prolonged rest produced the best results. He noted that movement of injured tissues increased inflammation, and that, "It would indeed be as reasonable to attempt to cure a fever patient by kicking him out of bed, as to benefit joint disease by a wriggling at the articulation." Just Lucas-Championnier in Paris took the opposite position. He argued that early controlled active motion accelerated restoration of function, although he noted that mobility had to be given in limited doses. In general, Thomas' views met with greater acceptance in the early part of this century, but experimental studies of the last several decades generally support Lucas-Championneir. They confirm and help explain the deleterious effects of prolonged rest and the beneficial effects of activity on the musculoskeletal tissues. They have shown that maintenance of normal bone, tendon and ligament, articular cartilage and muscle structure and composition require repetitive use, and that changes in the patterns of tissue loading can strengthen or weaken normal tissues. Although all the musculoskeletal tissues can respond to repetitive loading, they vary in the magnitude and type of response to specific patterns of activity. Furthermore, their responsiveness may decline with increasing age. Skeletal muscle and bone demonstrate the most apparent response to changes in activity in individuals of any age. Cartilage and dense fibrous tissues also can respond to

  20. Change in peripheral blood lymphocyte count in dogs following adoptive immunotherapy using lymphokine-activated T killer cells combined with palliative tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Mie, Keiichiro; Shimada, Terumasa; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) count in dogs following adoptive immunotherapy using lymphokine-activated T killer cells (T-LAK) in combination with surgery. Fifteen tumor-bearing dogs treated with T-LAK therapy combined with palliative resection of tumors were enrolled in the present study. T-LAK were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by culture with recombinant human interleukin -2 (rhIL-2) and solid phase anti-canine cluster of differentiation (CD)3 antibody. T-LAK were administrated intravenously at 2-4-week intervals. After the first administration of T-LAK, counts of PBL and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells) increased and the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased, with significant increases in CD8(+) cells (P<0.05). In 8 tumor-bearing dogs that were administered sequential T-LAK, available data on changes in PBL and T lymphocyte phenotypes until the fifth administration were also analyzed. In tumor-bearing dogs administered 5 rounds of T-LAK, CD8(+) cell counts were maintained high until the fifth administration of T-LAK. Moreover, the CD4/CD8 ratio remained low until the fifth administration of T-LAK. These results indicate that T-LAK therapy combined with surgery may increase peripheral blood T lymphocytes, particularly CD8(+) cells, in tumor-bearing dogs. PMID:27436446

  1. Low-energy (<1.6MeV) particle counting rates and solar magnetic activity: A study of the 1980 anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.; Sequeiros, J.; del Peral, L.; Medina, J.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1997-05-01

    We present a study of the relation between the solar magnetic activity (centered in sunspots, flares types N and B, and long-duration X class flares) and the counting rates of particles in interplanetary space with energies below 1.6 MeV obtained from the Low-Energy Proton Experiment (DFH-EPAS) onboard International Sun-Earth Explorer spacecraft, during the period 1978-1982. Our study shows that the particle counting rates are neither correlated with sunspots number nor with flares type N, but they are correlated with flares type B and mainly with long-duration X class flares. The origin of the low counting rates of particles detected during the years 1979-1980 is investigated as well. The disappearance of the strongest interplanetary shocks during that period can explain this phenomenon, at least within the energy range studied. The absence of any anomalous behavior in the flares type B and in the long-duration X class flares during this period suggests that this shock behavior can be produced by anomalous conditions of the interplanetary magnetic field during the Sun's polar magnetic field reversal.

  2. 77 FR 74279 - Agency Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim): Activity under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... President Bush's Interagency Task Force on Returning Global War on Terror Heroes, VA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have agreed to develop a joint process in which Global War on Terror (GWOT) service...

  3. Active pixel and photon counting imagers based on poly-Si TFTs: rewriting the rule book on large area flat panel x-ray devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua

    2009-02-01

    The near-ubiquity of large area, active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in medical x-ray imaging applications is a testament to the usefulness and adaptability of the relatively simple concept of array pixels based on a single amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT coupled to a pixel storage capacitor. Interestingly, the fundamental advantages of a-Si:H thin film electronics (including compatibility with very large area processing, high radiation damage resistance, and continued development driven by interest in mainstream consumer products) are shared by the rapidly advancing technology of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TFTs. Moreover, the far higher mobilities of poly-Si TFTs, compared to those of a- Si:H, facilitate the creation of faster and more complex circuits than are possible with a-Si:H TFTs, leading to the possibility of new classes of large area, flat panel imagers. Given recent progress in the development of initial poly-Si imager prototypes, the creation of increasingly sophisticated active pixel arrays offering pixel-level amplification, variable gain, very high frame rates, and excellent signal-to-noise performance under all fluoroscopic and radiographic conditions (including very low exposures and high spatial frequencies), appears within reach. In addition, it is conceivable that the properties of poly-Si TFTs could allow the development of large area imagers providing single xray photon counting capabilities. In this article, the factors driving the possible realization of clinically practical active pixel and photon counting imagers based on poly-Si TFTs are described and simple calculational estimates related to photon counting imagers are presented. Finally, the prospect for future development of such imagers is discussed.

  4. Anti-HIV-1 activity of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from HIV patients with different CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from saliva of HIV negative individuals inhibit HIV-1 activity by 100% in an in vitro assay. The purpose of this subsequent study was to investigate whether MUC5B and MUC7 from saliva of HIV patients or with full blown AIDS had a similar inhibitory activity against the virus. Methods Salivary MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients with different CD4 counts (< 200, 200-400 and > 400) were incubated with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). Cells were then cultured and viral replication was measured by a qualitative p24 antigen assay. The size, charge and immunoreactivity of mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals was also analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA respectively. Results It was shown that irrespective of their CD4 counts both MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients, unlike the MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV negative individuals, did not inhibit HIV-1 activity. Size, charge and immunoreactivity differences between the mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals and among the mucins from HIV patients of different CD4 count was observed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions Purified salivary mucins from HIV positive patients do not inhibit the AIDS virus in an in vitro assay. Although the reason for the inability of mucins from infected individuals to inhibit the virus is not known, it is likely that there is an alteration of the glycosylation pattern, and therefore of charge of mucin, in HIV positive patients. The ability to inhibit the virus by aggregation by sugar chains is thus diminished. PMID:20946627

  5. Effects of activating fluxes on the weld penetration and corrosion resistant property of laser welded joint of ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonghui; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi

    2015-10-01

    This study was based on the ferritic stainless steel SUS430. Under the parallel welding conditions, the critical penetration power values (CPPV) of 3mm steel plates with different surface-coating activating fluxes were tested. Results showed that, after coating with activating fluxes, such as ZrO2, CaCO3, CaF2 and CaO, the CPPV could reduce 100~250 W, which indicating the increases of the weld penetrations (WP). Nevertheless, the variation range of WP with or without activating fluxes was less than 16.7%. Compared with single-component ones, a multi-component activating flux composed of 50% ZrO2, 12.09% CaCO3, 10.43% CaO, and 27.49% MgO was testified to be much more efficient, the WP of which was about 2.3-fold of that without any activating fluxes. Furthermore, a FeCl3 spot corrosion experiment was carried out with samples cut from weld zone to test the effects of different activating fluxes on the corrosion resistant (CR) property of the laser welded joints. It was found that all kinds of activating fluxes could improve the CR of the welded joints. And, it was interesting to find that the effect of the mixed activating fluxes was inferior to those single-component ones. Among all the activating fluxes, the single-component of CaCO3 seemed to be the best in resisting corrosion. By means of Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) testing, it was found that the use of activating fluxes could effectively restrain the loss of Cr element of weld zone in the process of laser welding, thus greatly improving the CR of welded joints.

  6. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  7. An fMRI study of joint action-varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Marchant, Jennifer L; Kilner, James; Frith, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled one dimension exclusively) to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension) cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome. Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing. PMID:22715326

  8. An fMRI study of joint action–varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Kilner, James; Frith, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled one dimension exclusively) to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension) cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome. Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing. PMID:22715326

  9. The bHLH-PAS Transcription Factor Dysfusion Regulates Tarsal Joint Formation in Response to Notch Activity during Drosophila Leg Development

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Sergio; Estella, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic of all arthropods is the presence of flexible structures called joints that connect all leg segments. Drosophila legs include two types of joints: the proximal or “true” joints that are motile due to the presence of muscle attachment and the distal joints that lack musculature. These joints are not only morphologically, functionally and evolutionarily different, but also the morphogenetic program that forms them is distinct. Development of both proximal and distal joints requires Notch activity; however, it is still unknown how this pathway can control the development of such homologous although distinct structures. Here we show that the bHLH-PAS transcription factor encoded by the gene dysfusion (dys), is expressed and absolutely required for tarsal joint development while it is dispensable for proximal joints. In the presumptive tarsal joints, Dys regulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper and head involution defective and the expression of the RhoGTPases modulators, RhoGEf2 and RhoGap71E, thus directing key morphogenetic events required for tarsal joint development. When ectopically expressed, dys is able to induce some aspects of the morphogenetic program necessary for distal joint development such as fold formation and programmed cell death. This novel Dys function depends on its obligated partner Tango to activate the transcription of target genes. We also identified a dedicated dys cis-regulatory module that regulates dys expression in the tarsal presumptive leg joints through direct Su(H) binding. All these data place dys as a key player downstream of Notch, directing distal versus proximal joint morphogenesis. PMID:25329825

  10. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the

  11. Learning Dictionaries of Sparse Codes of 3D Movements of Body Joints for Real-Time Human Activity Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

  12. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

  13. ACTIVATION OF B-CATENIN SIGNALLING LEADS TO TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DEFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Li, S.; Xie, W.; Shen, J.; Im, H-J.; Holz, J.D.; Wang, M.; Diekwisch, T.G.H.; Chen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanism of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the constitutive activation of β-catenin in the middle and deep layers of the articular cartilage can compromise the homeostasis of this tissue in the TMJ. Co12CreERT2 transgenic mice were bred with RosamT/mG reporter mice to determine Cre recombination efficiency. Co12CreERT2 mice were then crossed with β-cateninflox (ex3)/+ mice to generate β-catenin conditional activation mice, β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER. TMJ samples were harvested when the mice were 1-, 3- or 6-month-old and evaluated using histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were further crossed with Mmp13flox/flox and Adamts5−/− mice to generate β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)Co12ER and β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER)/Adamts5−/− double mutant mice to investigate the role of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in the development of TMJ disorder. High levels of Cre-recombination were seen in Co12CreERT2;RosamT/mG mice. Progressive TMJ defects developed in 1-, 3- and 6-month-old β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice, as revealed by histology and histomorphometry. Results further demonstrated that the defects observed in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were significantly decelerated after deletion of the Mmp13 or Adamts5 gene in (β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)co12ER or β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER/ Adamts5−/− double mutant mice. In summary, we found that β-catenin is a critical gene in the induction of TMJ cartilage degeneration, and over-expressing β-catenin in TMJ cartilage leads to defects assembling an OA-like phenotype. Deletion of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice ameliorates the development of TMJ defects. This study suggests that Mmp13 and Adamts5 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TMJ disorders. PMID:25340802

  14. Activation of β-catenin signalling leads to temporomandibular joint defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Li, S; Xie, W; Shen, J; Im, H J; Holz, J D; Wang, M; Diekwisch, T G; Chen, D

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanism of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the constitutive activation of β-catenin in the middle and deep layers of the articular cartilage can compromise the homeostasis of this tissue in the TMJ. Col2CreERT2 transgenic mice were bred with RosamT/mG reporter mice to determine Cre recombination efficiency. Col2CreERT2 mice were then crossed with β-cateninflox(ex3)+ mice to generate β-catenin conditional activation mice, β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER. TMJ samples were harvested when the mice were 1-, 3- or 6-month-old and evaluated using histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER mice were further crossed with Mmp13flox/flox and Adamts5-/- mice to generate (β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)Col2ER and β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER)/Adamts5-/- double mutant mice to investigate the role of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in the development of TMJ disorder. High levels of Cre-recombination were seen in Col2CreERT2;RosamT/mGmice. Progressive TMJ defects developed in 1-, 3- and 6-month-old β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER mice, as revealed by histology and histomorphometry. Results further demonstrated that the defects observed in β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER mice were significantly decelerated after deletion of the Mmp13 or Adamts5 gene in (β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)Col2ER or β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER/Adamts5-/- double mutant mice. In summary, we found that β-catenin is a critical gene in the induction of TMJ cartilage degeneration, and over-expressing β-catenin in TMJ cartilage leads to defects assembling an OA-like phenotype. Deletion of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in β-catenin(ex3)Col2ER mice ameliorates the development of TMJ defects. This study suggests that Mmp13 and Adamts5 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TMJ disorders. PMID:25340802

  15. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  16. Microstructure and Performance of Kovar/Alumina Joints Made with Silver-Copper Base Active Metal Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, JOHN J.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HLAVA,PAUL F.; WALKER,CHARLES A.

    1999-12-15

    Poor hermeticity performance was observed for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic-ceramic joints having a Kovar{trademark} alloy interlayer. The active Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal was used to braze the substrates together. The Ti active element was scavenged from the filler metal by the formation of a (Fe, Ni, Co){sub x}Ti phase (x= 2-3) that prevented development of a continuous Ti{sub x}O{sub y} layer at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. Altering the process parameters did not circumvent the scavenging of Ti. Molybdenum barrier layers 1000, 2500, or 5000 {angstrom} thick on the Kovar{trademark} surfaces successfully allowed Ti{sub x}O{sub y} formation at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and hermetic joints. The problems with the Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal for Kovar{trademark}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} braze joints led to the evaluation of a Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal. The Zr (active element) in Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal was not susceptible to the scavenging problem.

  17. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  18. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  19. Visual Feedback of the Non-Moving Limb Improves Active Joint-Position Sense of the Impaired Limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task…

  20. Effect of Multipass TIG and Activated TIG Welding Process on the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, K. C.; Balasubramanian, K. R.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.; Chandrasekhar, N.

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a finite element model to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of an activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated using 10 mm thickness of 316LN stainless steel plates in a single pass. To distinguish the merits of ATIG welding process, it was compared with manual multipass tungsten inert gas (MPTIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated with square butt edge configuration using an activating flux developed in-house. The MPTIG-welded joint was fabricated in thirteen passes with V-groove edge configuration. The finite element model was developed to predict the transient temperature, residual stress, and distortion of the welded joints. Also, microhardness, impact toughness, tensile strength, ferrite measurement, and microstructure were characterized. Since most of the recent publications of ATIG-welded joint was focused on the molten weld pool dynamics, this research work gives an insight on the thermo-mechanical behavior of ATIG-welded joint over MPTIG-welded joint.

  1. Involvement of platelet-activating factor and tumour necrosis factor in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Zarco, P; Maestre, C; Herrero-Beaumont, G; González, E; Garcia-Hoyo, R; Navarro, F J; Braquet, P; Egido, J

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the participation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits, as well as the possible co-operation between PAF and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in their ability to induce joint inflammation when injected into the knees of healthy rabbits. The administration of two structurally different PAF receptor antagonists, BN52021 and Alprazolam, from 4 h before the intra-articular injection of ovalbumin in preimmunized rabbits, induced an important reduction in the synovial fluid volume, in the amount of cells infiltrating the articular cavity and the synovial membrane, as well as in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the articular cartilage, which were found diminished in animals with non-treated arthritis, were well preserved in rabbits treated with PAF antagonists. All the synovial fluids from joints with arthritis had detectable amounts of PAF. The injection of either TNF or PAF into the joints of normal rabbits induced a mild inflammation. When TNF was administered 1 h before PAF, a synergistic response was noted in the synovial fluid volume, in the accumulation of leucocytes, and in the amount of PGE2. The administration of BN50726, a hetrazepine with a potent PAF-receptor antagonist effect, induced a diminution in those parameters. Our results suggest that PAF may be an early and important mediator of joint damage, and that TNF can amplify the inflammatory response induced by PAF. PAF receptor antagonists could play some role in the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:1315229

  2. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  3. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  4. Taking Part Counts: Adolescents' Experiences of the Transition from Inactivity to Active Participation in School-Based Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fiona; Magnusson, Josefine

    2006-01-01

    Identifying ways to increase and sustain active living among young people represents a priority for health promotion interventions. This qualitative study explored the experiences of adolescent boys and girls in the United Kingdom (aged 14-15 years) who had made the transition from inactivity to active participation in physical education (PE). The…

  5. Determining the shear fracture properties of HIP joints of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel by a torsion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Noh, Sanghoon; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2012-08-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a key technology used to fabricate a first wall with cooling channels for the fusion blanket system utilizing a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel. To qualify the HIPped components, small specimen test techniques are beneficial not only to evaluate the thin-wall cooling channels containing the HIP joint but also to use in neutron irradiation studies. This study aims to develop the torsion test method with special emphasis on providing a reasonable and comprehensive method to determine interfacial shear properties of HIP joints during the torsional fracture process. Torsion test results identified that the torsion process shows yield of the base metal followed by non-elastic deformation due to work hardening of the base metal. By considering this work hardening issue, we propose a reasonable and realistic solution to determine the torsional yield shear stress and the ultimate torsional shear strength of the HIPped interface. Finally, a representative torsion fracture process was identified.

  6. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective: To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results: Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions: Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited. PMID:25689561

  7. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1-2 years postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-07-01

    Background and purpose - The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods - Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results - Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week). Interpretation - Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  8. The Joint Action of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Leaves as an Explanation for the Activity of Cynara cardunculus.

    PubMed

    Rial, Carlos; García, Benito F; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-24

    The work described herein is a continuation of a previous study centered on the bioprospect of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) leaf extracts through the isolation of secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity. Chromatographic fractionations of the ethyl acetate extract and spectroscopic analysis showed that the majority of the components were sesquiterpene lactones. Of these compounds, aguerin B, grosheimin, and cynaropicrin were very active on etiolated wheat coleoptile, standard target species, and weed growth. The joint action of binary mixtures of these three active sesquiterpene lactones and one nonactive compound (11,13-dihydroxy-8-desoxygrosheimin) was studied. The activities of fixed-ratio mixtures were assessed on wheat coleoptile. The results can be interpreted with respect to a reference model by considering dose-response analyses and isobolograms with linear regression analyses. A total of 17 binary mixtures at different levels of inhibition (ED25, ED50, and ED75) were studied, and predominantly they responded additively (25). Deviations from additivity included seven synergistic responses and two antagonistic responses. The joint action of major sesquiterpene lactones isolated from C. cardunculus can explain the activities observed in extracts and fractions. The results reported here reiterate the utility of the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in binary mixtures. PMID:27487046

  9. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  10. Effect of Activated Flux on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Residual Stresses of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduraimuthu, V.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthupandi, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-02-01

    A novel variant of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding called activated-TIG (A-TIG) welding, which uses a thin layer of activated flux coating applied on the joint area prior to welding, is known to enhance the depth of penetration during autogenous TIG welding and overcomes the limitation associated with TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific activated flux for enhancing the depth of penetration during autogeneous TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. In the current work, activated flux composition is optimized to achieve 6 mm depth of penetration in single-pass TIG welding at minimum heat input possible. Then square butt weld joints are made for 6-mm-thick and 10-mm-thick plates using the optimized flux. The effect of flux on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses of the A-TIG weld joint is studied by comparing it with that of the weld joints made by conventional multipass TIG welding process using matching filler wire. Welded microstructure in the A-TIG weld joint is coarser because of the higher peak temperature in A-TIG welding process compared with that of multipass TIG weld joint made by a conventional TIG welding process. Transverse strength properties of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel weld produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base materials. The average toughness values of A-TIG weld joints are lower compared with that of the base metal and multipass weld joints due to the presence of δ-ferrite and inclusions in the weld metal caused by the flux. Compressive residual stresses are observed in the fusion zone of A-TIG weld joint, whereas tensile residual stresses are observed in the multipass TIG weld joint.

  11. Activation of V(D)J Recombination Induces the Formation of Interlocus Joints and Hybrid Joints in scid Pre-B-Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Sandra; Franco, Daniel; Chang, Yung

    2000-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is the mechanism by which antigen receptor genes are assembled. The site-specific cleavage mediated by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins generates two types of double-strand DNA breaks: blunt signal ends and covalently sealed hairpin coding ends. Although these DNA breaks are mainly resolved into coding joints and signal joints, they can participate in a nonstandard joining process, forming hybrid and open/shut joints that link coding ends to signal ends. In addition, the broken DNA molecules excised from different receptor gene loci could potentially be joined to generate interlocus joints. The interlocus recombination process may contribute to the translocation between antigen receptor genes and oncogenes, leading to malignant transformation of lymphocytes. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these nonstandard recombination events, we took advantage of recombination-inducible cell lines derived from scid homozygous (s/s) and scid heterozygous (s/+) mice by transforming B-cell precursors with a temperature-sensitive Abelson murine leukemia virus mutant (ts-Ab-MLV). We can manipulate the level of recombination cleavage and end resolution by altering the cell culture temperature. By analyzing various recombination products in scid and s/+ ts-Ab-MLV transformants, we report in this study that scid cells make higher levels of interlocus and hybrid joints than their normal counterparts. These joints arise concurrently with the formation of intralocus joints, as well as with the appearance of opened coding ends. The junctions of these joining products exhibit excessive nucleotide deletions, a characteristic of scid coding joints. These data suggest that an inability of scid cells to promptly resolve their recombination ends exposes the ends to a random joining process, which can conceivably lead to chromosomal translocations. PMID:10982833

  12. In vitro activity of tedizolid against staphylococci isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Malan, Suzannah M; Greenwood Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Patel, Robin

    2016-05-01

    We determined the MIC and minimum biofilm bactericidal concentration (MBBC) of tedizolid and vancomycin against 97 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 74 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with prosthetic joint infection. All isolates were vancomycin susceptible in the planktonic state; all staphylococci studied had a tedizolid MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL. The MBBC90 was >32 and >128 μg/mL for tedizolid and vancomycin, respectively. PMID:26906190

  13. Evaluating quality of adhesive joints in glass-fiber plastic piping by using active thermal NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, M.; Marinho, C. A.; Nesteruk, D. A.; Rebello, J. M.; Soares, S. D.; Vavilov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    GRP-type composites (Glass-fibre Reinforced Plastics) have been continuously employed in the oil industry in recent years, often on platforms, especially in pipes for water or oil under moderate temperatures. In this case, the pipes are usually connected through adhesive joints and, consequently, the detection of defects in these joints, as areas without adhesive or adhesive failure (disbonding), gains great importance. One-sided inspection on the joint surface (front side) is a challenging task because the material thickness easily exceeds 10 mm that is far beyond the limits of the capacity of thermography applied to GRP inspection, as confirmed by the experience. Detection limits have been evaluated both theoretically and experimentally as a function of outer wall thickness and defect lateral size. The 3D modeling was accomplished by using the ThermoCalc-6L software. The experimental unit consisted of a FLIR SC640 and NEC TH- 9100 IR imagers and some home-made heaters with the power from 1,5 to 30 kW. The results obtained by applying pulsed heating have demonstrated that the inspection efficiency is strongly dependent on the outer wall thickness with a value of about 8 mm being a detection limit.

  14. Establishment of a rat model of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis using intraarticular injection of urinary plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar facet joint (LFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is an important etiology of low back pain. Several animal models of LFJ OA have been established using intraarticular injection of various chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rat model of LFJ OA using urinary plasminogen activator (uPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intraarticular injection in the L5-L6 facet joints with uPA (OA group, n = 40) or normal saline (vehicle group, n = 40). Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paws were evaluated using von Frey hairs and a thermoalgesia instrument, respectively. Toluidine blue staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical examination of the LFJ was performed. Treatment with uPA induced cartilage damage, synovitis, and proliferation of synovial cells in the fact joints. The OA group showed significantly higher hyperalgesia in the hind paws in comparison with the vehicle group and normal controls (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS in the LFJ cartilage in the OA group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). A rat model of LFJ OA was successfully established using intraarticular injection of uPA. This animal model is convenient and shows good resemblance to human OA pathology. PMID:25892493

  15. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchut, C.; Collet, E.; Hervé, C.; Le Caer, T.; Cerrai, J.; Siron, L.; Dabin, Y.; Ribois, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications.

  16. Understanding environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors: where should we look and what should we count?

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A

    2006-01-01

    Research interest in the influence of environmental factors on nutrition and physical activity behaviors has surged internationally in recent years. This is evident from a rapidly expanding literature and facilitated by advances in methodological and analytical approaches to assessing multiple levels of influence on health behaviors. However, a number of conceptual challenges complicate research endeavours in this field. The purpose of this paper is to provide a 'state of the science' overview of evidence regarding environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors. We focus particularly on a number of key conceptual and methodological issues, including: a consideration of how the environment is defined; the selection and operationalization of environmental exposures; and the importance of integrating existing understanding of individual influences on behavior with the emerging data on the role of the environment. We draw on examples from the published literature including our own research studies to illustrate these issues. We conclude by proposing a research agenda to progress understanding of the influences of the environment on population nutrition and physical activity behaviors. PMID:16999874

  17. Application of Computational Lower Extremity Model to Investigate Different Muscle Activities and Joint Force Patterns in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Nha, Kyung Wook; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments. PMID:24302973

  18. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence.

    PubMed

    Windlin, Béat; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective. PMID:21963683

  19. Co-operation at work: a process-oriented perspective on joint activity in inter-organizational relations.

    PubMed

    Wehner, T; Clases, C; Bachmann, R

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the authors present a conceptual framework for analysing co-operation between organizations as a situated process, highlighting co-operation, co-ordination and co-construction as different modes of joint activity. Within this framework, the analysis of unexpected events becomes a crucial issue. The analytic power of reconstructing the (psycho-) logics of unexpected events in inter-organizational relations will be demonstrated in the presentation of selected outcomes of a research project on the dynamics of producer-supplier relationships in the German automobile industry. Also in this empirical part, the significance of trust and confidence in inter-organizational relations will be reflected. PMID:10929832

  20. Enhancement of antidepressant-like activity by joint administration of imipramine and magnesium in the forced swim test: Behavioral and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kedzierska, Ewa; Wyska, Elzbieta; Librowski, Tadeusz; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    The effect of joint administration of imipramine (IMI) and magnesium (Mg) on antidepressant-like activity was studied in mice using forced swim test (FST). Mg doses ineffective per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) given jointly with IMI also at ineffective doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) resulted in a potent reduction in the immobility time. Since these combined treatments did not influence locomotor activity, the antidepressant-like activity was not due to non-specific behavioral activation. Moreover, we estimated the effect of joint administration of magnesium and IMI in FST on serum and brain magnesium, IMI and its active metabolite desipramine (DMI) concentrations in mice. Swim stress (mice subjected to FST) increased the magnesium concentration in serum and decreased it in the brain compared to naive animals. Moreover administration of IMI increased (normalized) magnesium brain concentration, without influence on the serum level. Joint administration of IMI and magnesium did not influence magnesium (compared with FST) or IMI and DMI (compared with IMI treatment alone) concentrations in both examined tissues. The present data demonstrated an enhancement of the antidepressant-like effect by joint administration of IMI and magnesium in the FST, and further indicate the particular role of magnesium in the antidepressant action. Since there was no increase in IMI, DMI or magnesium concentration after joint administration of magnesium and IMI, the data suggest that pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interaction between magnesium and IMI is accountable for behavioral effect in the FST. PMID:15936065

  1. Active quenching and gating circuit of the photon counting detector for laser time transfer with improved timing resolution and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan; Michalek, Vojtech

    2015-05-01

    We are presenting the results of research and development of a new active quenching and gating electronics for Single Photon Avalanche Detector (SPAD). The goal of the work was to develop a new SPAD detector package for Laser Time Transfer ground to space with improved timing resolution and stability. The first version of a SPAD detector is operational on board of GNSS navigation satellites. They are based on 25 μm diameter K14 series SPAD chips. They do provide timing resolution of typically 125 ps and stability of the order of 10 ps. The new control electronics provides timing resolution of 25 ps and timing stability and drifts of the order of one picosecond. The device is constructed on a basis of electronics components for which the space qualified equivalents are commercially available. The device construction, tests and results will be presented in detail.

  2. The Relationships between Weather-Related Factors and Daily Outdoor Physical Activity Counts on an Urban Greenway

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Dana; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between weather and outdoor physical activity (PA). An online weather source was used to obtain daily max temperature [DMT], precipitation, and wind speed. An infra-red trail counter provided data on daily trail use along a greenway, over a 2-year period. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between PA and weather, while controlling for day of the week and month of the year. The overall regression model explained 77.0% of the variance in daily PA (p < 0.001). DMT (b = 10.5), max temp-squared (b = −4.0), precipitation (b = −70.0), and max wind speed (b = 1.9) contributed significantly. Conclusion: Aggregated daily data can detect relationships between weather and outdoor PA. PMID:21556205

  3. Active ultrasonic joint integrity adjudication for real-time structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Erik H.; Kennel, Matthew B.; Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Stabb, Mark C.; Arritt, Brandon J.

    2008-03-01

    The Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) strategy hinges, in part, on realizing technologies which can facilitate the rapid deployment of satellites. Presently, preflight qualification testing and vehicle integration processes are time consumptive and pose as two significant hurdles which must be overcome to effectively enhance US space asset deployment responsiveness. There is a growing demand for innovative embedded Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies which can be seamlessly incorporated onto payload hardware and function in parallel with satellite construction to mitigate lengthy preflight checkout procedures. In this effort our work is focused on the development of a joint connectivity monitoring algorithm which can detect, locate, and assess preload in bolted joint assemblies. Our technology leverages inexpensive, lightweight, flexible thin-film macro-fiber composite (MFC) sensor/actuators with a novel online, data-driven signal processing algorithm. This algorithm inherently relies upon Chaotic Guided Ultrasonic Waves (CGUW) and a novel cross-prediction error classification technique. The efficacy of the monitoring algorithm is evaluated through a series of numerical simulations and experimentally in two test configurations. We conclude with a discussion surrounding further development of this approach into a commercial product as a real-time flight readiness indicator.

  4. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  5. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  6. Proprioceptive deficit in individuals with unilateral tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament after active evaluation of the sense of joint position☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Cossich, Victor; Mallrich, Frédéric; Titonelli, Victor; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Velasques, Bruna; Salles, José Inácio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether the proprioceptive deficit in the sense of joint position continues to be present when patients with a limb presenting a deficient anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are assessed by testing their active reproduction of joint position, in comparison with the contralateral limb. Methods Twenty patients with unilateral ACL tearing participated in the study. Their active reproduction of joint position in the limb with the deficient ACL and in the healthy contralateral limb was tested. Meta-positions of 20% and 50% of the maximum joint range of motion were used. Proprioceptive performance was determined through the values of the absolute error, variable error and constant error. Results Significant differences in absolute error were found at both of the positions evaluated, and in constant error at 50% of the maximum joint range of motion. Conclusion When evaluated in terms of absolute error, the proprioceptive deficit continues to be present even when an active evaluation of the sense of joint position is made. Consequently, this sense involves activity of both intramuscular and tendon receptors. PMID:26229869

  7. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related FMRI using a variational approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In standard within-subject analyses of event-related fMRI data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the so-called region-based Joint Detection-Estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the BOLD response and constraining the parameter estimation by physiological priors using temporal and spatial information in a Markovian model. In contrast to previous works that use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to sample the resulting intractable posterior distribution, we recast the JDE into a missing data framework and derive a Variational Expectation-Maximization (VEM) algorithm for its inference. A variational approximation is used to approximate the Markovian model in the unsupervised spatially adaptive JDE inference, which allows automatic fine-tuning of spatial regularization parameters. It provides a new algorithm that exhibits interesting properties in terms of estimation error and computational cost compared to the previously used MCMC-based approach. Experiments on artificial and real data show that VEM-JDE is robust to model mis-specification and provides computational gain while maintaining good performance in terms of activation detection and hemodynamic shape recovery. PMID:23096056

  8. Modulation of the Relationship Between External Knee Adduction Moments and Medial Joint Contact Forces Across Subjects and Activities

    PubMed Central

    Trepczynski, Adam; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Taylor, William R; Heller, Markus O

    2014-01-01

    Objective The external knee adduction moment (EAM) is often considered a surrogate measure of the distribution of loads across the tibiofemoral joint during walking. This study was undertaken to quantify the relationship between the EAM and directly measured medial tibiofemoral contact forces (Fmed) in a sample of subjects across a spectrum of activities. Methods The EAM for 9 patients who underwent total knee replacement was calculated using inverse dynamics analysis, while telemetric implants provided Fmed for multiple repetitions of 10 activities, including walking, stair negotiation, sit-to-stand activities, and squatting. The effects of the factors “subject” and “activity” on the relationships between Fmed and EAM were quantified using mixed-effects regression analyses in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the slope of the regression. Results Across subjects and activities a good correlation between peak EAM and Fmed values was observed, with an overall R2 value of 0.88. However, the slope of the linear regressions varied between subjects by up to a factor of 2. At peak EAM and Fmed, the RMSE of the regression across all subjects was 35% body weight (%BW), while the maximum error was 127 %BW. Conclusion The relationship between EAM and Fmed is generally good but varies considerably across subjects and activities. These findings emphasize the limitation of relying solely on the EAM to infer medial joint loading when excessive directed cocontraction of muscles exists and call for further investigations into the soft tissue–related mechanisms that modulate the internal forces at the knee. PMID:24470261

  9. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1–2 years postoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods — Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1–2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results — Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0–140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3–143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60–280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: −7.1 min/week; TKA: −5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: −11 min/week; TKA: −9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (−17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (−30 min/week). Interpretation — Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  10. Joint United States and People`s Republic of China clean coal activities. Annual report, April 1994--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) and the Ministry of Coal Industry of the People`s Republic of China (China) signed a protocol in the field of fossil energy research and development in April 1985. An annex to this agreement, Annex IX, was signed in April 1994 for cooperation between the U.S. DOE and China`s State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) in the area of clean coal utilization. Article III of Annex IX requires the United States and China jointly to prepare an annual report i describing the work performed and results achieved. This report, in compliance with Article III, is a description of the activities conducted under Annex IX during the period from April 1994 through December 1995. The report also contains the plans for future activities for the next 12 months, or through December 1996.

  11. Comparison of joint angles and electromyographic activity of the lower extremities during standing with wearing standard and revised high-heeled shoes: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Mansoo; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-04-29

    Revised high-heeled shoes (HHSs) were designed to improve the shortcomings of standard HHSs. This study was conducted to compare revised and standard HHSs with regard to joint angles and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower extremities during standing. The participants were five healthy young women. Data regarding joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities were obtained under three conditions: barefoot, when wearing revised HHSs, and when wearing standard HHSs. Lower extremity joint angles in the three dimensional plane were confirmed using a VICON motion capture system. EMG activity of the lower extremities was measured using active bipolar surface EMG. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by rank applied to analyze differences during three standing conditions. Compared with the barefoot condition, the standard HHSs condition was more different than the revised HHSs condition with regard to lower extremity joint angles during standing. EMG activity of the lower extremities was different for the revised HHSs condition, but the differences among the three conditions were not significant. Wearing revised HHSs may positively impact joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities by improving body alignment while standing. PMID:27163313

  12. Dynamic activation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in collagen-induced arthritis supports their role in joint homeostasis and disease

    PubMed Central

    Daans, Melina; Lories, Rik JU; Luyten, Frank P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease affecting peripheral joints and leading to loss of joint function. The severity and outcome of disease are dependent on the balance between inflammatory/destructive and homeostatic or repair pathways. Increasing evidence suggests a role for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in joint homeostasis and disease. Methods Activation of BMP signaling in collagen-induced arthritis as a model of rheumatoid arthritis was studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blot for phosphorylated SMAD1/5 at different time points. Expression of different BMP ligands and noggin, a BMP antagonist, was determined on synovium and cartilage extracts of arthritic knees, at different time points, with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the protein level, BMP2 and BMP7 were studied with immunohistochemistry. Finally, the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) treatment on the expression of BMP2, BMP7, and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) in synovium and cartilage of arthritic knees was investigated. Results A time-dependent activation of the BMP signaling pathway in collagen-induced arthritis was demonstrated with a dynamic and characteristic expression pattern of different BMP subfamily members in synovium and cartilage of arthritic knees. As severity increases, the activation of BMP signaling becomes more prominent in the invasive pannus tissue. BMP2 is present in cartilage and the hyperplastic lining layer. BMP7 is found in the sublining zone and inflammatory infiltrate. Treatment with etanercept slowed down progression of disease, but no change in expression of GDF5, BMP2, and BMP7 in synovium was found; in the cartilage, however, blocking of TNFα increased the expression of BMP7. Conclusions BMP signaling is dynamically activated in collagen-induced arthritis and is partly TNFα-independent. TNFα blocking increased the expression of BMP7 in the articular cartilage, possibly

  13. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  14. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  15. The Makah Counting Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Arlington A., Jr.

    The first edition of the counting workbook centers around the numbers from 1 to 100 and focuses on number and set concepts. The workbook introduces the Makah spelling of each number and reinforces the spelling with exercises such as matching words to numbers, writing the words, counting symbols, and circling the correct number. Spaced throughout…

  16. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  17. Human ankle joint stiffness over the full range of muscle activation levels.

    PubMed

    Weiss, P L; Hunter, I W; Kearney, R E

    1988-01-01

    System identification techniques have been used to track changes in dynamic stiffness of the human ankle joint over a wide range of muscle contraction levels. Subjects lay supine on an experimental table with their left foot encased in a rigid, low-inertia cast which was fixed to an electro-hydraulic actuator operating as a position servo. Subjects generated tonic plantarflexor or dorsiflexor torques of different magnitudes ranging from rest to maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) during repeated presentations of a stochastic ankle angular position perturbation. Compliance impulse response functions (IRF) were determined from every 2.5 s perturbation sequence. The gain (G), natural frequency (omega n), and damping (zeta) parameters of the second-order model providing the best fit to each IRF were determined and used to compute the corresponding inertial (I), viscous (B) and elastic (K) stiffness parameters. The behaviour of these parameters with mean torque was found to follow two simple rules. First, the elastic parameter (K) increased in proportion to mean ankle torque as it was varied from rest to MVC; these changes were considerable involving increases of more than an order of magnitude. Second, the damping parameter (zeta) remained almost invariant over the entire range of contractions despite the dramatic changes in K. PMID:3410857

  18. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  19. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  20. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted. PMID:27134347

  1. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  2. The Effects of NMDA Antagonists on Neuronal Activity in Cat Spinal Cord Evoked by Acute Inflammation in the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Hans-Georg; Grubb, Blair D.; Neugebauer, Volker; Oppmann, Maria

    1991-01-01

    In alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, spinalized cats we examined the effects of NMDA antagonists on the discharges of 71 spinal neurons which had afferent input from the knee joint. These neurons were rendered hyperexcitable by acute arthritis in the knee induced by kaolin and carrageenan. They were located in the deep dorsal and ventral horn and some of them had ascending axons. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists ketamine and d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5), were administered ionophoretically, and ketamine was also administered intravenously. In some of the experiments the antagonists were tested against the agonists NMDA and quisqualate. The effects of the NMDA antagonists consisted of a significant reduction in the resting activity of neurons and/or the responses of the same neurons to mechanical stimulation of the inflamed knee. Intravenous ketamine was most effective in suppressing the resting and mechanically evoked activity in 25 of 26 neurons tested. Ionophoretically applied ketamine had a suppressive effect in 11 of 21 neurons, and AP5 decreased activity in 17 of 24 cells. The reduction in the resting and/or the mechanically evoked discharges was achieved with doses of the antagonists which suppressed the responses to NMDA but not those to quisqualate. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in the enhanced responses and basal activity of spinal neurons induced by inflammation in the periphery. PMID:12106256

  3. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-Xu; Ren, Gao-Tong; Xu, Xin-Yue; Li, Fei-Fei; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  4. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-xu; Ren, Gao-tong; Xu, Xin-yue; Li, Fei-fei; Tay, Franklin R.; Wang, Mei-qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  5. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... too far. In children with hypermobility syndrome, those ligaments are loose or weak. This may lead to: Arthritis, which may develop over time Dislocated joints, which is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint Sprains and strains Children with hypermobile joints also often have flat ...

  6. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  7. P2X and NMDA receptor involvement in temporomandibular joint-evoked reflex activity in rat jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Tsuboi, Y; Sessle, B J; Iwata, K; Hu, J W

    2010-07-30

    We have previously shown that injection of the excitatory amino glutamate into the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) evokes reflex activity in both anterior digastric (DIG) and masseter (MASS) muscles that can be attenuated by prior TMJ injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The aim of the present study was to test if jaw muscle activity could also be evoked by P2X receptor agonist injection into the rat TMJ region and if the reflex activity could be modulated by TMJ injection of P2X receptor antagonist or NMDA receptor antagonist. The selective P2X subtype agonist alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-me ATP) and vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) or the selective P2X antagonist, 2'-(or-3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP) or the selective NMDA antagonist (+/-)-d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate(APV) were injected into the rat TMJ region. Electromyographic (EMG) reflex activity was recorded in both DIG and MASS muscles. Compared with the baseline EMG activity, alpha,beta-me-ATP injection into the TMJ (but not its systemic administration) following pre-injection of the vehicle significantly increased the magnitude and the duration of ipsilateral DIG and MASS EMG activity in a dose-dependent manner. The alpha,beta-me-ATP-evoked responses could be antagonized by pre-injection of TNP-ATP into the same TMJ site but contralateral TMJ injection of TNP-ATP proved ineffective. Furthermore, the alpha,beta-me-ATP-evoked responses could also be antagonized by APV injected into the same TMJ site but not by its systemic injection. These results indicate the interaction of peripheral purinergic as well as glutamatergic receptor mechanisms in the processing of TMJ nociceptive afferent inputs that evoke reflex activity in jaw muscles. PMID:20501327

  8. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  9. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  10. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  11. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  12. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  13. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  14. Situated Uses of ICT and Mediation of Joint Activity in a Primary Education Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cesar; Rochera, Maria J.; Colomina, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: From a socioconstructivist and situated perspective of teaching and learning processes, the authors analyze how one teacher and her group of 19 sixth-grade pupils use ICT. The study focuses on the way these tools mediate their activity, and evaluates the tools' potential for teaching and learning innovation. Method: A case study…

  15. 77 FR 67057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Joint Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Register (77 FR 44714) and requested public comment for 60 days on a proposal to extend, with revision, the... forms can be obtained at the FFIEC's Web site ( http://www.ffiec.gov/ffiec_report_forms.htm ). OCC: Mary... 1, 2012. Michele Meyer, Assistant Director, Legislative and Regulatory Activities Division,...

  16. Research and training activities of the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1993-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to September 1993 progress was made on each of the following tasks: (1) experimental studies of free shear flows; (2) analysis of conical flow; (3) experimental and theoretical studies of vortex flows; and (4) aircraft attitude control using active flow control devices. The details of this work was discussed with the technical and management staff at Ames Research Center.

  17. Ultrasound-detected activity in rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate therapy: Which joints and tendons should be assessed to predict unstable remission?

    PubMed

    Janta, Iustina; Valor, Lara; De la Torre, Inmaculada; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Bello, Natalia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Montoro, María; González, Carlos Manuel; López-Longo, Javier; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Carreño, Luis; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of different reduced joint ultrasound (US) assessments of synovitis and tenosynovitis in relation to unstable remission in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on methotrexate therapy. Forty-seven RA patients (38 women, 9 men), being treated with methotrexate (MTX), in clinical remission as judged by their consultant rheumatologist were evaluated for disease activity according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 at baseline and 6 months. Sustained remission and unstable remission were defined according to the baseline and 6-month DAS28 and changes in RA therapy during the follow-up. Each patient underwent at baseline a B-mode and power Doppler (PD) assessment of 44 joints and 20 tendons/tendon compartments by a rheumatologist blinded to the clinical and laboratory data. B-mode synovial hypertrophy (SH), synovial PD signal, B-mode tenosynovitis, and Doppler tenosynovitis were scored 0-3. The presence and index of synovial PD signal in 44 joints [odds ratio (OR) 8.21 (p = 0.016) and OR 2.20 (p = 0.049), respectively] and in 12 joints [OR 5.82 (p = 0.041) and OR 4.19 (p = 0.020), respectively], the presence of SH in wrist and MCP joints [OR 4.79 (p = 0.045)], and the presence of synovial PD signal in wrist-MCP-ankle-MTP joints [OR 4.62 (p = 0.046)] were predictors of unstable remission. The 12-joint or wrist-hand-ankle-MTP US assessments can predict unstable remission in RA patients in apparent clinical remission being treated with MTX. PMID:26712373

  18. Chronic Inflammation and Neutrophil Activation as Possible Causes of Joint Diseases in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of a ballet class on the kinetic profiles of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, cytokines, complement component 3 (C3), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), IgA and IgM, in ballerinas. We also verified neutrophil death and ROS release. Blood samples were taken from 13 dancers before, immediately after, and 18 hours after a ballet class. The ballet class increased the plasma activities of CK-total (2.0-fold) immediately after class, while the activities of CK-cardiac muscle (1.0-fold) and LDH (3.0-fold) were observed to increase 18 hours after the class. Levels of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IgG, and IgA were not affected under the study conditions. The exercise was found to induce neutrophil apoptosis (6.0-fold) 18 hours after the ballet class. Additionally, immediately after the ballet class, the neutrophils from the ballerinas were found to be less responsive to PMA stimulus. Conclusion. Ballet class was found to result in inflammation in dancers. The inflammation caused by the ballet class remained for 18 hours after the exercise. These findings are important in preventing the development of chronic lesions that are commonly observed in dancers, such as those with arthritis and synovitis. PMID:24701035

  19. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  20. Current Status of Joint AFRL/NASA Microgravity Spray Cooling Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalak, Travis; Yerkes,Kirk; McQuillen, John; Golliher, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Research Lab and the NASA Glenn Research Center are cooperatively examining spray cooling in a low and a variable gravity environment by conducting experiments principally aboard the NASA Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The objective of these research activities is to examine an effective high-heat flux, high-power thermal management technology using spray cooling for both aircraft and space-based platforms. Previous studies have demonstrated that two phase heat transfer and fluid management are issues that need to be examined. This effort has obtained preliminary results which confirm these concerns. More research is planned.

  1. BOUSSOLE: A Joint CNRS-INSU, ESA, CNES, and NASA Ocean Color Calibration and Validation Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, David; Chami, Malik; Claustre, Herve; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Morel, Andre; Becu, Guislain; Gentili, Bernard; Louis, Francis; Ras, Josephine; Roussier, Emmanuel; Scott, Alec J.; Tailliez, Dominique; Hooker, Stanford B.; Guevel, Pierre; Deste, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril; Adams, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the Bouee pour l'acquisition de Series Optiques a Long Terme (BOUSSOLE) project, the primary objectives of which are to provide a long-term time series of optical properties in support of a) calibration and validation activities associated with satellite ocean color missions, and b) bio-optical research in oceanic waters. The following are included in the report: 1) an introduction to the rationale for establishing the project; 2) a definition of vicarious calibration and the specific requirements attached to it; 3) the organization of the project and the characteristics of the measurement site--in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 4) a qualitative overview of the collected data; 5) details about the buoy that was specifically designed and built for this project; 6) data collection protocols and data processing techniques; 7) a quantitative summary of the collected data, and a discussion of some sample results, including match-up analyses for the currently operational ocean color sensors, namely MERIS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS; and 8) preliminary results of the vicarious radiometric calibration of MERIS, including a tentative uncertainty budget. The results of this match-up analysis allow performance comparisons of various ocean color sensors to be performed, demonstrating the ability of the BOUSSOLE activity, i.e., combining a dedicated platform and commercial-off-the-shelf instrumentation, to provide data qualified to monitor the quality of ocean color products on the long term.

  2. [Experience in joint activities of the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, USSR Ministry of Health, with therapeutic-preventive institutions of a Kazakhstan rural area].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E S; Fisher, Iu Ia; Fedorov, L P; Utepkaliev, M M; Akpanov, Z A; Temresheva, G T; Polosukhin, S M

    1991-01-01

    The joint activity of the Institute staff together with local health institutions has favoured qualified tuberculosis care to become more accessible to the rural population. Favourable changes in the epidemiological situation have been registered in a high tuberculosis incidence area. PMID:1837927

  3. Imaging by terahertz photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Komiyama, Susumu

    2010-08-01

    Photon counting method is indispensable in visible/near-infrared optical measurements for detecting extremely weak radiation. The method, however, has been inaccessible in terahertz region, where the photon energies are more than 100 times smaller and catching individual photons is difficult. Here we review photon counting measurements of terahertz waves, by incorporating a semiconductor quantum-dot terahertz-photon detector into a scanning terahertz microscope. By using a quantum Hall effect detector as well, measurements cover the intensity dynamic range more than six orders of magnitude. Applying the measurement system to the study of semiconductor quantum Hall effect devices, we image extremely weak cyclotron radiation emitted by nonequilibrium electrons. Owing to the unprecedented sensitivity, a variety of new features of electron kinetics are unveiled. Besides semiconductor electric devices studied here, the experimental method will find application in diverse areas of molecular dynamics, microthermography, and cell activities.

  4. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules. PMID:23972283

  5. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  6. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  7. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  8. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

  9. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  10. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  11. Independent and joint effects of personality on intentions to become an active participant in local union activities in Canada.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Deborah M; Sears, Greg J; Wiesner, Willi H

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this field study (N = 282) investigates the impact of two focal personality traits, extraversion and conscientiousness, on employees' attitudes and intentions to actively participate in their local union. Consistent with the TPB, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes toward participation each explained unique variance in union participation intentions. Furthermore, results revealed that extraversion was positively related, and conscientiousness was negatively related to participation intentions, with attitudes toward participation mediating these effects. A significant interaction between extraversion and conscientiousness was also observed, such that introverted workers higher in conscientiousness were less inclined to express positive attitudes toward union participation. Overall, these results provide support for the utility of the TPB in predicting union participation intentions and highlight the vital role that personality traits may play in determining union participation attitudes and intentions. PMID:24684076

  12. Joint Estimation of Activity and Attenuation in Whole-Body TOF PET/MRI Using Constrained Gaussian Mixture Models.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been shown that the attenuation map can be estimated from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using joint maximum likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA). In this work, we propose a novel MRI-guided MLAA algorithm for emission-based attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MR imaging. The algorithm imposes MR spatial and CT statistical constraints on the MLAA estimation of attenuation maps using a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and a Markov random field smoothness prior. Dixon water and fat MR images were segmented into outside air, lung, fat and soft-tissue classes and an MR low-intensity (unknown) class corresponding to air cavities, cortical bone and susceptibility artifacts. The attenuation coefficients over the unknown class were estimated using a mixture of four Gaussians, and those over the known tissue classes using unimodal Gaussians, parameterized over a patient population. To eliminate misclassification of spongy bones with surrounding tissues, and thus include them in the unknown class, we heuristically suppressed fat in water images and also used a co-registered bone probability map. The proposed MLAA-GMM algorithm was compared with the MLAA algorithms proposed by Rezaei and Salomon using simulation and clinical studies with two different tracer distributions. The results showed that our proposed algorithm outperforms its counterparts in suppressing the cross-talk and scaling problems of activity and attenuation and thus produces PET images of improved quantitative accuracy. It can be concluded that the proposed algorithm effectively exploits the MR information and can pave the way toward accurate emission-based attenuation correction in TOF PET/MRI. PMID:25769148

  13. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  14. Pelvic Belt Effects on Pelvic Morphometry, Muscle Activity and Body Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Soisson, Odette; Lube, Juliane; Germano, Andresa; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Josten, Christoph; Sichting, Freddy; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.; Hammer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application. Methods Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects. Results Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level. Discussion Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest. PMID:25781325

  15. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  16. Making Research Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Kerwin, Marie; McCulloch, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Making research count in the education sector is often difficult to achieve as people, quite properly, question its relevance, purpose and impact. One of the significant barriers to research supporting practice in the lifelong learning sector is that funded research carried out in higher education institutions is frequently privileged above…

  17. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  18. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  19. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  20. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  1. 49 CFR 388.7 - Joint administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH STATES § 388.7 Joint... administrative action, the Field Administrator and the appropriate State authority shall, when...

  2. 49 CFR 388.7 - Joint administrative activities related to enforcement of safety and hazardous materials laws and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH STATES § 388.7 Joint... administrative action, the Field Administrator and the appropriate State authority shall, when...

  3. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479

  4. Visual feedback of the non-moving limb improves active joint-position sense of the impaired limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Smorenburg, Ana R P; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task was performed in three visual conditions: without visual feedback (no vision); with visual feedback of the non-moving limb (screen); and with visual feedback of the non-moving limb and its mirror reflection (mirror). In addition to the proprioceptive measure, a functional test [Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST)] was performed and the amount of spasticity was determined in order to examine their relation with proprioceptive ability. The accuracy of matching was significantly influenced by the distance that had to be covered by the matching limb; a larger distance resulted in a lower matching accuracy. Moreover it was demonstrated that static (mirror) visual feedback improved the matching accuracy. A clear relation between functionality, as measured by the QUEST, and active joint-position sense was not found. This might be explained by the availability of visual information during the performance of the QUEST. It is concluded that static visual feedback improves matching accuracy in children with SHCP and that the initial distance between the limbs is an influential factor which has to be taken into account when measuring joint-position sense. PMID:21306868

  5. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  6. Gray-scale and color duplex Doppler ultrasound of hand joints in the evaluation of disease activity and treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanac, Gordana; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Brkljačić, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of gray-scale and color duplex-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of changes of hand joints and assessment of treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing qualitative and quantitative US parameters with clinical and laboratory indicators of disease activity. Methods Ulnocarpal (UC), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 30 patients with RA were examined by gray-scale and CDUS before and after six months of treatment. Morphologic and quantitative Doppler findings (synovial thickness, effusion quantity, vascularization degree, resistance index, velocities) were compared with clinical indicators of disease progression: disease activity score (DAS 28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP). Results Clinical indicators changed significantly after treatment: ESR from 38.1 ± 22.4 mm/h to 27.8 ± 20.9 mm/h (P = 0.013), DAS 28 from 5.47 ± 1.56 to 3.87 ± 1.65 (P < 0.001), and HAQ from 1.26 ± 0.66 to 0.92 ± 0.74 (P = 0.030), indicating therapeutic effectiveness. In all MCP and UC joints we observed a significant change in at least one US parameter, in 6 out of 12 joints we observed a significant change in ≥2 parameters, and in 2 UC joints we observed significant changes in ≥3 parameters. The new finding was that the cut-off values of resistance index of 0.40 at baseline and of 0.55 after the treatment indicated the presence of active disease and the efficacy of treatment, respectively; also it was noticed that PIP joints can be omitted from examination protocol. Conclusion Gray scale and CDUS are useful in diagnosis of changes in UC and MCP joints of patients with RA and in monitoring the treatment efficacy. PMID:26088853

  7. Assessment of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of clinical evaluation with grey scale and power Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Naredo, E; Bonilla, G; Gamero, F; Uson, J; Carmona, L; Laffon, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical assessment of overall inflammatory activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with grey scale and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography (US). Methods: Ninety four consecutive patients with RA were included. Demographic and clinical data, C reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for each patient. The presence of tenderness, swelling, and a subjective swelling score from 1 to 3 were independently assessed by two rheumatologists, who reached a consensus in 60 joints examined in each patient. All patients underwent a US examination by a third blinded rheumatologist, using PD. US joint effusion, synovitis, and PD signal were graded from 1 to 3 in the 60 joints. Joint count and joint index for effusion, synovitis, and PD signal were recorded. A 28 joint count for clinical and US variables was calculated. Interobserver reliability of the US examination was evaluated by a fourth blinded rheumatologist. Results: US showed significantly more joints with effusion (mean 15.2) and synovitis (mean 14.6) than clinical examination (mean 11.5, p<0.05). A significant correlation was found between joint count and joint index for swelling, US effusion, synovitis, and PD signal. The 28 joint count for effusion, synovitis, and PD signal correlated highly with the corresponding 60 joint counts. US findings correlated better with CRP and ESR than clinical measures. Interobserver reliability was better for US findings than for clinical assessment. Conclusion: US is a sensitive method for assessing joint inflammatory activity in RA, complementary to clinical evaluation. PMID:15708891

  8. Muscle Activation and Estimated Relative Joint Force During Running with Weight Support on a Lower-Body Positive-Pressure Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente R; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine L

    2016-08-01

    Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force. PMID:26957520

  9. Potential of Active-Steering Bogie for Reducing Lateral Axle Load Caused at Worn Welded Joints of Outer Rail in Curved Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tatsuya; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Soma, Hitoshi

    This paper deals with the potential of an active-steering bogie to reduce the large lateral axle load that arises at worn welded joints of the outer rail in a curved track when high-speed trains pass. The shape of the worn joint, called lateral ‘angular bent’, is modeled on the basis of the measured irregularity shape of actual joints. Then, numerical simulation of running on a curved track is carried out for a two-axle bogie vehicle to compare an active-steering bogie and a conventional nonsteering bogie. The behavior of the vehicle negotiating the curve is evaluated from the viewpoints of decreasing the peak value of lateral axle load within the allowance limit and maintaining the running stability. To satisfy the requirements, wheelset-supporting parameters and feedback gains for active-steering are optimized on a curved section of 400 m radius by the Genetic Algorithm. On the basis of the optimized wheelset-supporting parameter values, additional sets of feedback gains, which are adjusted for the curves of different radii, are proposed. The numerical simulation shows that the operation speed of a vehicle with active-steering bogies having the optimized parameter values has the potential to be raised to the possible speed for tilting trains while satisfying the criterion of riding comfort.

  10. Toxic effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on soil microorganism and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2014-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil culturable microbial population and enzyme activity of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the eco-toxicological response in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated some notable toxic effects due to long-term exposure to either or both contaminants. The inhibition ratios of microbial populations increased with incubation time and increasing concentrations of BDE209 or TBBPA following certain dose-response relationships and time-effect trends. The response sensitivity sequence was fungi>bacteria>actinomycete. The influence of the two chemicals on soil enzymes reached peak values on day 7, and highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed compared to the controls. Urease was more susceptive to the two chemicals than catalase and saccharase activities. Generally, the joint toxicity of both contaminants on soil microbes, catalase or saccharase activities indicated antagonistic effects, while, as for urease activity, addition role was dominant. Such observations have provided the useful information of potential ecological effects of brominated flame retardants contamination in the environment. PMID:25195096

  11. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  12. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  13. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: gout (especially ...

  14. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  15. Contribution of hand motor circuits to counting.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Seron, Xavier; Olivier, Etienne

    2007-04-01

    The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability during a counting task performed silently and using either numbers or letters of the alphabet to enumerate items. We found an increased CS excitability of hand muscles during the counting task, irrespective of the use of numbers or letters, whereas it was unchanged in arm and foot muscles. Control tasks allowed us to rule out a possible influence of attention allocation or covert speech on CS excitability increase of hand muscles during counting. The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm and foot muscles during the same task. However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements of any ordered series. PMID:17381248

  16. Counting every quantum

    PubMed Central

    Sakitt, B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Human subjects were asked to rate both blanks and very dim flashes of light under conditions of complete dark adaptation at 7° in the periphery. The ratings used were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. For one subject (B.S.) the distributions of ratings were approximately Poisson distributions. The data were consistent with each rating being the actual number of effective quantal absorptions plus the number of noise events. This subject was presumably able to count every rod signal (effective absorptions plus noise). 3. For two other subjects, the data were consistent with the ratings being one less (L.F.) and two less (K.D.) than the number of effective absorptions plus noise. They were able to count every rod signal beginning with 2 and 3 respectively. A fourth subject's erratic data could not be fitted. 4. The fraction of quanta incident at the cornea that resulted in a rod signal was estimated to be about 0·03 which is consistent with physical estimates of effective absorption for that retinal region. 5. A simulated forced choice experiment leads to an absolute threshold about 0·40 log units below the normal yes-no absolute threshold. This and other results indicate that subjects can use the sensory information they receive even when only 1, 2 or 3 quanta are effectively absorbed, depending on the individual. Humans may be able to count every action potential or every discrete burst of action potentials in some critical neurone. PMID:5046137

  17. BMP signaling mediated by constitutively active Activin type 1 receptor (ACVR1) results in ectopic bone formation localized to distal extremity joints

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J.; Brownley, Cameron; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Peterson, Jonathan; Hayano, Satoru; Wu, Bingrou; Zhao, Bin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Wong, Victor C.; Mishina, Yuji; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    BMP signaling mediated by ACVR1 plays a critical role for development of multiple structures including the cardiovascular and skeletal systems. While deficient ACVR1 signaling impairs normal embryonic development, hyperactive ACVR1 function (R206H in humans and Q207D mutation in mice, ca-ACVR1) results in formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). We developed a mouse line, which conditionally expresses ca-ACVR1 with Nfatc1-Cre+ transgene. Mutant mice developed ectopic cartilage and bone at the distal joints of the extremities including the interphalangeal joints and hind limb ankles as early as P4 in the absence of trauma or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) administration. Micro-CT showed that even at later time points (up to P40), cartilage and bone development persisted at the affected joints most prominently in the ankle. Interestingly, this phenotype was not present in areas of bone outside of the joints – tibia are normal in mutants and littermate controls away from the ankle. These findings demonstrate that this model may allow for further studies of heterotopic ossification, which does not require the use of stem cells, direct trauma or activation with exogenous Cre gene administration. PMID:25722188

  18. Irradiation response in weldment and HIP joint of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Takanori; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Ando, M.; Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Stoller, Roger E; Odette, G.R.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates irradiation response in the joints of F82H employed for a fusion breeding blanket. The joints, which were prepared using welding and diffusion welding, were irradiated up to 6 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tests revealed hardening in weldment (WM) and base metal (BM) greater than 300 MPa. However, the heat affected zones (HAZ) exhibit about half that of WM and BM. Therefore, neutron irradiation decreased the strength of the HAZ, leaving it in danger of local deformation in this region. Further the hardening in WM made with an electron beam was larger than that in WM made with tungsten inert gas welding. However the mechanical properties of the diffusion-welded joint were very similar to those of BM even after the irradiation.

  19. Direction counts: a comparative study of spatially directional counting biases in cultures with different reading directions.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H; Göbel, Silke M

    2012-06-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear relationship between reading and counting directions. We then recorded directional counting preferences in preschoolers and elementary school children from three of these reading cultures (left to right, right to left, and mixed). Culture-specific counting biases existed before reading acquisition in children as young as 3 years and were subsequently modified by early reading experience. Together, our results suggest that both directional counting and scanning activities contribute to number-space associations. PMID:22341408

  20. Cellular interpretation of the long-range gradient of Four-jointed activity in the Drosophila wing

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Rosalind; Brittle, Amy L; Fisher, Katherine H; Monk, Nicholas A M; Strutt, David

    2015-01-01

    To understand how long-range patterning gradients are interpreted at the cellular level, we investigate how a gradient of expression of the Four-jointed kinase specifies planar polarised distributions of the cadherins Fat and Dachsous in the Drosophila wing. We use computational modelling to test different scenarios for how Four-jointed might act and test the model predictions by employing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching as an in vivo assay to measure the influence of Four-jointed on Fat-Dachsous binding. We demonstrate that in vivo, Four-jointed acts both on Fat to promote its binding to Dachsous and on Dachsous to inhibit its binding to Fat, with a bias towards a stronger effect on Fat. Overall, we show that opposing gradients of Fat and Dachsous phosphorylation are sufficient to explain the observed pattern of Fat–Dachsous binding and planar polarisation across the wing, and thus demonstrate the mechanism by which a long-range gradient is interpreted. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05789.001 PMID:25707557

  1. Counting supersymmetric branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for σ ≤ 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.

  2. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee

    2013-11-01

    We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L{sub rest2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}, the CT AGN density predicted by our model is a few ×10{sup –4} Mpc{sup –3} from z = 0 up to z = 3. CT AGNs with higher luminosity cuts (>10{sup 43}, 10{sup 44}, and 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1}) peak at higher redshift and show a rapid increase in number density from z = 0 to z ∼ 2-3. The CT AGN to all AGN ratio appears to be low (2%-5%) at f{sub 2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} but rises rapidly toward fainter flux levels. The CT AGNs account for ∼38% of the total accreted supermassive black hole mass and contribute ∼25% of the cosmic X-ray background spectrum at 20 keV. Our model predicts that the majority (90%) of luminous and bright CT AGNs (L{sub rest2-10keV} > 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1} or f{sub 2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) have detectable hot dust 5-10 μm emission, which we associate with a dusty torus. The fraction drops for fainter objects, to around 30% at L{sub rest2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} or f{sub 2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our model confirms that heavily obscured AGNs (N{sub H{sub I}} > 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}) can be separated from unobscured and mildly obscured ones (N{sub H{sub I}} < 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}) in the plane of observed frame X-ray hardness versus mid-IR/X-ray ratio.

  3. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  4. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error.

    PubMed

    Safavynia, Seyed A; Ting, Lena H

    2013-09-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  5. Non-invasive dual fluorescence in vivo imaging for detection of macrophage infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in inflammatory arthritic joints

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hongsik; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Yoon, Tae Won; Hasty, Karen A.; Stuart, John M.; Yi, Ae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Detection and intervention at an early stage is a critical factor to impede arthritis progress. Here we present a non-invasive method to detect inflammatory changes in joints of arthritic mice. Inflammation was monitored by dual fluorescence optical imaging for near-infrared fluorescent (750F) matrix-metalloproteinase activatable agent and allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-mouse CD11b. Increased intensity of allophycocyanin (indication of macrophage accumulation) and 750F (indication of matrix-metalloproteinase activity) showed a biological relationship with the arthritis severity score and the histopathology score of arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that this method can be used to detect early stages of arthritis with minimum intervention in small animal models. PMID:27231625

  6. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  7. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  8. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  9. Support of Joint Function, Range of Motion, and Physical Activity Levels by Consumption of a Water-Soluble Egg Membrane Hydrolyzate

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S.; Lenninger, Miki R.; Beaman, Joni L.; Taylor, Robert; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the effects of consumption of hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on joint function in an otherwise healthy population experiencing chronic pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study included two 4-week periods of placebo and WSEM consumption, separated by a 4-week washout period. Twenty-five study participants were randomized to either the “placebo-first” or “WSEM first” sequence in the crossover trial, and 22 participants completed the study requirements. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using digital inclinometry for joints associated with vertical weight bearing from neck to knees and for shoulders. Pain at rest and when physically active was scored for the same anatomical areas using visual analog scales (VAS). Physical functioning was tracked using questionnaires with VAS. Consumption of WSEM was associated with improved ROM for neck, spine, hips, and knees, with ROM for the neck and right knee being significantly improved during WSEM consumption compared to placebo (P < .05). ROM improvement for the dominant shoulder was highly significant during WSEM consumption (P < .01). Physical activity levels were significantly higher after WSEM than after placebo consumption (P < .05). Many aspects of physical functioning as part of daily living improved. Subgroup analysis showed rapid improvement of lower back pain after 5 days of WSEM consumption compared to placebo consumption (P < .05) in subjects who participated in the study during the winter season. Daily consumption of 450 mg WSEM was associated with improved joint function, comfort during daily activities, and increased physical activity. PMID:26355952

  10. [Fractures of the elbow joint].

    PubMed

    Nowak, T E; Dietz, S O; Burkhart, K J; Müller, L P; Rommens, P M

    2012-02-01

    Fractures around the elbow joint comprise fractures of the distal humerus, the radial head, the olecranon and the coronoid process. Combined lesions are particularly demanding for the surgeon. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy and of the biomechanics is an essential requirement for a specific diagnosis and therapy. A stable and painless movable elbow joint is essential for most of the activities of daily living. Risk factors for the development of posttraumatic elbow joint arthrosis are non-anatomically reconstructed joint surfaces, axial malalignment of the joint axis and untreated concomitant injuries. Modern angular stable and anatomically preshaped implants facilitate a biomechanically adequate osteosynthesis and avoid or decrease functional impairment. In consideration of an increasing number of osteoporotic elbow joint fractures, endoprosthetic replacement has gained significance. PMID:22271056

  11. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  12. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  14. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  15. Experimental study of antitumour activity and effects on leukocyte count of intraperitoneal administration and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) with dioxadet in a rat model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, Vladimir Grigorjevich; Kireeva, Galina Sergeevna; Belyaeva, Olesya Alexandrovna; Senchik, Konstantin Yurjevich; Stukov, Alexandr Nikolaevich; Maydin, Michail Alexandrovich; Semenov, Alexandr Leonidovich; Gafton, Georgy Ivanovich; Guseynov, Konstantin Dzhamiljevich; Belyaev, Alexey Mikhailovich

    2016-06-01

    Survival of rats with advanced ovarian cancer after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) with dioxadet and effects of these treatment modalities on leukocyte count were evaluated in two independent series of experiments. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with dioxadet (15 mg/kg) provided median survival of rats of 49 days (95% CI 28-70), i.p. administration of dioxadet (1.5 mg/kg) of 28 days (95% CI 16-36; P = 0.020). Single i.p. injection of dioxadet caused a significant decrease in total number of leukocytes (17-52%), granulocytes (18-75%), lymphocytes (18-62%) and monocytes (12-46%) in the peripheral blood of tumour-bearing rats compared to untreated animals. After HIPEC with dioxadet, the total number of leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood of rats remained significantly higher than the corresponding values in the group with dioxadet. PMID:26027427

  16. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  17. Active Vibration Control of a Large Flexible Manipulator by Inertial Force and Joint Torque. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency and positional accuracy of a lightweight flexible manipulator are limited by its flexural vibrations, which last after a gross motion is completed. The vibration delays subsequent operations. In the proposed work, the vibration is suppressed by inertial force of a small arm in addition to the joint actuators and passive damping treatment. The proposed approach is: (1) Dynamic modeling of a combined system, a large flexible manipulator and a small arm, (2) Determination of optimal sensor location and controller algorithm, and (3) Verification of the fitness of model and the performance of controller.

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  19. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  20. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: As the technological level of healthcare increases, it is important not to lose sight of the basics of patient care. No matter how sophisticated dental techniques have become, preventive dentistry still remains the foundation for oral health. Therefore, antimicrobial mouthrinses are developed to provide an effective means of preventing colonization by micro-organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling, herbal mouthrinses and fluoride mouthwash on the caries activity and S. mutans counts in the saliva of children, using Oratest and Dentocult SM kit. Design: Fifty-two healthy children between the age group of 6 to 12 years were selected for the study and divided into four groups based on the mouthrinse used as group 1: fluoride, group 2: herbal, group 3: oil pulling and group 4: control. The estimation of caries activity and S. mutans was done prior to and after the subjects were instructed to use the mouthrinse twice daily for a period of 2 weeks. Statistical analysis: The comparisons were made by applying paired ‘t’ test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Difference between more than two mean values was done by using ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons. Results and conclusion: The efficacy of fluoride and herbal mouthrinses was found to be comparable while oil pulling did not provide any additional benefit to be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in reducing the bacterial colonization of an individual. How to cite this article: Jauhari D, Srivastava N, Rana V, Chandna P. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):114-118. PMID:26379378

  3. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  4. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0

  5. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  6. Navigating Joint Projects in Telephone Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Clark, Herbert H.; Katz, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    Conversation coordinates joint activities and the joint projects that compose them. Participants coordinate (1) vertical transitions on entering and exiting joint projects; and (2) horizontal transitions in continuing within them. Transitions are coordinated using project markers such as uh-huh, yeah, right, and okay. In the authors' proposal,…

  7. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  8. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  10. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  11. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  12. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  13. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  14. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  15. Preschooler's Counting in Peer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Reagan P.

    For this experiment, part of a larger study on preschoolers' counting competence, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds played a counting game with their peers after becoming familiar with the game during structured interviews with an adult. It was expected that the symmetrical nature of peer interaction would allow children to display quantitative knowledge in…

  16. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  17. Semitendinosus snapping: analysis of movement, electromyographic activities, muscle strength and endurance, motor control and joint position sense

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Hande; Kaya, Defne; Yilgor, Caglar; Cilli, Murat; Aritan, Serdar; Yuksel, Inci; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2013-01-01

    Summary A female ballet with a history of two-years of semi-tendinosus (ST) snapping was assessed. On physical examination snapping was observed during hyperextension of the knee. Neither any history of trauma nor treatment was recalled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), movement analysis, onset timing of ST and Bisceps Femoris (BF), motor control, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, joint position sense (JPS) were assessed. The MRI findings were normal. There were abnormal oscillations observed during hyperextension of the snapping knee compared to healthy side. There were no isokinetic muscle strength nor do muscle endurance differences. The motor control and JPS deficits were greater on the snapping knee than the healthy side. ST onset timing was earlier than BF on the snapping side. Snapping of the semitendinosus tendon has an adverse affect on JPS, motor control and onset timing of the knee muscles. PMID:24367776

  18. Ultrasound Findings in Hand Joints Involvement in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Its Correlation with Clinical DAS28 Score

    PubMed Central

    Naranje, Priyanka; Prakash, Mahesh; Sharma, Aman; Dogra, Sunil; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the frequency of the various ultrasound findings in hand joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate grayscale and Power Doppler ultrasonography findings with Disease Activity Score 28. Methods. This prospective study was performed in 30 patients. Ultrasound evaluation of 28 joints of both hands was undertaken and various findings were recorded including synovial hypertrophy, Power Doppler abnormality, soft tissue thickening, tendonitis, joint effusion, periosteal reaction, and erosions. Composite ultrasound scores and Disease Activity Score 28 were calculated and compared. Spearman correlation was used to see relationship between the ultrasound and DAS28 scores. Results. Ultrasound detected more abnormalities in the hand joints than did clinical examination. The frequency of various ultrasound abnormalities was as follows: Synovial hypertrophy was seen in 100%, Power Doppler abnormality suggesting hypervascularity was seen in 36.7%, soft tissue thickening was seen in 66.7%, periosteal reaction was seen in 33.3%, erosions were seen in 30% (mostly in DIP and PIP joints), and flexor tendonitis was seen in 6.7% of patients. Significant correlation was found between Disease Activity Score 28 and grayscale joint score (GSJS) (Spearman's ρ: 0.499; P: 0.005), grayscale joint count (GSJC) (ρ: 0.398; P: 0.029), and Power Doppler joint score (PDJS) (ρ: 0.367; P: 0.046). There was a statistically significant difference between remission and low disease activity group and moderate disease activity group in terms of GSJC, GSJS, PDJC, and PDJS (P < 0.05). These ultrasound measures were higher in moderate disease activity zone patients. Conclusion. Ultrasound is a useful modality for the objective assessment of psoriatic arthritis. Ultrasound including Power Doppler can be used as a modality for assessment of severity of psoriatic arthritis as it correlates with the clinical scoring. PMID:26858846

  19. Clinical laboratory parameters in osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions correlated to trace element concentrations.

    PubMed

    Krachler, M; Domej, W

    2001-02-01

    Interactions of clinical laboratory parameters with trace elements in knee-joint effusions might turn out to be potential diagnostic tool, increasing our pathophysiological understanding and knowledge on knee-joint effusions. Thus, the 11 clinical laboratory parameters, total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, uric acid, pH, rheumatoid factor, antistreptolysin, C-reactive protein, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts were determined in 39 osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions and in corresponding sera. Additionally, concentrations of the 17 trace elements barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cesium, copper, lanthanum, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, lead, rubidium, antimony, tin, strontium, thallium, and zinc in both effusions and corresponding sera were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of most laboratory parameters in synovial fluid were within the normal ranges for serum. However, concentrations of total protein and albumin in effusions were distinctly lower than in sera of healthy adults. Results for rheumatoid factor, antistreptolysin, and C-reactive protein in the effusions were below their corresponding threshold values for serum. An indicator for inflammation, the leukocyte count had a median < 6.3 G/L. The erythrocyte count (median: < 0.06 T/L) revealed a very low presence of red blood cells in the effusions. Total protein concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the effusions correlated positively with effusion copper (r = 0.61 and 0.66) and effusion zinc (r = 0.71 and 0.49). For cesium, a negative correlation in both sera (r = -0.44) and effusions (r = -0.44) with LDH activity could be established. Concentrations of rubidium, strontium, and cesium responded to albumin concentrations in sera and in effusions, establishing an inverse correlation. All other trace elements showed no or only weak associations with the clinical laboratory parameters determined. Although distinct relationships

  20. Mice can count and optimize count-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Çavdaroğlu, Bilgehan; Balcı, Fuat

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies showed that rats and pigeons can count their responses, and the resultant count-based judgments exhibit the scalar property (also known as Weber's Law), a psychophysical property that also characterizes interval-timing behavior. Animals were found to take a nearly normative account of these well-established endogenous uncertainty characteristics in their time-based decision-making. On the other hand, no study has yet tested the implications of scalar property of numerosity representations for reward-rate maximization in count-based decision-making. The current study tested mice on a task that required them to press one lever for a minimum number of times before pressing the second lever to collect the armed reward (fixed consecutive number schedule, FCN). Fewer than necessary number of responses reset the response count without reinforcement, whereas emitting responses at least for the minimum number of times reset the response counter with reinforcement. Each mouse was tested with three different FCN schedules (FCN10, FCN20, FCN40). The number of responses emitted on the first lever before pressing the second lever constituted the main unit of analysis. Our findings for the first time showed that mice count their responses with scalar property. We then defined the reward-rate maximizing numerical decision strategies in this task based on the subject-based estimates of the endogenous counting uncertainty. Our results showed that mice learn to maximize the reward-rate by incorporating the uncertainty in their numerosity judgments into their count-based decisions. Our findings extend the scope of optimal temporal risk-assessment to the domain of count-based decision-making. PMID:26463617

  1. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  2. Visualization of local electrochemical activity and local nickel ion release on laser-welded NiTi/steel joints using combined alternating current mode and stripping mode SECM.

    PubMed

    Ruhlig, D; Gugel, H; Schulte, A; Theisen, W; Schuhmann, W

    2008-12-01

    Smoothly polished cross-sections of laser-fabricated welds between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel (SS) microwires of approximately the same diameter and, for comparison, between identical stainless steel or NiTi wires have been subjected to local chemical activity and nickel release measurements using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). In the alternating current mode (AC-SECM), the measurements detected clear differences in the local interfacial chemical activity of the passivated weld and the base metals only for the heterogeneous joints of the type NiTi-SS. In this case the local electrochemical acvtivity was lower above the weld material. Subjecting cross-sections of NiTi-SS to stripping mode SECM (SM-SECM), higher Ni(2+) concentrations were measured above the regions of the parental NiTi wire, which correlates well with the results from AC-SECM imaging which showed this region as being less passivated. An energy-dispersive elemental analysis of the specimen in a scanning electron microscope revealed the coexistence of Ti and Cr in the weld mass. Possibly, a joint action of these two metals in terms of protective oxide formation is better for passivation of the weld region than the individual action of one or the other element for passivating the original wires. Better passivation of course led to decreased electrochemical activity of the weld surface. Apparently, AC- and SM-mode SECM imaging were sufficiently sensitive to detect and visualize the impact of the changed surface passivation upon laser welding. PMID:19082072

  3. Effects of soft tissue artifacts on differentiating kinematic differences between natural and replaced knee joints during functional activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2016-05-01

    Functional performance of total knee replacement (TKR) is often assessed using skin marker-based stereophotogrammetry, which can be affected by soft tissue artifacts (STA). The current study aimed to compare the STA and their effects on the kinematics of the knee between twelve patients with TKR and twelve healthy controls during sit-to-stand, and to assess the effects of STA on the statistical between-group comparisons. Each subject performed the sit-to-stand task while motions of the skin markers and the knees were measured by a motion capture system integrated with a three-dimensional fluoroscopy technique. The bone motions measured by the three-dimensional fluoroscopy were taken as the gold standard, with respect to which the STA of the markers were obtained. The STA were found to affect the calculated segmental poses and knee kinematics between the groups differently. The STA resulted in artefactual posterior displacements of the knee joint center, with magnitudes significantly greater in TKR than controls (p<0.01). The STA-induced knee external rotations in TKR were smaller than those in controls with mean differences of 2.3-3.0°. These between-group differences in the STA effects on knee kinematics in turn concealed the true between-group differences in the anterior-posterior translation and internal/external rotation of knee while leading to false significant between-group differences in the abduction/adduction and proximal-distal translation. PMID:27131194

  4. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

  5. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Burr, Tom; Favalli, Andrea; Nicholson, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of 238U and 235U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar - Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of 235U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  6. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  7. Counting single photoactivatable fluorescent molecules by photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Shin, Jae Yen; Lee, Antony; Bustamante, Carlos

    2012-10-23

    We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a kinetic model to describe blinking and show that Dendra2 photobleaches three times faster and blinks seven times less than mEos2, making Dendra2 a better photoactivated localization microscopy tag than mEos2 for molecular counting. The simultaneous activation of multiple molecules is another source of error, but it leads to molecular undercounting instead. We propose a photoactivation scheme that maximally separates the activation of different molecules, thus helping to overcome undercounting. We also present a method that quantifies the total counting error and minimizes it by balancing over- and undercounting. This unique method establishes that Dendra2 is better for counting purposes than mEos2, allowing us to count in vitro up to 200 molecules in a diffraction-limited spot with a bias smaller than 2% and an uncertainty less than 6% within 10 min. Finally, we demonstrate that this counting method can be applied to protein quantification in vivo by counting the bacterial flagellar motor protein FliM fused to Dendra2. PMID:23045631

  8. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  9. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  10. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention. PMID:23840426

  11. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  12. 5-HT induces temporomandibular joint nociception in rats through the local release of inflammatory mediators and activation of local β adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Torres-Chávez, Karla Elena; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2012-09-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is an important inflammatory mediator found in high levels in the synovial fluid of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of patients with inflammatory pain. In this study, we used the nociceptive behavior responses, measured as flinching the head and rubbing the orofacial region, as a nociceptive assay. We demonstrated that the local blockade of the 5-HT₃ receptor and β₁ or β₂-adrenoceptors, the depletion of norepinephrine in the sympathetic terminals and the local inhibition of cyclooxygenase significantly reduced 5-HT-induced TMJ nociception. These results demonstrated that 5-HT induces nociception in the TMJ region by the activation of β₁ and β₂ adrenoceptors located in the TMJ region and local release of sympathetic amines and prostaglandins. Therefore, the high levels of 5-HT in the synovial fluid of patients with TMJ inflammatory pain may contribute to TMJ pain by similar mechanisms. PMID:22683622

  13. The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate. PMID:25642052

  14. Joint catalytic activation of CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ in reaction with butadiene under the action of palladium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Kunakova, R.V.; Sidorova, V.V.

    1987-08-20

    In a continuation of the study of catalytic reactions in which small molecules participate they have examined the reaction of butadiene simultaneously with CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ in the presence of homogeneous Pd-containing catalyst complexes with the object of developing a single-step method for the synthesis of unsaturated higher formamides. The possibility of joint catalytic activation of small molecules (CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/) has been demonstrated in their reaction with butadiene with the participation of palladium complexes, the products being mono- and bis-(2,7-octadienyl)formamides. It has been found that 2-pyrrolidone can take part in a telomerization reaction with butadiene in solutions containing palladium complexes, ammonia and carbon dioxide with the formation of N-2,7-octadienylpyrrolidone.

  15. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Schweikert, Bernd; John, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance. PMID:22536517

  16. Balance between herbicidal activity and toxicity effect: a case study of the joint effects of triazine and phenylurea herbicides on Selenastrum capricornutum and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hongming; Lin, Zhifen; Yao, Zhifeng; Gao, Ya; Cong, Yongping; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    The use of herbicide mixtures has become a cost-effective strategy against the evolution of herbicide resistance to protect global food production. Much research has focused on investigating either the herbicidal activities or the toxicity effects of herbicides; however, few of them have investigated both factors. This study investigates the balance between herbicidal activity for Selenastrum capricornutum and toxicity effect toward Photobacterium phosphoreum by determining the joint effects of triazine (simetryn, atrazine, prometon and prometryn) and phenylurea (fenuron, monuron, monolinuron and diuron) herbicides. The results showed that among the four triazines, only simetryn exhibited a unique effect (formation of a pi-sigma bond with the D1 microalga protein and an H-bond with the Luc photobacterial protein); and among 16 triazine-phenylurea binary mixtures, only the mixtures containing simetryn resulted in TU1 values (herbicidal activities of mixtures on S. capricornutum) >TU2 values (toxicity effects of mixtures on P. phosphoreum). However, the other 12 mixtures, which did not contain simetryn, showed the opposite result (TU1activity and toxicity effect, which will encourage thoughtful efforts for how to best combine herbicides in a sustainable way. PMID:24681700

  17. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  18. Long-Term Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4+ Cell Evolution among Children and Adolescents Infected with HIV: 5 Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjal; Hernán, Miguel A.; Williams, Paige L.; Seeger, John D.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower percentages of CD4+ T lymphocytes are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte percentage generally increases with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but long-term follow-up is required to assess whether these increases in CD4+ cell percentage are maintained and whether they lead to normal CD4+ cell percentages in children with severe immunosuppression. Methods The study population included 1236 children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV who were enrolled in a US-based multicenter prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C) and who were not receiving HAART at study initiation. We estimated the effects of HAART, HAART with protease inhibitors, and HAART with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors on CD4+ cell percentage, using marginal structural models to account for confounding by severity. Results Initiation of any type of HAART increased CD4+ cell percentage by 2.34% (95% confidence interval, 1.35%–3.33%) in the first year, relative to noninitiation of HAART. The substantial increases in CD4+ cell percentage observed after the first year of experience with these combination therapies were followed by relatively smaller increases that continued for 5 years after initiation. Although larger increases in CD4+ cell percentage were observed among children with a greater degree of immunosuppression at baseline, the mean CD4+ cell percentage after 5 years of HAART did not reach normal levels. Conclusions Our study supports the initiation of HAART in children before severe immunosuppression occurs for long-term maintenance of normal CD4+ cell percentages. This beneficial result must be weighed against the evidence of potential adverse events associated with the prolonged use of such therapy. PMID:18426371

  19. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  20. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  1. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  2. Making the Middle Count

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Angie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three ways in which dramatic improvements in middle flow, or examination-to-disposition time, can be driven by emergency department (ED) nursing leadership. By operationalizing a “results pending” area, low-acuity patients who are unlikely to be admitted can await diagnostic results or be actively monitored by a dedicated nurse, ED rooms and beds may be reserved for higher acuity patients. Monthly operational stakeholder meetings can provide a consistent opportunity to track, monitor, and improve flow while also celebrating successes and identifying needed performance improvements based on objective metrics for shared goals. Internal customer rounding is a process that serves as effective follow-up from the stakeholder meeting to ensure aligned behaviors to meet identified goals. Frequency of rounding is identified during the stakeholder meeting. By using these three tools, ED stakeholders can effectively focus on solutions instead of barriers to improving middle flow. PMID:25569321

  3. Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1…

  4. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  5. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  6. Joint effects of crude oil and heavy metals on the gill filament EROD activity of marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ronghui; Chen, Huanbin; Bo, Jun; Xie, Qing; Hong, Fukun; Zhang, Yusheng

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent responses of gill 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity from Juvenile marbled rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) exposed to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) or Pb(Ⅱ) alone or in mixture. Compared to the control group, gill filament EROD activity in S. marmoratus was significantly induced after exposure to the WAF from 80 to 320μg/L for 5 days in dose response experiment and after exposure to 40μg/L WAF for 6-10 days in time course experiment, respectively. In the other hand, gill filament EROD activity were not significantly affected compared to the control group or related WAF groups no matter in the dose response experiment or in the time course experiment of Cd(Ⅱ), Pb(Ⅱ) or its mixture with WAF. The results suggest the use of gill filament EROD activity as a biomarker of exposure to waterborne AhR agonists in marine ecosystems while simultaneously being exposed to environmental concentrations of Cd(Ⅱ) or Pb(Ⅱ). PMID:27290642

  7. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    of cohorts with their chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposure. The 26,000 workers at Mayak were highly exposed to external gamma and inhaled plutonium. A cohort of individuals raised as children in Ozersk is under evaluation for their exposures to radioiodine. The Techa River Cohort consists of over 30,000 people who were born before the start of exposure in 1949 and lived along the Techa River. The Techa River Offspring Cohort consists of ~21,000 persons born to one or more exposed parents of this group, many who also lived along the contaminated river. The EURT Cohort consists of ~18,000 people who were evacuated from the EURT soon after the 1957 explosion and another 8,000 who remained. These groups together are the focus of dose reconstruction and epidemiological studies funded by the United States, Russia, and the European Union to address the question, "Are doses delivered at low dose rates as effective in producing health effects as the same doses delivered at high dose rates?"Introduction of Joint U.S. and Russian Studies of Population Exposures (Video 2:13, http://links.lww.com/HP/A28). PMID:24378505

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Joint effect of phosphorus limitation and temperature on alkaline phosphatase activity and somatic growth in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Kyle, Marcia; Elser, James J; Hessen, Dag O; Andersen, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a potential biomarker for phosphorus (P) limitation in zooplankton. However, knowledge about regulation of AP in this group is limited. In a laboratory acclimation experiment, we investigated changes in body AP concentration for Daphnia magna kept for 6 days at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C and fed algae with 10 different molar C:P ratios (95-660). In the same experiment, we also assessed somatic growth of the animals since phosphorus acquisition is linked to growth processes. Overall, non-linear but significant relationships of AP activity with C:P ratio were observed, but there was a stronger impact of temperature on AP activity than of P limitation. Animals from the lowest temperature treatment had higher normalized AP activity, which suggests the operation of biochemical temperature compensation mechanisms. Body AP activity increased by a factor of 1.67 for every 10 °C decrease in temperature. These results demonstrate that temperature strongly influences AP expression. Therefore, using AP as a P limitation marker in zooplankton needs to consider possible confounding effects of temperature. Both temperature and diet affected somatic growth. The temperature effect on somatic growth, expressed as the Q (10) value, responded non-linearly with C:P, with Q(10) ranging between 1.9 for lowest food C:P ratio and 1.4 for the most P-deficient food. The significant interaction between those two variables highlights the importance of studying temperature-dependent changes of growth responses to food quality. PMID:21153741

  10. Lithium enrichment on the single active K1-giant DI Piscium. Possible joint origin of differential rotation and Li enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, Zs.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Oláh, K.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the surface spot activity of the rapidly rotating, lithium-rich active single K-giant DI Psc to measure the surface differential rotation and understand the mechanisms behind the Li-enrichment. Methods: Doppler imaging was applied to recover the surface temperature distribution of DI Psc in two subsequent rotational cycles using the individual mapping lines Ca i 6439, Fe i 6430, Fe i 6421, and Li i 6708. Surface differential rotation was derived by cross-correlation of the subsequent maps. Difference maps are produced to study the uniformity of Li-enrichment on the surface. These maps are compared with the rotational modulation of the Li i 6708 line equivalent width. Results: Doppler images obtained for the Ca and Fe mapping lines agree well and reveal strong polar spottedness, as well as cool features at lower latitudes. Cross-correlating the consecutive maps yields antisolar differential rotation with a shear coefficient α = -0.083 ± 0.021. The difference of the average and the Li maps indicates that the lithium abundance is non-activity related. There is also a significant rotational modulation of the Li equivalent width. Data were gathered via OPTICON FP7 in semester 2012B.

  11. Microstructural characterization of weld joints of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel fabricated by different joining methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Paul, V.; Saroja, S.; Albert, S.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed electron microscopy study on the microstructure of various regions of weldment fabricated by three welding methods namely tungsten inert gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding in an indigenously developed 9Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. Electron back scatter diffraction studies showed a random micro-texture in all the three welds. Microstructural changes during thermal exposures were studied and corroborated with hardness and optimized conditions for the post weld heat treatment have been identified for this steel. Hollomon–Jaffe parameter has been used to estimate the extent of tempering. The activation energy for the tempering process has been evaluated and found to be corresponding to interstitial diffusion of carbon in ferrite matrix. The type and microchemistry of secondary phases in different regions of the weldment have been identified by analytical transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Comparison of microstructural parameters in TIG, electron beam and laser welds of RAFM steel • EBSD studies to illustrate the absence of preferred orientation and identification of prior austenite grain size using phase identification map • Optimization of PWHT conditions for indigenous RAFM steel • Study of kinetics of tempering and estimation of apparent activation energy of the process.

  12. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  13. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  14. WHOLE BODY COUNTING AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the human body can be described using a number of different models. The most basic is the atomic model. This chapter describes several nuclear-based techniques that have been used to obtain direct in vivo chemical assays of the whole body of humans. In particular, the body's co...

  15. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  16. Thousand Papers and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    , adaptive optics instruments for small-field high spatial-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy and multi-object spectroscopy. The VLT was also designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two or three UTs or ATs, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The impressive battery of top-ranking instruments, coupled with the enormous light-collecting power of the VLT and what is certainly the best overall efficiency for an observatory of this size, has provided a real research bonanza of outstanding scientific results, some of which have been true breakthroughs. They include the amazing new knowledge about the Black Hole at the Galactic Centre, the first image of an exoplanet, the discovery of the most distant group of galaxies, the detection of spatially resolved emission from an Active Galactic Nucleus, the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies, etc. Other important discoveries deal with accurate cosmochronological dating by means of Uranium and Thorium spectral lines, high-redshift galaxy rotation curves, micro-quasars, properties of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, high-redshift supernovae and trans-neptunian objects. These and other results are among the 1,000 scientific papers published in the six years of operation. The large impact of VLT-based results is demonstrated by their citation rates, which are among the best of ground-based observatories. Some refereed papers based on VLT data have a citation mark close to 250 only three or four years after publication. Jason Spyromilio, Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, believes this is only the beginning: "With second generation instruments to be installed and the start of operations of the Auxiliary Telescopes, providing the Very Large Telescope Interferometer a further boost, I have no doubt that the VLT will

  17. Combined effects of body composition and ageing on joint torque, muscle activation and co-contraction in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, G L

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the interplay between body mass, adiposity, ageing and determinants of skeletal muscle strength. One hundred and two untrained healthy women categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD, 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) were assessed for body fat, lean mass, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle activation capacity and antagonist muscle co-contraction. MVC torque normalised to body mass in the obese group was 35 and 29 % lower (p < 0.05) in Y and 34 and 31 % lower (p < 0.05) in O, compared with underweight and normal weight individuals, respectively. Y with ≥40 % body fat had significantly lower activation than Y with <40 % body fat (88.3 vs. 94.4 %, p < 0.05), but O did not exhibit this effect. Co-contraction was affected by ageing (16.1 % in O vs. 13.8 % in Y, p < 0.05) but not body composition. There were significant associations between markers of body composition, age, strength and activation capacity, with the strongest correlation between muscle strength and total body mass (r (2) = 0.508 in Y, p < 0.001, vs. r (2) = 0.204 in O, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the age-related loss in plantar flexion (PF) MVC torque was exacerbated in obese compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals (-0.96 vs. -0.54, -0.57 and -0.57 % per year, p < 0.05). The negative impact of adiposity on muscle performance is associated with not only muscular but also neural factors. Overall, the effects of ageing and obesity on this system are somewhat cumulative. PMID:24744050

  18. Introgression of an imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    PubMed

    Perez-Jones, Alejandro; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Hansen, Jennifer L; Zemetra, Robert S

    2006-12-01

    Imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is being commercialized in the USA. This technology allows wheat growers to selectively control jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host), a weed that is especially problematic because of its close genetic relationship with wheat. However, the potential movement of the imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat to jointed goatgrass is a concern. Winter wheat and jointed goatgrass have the D genome in common and can hybridize and backcross under natural field conditions. Since the imidazolinone-resistance gene (Imi1) is located on the D genome, it is possible for resistance to be transferred to jointed goatgrass via hybridization and backcrossing. To study the potential for gene movement, BC(2)S(2) plants were produced artificially using imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (cv. FS-4) as the female parent and a native jointed goatgrass collection as the male recurrent parent. FS-4, the jointed goatgrass collection, and 18 randomly selected BC(2)S(2) populations were treated with imazamox. The percentage of survival was 100% for the FS-4, 0% for the jointed goatgrass collection and 6 BC(2)S(2) populations, 40% or less for 2 BC(2)S(2) populations, and 50% or greater for the remaining 10 BC(2)S(2) populations. Chromosome counts in BC(2)S(3) plants showed a restoration of the chromosome number of jointed goatgrass, with four out of four plants examined having 28 chromosomes. Sequencing of AHASL1D in BC(2)S(3) plants derived from BC(2)S(2)-6 revealed the sexual transmission of Imi1 from FS-4 to jointed goatgrass. Imi1 conferred resistance to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox, as shown by the in vitro assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity. PMID:17058103

  19. Magnitudes of gluteus medius muscle activation during standing hip joint movements in spiral-diagonal patterns using elastic tubing resistance.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Steiner, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify electromyographic (EMG) activation levels (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) within the gluteus medius muscles on both moving and stance limbs across the performance of four proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) spiral-diagonal patterns in standing using resistance provided by elastic tubing. Differential EMG activity was recorded from the gluteus medius muscle of 26 healthy participants. EMG signals were collected with surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz during three consecutive repetitions of each spiral-diagonal movement pattern. Significant differences existed among the four-spiral-diagonal movement patterns (F3,75 = 19.8; p < 0.001). The diagonal two flexion [D2F] pattern produced significantly more gluteus medius muscle recruitment (50 SD 29.3% MVIC) than any of the other three patterns and the diagonal one extension [D1E] (39 SD 37% MVIC) and diagonal two extension [D2E] (35 SD 29% MVIC) patterns generated more gluteus medius muscle recruitment than diagonal one flexion [D1F] (22 SD 21% MVIC). From a clinical efficiency standpoint, a fitness professional using the spiral-diagonal movement pattern of D2F and elastic tubing with an average peak tension of about 9% body mass may be able to concurrently strengthen the gluteus medius muscle on both stance and moving lower limbs. PMID:25625644

  20. Decay counting in the age of AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, James R.

    1987-11-01

    Up to the advent of AMS, all the accomplishments of 14C dating, and the studies of 10Be and other long-lived radionuclides, were made by low-level decay counting, the technique pioneered by W.F. Libby. It will hardly be news to people at this conference that, while much was accomplished in the three decades when counting prevailed, the world has now changed decisively. I will try to give an account of where low-level counting was "before the revolution," and of what its usefulness is today. There are still some remarkable examples of its application, the best being the neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, and its potential successors. Some cosmogenic nuclides, whose half-lives are less than 10 3 yr, are still best measured by decay; this will continue unless the overall ion yield of AMS systems rises markedly from present levels. One long-lived nuclide, 53Mn, is still best measured by neutron activation as 312-day 54Mn, but this may not continue.

  1. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  2. Automation of the quantitative determination of elemental content in samples using neutron activation analysis on the IBR-2 reactor at the frank laboratory for neutron physics, joint institute for nuclear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Software for the automated quantitative determination of element concentrations in samples is described. This software is used in neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (FLNP JINR).

  3. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  4. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  5. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  6. What Really Counts in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    1991-01-01

    Brains are biological, but minds are cultural achievements. What really counts in schools is teaching children the excitement of exploring ideas, helping youngsters formulate their own problems and resolution strategies, developing multiple literacy forms, imparting the importance of wonder, creating a sense of community, and recognizing each…

  7. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  8. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  9. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  10. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  11. Automatic Crater Counts on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C.; Brumby, S.; Asphaug, E.; Chamberlain, D.; Engel, T.

    2004-03-01

    We present results of an automated crater counting technique for THEMIS data. Algorithms were developed using GENIE machine learning software. The technique detects craters, generalizes well to new data, and is used to rapidly produce R-plots and statistical data.

  12. Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

  13. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  14. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  15. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  16. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  17. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  18. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  19. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

  20. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (≥type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these

  1. [Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory joint diseases treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR) and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology (SPP) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (AT) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD), namely rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists. Due to the high risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with IJD, LTBI and AT screening should be performed as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis. Even if TB screening was performed at the beginning of the disease, the evaluation should be repeated before starting anti-TNF-alpha therapy. When TB (LTBI orAT) treatment is indicated, it should be performed before the beginning of anti-TNF-alpha therapy. If the IJD activity requires urgent anti-TNF-alpha therapy, these drugs can be started after two months of antituberculosis therapy in AT cases, or after one month in LTBI cases. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If abnormal, e.g. Gohn complex, the patient should be treated as LTBI; residual lesions require the exclusion of AT and patients with history of untreated or incomplete TB treatment should be treated as LTBI. In cases of suspected active lesions, AT diagnosis should be confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test (TST), with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If induration is less than 5 mm, the test should be repeated after 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and should be considered negative if the result is again inferior to 5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment. IfTST is performed in immunosupressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test. PMID:17094335

  2. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors: March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFalpha therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn s complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk/benefit assessment. PMID:18344925

  3. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors - March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFα therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFα therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFα therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn's complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions, ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNF-α therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk / benefit assessment. Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIV (2): 271-283. PMID:25966834

  4. Generalized Cramér-Rao Bound for Joint Estimation of Target Position and Velocity for Active and Passive Radar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Hu, Jianbin; Blum, Rick S.; Wu, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for joint target position and velocity estimation using an active or passive distributed radar network under more general, and practically occurring, conditions than assumed in previous work. In particular, the presented results allow nonorthogonal signals, spatially dependent Gaussian reflection coefficients, and spatially dependent Gaussian clutter-plus-noise. These bounds allow designers to compare the performance of their developed approaches, which are deemed to be of acceptable complexity, to the best achievable performance. If their developed approaches lead to performance close to the bounds, these developed approaches can be deemed "good enough". A particular recent study where algorithms have been developed for a practical radar application which must involve nonorthogonal signals, for which the best performance is unknown, is a great example. The presented results in our paper do not make any assumptions about the approximate location of the target being known from previous target detection signal processing. In addition, for situations in which we do not know some parameters accurately, we also derive the mismatched CRB. Numerical investigations of the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood estimation are employed to support the validity of the CRBs. In order to demonstrate the utility of the provided results to a topic of great current interest, the numerical results focus on a passive radar system using the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) cellar system.

  5. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  6. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  7. 1/Nc Countings in Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity

    2004-05-01

    The 1/N{sub c} power countings for baryon decays and configuration mixings are determined by means of a non-relativistic quark picture. Such countings are expected to be robust as the quark masses are decreased towards the chiral limit. It is shown that excited baryons have natural widths of {Omicron}(N{sub c}{sup 0}). These dominant widths are due to the decays that proceed directly to the ground state baryons, with cascade decays being suppressed to {Omicron}(1/N{sub c}). Configuration mixings, defined as mixings between states belonging to different O(3) x SU(2N{sub f}) multiplets, are shown to be sub-leading in an expansion in 1/{radical}N{sub c}, except for certain mixings between excited multiplets belonging to the mixed-symmetric spin-flavor representation and different O(3) representations, where the mixings are of zeroth order in 1/N{sub c}.

  8. Stability of fringe counting interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, J. W.; Andrew, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two configurations of an automatic bidirectional, fringe-counting corner-cube interferometer are compared. They differ only in the method of quadrature phase introduction. The one using polarization coding has good phase stability at optical path differences as large as 955 mm, the one using adjacent beams has such poor phase stability as to render it useless at path differences greater than 700 mm. A useful well-defined alignment procedure is given for the corner-cube interferometer.

  9. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  10. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  11. Uncertain Forecast: Education Adjusts to a New Economic Reality. Quality Counts, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This year's "Quality Counts" report, the 15th edition of this annual report produced through the joint efforts of the "Education Week" newsroom and the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, arrives at a time of continued fiscal anxiety and education policy ferment in the wake of what has been widely described as the "Great Recession" of…

  12. Activities implemented jointly: First report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accomplishments and descriptions of projects accepted under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the US view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively--called joint implementation (JI)--holds significant potential both for combating the threat of global warming and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the US launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) in October 1993, and designed the program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate climate change. The USIJI provides a mechanism for investments by US entities in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and has developed a set of criteria for evaluating proposed projects for their potential to reduce net GHG emissions.

  13. The 1995 Mw 7.2 Gulf of Aqaba Earthquake revisited: Identifying active fault segments by joint inversion of geodetic and teleseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, H.; Feng, G.; Heimann, S.; Jonsson, S.; Mai, P. M.; Nikkhoo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The largest earthquakes in Saudi Arabia occur at the northwestern boundary of the Arabian plate on a system of left-lateral transform faults extending from the Red Sea in the South and North through the Gulf of Aqaba. The last major earthquake along this boundary occurred in November 1995 and in a complex tectonic setting offshore in the Gulf of Aqaba, consisting of several transform faults and pull-apart basins. Various authors have studied this earthquake in the past, either by using geodetic radar (InSAR) or teleseismic (P and S waves) data, and several source models of the earthquake rupture and the active fault segments have been proposed. However, these source models differ significantly from each other and it still remains unclear which fault segments within the Gulf were activated during the event. There are various reasons for these differences. Teleseismic data alone cannot locate the event well, whereas the lack of near field co-seismic displacement data (due to the event's offshore location) and the quasi north-south oriented strike-slip faulting of the earthquake result in a low SNR in the radar data. Consequently, the uncertainties of inferred model parameters are large and have not been properly estimated so far. In this work, we use radar data from two additional tracks that have not been used before, which provides a more complete displacement field of the earthquake. By using multiple aperture radar interferometry it is possible to better constrain the south-north oriented strike-slip component. In addition, we include both the geodetic data and the teleseismic data in a joint inversion setup allowing combining the strengths of each dataset to constrain the model parameters. By including the full data-variance covariance-matrixes in Bayesian inference sampling, we estimate the model-uncertainties and the related range of likely source models. Consequently, we re-evaluate, which fault segments were activated during the earthquake in the Gulf of

  14. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  15. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... published guidance on the eligibility of joint development activities for FTA funding. 72 FR 5788 (Feb. 7... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit...

  16. Metatarsal phalangeal joint arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shonka, T E

    1991-01-01

    An overview of metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) arthroscopy is presented. Indications, technique, and perioperative management are discussed. The author believes it is the operative treatment of choice for various pathology encountered in this joint. PMID:2002183

  17. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  18. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: the ...

  19. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  20. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  1. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur ( ...

  2. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  3. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  4. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the ...

  6. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... URL Español What I need to know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes Page Content On this page: ... counting? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate * counting, also called carb counting, is ...

  7. Atypical molecular profile for joint development in the avian costal joint.

    PubMed

    Winslow, B B; Burke, A C

    2010-10-01

    Development of synovial joints involves generation of cartilaginous anlagen, formation of interzones between cartilage anlagen, and cavitation of interzones to produce fluid filled cavities. Interzone development is not fully understood, but interzones are thought to develop from skeletogenic cells that are inhibited from further chondrogenic development by a cascade of gene expression including Wnt and Bmp family members. We examined the development of the rarely studied avian costal joint to better understand mechanisms of joint development. The costal joint is found within ribs, is morphologically similar to the metatarsophalangeal joint, and undergoes cavitation in a similar manner. In contrast to other interzones, Wnt14/9a, Gdf5, Chordin, Barx1, and Bapx1 are absent from the costal joint interzone, consistent with the absence of active β-catenin and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. However Autotaxin and Noggin are expressed. The molecular profile of the costal joint suggests there are alternative mechanisms of interzone development. PMID:20730871

  8. Sacroiliac joint imaging.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joint has several unique anatomical features that make it one of the more challenging joints to image. The joint is difficult to profile well on radiographic views, and therefore the radiographic findings of sacroiliitis are often equivocal. Computed tomography images can usually show the findings of sacroiliitis and osteoarthritis earlier than radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging performed with proper sequences is excellent for diagnosing even very early sacroiliitis and for following treatment response. The SI joint is often involved in patients with osteoarthritis or one of the inflammatory spondyloarthritides, most notably ankylosing spondylitis. Ankylosing spondylitis often presents with sacroiliitis, which appears as erosions, sclerosis, and joint space narrowing, eventually leading to ankylosis. Several disorders can cause sacroiliitis-like changes of the joint, including hyperparathyroidism and repetitive shear-stress injuries in athletes. The joint can become painful during pregnancy as it widens and develops increased motion, and some postpartum women develop iliac sclerosis adjacent to the joint termed osteitis condensans ilii. Another cause of SI joint pain is a disorder called sacroiliac joint dysfunction, which typically has few abnormal imaging findings. Patients with SI joint dysfunction, as well as sacroiliitis, often get relief from image-guided SI joint therapeutic injections. PMID:18382946

  9. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  10. The development of a four-way linking framework in Egypt: an example of the FAO, OIE and WHO joint activities to facilitate national risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Simona; El-din El Tantawy, Nasr; Yilma, Jobre; AbdelNabi, Amira; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectoral assessment of health risks arising or existing at the human-animal interface is crucial to identifying and implementing effective national disease control measures. This requires availability of information from 4 functional information 'streams' - epidemiological, laboratory, animal, and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/ World Health Organization (WHO) Four-Way Linking (4WL) project promotes the establishing of a national-level joint framework for data sharing, risk assessment, and risk communication, in order to both improve communications within and among governmental public health and animal health influenza laboratories, epidemiology offices, national partners, with the aim of strengthening the national capacity to detect, report and assess risks arising from emerging influenza viruses. The project is currently being implemented in countries where H5N1 avian influenza is endemic and where human cases have been reported. The project is comprised of two main activities at country level: a 'review mission', which is the project launch in the country and has the objective to assess the existing situation; and a 'scenario based workshop', with the scope to bring together key national partners and build relationships among people working in the 4 information streams and to improve understanding of national strengths and gaps. During the workshop the delegates engaged in interactive sessions on basic risk assessment and devoted to specify the needs and roles of the 4 different streams. The participants work through a mock influenza outbreak scenario, which practically illustrates how risk assessment and communication of an emergency at the animal-human interface is more effective when there is linking of the 4 streams, collaboration, communication, and coordinated action. In 2010, Egypt was the first country where the project was successfully implemented

  11. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  12. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  13. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  14. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  15. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  16. Phenotypic characteristics of joint fluid cells from patients with continuous joint effusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Otani, Toshiro; Yatabe, Taku; Funayama, Atsushi; Maeno, Shinichi; Tomatsu, Taisuke; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-03-01

    Joint effusion after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a manifestation of inflammatory reactions within the prosthetic joint. Among the various causes for joint effusion following TJA, deep infection (DI), wear particle-induced synovitis (PS) and metal sensitivity to the implant should be excluded as soon as possible, as these may result in the failure of TJA. The present study analyzed joint fluid cells from patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), and examined the feasibility of using FACS to exclude the possibility of biomaterial-related complication. A total of 72TKAs from 64 patients suffering from joint effusion were examined in this study. Joint fluid was aspirated in outpatient clinics and applied to FACS. The results indicated that patients could be clearly classified into four types based on forward/side scatter profiles. Analysis of specific CD markers revealed that leukocytes were selectively recruited from blood to inflamed prosthetic joints. Dominant cell types were CD16+neutrophils in DI and increased rheumatoid activity, CD14+macrophages in PS, and CD3+CD45RO+T cells in metal sensitivity. These findings suggest the feasibility of diagnosing joint effusion by analyzing dominant cell type recruited using FACS. In conclusion, FACS may offer a useful tool for analyzing joint fluid cells from post-TJA patients and for excluding biomaterial-related complication following TJA. PMID:16183112

  17. The Money/Counting Kit. The Prospectus Series, Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musumeci, Judith

    The Money/Counting Kit for Handicapped Children and Youth, frees the teacher from lessons in money and counting concepts and enables a student to learn at his own rate with immediate feedback from activity cards, name cards, thermoformed coin cards (optional), and self-instructional booklets. The activity cards, which may be used individually or…

  18. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  19. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  20. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Turkmensoy, Fatih; Erinc, Samet; Ergin, Omer Naci; Ozkan, Korhan; Kemah, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level. PMID:25861501

  1. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  5. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Septic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    The pathological invasion of a joint and subsequent inflammation is known as septic arthritis. The knee and hip are the most frequently involved joints. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. An acute onset of illness with an inflamed painful joint and restricted movements and inability to use joint (pseudoparalysis) clinically indicates septic arthritis. The diagnosis is difficult in a neonate or young child where refusal to feed, crying, discomfort during change of diaper (if hip is involved) or attempted joint movement may be the only findings. Fever and other systemic signs may also be absent in neonates. Septic arthritis is diagnosed clinically, supported by appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations. The peripheral blood white cell count is frequently raised with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often markedly raised. Ultrasonography and MRI are preferred investigations in pediatric septic arthritis. Determination of infecting organism in septic arthritis is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management. Joint aspirate and/or blood culture should be obtained before starting antibiotic treatment. Several effective antibiotic regimes are available for managing septic arthritis in children. Presence of large collections, thick pus, joint loculations and pus evacuating into surrounding soft tissues are main indications for surgical drainage. Joint aspiration can be a practical alternative in case the lesion is diagnosed early, with uncomplicated presentations and superficial joints. PMID:26189923

  6. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in C-C and C-SiC Composites to Copper-Clad-Molybdenum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices, and C/SiC composites reinforced with T-300 carbon fibers in a CVI SiC matrix were joined to Cu-clad Mo using two Ag-Cu braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward delamination in resin-derived C/C composite. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the C/C joints indicated sharp gradients at the interface, and a higher hardness in Ticusil than in Cusil-ABA. For the C/SiC composite to Cu-clad-Mo joints, the effect of composite surface preparation revealed that ground samples did not crack whereas unground samples cracked. Calculated strain energy in brazed joints in both systems is comparable to the strain energy in a number of other ceramic/metal systems. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that such joined systems may be promising for thermal management applications.

  7. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  8. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  9. Counting solutions from finite samplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290

  10. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  11. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    PubMed

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  12. A quick liquid scintillation counting technique for analysis of ⁹⁰Sr in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, to improve the problem of waiting for the growth of (90)Y for Cerenkov counting and save the time of (90)Sr analysis, an organic cocktail sample was counted by a liquid scintillation counting system immediately after the purification of (90)Sr without waiting for the growth of (90)Y. The chemical separation and the measurement procedures for (90)Sr radioactivity analysis can be completed in 24h. In order to verify the performance of the improved method, the activity of (90)Sr in six environmental reference samples was determined after radiochemical purification with a crown-ether resin column, and subsequent measurement by both the Cerenkov and the organic cocktail liquid scintillation counting methods. The results revealed that the organic cocktail liquid scintillation counting was quicker and had higher efficiency and lower minimum detectable activity (MDA) than the Cerenkov counting. PMID:23582495

  13. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    SciTech Connect

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  14. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  15. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  16. In vivo human knee joint dynamic properties as functions of muscle contraction and joint position.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Q; Nuber, G; Butler, J; Bowen, M; Rymer, W Z

    1998-01-01

    Information on the dynamic properties (joint stiffness, viscosity and limb inertia) of the human knee joint is scarce in the literature, especially for actively contracting knee musculature. A joint driving device was developed to apply small-amplitude random perturbations to the human knee at several flexion angles with the subject maintaining various levels of muscle contraction. It was found that joint stiffness and viscosity increased with muscle contraction substantially, while limb inertia was constant. Stiffness produced by the quadriceps was highest at 30 degrees flexion and decreased with increasing or decreasing flexion angle, while knee flexors produced highest stiffness at 90 degree flexion. When knee flexion was < 60 degrees, stiffness produced by the quadriceps was higher than that of the hamstrings and gastrocnemius at the same level of background muscle torque, while knee flexor muscles produced higher stiffnesses than the quadriceps at 90 degree flexion. Similar but less obvious trends were observed for joint viscosity. Passive joint stiffness at full knee extension was significantly higher than in more flexed positions. Surprisingly, as the knee joint musculature changed from relaxed to contracting at 50% MVC, system damping ratio remained at about 0.2. This outcome potentially simplifies neuromuscular control of the knee joint. In contrast, the natural undamped frequency increased more than twofold, potentially making the knee joint respond more quickly to the central nervous system commands. The approach described here provides us with a potentially valuable tool to quantify in vivo dynamic properties of normal and pathological human knee joints. PMID:9596540

  17. Joint Impedance Decreases during Movement Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ludvig, Daniel; Antos, Stephen A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the joint influence how we interact with our environment and hence are important in the control of both posture and movement. Many studies have investigated how the mechanical properties—specifically the impedance—of different joints vary with different postural tasks. However, studies on how joint impedance varies with movement remain limited. The few studies that have investigated how impedance varies with movement have found that impedance is lower during movement than during posture. In this study we investigated how impedance changed as people transitioned from a postural task to a movement task. We found that subjects’ joint impedances decreased at the initiation of movement, prior to increasing at the cessation of movement. This decrease in impedance occurred even though the subjects’ torque and EMG levels increased. These findings suggest that during movement the central nervous system may control joint impedance independently of muscle activation. PMID:23366632

  18. Deep UV photon-counting detectors and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gary A.; Siegel, Andrew M.; Model, Joshua; Geboff, Adam; Soloviev, Stanislav; Vert, Alexey; Sandvik, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Photon counting detectors are used in many diverse applications and are well-suited to situations in which a weak signal is present in a relatively benign background. Examples of successful system applications of photon-counting detectors include ladar, bio-aerosol detection, communication, and low-light imaging. A variety of practical photon-counting detectors have been developed employing materials and technologies that cover the waveband from deep ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared. However, until recently, photoemissive detectors (photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and their variants) were the only viable technology for photon-counting in the deep UV region of the spectrum. While PMTs exhibit extremely low dark count rates and large active area, they have other characteristics which make them unsuitable for certain applications. The characteristics and performance limitations of PMTs that prevent their use in some applications include bandwidth limitations, high bias voltages, sensitivity to magnetic fields, low quantum efficiency, large volume and high cost. Recently, DARPA has initiated a program called Deep UV Avalanche Photodiode (DUVAP) to develop semiconductor alternatives to PMTs for use in the deep UV. The higher quantum efficiency of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) detectors and the ability to fabricate arrays of individually-addressable detectors will open up new applications in the deep UV. In this paper, we discuss the system design trades that must be considered in order to successfully replace low-dark count, large-area PMTs with high-dark count, small-area GM-APD detectors. We also discuss applications that will be enabled by the successful development of deep UV GM-APD arrays, and we present preliminary performance data for recently fabricated silicon carbide GM-APD arrays.

  19. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  20. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  1. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  2. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  3. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  4. Pipeline joint protector

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes a weight coated pipeline joint protective apparatus for protecting pipeline joints against impact or high stress concentrations. It consists of a high density plastic sheet wrapped around a pipeline joint with the opposite edges of such sheet overlaying the weight of coat material on the abutting pipes forming the joint. The first end of the sheet overlaps the wrapped sheet with means for securing such first end to the sheet surface near or adjacent to the opposite end of such sheet.

  5. A new shoulder model with a biologically inspired glenohumeral joint.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2016-09-01

    Kinematically unconstrained biomechanical models of the glenohumeral (GH) joint are needed to study the GH joint function, especially the mechanisms of joint stability. The purpose of this study is to develop a large-scale multibody model of the upper limb that simulates the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the GH joint and to propose a novel inverse dynamics procedure that allows the evaluation of not only the muscle and joint reaction forces of the upper limb but also the GH joint translations. The biomechanical model developed is composed of 7 rigid bodies, constrained by 6 anatomical joints, and acted upon by 21 muscles. The GH joint is described as a spherical joint with clearance. Assuming that the GH joint translates according to the muscle load distribution, the redundant muscle load sharing problem is formulated considering as design variables the 3 translational coordinates associated with the GH joint translations, the joint reaction forces associated with the remaining kinematic constraints, and the muscle activations. For the abduction motion in the frontal plane analysed, the muscle and joint reaction forces estimated by the new biomechanical model proposed are similar to those estimated by a model in which the GH joint is modeled as an ideal spherical joint. Even though this result supports the assumption of an ideal GH joint to study the muscle load sharing problem, only a 6 DOF model of the GH joint, as the one proposed here, provides information regarding the joint translations. In this study, the biomechanical model developed predicts an initial upward and posterior migration of the humeral head, followed by an inferior and anterior movement, which is in good agreement with the literature. PMID:27381499

  6. Advantages of Photon Counting Detectors for Terahertz Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ezawa, Hajime

    2016-08-01

    For astronomical observation at terahertz frequencies, a variety of cryogenic detector technologies are being developed to achieve background-limited observation from space, where a noise equivalent power (NEP) of less than 10^{-18} W/Hz^{0.5} is often required. When each photon signal is resolved in time, the requirements on NEP are reduced and 1 ns time resolution corresponds to an NEP of approximately 10^{-17} W/Hz^{0.5} at THz frequencies. Furthermore, fast photon counting detectors have a high dynamic range to observe bright terahertz sources such as stars and active galactic nuclei. Applications of photon counting detector are discussed for cosmic microwave background and photon counting terahertz interferometry.

  7. A mixed time series model of binomial counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Wooi Chen; Ong, Seng Huat

    2015-10-01

    Continuous time series modelling has been an active research in the past few decades. However, time series data in terms of correlated counts appear in many situations such as the counts of rainy days and access downloading. Therefore, the study on count data has become popular in time series modelling recently. This article introduces a new mixture model, which is an univariate non-negative stationary time series model with binomial marginal distribution, arising from the combination of the well-known binomial thinning and Pegram's operators. A brief review of important properties will be carried out and the EM algorithm is applied in parameter estimation. A numerical study is presented to show the performance of the model. Finally, a potential real application will be presented to illustrate the advantage of the new mixture model.

  8. Automated pneumatic transfer irradiation system for delayed neutron counting

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, Paul G.; Millard, Hugh T. Jr.; Zermane, Albert J

    1982-07-01

    The Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor has been used for uranium and thorium neutron activation analysis by delayed neutron counting for the past eleven years. As the requirements for analysis increased the original General Atomic pneumatic system was upgraded in several stages. By 1979 we had reached the practical limits of safe through-put for that system and a new pneumatic transfer system was built. A single large Roots type blower is used to drive four individual transfer tubes simultaneously (two termini in the core and two outside the reflector). A microprocessor controls the operation and is paced by a minicomputer, which is also used to collect and reduce the counting data. Two irradiations and counting cycles are performed on each sample, one in the core, a Cd-lined terminus for thorium, and one in the reflector mounted terminus for uranium. Video displays at both the reactor console and the pneumatic system operating station indicate the status of the system and the locations of the samples at all times. This highly automated system is capable of 1,200 irradiations for delayed neutron counting in a 10 hour day, and, in addition, incorporates programmable versatility for other irradiation-counting experiments, and provides a high degree of reactor and radiological safety with only remote operator attention. (author)

  9. Medical audit data: counting is not enough.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, C; Gumpert, R

    1990-01-01

    crude analyses of workload and complications rates, the audit data helped to measure activity and in the management of the firm. Nevertheless, time and care have to be taken in presenting and interpreting audit data carefully. IMPLICATIONS--Counting is not enough. PMID:2372625

  10. Computer networks for financial activity management, control and statistics of databases of economic administration at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyupikova, T. V.; Samoilov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    Modern information technologies urge natural sciences to further development. But it comes together with evaluation of infrastructures, to spotlight favorable conditions for the development of science and financial base in order to prove and protect legally new research. Any scientific development entails accounting and legal protection. In the report, we consider a new direction in software, organization and control of common databases on the example of the electronic document handling, which functions in some departments of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  11. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  12. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  13. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  14. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  15. Photon counting with an EMCCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

  16. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  17. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization.

    PubMed

    Peronio, P; Acconcia, G; Rech, I; Ghioni, M

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115

  18. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  19. Compound solder joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.; Simonson, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Joining technique prevents contamination, may be used to join dissimilar metal tubes, minimizes fluid and gas entrapment, expedites repairs, and can yield joints having leakage rates less than 0.000001 standard cubic cm He/min. Components of joint are solder sleeve, two solder rings, Teflon sleeve, and tubing to be joined.

  20. Wedge Joints for Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Structure assembled rapidly with simple hand tools. Proposed locking wedge joints enable rapid assembly of lightweight beams, towers, scaffolds, and other truss-type structures. Lightweight structure assembled from tubular struts joined at nodes by wedge pins fitting into mating slots. Joint assembled rapidly by seating wedge pin in V-shaped slots and deforming end of strut until primary pawl engages it.

  1. "Nonfloating" universal joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    Modified crowned-spline joint is lightweight, durable, and requires minimum of parts. It does not use rubber cushions to limit play and is useful over wide temperature range. It has inner ball and socket to provide rigid connection with no axial play. Joint can be adapted to form pinned connection between segmented torque tubes.

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the place where the sacrum and the iliac bones join. The ... The main purpose of the joint is to connect the spine and the pelvis. As a result, there is very little movement at the SIJ. Major reasons ...

  3. Young children's understanding of joint commitments.

    PubMed

    Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint activity, 3-year-olds (n = 24) reacted to the break significantly more often (e.g., by trying to re-engage her or waiting for her to restart playing) than when she simply joined the child's individual activity unbidden. Two-year-olds (n = 24) did not differentiate between these 2 situations. In the second study, 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 30 at each age) were enticed away from their activity with an adult. Children acknowledged their leaving (e.g., by looking to the adult or handing her the object they had been playing with) significantly more often when they had made a joint commitment to act together than when they had not. By 3 years of age, children thus recognize both when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to a joint activity. PMID:19702403

  4. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  5. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  6. Electronic hidden solder joint geometry characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2009-05-01

    To reduce the size of electronic equipment, multi-layer printed circuit board structures have become popular in recent years. As a result, the inspection of hidden solder joints between layers of boards has become increasingly difficult. Xray machines have been used for ball grid array (BGA) and hidden solder joint inspection; however, the equipment is costly and the inspection process is time consuming. In this paper, we investigate an active thermography approach to probing solder joint geometry. A set of boards having the same number of solder joints and amount of solder paste (0.061 g) was fabricated. Each solder joint had a different geometry. A semi-automated system was built to heat and then transfer each board to a chamber where an infrared camera was used to scan the board as it was cooling down. Two-thirds of the data set was used for model development and one-third was used for model evaluation. Both artificial neural network (ANN) and binary logistic regression models were constructed. Results suggest that solder joints with more surface area cool much faster than those with less surface area. In addition, both modeling approaches are consistent in predicting solder geometry; ANN had 85% accuracy and the regression model had 80%. This approach can potentially be used to test for cold solder joints prior to BGA assembly, since cold solder joints may have air gaps between the joint and the board and air is a poor heat conductor. Therefore, a cold solder joint may have a slower cooling rate than a normal one.

  7. Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

    Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

  8. Persistence of antigen in nonarthritic joints.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, A; Glynn, L E

    1975-01-01

    The presence of antigen, IgG and C3 was shown by radioautography and immunofluorescence in the collagenous tissues of the joints of animals injected intra-articularly with antigen after having been previously immunized with that antigen in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Since these joints were shown to be virtually free of inflammatory reactions, we suggest that the persistence of immune complexes activating complement cannot fully explain the chronicity of experimental allergic arthritis. Images PMID:769709

  9. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  12. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  13. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  14. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  15. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  16. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  17. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  18. Accuracy of Carbohydrate Counting in Adults.

    PubMed

    Meade, Lisa T; Rushton, Wanda E

    2016-07-01

    In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education. PMID:27621531

  19. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

  20. Make Each Five Minutes Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Madeline

    1973-01-01

    Every day contains those unavoidable waiting periods, but they need not be unproductive. You can convert waiting time to learning with the help of sponge activities---learning activities which "sop up" those precious droplets of time that would otherwise be lost. (Author)