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Sample records for active joint count

  1. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  2. Reducing periprosthetic joint infection: what really counts?

    PubMed Central

    SOLARINO, GIUSEPPE; ABATE, ANTONELLA; VICENTI, GIOVANNI; SPINARELLI, ANTONIO; PIAZZOLLA, ANDREA; MORETTI, BIAGIO

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most challenging complications after joint arthroplasty. Despite improvements in surgical techniques and in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, it remains a major cause of implant failure and need for revision. PJI is associated with both human host-related and bacterial agent-related factors that can interact in all the phases of the procedure (preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative). Prevention is the first strategy to implement in order to minimize this catastrophic complication. The present review focuses on the preoperative period, and on what to do once risk factors are fully understood and have been identified. PMID:26904527

  3. Twenty‐eight‐joint counts invalidate the DAS28 remission definition owing to the omission of the lower extremity joints: a comparison with the original DAS remission

    PubMed Central

    Landewé, R; van der Heijde, D; van der Linden, S; Boers, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare 28 joint disease activity score (DAS28) remission with comprehensive joint count DAS remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 620 actually measured paired observations of DAS28 and DAS were analysed in 155 patients. Discordant observations (either DAS or DAS28 below remission cut off level: 1.6 for DAS and 2.6 for DAS28) and concordant observations (both DAS and DAS28 below their remission cut off level) were analysed separately. Results 91 of 620 paired DAS observations (15%) were discordant; 87 (in 53 patients) comprised observations in which the DAS28 remission criterion, but not the DAS remission criterion, was met. The reverse was found in only four observations, which were therefore omitted. With the original DAS as standard, DAS28 sensitivity was 95% and specificity 84%. Probability plots showed a swollen joint count >0 in 75% of discordant pairs v 48% of concordant pairs. The same was found for total joint count (TJC >0 in 90% v 40%; median TJC, 0 v 6) and patient global assessment, but not for ESR. Individual joint analysis showed that 51% of discordant v 18% of concordant observations (p<0.0005) had involvement of lower extremity joints that are not included in the DAS28. Conclusions DAS remission is more conservative than DAS28 remission. Activity (tenderness and swelling) in joints not included in the reduced joint counts (ankles, feet) mainly account for the discrepancy between the two assessments. DAS28 remission at a cut off level of 2.6 has insufficient construct validity and should be used with caution in clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:16219709

  4. Suspending and Reinstating Joint Activities with Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalley, Eric; Bangerter, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are common in joint activities like conversations. Typically, interrupted participants suspend the activity, address the interruption, and then reinstate the activity. In conversation, people jointly commit to interact and to talk about a topic, establishing these commitments sequentially. When a commitment is suspended, face is…

  5. Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

  6. Diagnosing joint infections: synovial fluid differential is more sensitive than white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sean; Price, Connie; Hak, David J

    2014-12-01

    In order to identify the predictive value of synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and differential white blood cell count in identifying nonprosthetic joint infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed populations, we retrospectively reviewed 96 adult patients who underwent hip or knee aspiration because of symptoms suggesting a possible nonprosthetic joint infection. Medical history, including immunosuppressive disease or drugs, was recorded, and synovial fluid cell count, differential, and culture results were compared. There were 44 patients with positive synovial cultures. Of 36 patients who had a synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³, 89% had positive cultures. The sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.727 (95% CI 0.570-0.845), and specificity was 0.923 (95% CI 0.806-0.975). There were 12 patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ that had positive cultures. The sensitivity of percentage polymorphonuclear cells (%PMNs) to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.932, 0.886, and 0.818, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.598, 0.577, and 0.673, respectively. Among the 29% of immunocompromised patients, the sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.714 (95% CI 0.420-0.904), and specificity was 1.000 (95% CI 0.732-1.000). Twenty-nine percent of patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ had positive cultures. The sensitivity of %PMNs to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 1.000, 0.929, and 0.786, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.500, 0.643, and 0.714, respectively. We found that the synovial WBC differential (percentage synovial fluid PMNs) is a more sensitive predictor for nonprosthetic adult joint infection than the synovial absolute WBC count. This was true in both the general population and the immunosuppressed population.

  7. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  8. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  9. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  10. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  11. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz I; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  12. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz I; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  13. Uncertainty of knee joint muscle activity during knee joint torque exertion: the significance of controlling adjacent joint torque.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Daichi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2005-09-01

    In the single-joint torque exertion task, which has been widely used to control muscle activity, only the relevant joint torque is specified. However, the neglect of the neighboring joint could make the procedure unreliable, considering our previous result that even monoarticular muscle activity level is indefinite without specifying the adjacent joint torque. Here we examined the amount of hip joint torque generated with knee joint torque and its influence on the activity of the knee joint muscles. Twelve healthy subjects were requested to exert various levels of isometric knee joint torque. The knee and hip joint torques were obtained by using a custom-made device. Because no information about hip joint torque was provided to the subjects, the hip joint torque measured here was a secondary one associated with the task. The amount of hip joint torque varied among subjects, indicating that they adopted various strategies to achieve the task. In some subjects, there was a considerable internal variability in the hip joint torque. Such variability was not negligible, because the knee joint muscle activity level with respect to the knee joint torque, as quantified by surface electromyography (EMG), changed significantly when the subjects were requested to change the strategy. This change occurred in a very systematic manner: in the case of the knee extension, as the hip flexion torque was larger, the activity of mono- and biarticular knee extensors decreased and increased, respectively. These results indicate that the conventional single knee joint torque exertion has the drawback that the intersubject and/or intertrial variability is inevitable in the relative contribution among mono- and biarticular muscles because of the uncertainty of the hip joint torque. We discuss that the viewpoint that both joint torques need to be considered will bring insights into various controversial problems such as the shape of the EMG-force relationship, neural factors that help

  14. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Foldspang, A; Vestergaard, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension.

  15. Active Well Counting Using New PSD Plastic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2015-11-01

    This report presents results and analysis from a series of proof-of-concept measurements to assess the suitability of segmented detectors constructed from Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability for the purposes of quantifying uranium via active neutron coincidence counting. Present quantification of bulk uranium materials for international safeguards and domestic materials control and accounting relies on active neutron coincidence counting systems, such as the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL), that use moderated He-3 proportional counters along with necessarily low-intensity 241Am(Li) neutron sources. Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are a potentially superior technology to the existing AWCC and UNCL designs due to their spectroscopic capability and their inherently short neutron coincidence times that largely eliminate random coincidences and enable interrogation by stronger sources. One of the past impediments to the investigation and adoption of scintillation counters for the purpose of quantifying bulk uranium was the commercial availability of scintillators having the necessary neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination properties only as flammable liquids. Recently, Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator became commercially available. The present work is the first assessment of an array of PSD-plastic detectors for the purposes of quantifying bulk uranium. The detector panel used in the present work was originally built as the focal plane for a fast-neutron imager, but it was repurposed for the present investigation by construction of a stand to support the inner well of an AWCC immediately in front of the detector panel. The detector panel and data acquisition of this system are particularly well suited for performing active-well fast-neutron counting of LEU and HEU samples because the active detector volume is solid, the 241Am(Li) interrogating

  16. Invariant joint distribution of a stationary random field and its derivatives: Euler characteristic and critical point counts in 2 and 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitry; Gay, Christophe; Pichon, Christophe

    2009-10-15

    The full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian are presented in 2 and 3D. It allows for explicit expression for the Euler characteristic in ND and computation of extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold and the spectral parameter, as illustrated on model examples.

  17. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  18. Authentic active learning activities demonstrating the use of serial dilutions and plate counts.

    PubMed

    March, Jordon K; Jensen, Kyle C; Porter, Nathan T; Breakwell, Donald P

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  19. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz.

  20. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  1. Comparison of two HPGe counting system used in activation studies for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2014-05-09

    The activation method is a widely used technique to measure charged-particle induced cross sections for astrophys-ical applications. This two step technique is used for example to measure alpha-induced cross sections in γ-process related studies. The first step – in which a target is irradiated with a proton/alpha beam – is followed by the determination of the produced activity. Especially in p-process related studies in the heavier mass range, the produced radioactive nuclei decays mainly with electron-capture, resulting intense x-rays. The activity of the reaction products hence can be determine via the counting of these x-rays, and not only by counting the usually much weaker γ-rays. In this paper we compare the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used for x- and γ-ray counting in activation experiments.

  2. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  3. Quantitative recording of physician clinical estimates, beyond a global estimate and formal joint count, in usual care: applying the scientific method, using a simple one-page worksheet.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Theodore; Bergman, Martin J

    2009-11-01

    Little attention has been directed to quantitation of clinical impressions and estimates of physicians. This article describes a one-page worksheet for completion by the physician at each patient visit. It includes a physician global estimate and estimate of change in status and four quantitative estimates for the degree of inflammation, degree of organ damage, and degree of fibromyalgia or somatization. An estimate of prognosis is recorded, with no therapy and with available therapies. All changes in medications are recorded. A template is available for a formal 42 joint count. The worksheet requires fewer than 15 seconds and has proven of considerable value in clinical care.

  4. Accelerometer-Derived Total Activity Counts, Bouted Minutes of Moderate to Vigorous Activity, and Insulin Resistance: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L.; Bassett, David R.; Churilla, James R.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to compare the associations of accelerometer-derived total activity counts per day and minutes of bouted moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with insulin resistance. Methods The sample included 2,394 adults (aged ≥20 y) from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Time spent in MVPA, measured by using 2 cutpoints (≥2,020 counts/min [MVPA2,020] and ≥760 counts/min [MVPA760]), was calculated for bouts of at least 8 to 10 minutes. Total activity counts per day reflects the total amount of activity across all intensities. Insulin resistance was measured via the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Two nested regression models regressed HOMA-IR and QUICKI, respectively, on minutes of bouted MVPA and total activity counts per day. We used an adjusted Wald F statistic to illustrate strength of association. Results After adjustment for covariates, total activity counts per day was more strongly associated with both HOMA-IR (adjusted Wald F = 36.83 , P < .001) and QUICKI (adjusted Wald F = 29.44, P < .001) compared with MVPA2,020 (HOMA-IR, adjusted Wald F = 4.00, P = .06; QUICKI, adjusted Wald F = 1.08, P = .31).Total activity counts per day was more strongly associated with both HOMA-IR (adjusted Wald F = 13.64, P < .001) and QUICKI (adjusted Wald F = 12.10, P < .001) compared with MVPA760 (HOMA-IR, adjusted Wald F = 1.13, P = .30; QUICKI, adjusted Wald F = 0.97, P = .33). Conclusion Our study indicated that total activity counts per day has stronger associations with insulin resistance compared with minutes of bouted MVPA. The most likely explanation is that total activity counts per day captures data on light physical activity and intermittent MVPA, both of which influence insulin resistance. PMID:27763832

  5. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  6. Correlation of direct viable counts with heterotrophic activity for marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kogure, K; Simidu, U; Taga, N; Colwell, R R

    1987-10-01

    Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste.

  7. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  8. PMN cell counts and phagocytic activity of highly trained athletes depend on training period.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Strobel, G; Weiss, M; Weicker, H

    1994-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell counts and phagocytic activity determined by latex ingestion and superoxide anion production are influenced by different training periods. We investigated long-distance runners before and up to 24 h after a graded exercise test to exhaustion during moderate training (MT) and intense training (IT) and compared them with untrained (control) subjects. Cell counts and phagocytic activity at rest and after exercise did not differ significantly between MT and control. On the contrary, IT showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in PMN cell count at rest (2.55 +/- 0.3 cells/nl) compared with MT (3.63 +/- 0.2 cells/nl) and control (3.41 +/- 0.8 cells/nl). Furthermore, phagocytic activity was significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) in IT at rest and after exercise compared with MT and control. A strong inverse correlation (r = -0.75; P < or = 0.01) between epinephrine and superoxide anion production was found. These results provide evidence that the phagocytic activity depends on the training period and indicate impaired PMN functions during IT, which might lead to increased susceptibility to infection.

  9. Particle counting as a tool to predict filterability in membrane bioreactors activated sludge?

    PubMed

    Lousada-Ferreira, M; Moreau, A; van Lier, J B; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2011-01-01

    Activated sludge quality is one of the major factors influencing flux decline in membrane bioreactors (MBRS). Sludge filterability is a recognized parameter to characterize the physical properties of activated sludge. Decrease in filterability is linked to a higher number of submicron particles. In our present research we studied whether particle counting techniques can be used to indicate deflocculation of the sludge suspended fraction to submicron particles, causing the aforementioned filterability decrease. A total number of 105 activated sludge samples were collected in four full scale municipal MBRS. Samples were tested for filterability and particle counting in the range 2-100 microm. In 88% of the membrane tank samples the filterability varied between good and poor, characterized by the deltaR20, being 0 < deltaR20 < 1. Filterability varied following the season of the year, stability of the MBR operation and recirculation ratio. The membrane tank filterability can be improved by applying low recirculation ratio between MBR tanks. The applied particle counting methodology generated reproducible and reliable results in the range 10-100 microm. Results show that differences in filterability cannot be explained by variations in particle size distribution in the range 10-100 microm. However, measurable deflocculation might be masked by the large numbers of particles present. Therefore, we cannot exclude the suspended particles as a possible source of submicron particles that are subsequently responsible for MBR sludge filterability deterioration.

  10. On-chip fluorescence-activated particle counting and sorting system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuejun; Wu, Xudong; Wang, Yao-Nan; Li, Dongqing

    2008-09-19

    A fluorescence-activated particle counting and sorting system is developed for lab-on-a-chip applications. This system integrates the microfluidic chip, fluorescence excitation and detection, electronic power switch control, and optical visualization. The automatic sorting function is achieved by electrokinetic flow switching, which is triggered by a pre-set fluorescent threshold. A direct current electric pulse is generated to dispense the fluorescent particles to the collection reservoir. A user-friendly software interface is developed for automatic real-time counting, sorting and visualization. The design of the disposable microfluidic chip is simple and easy for integration. This system represents a promising prototype for development of affordable and portable flow cytometric instruments.

  11. Influence of Hip Joint Position on Muscle Activity during Prone Hip Extension with Knee Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhisa; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the selective activation of the gluteus maximus during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise, with the hip joint in different positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 healthy, male volunteers. [Methods] Activities of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise. Measurements were made with the hip joint in each of 3 positions: (1) a neutral hip joint position, (2) an abduction hip joint position, and (3) an abduction with external rotation hip joint position. [Results] Gluteus maximus activity was significantly higher when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. Gluteus maximus activity was also significantly higher in the abduction hip joint position than in the neutral hip joint position. Hamstring activity was significantly lower when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. [Conclusion] Abduction and external rotation of the hip during prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise selectively activates the gluteus maximus. PMID:25540492

  12. Activated charcoal filter counting for radioiodine effluent concentration determination in protein iodinations.

    PubMed

    Button, T M; Hamilton, R G

    1982-12-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently placed emphasis upon quantification of 125I released to the environment during protein iodinations at radioiodination facilities. This necessitates air sampling in order to determine the concentration of 125I in the effluent. Air sample trapping mechanisms generally employed are activated charcoal filters. Difficulty arises in quantifying the activity of 125I trapped because of the attenuation of the 125I decay photons by the charcoal. Evaluation of the activity incident upon commercially available filters using a scintillation detector and large detector source separation is considered here. It is demonstrated that the activity in the filter may be treated as an exponential distribution within an attentuating matrix. This treatment essentially adds a constant correction factor to the counting efficiency of a given geometry for a filter-affluent flow rate combination. Finally, it is shown that an approximation assuming a uniform distribution of activity produces a large error in correction factor to the counting efficiency for the filters examined. PMID:7152949

  13. Detection of anomalous reactor activity using antineutrino count evolution over the course of a reactor cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulaevskaya, Vera; Bernstein, Adam

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard "baseline" fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 82 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be obtained by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient minimum daily antineutrino count rate and a maximum tolerable background rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

  14. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  15. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  16. Lactoperoxidase activity in milk is correlated with somatic cell count in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Isobe, N; Kubota, H; Yamasaki, A; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-08-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a milk protein with antimicrobial function. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between LPO activity and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk to use LPO activity as an indicator of mastitis. Composite milk of 36 cows and quarter milk of 3 cows were collected once per week from 0 to 300 d postpartum and twice per day for 1 wk, respectively. For the measurement of LPO activity, milk was mixed with tetramethylbenzidine solution and incubated at 37°C for 30 min, followed by the measurement of optical density. When only milk with low SCC (132±12×10(3) cells/mL) was used, a significant decrease in LPO activity was detected in primiparous cows from 0 to 4 mo postpartum. Lactoperoxidase activities of primiparous cows in mo 1, 2, and 3 postpartum were significantly higher than those in multiparous cows. When composite milk was divided based on LPO activity, the SCC was significantly higher in the groups with LPO activity >5 and from 3 to 3.9 U/mL in the second- and fourth-parity cows, respectively, compared with the group with LPO activity <2U/mL. Extremely high SCC were found in the ≥fifth-parity cows, even in low-LPO activity groups. In the case of quarter milk, higher LPO activity was associated with increased SCC in all 3 cows. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC (4,062±415×10(3) cells/mL) increased with an increase in the LPO activity. The percentage of quarter milk samples with high SCC was 50.0 to 100% in the milk with LPO activity ≥5 U/mL. These results indicate that the correlation of LPO activity to the SCC in bovine milk may point to the potential use of the former as an indicator of SCC.

  17. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  18. A novel method for counting spontaneous motor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Y; Matsumoto, Y; Morita, S; Noguchi, J

    1997-10-01

    Motor activity is a good index for studying the effects of pharmacological agents. Previous investigations have measured spontaneous motor activity by counting the number of times that an animal interrupts a magnetic field or photocell beam. Quite recently, a novel activity-monitoring system, Supermex, was developed. In this system, a sensor detects the radiated body heat of an animal. The Supermex method enables an investigator to perform multi-channel measurement at low cost. Any size home cage may be used, as long as its geometry cannot block the beam's contact with the animal. Operation is very simple and sensitivity adjustment is not required after the sensor-mount position and height from the cage floor are fixed. In the present study we first used the Supermex system to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of a known stimulant, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Our results confirmed the suitability of this system for testing spontaneous motor activity. We further studied the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), on spontaneous motor activity.

  19. Frequency Count Attribute Oriented Induction of Corporate Network Data for Mapping Business Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanutama, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Companies increasingly rely on Internet for effective and efficient business communication. As Information Technology infrastructure backbone for business activities, corporate network connects the company to Internet and enables its activities globally. It carries data packets generated by the activities of the users performing their business tasks. Traditionally, infrastructure operations mainly maintain data carrying capacity and network devices performance. It would be advantageous if a company knows what activities are running in its network. The research provides a simple method of mapping the business activity reflected by the network data. To map corporate users' activities, a slightly modified Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) approach to mine the network data was applied. The frequency of each protocol invoked were counted to show what the user intended to do. The collected data was samples taken within a certain sampling period. Samples were taken due to the enormous data packets generated. Protocols of interest are only Internet related while intranet protocols are ignored. It can be concluded that the method could provide the management a general overview of the usage of its infrastructure and lead to efficient, effective and secure ICT infrastructure.

  20. Characterization of a photon-counting intensified active pixel sensor (PC-IAPS): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Modica, Angelo; Bergamini, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    We report about preliminary results of the characterization of a new kind of MCP-based detector: a Photon Counting Intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS). PC-IAPS appears as the natural evolution of the Intensified CCD, maintaining the basic characteristics, but with improved performance in terms of dynamic range, along with some other appealing properties: higher radiation hardness, more compact design, lower requirements on the external electronics, low power consumption. The prototype we realized is currently in an early stage of development. Nevertheless, it allows us to demonstrate the feasibility of the photon counter and to measure some of the basic parameters. Some of the characteristics of the APS, relevant to the use in intensified systems, are analyzed and compared with the CCD ones, demonstrating the potentiality of the new device and allowing us to set the basis of future development.

  1. Passive Joint Forces Are Tuned to Limb Use in Insects and Drive Movements without Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.; Matheson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Limb movements are generally driven by active muscular contractions working with and against passive forces arising in muscles and other structures. In relatively heavy limbs, the effects of gravity and inertia predominate, whereas in lighter limbs, passive forces intrinsic to the limb are of greater consequence. The roles of passive forces generated by muscles and tendons are well understood, but there has been little recognition that forces originating within joints themselves may also be important, and less still that these joint forces may be adapted through evolution to complement active muscle forces acting at the same joint. Results We examined the roles of passive joint forces in insect legs with different arrangements of antagonist muscles. We first show that passive forces modify actively generated movements of a joint across its working range, and that they can be sufficiently strong to generate completely passive movements that are faster than active movements observed in natural behaviors. We further demonstrate that some of these forces originate within the joint itself. In legs of different species adapted to different uses (walking, jumping), these passive joint forces complement the balance of strength of the antagonist muscles acting on the joint. We show that passive joint forces are stronger where they assist the weaker of two antagonist muscles. Conclusions In limbs where the dictates of a key behavior produce asymmetry in muscle forces, passive joint forces can be coadapted to provide the balance needed for the effective generation of other behaviors. PMID:23871240

  2. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  3. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  4. Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Kelly, A L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2015-11-01

    Individual caprine milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC) were studied with the aim of investigating the percentage distribution of leukocyte cell types and the activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes; proteolysis of casein was also studied in relation to cell type following recovery from milk. The experiment was conducted on 5 intensively managed dairy flocks of Garganica goats; on the basis of SCC, the experimental groups were denoted low (L-SCC; <700,000 cells/mL), medium (M-SCC; from 701,000 to 1,500,000 cells/mL), and high (H-SCC; >1,501,000 cells/mL) SCC. Leukocyte distribution differed between groups; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were higher in M-SCC and H-SCC milk samples, the percentage macrophages was the highest in H-SCC, and levels of nonviable cells significantly decreased with increasing SCC. Activities of all the main proteolytic enzymes were affected by SCC; plasmin activity was the highest in H-SCC milk and the lowest in L-SCC, and elastase and cathepsin D activities were the highest in M-SCC. Somatic cell count influenced casein hydrolysis patterns, with less intact α- and β-casein in H-SCC milk. Higher levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides were detected in sodium caseinate incubated with leukocytes isolated from L-SCC milk, independent of cell type, whereas among cells recovered from M-SCC milk, macrophages yielded the highest levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides from sodium caseinate. The level of high electrophoretic mobility peptides was higher in sodium caseinate incubated with polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes and macrophages isolated from M-SCC, whereas the same fraction of peptides was always the highest, independent of leukocyte type, for cells recovered from H-SCC milk. In caprine milk, a level of 700,000 cells/mL represented the threshold for changes in leukocyte distribution, which is presumably related to the immune status of the mammary gland. Differences in the profile of

  5. The influence of bromelain on platelet count and platelet activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Doreen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    Bromelain is a general name for a family of sulfhydryl-containing, proteolytic enzymes from the pineapple plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of bromelain on platelet count, platelet aggregation and platelet activity in vitro. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein of 10 healthy male non-smokers. Platelet count decreased after incubation with 2.5 and 5 mg bromelain/ml from 277 +/- 17 platelets/nl before to 256 +/- 21 and 247 +/- 19 platelets/nl after the treatment. The ADP and TRAP-6 induced platelet aggregation led to a significant decrease after the incubation with 2.5 mg (ADP: 48.6 +/- 25.7%; TRAP-6: 49.6 +/- 28.9%) or 5 mg (ADP: 5.0 +/- 4.6%; TRAP-6: 9.0 +/- 4.9%) bromelain/ml in comparison to control (ADP: 81.4 +/- 5.0%; TRAP-6: 77.4 +/- 10.4%). The percentage of unstimulated CD62P positive platelets which were investigated by flow cytometry was minimally higher after incubation with 5 mg bromelain/ml (0.57 +/- 0.48% PC) in comparison to control (0.22 +/- 0.11% PC), but after TRAP-6 stimulation the incubation with 5 mg bromelain/ml led to a remarkable decrease in comparison to the untreated control (50.4 +/- 20.2 to 0.9 +/- 0.8% PC). The changes of CD62P (TRAP-stimulated) and the results of platelet aggregation after incubation with bromelain in vitro may demonstrate the potential of bromelain as a substance for platelet inhibition. PMID:16308185

  6. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  7. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  8. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  9. Physiological alterations of maximal voluntary quadriceps activation by changes of knee joint angle.

    PubMed

    Becker, R; Awiszus, F

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different angles of the knee joint on voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle, estimating the ability of a subject to activate a muscle maximally by means of voluntary contraction. Isometric torque measurement was performed on 6 healthy subjects in 5 degrees intervals between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee joint flexion. Superimposed twitches at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at a level of 60% and 40% of the MVC were applied and the voluntary activation estimated. At between 30 degrees and 75 degrees of knee flexion, the maximal extension torque increased at an average rate of 2.67 +/- 0.6 Nm/degree, followed by a decline with further flexion. However, throughout the joint-angle range tested, voluntary activation increased on average by 0.37%/degree with a maximum at 90 degrees of flexion. Due to the influence of joint position it is not possible to generalize results obtained at the knee joint angle of 90 degrees of flexion, which is usually used for the quadriceps twitch-interpolation technique. Consequently, it is useful to investigate voluntary activation deficits in knee joint disorders at a range of knee joint angles that includes, in particular, the more extended joint angles used frequently during daily activity.

  10. Setting a minimum threshold CD4 count for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cf; Lee, Ss; Wong, Kh; Cheng, Ls; Lam, My

    2007-04-01

    The aim of our study was to determine a minimum threshold CD4 count for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation in HIV-infected patients. A schema using longitudinal data from a clinical cohort was designed. The presenting CD4 counts of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients in Hong Kong were evaluated in relation to their progression to AIDS within 1 year of diagnosis of HIV infection. A graph was generated to depict the changes in the percentage of cumulative AIDS diagnoses for every 10 cell/microL increase in presenting CD4 count. Of 181 patients, 24 had developed AIDS within 1 year of diagnosis of HIV infection. Setting the CD4 count threshold at 150 cells/microL gave a good balance between the number of preventable AIDS-defining events and the number of non-AIDS patients initiating HAART. No extra AIDS-defining events occurred when the CD4 count threshold was reduced from 200 to 150 cells/microL, despite the addition of 13 more patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, presenting CD4 count was a significant predictor for AIDS occurrence. The relative hazard for AIDS occurrence of patients with presenting CD4 counts count of 150 cells/microL as the minimum threshold for HAART initiation in a cohort of Chinese HIV-infected patients. At this level, 20.8% of the AIDS-defining events could be prevented. While a cut-off of 200 cells/microL remains a standard for considering HAART initiation, the minimum threshold signifies a critical moment for timely intervention to be introduced. PMID:17461862

  11. Laser beam active brazing of metal ceramic joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Bach, Friedrich W.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Kreutzburg, K.

    1996-04-01

    The use of engineering ceramics is becoming more and more important. Reasons for this are the specific properties of these materials, such as high strength, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. To apply the advantages of ceramics, joining techniques of metal ceramic parts are required. In this paper, joining of metal ceramic joints by laser beam brazing is presented. This joining technique is characterized by local heat input, and the minimal thermal stress of the brazed components. During the investigations, an Nd:YAG laser and a vacuum chamber were applied. The advantages of Nd:YAG lasers are the simple mechanical construction, and laser beam guidance via quartz glass fibers, which leads to high handling flexibility. In addition, most of the materials show a high absorption rate for this kind of radiation. As materials, ceramic Al2O3 with a purity of 99.4% and metals such as X5CrNi189 and Fe54Ni29Co17 were used. As a filler material, commercially available silver and silver- copper brazes with chemically active elements like titanium were employed. During this study, the brazing wetting behavior and the formation of diffusion layers in dependence on processing parameters were investigated. The results have shown that high brazing qualities can be achieved by means of the laser beam brazing process. Crack-free joining of metal ceramic parts is currently only possible by the use of metals such as Fe54Ni29Co17 because of its low thermal expansion coefficient, which reduces thermal stresses within the joining zone.

  12. Examining the utility of a bite-count-based measure of eating activity in free-living human beings.

    PubMed

    Scisco, Jenna L; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has triggered a need for novel methods for measuring eating activity in free-living settings. Here, we introduce a bite-count method that has the potential to be used in long-term investigations of eating activity. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the relationship between bite count and energy intake and determine whether there are sex and body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite in free-living human beings. From October 2011 to February 2012, 77 participants used a wrist-worn device for 2 weeks to measure bite count during 2,975 eating activities. An automated self-administered 24-hour recall was completed daily to provide kilocalorie estimates for each eating activity. Pearson's correlation indicated a moderate, positive correlation between bite count and kilocalories (r=0.44; P<0.001) across all 2,975 eating activities. The average per-individual correlation was 0.53. A 2 (sex)×3 (body mass index group: normal, overweight, obese) analysis of variance indicated that men consumed 6 kcal more per bite than women on average. However, there were no body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite. This was the longest study of a body-worn sensor for monitoring eating activity of free-living human beings to date, which highlights the strong potential for this method to be used in future, long-term investigations.

  13. Association between daily step counts and physical activity level among Korean elementary schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Jonghoon; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Eunkyung; Lim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyungryul; Lee, In-Sook; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate steps per day (steps/d) and physical activity level (PAL) in Korean elementary school children having normal weight (normal-weight). We also clarified whether a gender difference exited between steps/d and PAL. [Methods] Children aged 9 to 12 y were recruited from two elementary schools located in different urban districts in Korea. The present study included 33 Korean children, of which 18 were normal-weight boys and 15 were normal-weight girls. During the same 1 week study period under free-living conditions the total energy expenditure (TEE) and step counts were estimated using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and an accelerometer, respectively. We calculated PAL as the TEE/ resting metabolic rate. [Results] The range of PAL was 1.25 – 1.93 with a mean value of 1.57. None of the variables of energy expenditure was significantly different by sex. However, steps/d were significantly higher in boys than in girls. When adjusting regression analysis by gender, steps/ d were positively associated with PAL among all subjects (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Furthermore, steps/d were positively associated with PAL in boys (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), but not in girls (r = 0.27, P = 0.34). [Conclusion] Our results suggest that locomotive activity may be the main contributor to the individual PAL differences for elementary school boys, while non-locomotive activity may be the main contributor for elementary school girls. PMID:27757388

  14. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Rory P; Murphy, Brenda; Larkin, John O; Mehigan, Brian J; McCormick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ2 tests where appropriate. RESULTS Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9 (P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio (≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated. PMID:27574555

  15. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Promoting Pedometer Use and Step Count Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2010-01-01

    Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…

  16. Dynamic structure of joint-action stimulus-response activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, MaryLauren; Castillo, Ramon D; Kloos, Heidi; Holden, John G; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The mere presence of a co-actor can influence an individual's response behavior. For instance, a social Simon effect has been observed when two individuals perform a Go/No-Go response to one of two stimuli in the presence of each other, but not when they perform the same task alone. Such effects are argued to provide evidence that individuals co-represent the task goals and the to-be-performed actions of a co-actor. Motivated by the complex-systems approach, the present study was designed to investigate an alternative hypothesis--that such joint-action effects are due to a dynamical (time-evolving) interpersonal coupling that operates to perturb the behavior of socially situated actors. To investigate this possibility, participants performed a standard Go/No-Go Simon task in joint and individual conditions. The dynamic structure of recorded reaction times was examined using fractal statistics and instantaneous cross-correlation. Consistent with our hypothesis that participants responding in a shared space would become behaviorally coupled, the analyses revealed that reaction times in the joint condition displayed decreased fractal structure (indicative of interpersonal perturbation processes modulating ongoing participant behavior) compared to the individual condition, and were more correlated across a range of time-scales compared to the reaction times of pseudo-pair controls. Collectively, the findings imply that dynamic processes might underlie social stimulus-response compatibility effects and shape joint cognitive processes in general.

  17. Understanding walking activity in multiple sclerosis: step count, walking intensity and uninterrupted walking activity duration related to degree of disability.

    PubMed

    Neven, An; Vanderstraeten, Annelien; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity (PA) is most commonly measured as number of steps, while also walking intensity and walking activity duration are keys for a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the number of steps persons with MS (PwMS) take; (2) the number of steps they take at low and moderate intensity; and (3) their walking activity duration for 2, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 uninterrupted minutes; all related to the degree of disability. 64 PwMS participated, distinguished in a mild (n = 31) and moderate MS subgroup (n = 34) based on their ambulatory dysfunction (Disease Steps). Standardized clinical tests were performed, and step data from the StepWatch Activity Monitor were collected for seven consecutive days. The results showed that (1) step count in PwMS was lower than PA recommendations, and is negatively influenced by a higher disability degree. (2) No walking was registered during 77 % of the day. PwMS are making steps for 22 % at low and only 1 % at moderate intensity. (3) Both MS subgroups rarely walk for more than six uninterrupted minutes, especially not at moderate intensity. PwMS need to be encouraged to make steps at moderate intensity, and to make steps for longer periods of time (minimal ten uninterrupted minutes).

  18. Activity standardisation of ²²⁶Ra by 4πα liquid scintillation counting method.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Miroslav; Bluďovský, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4πα liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1. The sources were prepared from solution with known (226)Ra mass concentration, from which, immediately before LS counting, (222)Rn and its daughter nuclides were removed by solvent extraction. LS counting results were corrected practically only for a <0.6% loss of radium from measured sample and for the ingrowth of (222)Rn and (218)Po concentrations in the sample after the separation was completed. The combined relative standard uncertainty was estimated to be lower than 0.34%.

  19. Textured bearing surface in artificial joints to reduce macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Nishi, Naoki; Chikaura, Hiroto; Nakashima, Yuta; Miura, Hiromasa; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Micro slurry-jet erosion has been proposed as a precision machining technique for the bearing surfaces of artificial joints in order to reduce the total amount of polyethylene wear and to enlarge the size of the wear debris. The micro slurry-jet erosion method is a wet blasting technique which uses alumina particles as the abrasive medium along with compressed air and water to create an ideal surface. Pin-on-disc wear tests with multidirectional sliding motion on the textured surface of a \\text{Co}-\\text{Cr}-\\text{Mo} alloy counterface for polyethylene resulted in both a reduction of wear as well as enlargement of the polyethylene debris size. In this study, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes were incubated with the debris, and it was elucidated that the wear debris generated on the textured surface regulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating a reduction in the induced tissue reaction and joint loosening.

  20. Effects of exercise and training on natural killer cell counts and cytolytic activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J; Shek, P N

    1999-09-01

    Meta-analysis techniques have been used to accumulate data from 94 studies describing the natural killer (NK) cell response of some 900 volunteers to acute and chronic exercise. NK cell numbers have been indicated in terms of CD3-CD16+CD56+, CD16+ or CD56+ phenotypes, and cytolytic activity has been expressed per 10,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in terms of lytic units. Acute exercise has been categorised as sustained moderate (50 to 65% of aerobic power), sustained vigorous (>75% of aerobic power), brief maximal or 'supramaximal', prolonged, eccentric or resistance, and repeated exercise. In general, there was a marked increase in NK cell count at the end of exercise, probably attributable to a catecholamine-mediated demargination of cells. Following exercise, cell counts dropped to less than half of normal levels for a couple of hours but, except in unusual circumstances (e.g. prolonged, intense and stressful exercise), normal resting values are restored within 24 hours. If activity is both prolonged and vigorous, the decrease in NK cell counts and cytolytic activity may begin during the exercise session. Although the usual depression of NK cell count seems too brief to have major practical importance for health, there could be a cumulative adverse effect on immunosurveillance and health experience in athletes who induce such changes several times per week. There is a weak suggestion of an offsetting increase in resting NK cell counts and cytolytic action in trained individuals, and this merits further exploration in studies where effects of recent training sessions are carefully controlled. PMID:10541441

  1. Internal sample attenuator counting (ISAC). A new technique for separating and measuring bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thorell, J.I.

    1981-12-01

    A new method for the separation counting of bound and free activity in radioimmunoassays is described. Particles containing a radiation-abosrbing (attenuating) material are added to the assay. They shield the radiation from either the antibody-bound or the free radioligand. This obviates such manipulations conventionally involved in the separation and counting steps of radioimmunoassays as centrifugation decanting. Bismuth oxide is used as the attenuator. Particles with different properties are described. In one type, bismuth oxide is combined with active charcoal in an agarose matrix and serves as an absorbant for the free radioligand. In another type bismuth oxide is trapped within a polyacrylamide matrix to which antibodies are coupled. This particle can be used with a first- or a second-antibody bound activity. Application of the technique is illustrated with radioimmunoassays for thyroxin, triiodothyronine, human choriogonadotropin, and lutropin (luteinizing hormone).

  2. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  3. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  4. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  5. Joint torque and angle estimation by using ultrasonic muscle activity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shun'ichi; Feng, Maria Q.

    2005-12-01

    We have proposed a brand-new noninvasive ultrasonic sensor for measuring muscle activities named as Ultrasonic Muscle Activity Sensor (UMS). In the previous paper, the authors achieved to accurately estimate joint torque by using UMS and electromyogram (EMG) which is one of the most popular sensors. This paper aims to realize to measure not only joint torque also joint angle by using UMS and EMG. In order to estimate torque and angle of a knee joint, muscle activities of quadriceps femoris and biceps femoris were measured by both UMS and EMG. These targeted muscles are related to contraction and extension of knee joint. Simultaneously, actual torque on the knee joint caused by these muscles was measured by using torque sensor. The knee joint angle was fixed by torque sensor in the experiment, therefore the measurement was in isometric state. In the result, we found that the estimated torque and angle have high correlation coefficient to actual torque and angle. This means that the sensor can be used for angle estimation as well torque estimation. Therefore, it is shown that the combined use of UMS and EMG is effective to torque and angle estimation.

  6. Local interleukin-1-driven joint pathology is dependent on toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Joosten, Leo A B; Koenders, Marije I; van den Brand, Ben T; van de Loo, Fons A J; van den Berg, Wim B

    2009-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory destructive diseases through the recognition of endogenous ligands produced on either inflammation or degeneration of the extracellular matrix. The presence of endogenous TLR agonists has been reported in rheumatoid joints. In the present study, we investigated the significance of TLR2 and TLR4 activation by locally- produced endogenous ligands in the severity of joint inflammation and destruction. Local joint pathology independent of systemic immune activation was induced by overexpression of interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF in naive joints using adenoviral gene transfer. Here, we report that at certain doses, IL-1-induced local joint inflammation, cartilage proteoglycan depletion, and bone erosion are dependent on TLR4 activation, whereas TLR2 activation is not significantly involved. In comparison, tumor necrosis factor alpha-driven joint pathology seemed to be less dependent on TLR2 and TLR4. The severity of IL-1-induced bone erosion and irreversible cartilage destruction was markedly reduced in TLR4(-/-) mice, even though the degree of inflammation was similar, suggesting uncoupled processes. Furthermore, the expression of cathepsin K, a marker for osteoclast activity, induced by IL-1beta was dependent on TLR4. Overexpression of IL-1beta in the joint as well as ex vivo IL-1 stimulation of patellae provoked the release of endogenous TLR4 agonists capable of inducing TLR4-mediated cytokine production. These data emphasize the potential relevance of TLR4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis, particularly with respect to IL-1-mediated joint pathology.

  7. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  8. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  9. Exploring the Neural Basis of Real-Life Joint Action: Measuring Brain Activation during Joint Table Setting with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egetemeir, Johanna; Stenneken, Prisca; Koehler, Saskia; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Many every-day life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table setting tasks, either alone (solo action) or in cooperation with a partner (joint action), or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation). Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration) during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner. PMID:21927603

  10. Activity determination of (227)Ac and (223)Ra by means of liquid scintillation counting and determination of nuclear decay data.

    PubMed

    Kossert, Karsten; Bokeloh, Karen; Dersch, Rainer; Nähle, Ole

    2014-10-23

    The activity concentrations of solutions containing (227)Ac and (223)Ra in equilibrium with their progenies, respectively, were measured by means of liquid scintillation counting. The counting efficiencies were determined with the aid of a free parameter model. The corresponding calculations comprise the computation of several alpha, beta and beta/gamma branches. For short-lived progenies like (215)Po the counting efficiency depends on the counter dead time. Measurements were made in custom-built triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) systems and various dead-time adjustments were used. In addition, two commercial counters were used to apply the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique using (3)H as a tracer. For the (227)Ac solution, the overall relative standard uncertainty of the activity concentration was found to be 0.93%. The dominant uncertainty components are assigned to the efficiency computation of the low-energy beta transitions of (227)Ac. We have identified a need for improved (227)Ac decay data to achieve a significant reduction in the overall uncertainty. In the case of (223)Ra, the activity concentrations were determined with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. Hence, PTB is prepared to provide calibration services for (223)Ra, which is an isotope of increasing interest in nuclear medicine. The TDCR measurements were also used to determine the half-life of (223)Ra. The decay was followed for about 58 days and a half-life T1/2=11.4362(50)d was obtained.

  11. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  12. Linking wheelchair kinetics to glenohumeral joint demand during everyday accessibility activities.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Catherine S; Symonds, Andrew; Suzuki, Tatsuto; Gall, Angela; Smitham, Peter; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if push-rim kinetics could be used as markers of glenohumeral joint demand during manual wheelchair accessibility activities; demonstrating a method of biomechanical analysis that could be used away from the laboratory. Propulsion forces, trunk and upper limb kinematics and surface electromyography were recorded during four propulsion tasks (level, 2.5% cross slope, 6.5% incline and 12% incline). Kinetic and kinematic data were applied to an OpenSim musculoskeletal model of the trunk and upper limb, to enable calculation of glenohumeral joint contact force. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between propulsion forces and glenohumeral joint contact forces. Both propulsion forces and joint contact forces increased as the task became more challenging. Participants demonstrated increases in trunk flexion angle as the requirement for force application increased, significantly so in the 12% incline. There were significant increases in both resultant glenohumeral joint contact forces and peak and mean normalized muscle activity levels during the incline tasks. This study demonstrated the high demand placed on the glenohumeral joint during accessibility tasks, especially as the gradient of incline increases. A lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel has potential to guide the user to minimize upper limb demand during daily activity.

  13. Inverse estimation of multiple muscle activations from joint moment with muscle synergy extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhan; Guiraud, David; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Human movement is produced resulting from synergetic combinations of multiple muscle contractions. The resultant joint movement can be estimated through the related multiple-muscle activities, which is formulated as the forward problem. Neuroprosthetic applications may benefit from cocontraction of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs to achieve more stable and robust joint movements. It is necessary to estimate the activation of each individual muscle from desired joint torque(s), which is the inverse problem. A synergy-based solution is presented for the inverse estimation of multiple muscle activations from joint movement, focusing on one degree-of-freedom tasks. The approach comprises muscle synergy extraction via the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Cross validation is performed to evaluate the method for prediction accuracy based on experimental data from ten able-bodied subjects. The results demonstrate that the approach succeeds to inversely estimate the multiple muscle activities from the given joint torque sequence. In addition, the other one's averaged synergy ratio was applied for muscle activation estimation with leave-one-out cross-validation manner, which resulted in 9.3% estimation error over all the subjects. The obtained results support the common muscle synergy-based neuroprosthetics control concept.

  14. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint. PMID:27504021

  15. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint. PMID:27504021

  16. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint.

  17. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  18. Elbow and wrist joint contact forces during occupational pick and place activities.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C

    2000-05-01

    A three-dimensional, mathematical model of the elbow and wrist joints, including 15 muscle units, 3 ligaments and 4 joint forces, has been developed. A new strain gauge transducer has been developed to measure functional grip forces. The device measures radial forces divided into six components and forces of up to 250N per segment can be measured with an accuracy of +/-1%. Ten normal volunteers were asked to complete four tasks representing occupational activities, during which time their grip force was monitored. Together with kinematic information from the six-camera Vicon data, the moment effect of these loads at the joints was calculated. These external moments are assumed to be balanced by the internal moments, generated by the muscles, passive soft tissue and bone contact. The effectiveness of the body's internal structures in generating joint moments was assessed by studying the geometry of a simplified model of the structures, where information about the lines of action and moment arms of muscles, tendons and ligaments is contained. The assumption of equilibrium between these external and internal joint moments allows formulation of a set of equations from which muscle and joint forces can be calculated. A two stage, linear optimisation routine minimising the overall muscle stress and the sum of the joint forces has been used to overcome the force-sharing problem. Humero-ulnar forces of up to 1600N, humero-radial forces of up to 800N and wrist joint forces of up to 2800N were found for moderate level activity. The model was validated by comparison with other studies.

  19. Recreational Sports Activities After Calcaneal Fractures and Subsequent Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Giovanni; Martinelli, Nicolò; Bonifacini, Carlo; Bianchi, Alberto; Sartorelli, Elena; Malerba, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a common treatment for the management of hindfoot pathologic entities. Despite pain reduction, hindfoot stiffness is a common concern of active patients, who wish to continue or start exercising for fitness. The purpose of the present retrospective observational clinical study was to assess the rate and type of recreational sports activities in patients before and after subtalar joint arthrodesis and to correlate the clinical outcome and the level of sports activities. In 33 patients (22 males, 11 females) treated with subtalar joint arthrodesis, the pre- and postoperative participation in sports and recreational activities was evaluated. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scale score, 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and a visual analog scale for pain were used as clinical outcome measures. The weekly session number, session time, and interval to activity recovery after surgery were registered. Patients with a subtalar joint arthrodesis returned to a satisfactory level of activity postoperatively. The sports participation almost reached levels similar to those preoperatively but with a shift from high- to low-impact activities.

  20. Measurement of Activated Au foils by 2{pi}{beta}+2{pi}{beta}-{gamma} Coincidence Counting and EGS5 Monte Carlo Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yasushi; Harano, Hideki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Nishiyama, Jun; Moriyama, Kentaro; Unno, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Yunoki, Akira; Hino, Yoshio; Kudo, Katsuhisa

    2009-03-10

    Neutron activation analysis using Au foil is a common and important method for measurement of thermal neutron fluence. To determine the activity of Au foil experimentally, Kawada et al. proposed 2{pi}{beta}+2{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting. This method is based on 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting but a 4{pi}{beta} detector is divided into two 2{pi}{beta} detectors those are independently operated in the method. In this research the correction factors in 2{pi}{beta}+2{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting were obtained by measurement and simulation. The activities obtained by these correction factors were in good agreement.

  1. Muscle activation assessment: effects of method, stimulus number, and joint angle.

    PubMed

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2006-12-01

    Activation capacity has traditionally been assessed using the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) and central activation ratio (CAR). However, the quantitative agreement of the two methods and the physiological mechanisms underpinning any possible differences have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the sensitivity of the ITT and CAR to potential errors introduced by (1) evoking inadequate force, by manipulating the number of stimuli, and (2) neglecting differences in series elasticity between conditions, by manipulating joint angle. Ten subjects performed knee extension contractions at 30 degrees and 90 degrees knee-joint angles during which the ITT and CAR methods were applied using 1, 2, 4, and 8 electrical stimuli. Joint angle influenced the ITT outcome with higher values taken at 90 degrees (P < 0.05), while the number of stimuli influenced the CAR outcome with a higher number of stimuli yielding lower values (P < 0.05). For any given joint angle and stimulus number, the CAR method produced higher activation values than the ITT method by 8%-16%. Therefore, in the quantification of voluntary drive with the ITT and CAR methods consideration should be given not only to the number of stimuli applied but also to the effect of series elasticity due to joint-angle differences, since these factors may differently affect the outcome of the calculation, depending on the approach followed.

  2. A larger critical shoulder angle requires more rotator cuff activity to preserve joint stability.

    PubMed

    Viehöfer, Arnd F; Gerber, Christian; Favre, Philippe; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-06-01

    Shoulders with rotator cuff tears (RCT) tears are associated with significantly larger critical shoulder angles (CSA) (RCT CSA = 38.2°) than shoulders without RCT (CSA = 32.9°). We hypothesized that larger CSAs increase the ratio of glenohumeral joint shear to joint compression forces, requiring substantially increased compensatory supraspinatus loads to stabilize the arm in abduction. A previously established three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model was used. Two acromion shapes mimicked the mean CSA of 38.2° found in patients with RCT and that of a normal CSA (32.9°). In a first step, the moment arms for each muscle segment were obtained for 21 different thoracohumeral abduction angles to simulate a quasi-static abduction in the scapular plane. In a second step, the muscle forces were calculated by minimizing the range of muscle stresses able to compensate an external joint moment caused by the arm weight. If the joint became unstable, additional force was applied by the rotator cuff muscles to restore joint stability. The model showed a higher joint shear to joint compressive force for the RCT CSA (38.2°) for thoracohumeral abduction angles between 40° and 90° with a peak difference of 23% at 50° of abduction. To achieve stability in this case additional rotator cuff forces exceeding physiological values were required. Our results document that a higher CSA tends to destabilize the glenohumeral joint such that higher than normal supraspinatus forces are required to maintain modeled stability during active abduction. This lends strong support to the concept that a high CSA can induce supraspinatus (SSP) overload. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:961-968, 2016. PMID:26572231

  3. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  4. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  5. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  6. A count model to study the correlates of 60 min of daily physical activity in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9-11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane-Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p<0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates' roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  7. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  8. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  9. Treating Another's Actions as One's Own: Children's Memory of and Learning from Joint Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Hammond, Amy J.

    2007-01-01

    Children often overestimate their contribution to collaborative activities. Across 2 studies, the authors investigated whether this memory bias supports internalization of the actions of others in the context of joint exchanges. After taking turns with (high collaborative condition; Studies 1 and 2) or working independently of (low collaborative…

  10. Processes and Outcomes of Joint Activity with E-Books for Promoting Kindergarteners' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of an educational electronic book (e-book) on low socioeconomic status (SES) kindergarteners' emergent literacy while focusing on the relationship between process and outcomes during joint learning. The sample (96 kindergarteners, aged five to six) was randomly assigned to experimental (e-book activation) and…

  11. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  12. Determination of specific activity of iron-55 by spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation counting with bathophenanthroline complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, C.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.

    1985-12-01

    A method for determining the macroscopic amount of iron and its radioactivity (/sup 55/Fe) in radioactive corrosion products was established with a single chemical procedure. The iron was first extracted into a liquid scintillator (2,5-diphenyloxazole-xylene) as an ion associate of iron bathophenanthroline (BPT) complex and perchlorate at pH 3-8, followed by measurement of its radioactivity by a liquid scintillation counter and its absorbance by a spectrophotometer. The absorption maximum and molar absorptivity (epsilon) of the complex were 535 nm and 22,000, respectively. The system conforms to Beer's law at concentrations of up to 30 ..mu..g of iron in 10 mL of organic phase. The counting efficiency of the extracted /sup 55/Fe was found to be 60%. Although /sup 60/Co is extracted into the PPO-xylene together with /sup 5/)2%Fe, it is separated from /sup 55/Fe by back extraction with 0.005 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (pH 6.0) into the aqueous phase. The effects of other foreign elements and radionuclides were also examined. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of radioactive corrosion products. 21 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Relative contribution of contact and complement activation to inflammatory reactions in arthritic joints.

    PubMed

    Abbink, J J; Kamp, A M; Nuijens, J H; Erenberg, A J; Swaak, A J; Hack, C E

    1992-10-01

    Although both the complement and contact system are thought to contribute to the inflammatory reaction in arthritic joints, only activation of complement has so far been well established, whereas contact activation and its contribution to arthritis has not been systematically explored. Complement and contact activation were assessed in 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies and 11 with osteoarthritis using sensitive assays for C3a, and C1-inhibitor (C1INH)-kallikrein and C1INH-factor XIIa complexes respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of kallikrein-and factor XIIa-C1INH complexes were found in two and seven of the 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies, respectively, and in none of the patients with osteoarthritis. Increased synovial fluid concentrations of kallikrein and factor XIIa complexes occurred in 13 and 15 patients with inflammatory joint diseases respectively, and in two patients with osteoarthritis. Contact system parameters did not correlate with clinical symptoms, local activity, or neutrophil activation. In contrast, synovial fluid concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes were increased in all patients and in 20 patients with inflammatory arthropathies respectively, and were higher in patients with a higher local activity score. Synovial fluid C3a correlated with parameters of neutrophil activation such as lactoferrin. Increased plasma concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes occurred in 13 and 11 patients with inflammatory joint diseases, and in one and two patients with osteoarthritis respectively. Plasma concentrations of C3a correlated with the number of painful joints. Thus contact activation occurs only sporadically in patients with arthritis and contributes little if anything to the local inflammatory reaction and neutrophil activation. These latter events are significantly related to the extent of complement activation.

  14. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  15. Drug polyconsumption is associated with increased synchronization of brain electrical-activity at rest and in a counting task.

    PubMed

    Coullaut-Valera, R; Arbaiza, I; Bajo, R; Arrúe, R; López, M E; Coullaut-Valera, J; Correas, A; López-Sanz, D; Maestu, F; Papo, D

    2014-02-01

    Drug abusers typically consume not just one but several types of drugs, starting from alcohol and marijuana consumption, and then dramatically lapsing into addiction to harder drugs, such as cocaine, heroin, or amphetamine. The brain of drug abusers presents various structural and neurophysiological abnormalities, some of which may predate drug consumption onset. However, how these changes translate into modifications in functional brain connectivity is still poorly understood. To characterize functional connectivity patterns, we recorded Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity from 21 detoxified drug abusers and 20 age-matched control subjects performing a simple counting task and at rest activity. To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network we applied the Synchronization Likelihood algorithm. The results showed that drug abusers had higher synchronization levels at low frequencies, mainly in the θ band (4-8 Hz) between frontal and posterior cortical regions. During the counting task, patients showed increased synchronization in the β (14-35 Hz), and γ (35-45 Hz) frequency bands, in fronto-posterior and interhemispheric temporal regions. Taken together 'slow-down' at rest and task-related 'over-exertion' could indicate that the brain of drug abusers is suffering from a premature form of ageing. Future studies will clarify whether this condition can be reversed following prolonged periods of abstinence.

  16. Active books: the design of an implantable stimulator that minimizes cable count using integrated circuits very close to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Demosthenous, Andreas; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Jiang, Dai; Donaldson, Nick

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated stimulator that can be embedded in implantable electrode books for interfacing with nerve roots at the cauda equina. The Active Book overcomes the limitation of conventional nerve root stimulators which can only support a small number of stimulating electrodes due to cable count restriction through the dura. Instead, a distributed stimulation system with many tripole electrodes can be configured using several Active Books which are addressed sequentially. The stimulator was fabricated in a 0.6-μm high-voltage CMOS process and occupies a silicon area of 4.2 × 6.5 mm(2). The circuit was designed to deliver up to 8 mA stimulus current to tripole electrodes from an 18 V power supply. Input pad count is limited to five (two power and three control lines) hence requiring a specific procedure for downloading stimulation commands to the chip and extracting information from it. Supported commands include adjusting the amplitude of stimulus current, varying the current ratio at the two anodes in each channel, and measuring relative humidity inside the chip package. In addition to stimulation mode, the chip supports quiescent mode, dissipating less than 100 nA current from the power supply. The performance of the stimulator chip was verified with bench tests including measurements using tripoles in saline. PMID:23853144

  17. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  18. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  19. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  20. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  1. New wearable system for the step counting based on the codivilla-spring for daily activity monitoring in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Tiberi, Ylenia; Maccioni, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Remote therapy, involved in a tele-rehabilitation program, should monitor daily motion activity. Furthermore, patients should have all possible means to improve rehabilitation care at their disposal, such as suitable prostheses and biofeedback tools. During stroke rehabilitation at home, the most used equipment is the AFO prosthesis, which is also called codivilla-spring, as it is used in cases of both bilateral and mono-lateral damage. A new codivilla-spring prosthesis with sensors for telemonitoring / telerehabilitation has been designed and constructed. It provides step counting. It is based on a couple of force sensing resistors affixed in the plantar area of the prosthesis, and a wearable unit with a micro-processor microP PIC 16F877 (Microchip, USA). The data exchange is assured by the Aurel-XTR-434H telemetric system. While ambulating, FSRs detect the pressure of the foot-tip and heel. The PIC on the basis of an algorithm furnishes the step-counting. The proposed sensorized-codivilla-spring (SECOSP) was tested as a step-counter on three subjects after stroke-rehabilitation with mono-lateral damage at Level 2 of the Tinetti test of unbalance. These subjects performed 100 steps with two different instructions (fast, slow). The mean error was lower than 0.6 %. The next phase will be the optimization of SECOSP for long term medical application in a patient's home.

  2. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the period 1 Oct. 1995 - 30 Sept. 1996. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics and high lift modeling studies. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the high lift activities.

  3. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

  4. PACE VII. Curriculum Counts: Planning for Success through Developmentally Appropriate Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This volume contains summaries of 13 presentations at the PACE (Positive Approaches to Children's Education) conference. The titles are: "Fabulous Fitness Fun" (Deborah L. Arfman); "Manipulative Equipment Modified for Success" (Noel Bewley); "Fitness Play-Focus on Fun" (Noel Bewley); "Keeping Them All Moving: Strategies and Activities for…

  5. Aberrant Activation of TGF-β in Subchondral Bone at the Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis Joint Destruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Zheng, Liwei; Bian, Qin; Xie, Liang; Liu, Wenlong; Zhen, Gehua; Crane, Janet L; Zhou, Xuedong; Cao, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that often leads to joint destruction. A myriad of drugs targeting the immune abnormalities and downstream inflammatory cascades have been developed, but the joint destruction is not effectively halted. Here we report that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone marrow by immune response increases osteoprogenitors and uncoupled bone resorption and formation in RA mouse/rat models. Importantly, either systemic or local blockade of TGF-β activity in the subchondral bone attenuated articular cartilage degeneration in RA. Moreover, conditional deletion of TGF-β receptor II (Tgfbr2) in nestin-positive cells also effectively halted progression of RA joint destruction. Our data demonstrate that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone is involved at the onset of RA joint cartilage degeneration. Thus, modulation of subchondral bone TGF-β activity could be a potential therapy for RA joint destruction.

  6. Aberrant Activation of TGF-β in Subchondral Bone at the Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis Joint Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Zheng, Liwei; Bian, Qin; Xie, Liang; Liu, Wenlong; Zhen, Gehua; Crane, Janet L; Zhou, Xuedong; Cao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that often leads to joint destruction. A myriad of drugs targeting the immune abnormalities and downstream inflammatory cascades have been developed, but the joint destruction is not effectively halted. Here we report that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone marrow by immune response increases osteoprogenitors and uncoupled bone resorption and formation in RA mouse/rat models. Importantly, either systemic or local blockade of TGF-β activity in the subchondral bone attenuated articular cartilage degeneration in RA. Moreover, conditional deletion of TGF-β receptor II (Tgfbr2) in nestin-positive cells also effectively halted progression of RA joint destruction. Our data demonstrate that aberrant activation of TGF-β in the subchondral bone is involved at the onset of RA joint cartilage degeneration. Thus, modulation of subchondral bone TGF-β activity could be a potential therapy for RA joint destruction. PMID:25967237

  7. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  8. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  9. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes. PMID:26902805

  10. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  11. A new cell counting method to evaluate anti-tumor compound activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lin; Shi, Li-Hong; Fang, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Determining cell quantity is a common problem in cytology research and anti-tumor drug development. A simple and low-cost method was developed to determine monolayer and adherent-growth cell quantities. The cell nucleus is located in the cytoplasm, and is independent. Thus, the nucleus cannot make contact even if the cell density is heavy. This phenomenon is the foundation of accurate cell-nucleus recognition. The cell nucleus is easily recognizable in images after fluorescent staining because it is independent. A one-to-one relationship exists between the nucleus and the cell; therefore, this method can be used to determine the quantity of proliferating cells. Results indicated that the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Z1 was effective after this method was used. The nude-mouse xenograft model also revealed the potent anti-tumor activity of Z1. This research presents a new anti-tumor-drug evaluation method.

  12. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  13. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70◦C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Results: No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the

  14. Role of gastrocnemius activation in knee joint biomechanics: gastrocnemius acts as an ACL antagonist.

    PubMed

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Marouane, H

    2016-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is a premier muscle crossing the knee, but its role in knee biomechanics and on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains less clear when compared to hamstrings and quadriceps. The effect of changes in gastrocnemius force at late stance when it peaks on the knee joint response and ACL force was initially investigated using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model driven by gait kinematics-kinetics. The tibiofemoral joint under isolated isometric contraction of gastrocnemius was subsequently analyzed at different force levels and flexion angles (0°-90°). Changes in gastrocnemius force at late stance markedly influenced hamstrings forces. Gastrocnemius acted as ACL antagonist by substantially increasing its force. Simulations under isolated contraction of gastrocnemius confirmed this role at all flexion angles, in particular, at extreme knee flexion angles (0° and 90°). Constraint on varus/valgus rotations substantially decreased this effect. Although hamstrings and gastrocnemius are both knee joint flexors, they play opposite roles in respectively protecting or loading ACL. Although the quadriceps is also recognized as antagonist of ACL, at larger joint flexion and in contrast to quadriceps, activity in gastrocnemius substantially increased ACL forces (anteromedial bundle). The fact that gastrocnemius is an antagonist of ACL should help in effective prevention and management of ACL injuries.

  15. Adjuvant-activity of `diphtheroid' organisms isolated from the joints of cases of rhemumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Gordon, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two isolates of `diphtheroid' organisms from the joints of cases of rheumatoid arthritis were found to possess a surface network of filaments (125 Å wide) resembling the adjuvant-active peptidoglycolipid filaments of mycobacteria and some Nocardia spp. Tests for adjuvant activity in guinea-pigs showed that both isolates possessed the ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity to a simultaneously injected immunogen (ovalbumin) and to increase serum anti-ovalbumin levels (in particular γ2-immunoglobulin). The relationship of adjuvant-active bacilli to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 1 PMID:5477931

  16. Incidence of joint replacement among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Taubman, Stephen B; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-05-01

    In the U.S., joint replacements have become more common and the average age of individuals who undergo joint replacements has decreased. Joint replacements among active component service members increased 10.5% during 2004-2009, then 61.9% during 2009-2014. Knees and hips were the most frequently replaced joints among service members. During the surveillance period (and particularly after 2009), incidence rates increased in each age group of service members 30 years or older. Relative to their respective counterparts, rates of joint replacement overall--and of the hip and knee specifically--were higher among service members who were black, non-Hispanic; officers; and healthcare workers. One year after joint replacement, 18.2% had retired; 5.2% had been medically disqualified from service; 6.3% had otherwise left service; and 70.3% were still in service. By 2 years post-joint replacement, 30.2% had retired; 13.0% had been medically disqualified; 10.0% had otherwise left service; and 46.8% were still in service. Service members aged 30-44 years were the most likely to remain in service post-joint replacement. Given the increases in the frequency of joint replacement among younger service members, the number of service members who remain in service post-joint replacement may continue to increase. PMID:25996170

  17. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  18. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

  19. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase.

  20. [Accreditation of a hygiene hospital laboratory for sampling and analysis activities for the detection and counting of Legionella in water].

    PubMed

    Lecointe, Didier; Noël, Coralie; Beauvais, Raphaëlle; Descaves, Carole; Gouot, Armelle; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Koutcherenko, Stéphane; Kassidi, Noura

    2015-01-01

    Since January 1(st) 2012, detection and counting of Legionella bacteria have been obligatory in France and must be carried out by COFRAC-accredited laboratories. In our establishment, sampling and analysis were outsourced and our hospital was scheduled to move to a new site. We aimed to develop both these activities in-house and to obtain COFRAC accreditation, whilst organizing the move to the new site. We set up a quality assurance system bringing together staff from the hygiene laboratory and institutional resource managers. We set up sampling and analysis activities in-house 13 months before requesting accreditation. The initial evaluation took place before we moved and identified 17 areas of deficiency, six of which were considered critical. After we had moved, a subsequent evaluation considered 14 of these deficiencies to have been corrected, included the six initially identified as critical. We were therefore awarded accreditation. The quality assurance system established during the year before our request was submitted led to accreditation two and a half years after the transfer in-house of sampling and analysis activities, despite our hospital moving during this period. PMID:25858417

  1. Differential activation by cytokines of mitogen-activated protein kinases in bovine temporomandibular-joint disc cells.

    PubMed

    Landesberg, R; Takeuchi, E; Puzas, J E

    1999-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders affect a significant proportion of the population. While their aetiology is not well defined, recent histological studies suggest that the majority are similar to the osteoarthritis seen in other joints. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha appear to be important in the cascade of events leading to joint destruction in osteoarthritis. Here, cells from the disc of bovine temporomandibular joint were used to examine the response to various cytokines in vitro. Disc cells were stimulated with interleukin-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Their effects were monitored by assessing the phosphorylation of selected signal-transduction intermediates using western blot. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk 1, Erk 2) were rapidly phosphorylated by exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, while interleukin-1alpha showed a weak response. Transforming growth factor-beta failed to activate these kinases. Examination of the effect of these cytokines on p38 (an intermediate in the stress-activated protein-kinase pathway) showed an increase in phosphorylated p38 when stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1alpha. The amounts of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 did not significantly increase when the cells were exposed to any of the cytokines. PMID:10075149

  2. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  3. Age-related muscle activation profiles and joint stiffness regulation in repetitive hopping.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, Merja; Ishikawa, Masaki; Rantalainen, Timo; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2011-06-01

    It is well documented that increasing effort during exercise is characterized by an increase in electromyographic activity of the relevant muscles. How aging influences this relationship is a matter of great interest. In the present study, nine young and 24 elderly subjects did repetitive hopping with maximal effort as well as with 50%, 65%, 75% and 90% intensities. During hopping joint kinematics were measured together with electromyographic activity (EMG) from the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed that agonist activation increased in both age groups with increasing intensity. The highest jumping efficiency (EMG ratio of the braking phase to the push off-phase activation) was achieved with moderate hopping intensities (65-75%) in both the young and in the elderly. Age-comparison showed that elderly subjects had high agonist preactivation but thereafter lower activation during the braking phase. Antagonist coactivation was minimal and did not show age- or intensity-specificity. The elderly had more flexed knees at the instant of ground contact. When intensity increased, the elderly also plantarflexed their ankles more before ground contact. Ankle joint stiffness was lower in elderly subjects only in high hopping intensities (90% and Max). These results confirm that age-specific agonist muscle activation profiles exist during hopping even when exercise intensities are matched on the relative scale. The results suggest further that the elderly can adjust their reduced neuromuscular capacity to match the demands set by different exercise intensities.

  4. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H. N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed invivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. PMID:25817731

  5. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active

  6. Effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult males participated. [Methods] In the bridge exercise, the height of the sling was set low or high during hip joint abduction and adduction. Electromyography was used to compare the differences between the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae muscles. [Results] The muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were significantly higher in the high sling position. Furthermore, the activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae were significantly higher during hip joint adduction than abduction regardless of sling height. [Conclusion] A high sling height is the most effective intervention for increasing the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles during hip joint adduction in a bridge exercise. PMID:26180366

  7. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  8. Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchioni, G.; Montanari, R.; Tata, M. E.; Pilloni, L.

    2002-12-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program.

  9. [Dependence of haemostasis system response from initial blood coagulation activity under total joints replacement].

    PubMed

    Antropova, I P; Iushkov, B G

    2012-03-01

    Effect of the initial state of the plasma hemostasis on the hemocoagulation changes after the total arthroplasty surgery was studied in 100 patients with osteoarthritis. Indicators of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and physiological anticoagulants were determined before and after completion of the surgery, at days 1, 3, 7, and 13-14 postoperatively. Increased coagulation activity befor surgery enhanced blood clotting within three days after the surgery. Enhanced consumption of physiological anticoagulants reduced the ability to recover their level a week after arthroplasty. The raised activity of the fibrinolysis inhibitor retained the effect during three postoperative days. Initial abnormalities in plasma hemostasis enhance blood coagulation dysfunction caused by surgical intervention on the large joints.

  10. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  11. Time series for modelling counts from a relapsing-remitting disease: application to modelling disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Albert, P S; McFarland, H F; Smith, M E; Frank, J A

    Many chronic diseases are relapsing-remitting diseases, in which subjects alternate between periods with increasing and decreasing disease activity; relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is an example. This paper proposes two classes of models for sequences of counts observed from a relapsing-remitting disease. In the first, the relapsing-remitting nature of the data is modelled by a Poisson time series with a periodic trend in the mean. In this approach, the mean is expressed as a function of a sinusoidal trend and past observations of the time series. An algorithm that uses GLIM is developed, and it results in maximum-likelihood estimation for the amplitude, frequency and autoregressive effects. In the second class of models, the relapsing-remitting behaviour is described by a Poisson time series in which changes in the mean follow a latent Markov chain. An EM algorithm is developed for maximum-likelihood estimation for this model. The two models are illustrated and compared with data from a study evaluating the use of serial magnetic resonance imaging as a measure of disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:8023028

  12. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  13. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  14. Structural health monitoring of multi-spot welded joints using a lead zirconate titanate based active sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ping; Kong, Qingzhao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Tianyong; Huo, Lin-sheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Failures of spot welded joints directly reduce the load capacity of adjacent structures. Due to their complexity and invisibility, real-time health monitoring of spot welded joints is still a challenge. In this paper, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based active sensing approach was proposed to monitor the structural health of multi-spot welded joints in real time. In the active sensing approach, one PZT transducer was used as an actuator to generate a guided stress wave, while another one, as a sensor, detected the wave response. Failure of a spot welded joint reduces the stress wave paths and attenuates the wave propagation energy from the actuator to the sensor. A total of four specimens made of dual phase steel with spot welds, including two specimens with 20 mm intervals of spot welded joints and two with 25 mm intervals, were designed and fabricated for this research. Under tensile tests, the spot welded joints successively failed, resulting in the PZT sensor reporting decreased received energy. The energy attenuations due to the failures of joints were clearly observed by the PZT sensor signal in both the time domain and frequency domain. In addition, a wavelet packet-based spot-weld failure indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the failure condition corresponding to the number of failed joints.

  15. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively.

  16. Platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation contribute to decreased platelet count during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection in pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Lyons, Claire E; Dorsey, Jamie L; Shirk, Erin N; Queen, Suzanne E; Adams, Robert J; Gama, Lucio; Morrell, Craig N; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2013-09-01

    Platelets are key participants in innate immune responses to pathogens. As a decrease in circulating platelet count is one of the initial hematologic indicators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we sought to determine whether decline in platelet number during acute infection results from decreased production, increased antibody-mediated destruction, or increased platelet activation in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model. During acute SIV infection, circulating platelets were activated with increased surface expression of P-selection, CD40L and major histocompatibility complex class I. Platelet production was maintained and platelet autoantibodies were not detected during acute infection. Concurrent with a decrease in platelet numbers and an increase in circulating monocytes, platelets were found sequestered in platelet-monocyte aggregates, thereby contributing to the decline in platelet counts. Because the majority of circulating CD16(+) monocytes formed complexes with platelets during acute SIV infection, a decreased platelet count may represent platelet participation in the innate immune response to HIV.

  17. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the institute include the following: To conduct basic and applied research. To promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community To provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute. To provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute. To disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  18. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the Institute include the following: (1) To conduct basic and applied research; (2) to promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community; (3) to provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute; (4) to provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute; and (5) to disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  19. Imaging the magmatic system of Newberry Volcano using Joint active source and teleseismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Benjamin A.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we combine active and passive source P wave seismic data to tomographically image the magmatic system beneath Newberry Volcano, located east of the Cascade arc. By using both travel times from local active sources and delay times from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on closely spaced seismometers (300-800 m), we significantly improve recovery of upper crustal velocity structure (<10 km depth). The tomographic model reveals a low-velocity feature between 3 and 5 km depth that lies beneath the caldera, consistent with a magma body. In contrast to earlier tomographic studies, where elevated temperatures were sufficient to explain the recovered low velocities, the larger amplitude low-velocity anomalies in our joint tomography model require low degrees of partial melt (˜10%), and a minimum melt volume of ˜2.5 km3. Furthermore, synthetic tests suggest that even greater magnitude low-velocity anomalies, and by inference larger volumes of magma (up to 8 km3), are needed to explain the observed waveform variability. The lateral extent and shape of the inferred magma body indicates that the extensional tectonic regime at Newberry influences the emplacement of magmatic intrusions. Our study shows that jointly inverting active source and passive source seismic data improves tomographic imaging of the shallow crustal seismic structure of volcanic systems and that active source experiments would benefit from longer deployment times to also record teleseismic sources.

  20. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  1. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles. PMID:26357447

  2. Muscular Activation During Plyometric Exercises in 90° of Glenohumeral Joint Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Hypothesis: Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Results: Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°. PMID:25553216

  3. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  4. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  5. Physical Activity and Associations With Computed Tomography-Detected Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joint Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Hunter, David J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Rainville, James; Guermazi, Ali; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Context There are no prior epidemiologic studies examining associations between physical activity and imaging-detected lumbar zygapophyseal joint osteoarthritis (ZJO) in a community-based sample. Purpose To determine whether physical activity is associated with prevalent lumbar ZJO on computed tomography (CT). Study Design/Setting Community-based cross-sectional study. Patient Sample 424 older adults from the Framingham Heart Study. Outcome Measures Participants received standardized CT assessments of lumbar ZJO at the L2-S1 levels. Severe lumbar ZJO was defined according to the presence and/or degree of joint space narrowing, osteophytosis, articular process hypertrophy, articular erosions, subchondral cysts, and intraarticular vacuum phenomenon. This definition of lumbar ZJO was based entirely on CT imaging findings, and did not include any clinical criteria such as low back pain. Methods Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Index, which estimates hours per day typically spent in these activity categories: sleeping, sitting, slight activity, moderate activity, or heavy activity. Participants reported on usual frequency of walking, running, swimming, and weightlifting. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported activity and severe lumbar ZJO, while adjusting for key covariates including age, sex, height, and weight. Study funding was from NIH-K12HD01097. There were no study-specific conflicts of interest-associated biases. Results In multivariable analyses, ordinal categories of heavy physical activity duration per day were significantly associated with severe lumbar ZJO (p for trend=0.04), with the greatest risk observed for the category ≥ 3 hours/day (odds ratio [OR] 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.97–4.67). When heavy activity was modeled as a continuous independent variable, each hour was independently associated with 1.19 times the odds of severe lumbar ZJO (95% CI 1.03

  6. Counting Active Sites on Titanium Oxide-Silica Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Activation through In Situ Poisoning with Phenylphosphonic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Todd R.; Boston, Andrew M.; Thompson, Anthony B.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2015-06-04

    Quantifying specific active sites in supported catalysts improves our understanding and assists in rational design. Supported oxides can undergo significant structural changes as surface densities increase from site-isolated cations to monolayers and crystallites, which changes the number of kinetically relevant sites. Herein, TiOx domains are titrated on TiOx–SiO2 selectively with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). An ex situ method quantifies all fluid-accessible TiOx, whereas an in situ titration during cis-cyclooctene epoxidation provides previously unavailable values for the number of tetrahedral Ti sites on which H2O2 activation occurs. We use this method to determine the active site densities of 22 different catalysts with different synthesis methods, loadings, and characteristic spectra and find a single intrinsic turnover frequency for cis-cyclooctene epoxidation of (40±7) h-1. This simple method gives molecular-level insight into catalyst structure that is otherwise hidden when bulk techniques are used.

  7. Joint reconstruction of activity and attenuation map using LM SPECT emission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2013-03-01

    Attenuation and scatter correction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging often requires a computed tomography (CT) scan to compute the attenuation map of the patient. This results in increased radiation dose for the patient, and also has other disadvantages such as increased costs and hardware complexity. Attenuation in SPECT is a direct consequence of Compton scattering, and therefore, if the scattered photon data can give information about the attenuation map, then the CT scan may not be required. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of joint reconstruction of the activity and attenuation map using list- mode (LM) SPECT emission data, including the scattered-photon data. We propose a path-based formalism to process scattered-photon data. Following this, we derive analytic expressions to compute the Craḿer-Rao bound (CRB) of the activity and attenuation map estimates, using which, we can explore the fundamental limit of information-retrieval capacity from LM SPECT emission data. We then suggest a maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme that uses the LM emission data to jointly reconstruct the activity and attenuation map. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to compute the ML solution.

  8. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  9. The effect of co-stabilizer muscle activation on knee joint position sense: a single group pre-post test

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yeongyo; Lee, Ho Jun; Choi, Myongryol; Chung, Sangmi; Park, Junhyung; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of co-stabilizer muscle activation on knee joint position sense. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a pre-post, single-blinded randomly controlled trial (angle sequence randomly selected) design. Seven healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. Knee joint position sense was measured by a target matching test at target angles of 30°, 45° and 80° of knee flexion a using digital inclinometer under two conditions: erect sitting, which is known to highly activate co-stabilizer muscle and slump sitting, which is known to little activate the co-stabilizer muscle. [Results] A significant difference in joint position matching error at the knee flexion angle of 45° was founded between two conditions erect sitting: (3.83 ± 1.47) and slump sitting: (1.00 ± 0.63). There were no significant differences in joint position matching error at the other target angles. [Conclusion] Knee joint position sense at 45° is likely to be affected by activation of co-stabilizer muscle, and this value is suitable for facilitation of joint position sense with skilled movement. PMID:27512279

  10. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in overloaded temporomandibular joint, and induction of osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Maya; Tanimoto, Keiji; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Hideaki; Hiyama, Keiko; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Takata, Takashi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2010-03-19

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) was previously shown to be expressed specifically in the condylar cartilage of temporomandibular joint-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) model rats. Here we demonstrate for the first time that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (Hif-1alpha) is activated in mature chondrocytes of temporomandibular joint-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) model rat by mechanical overload, and that activated Hif-1 in chondrocytes can induce osteoclastogenesis via repression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) expression. In rat TMJs, degeneration of the condylar cartilage became prominent in proportion to the duration of overloading. Hif-1alpha expression was observed specifically in mature and hypertrophic chondrocytes, and Hif-1alpha-positivity, level of Vegf expression, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cell numbers all increased in the same manner. When ATDC5 cells induced differentiation by insulin were cultured under hypoxia, Hif-1alpha induction was observed in mature stage, but not in immature stage. Inductions of Hif-1-target genes showed a similar expression pattern. In addition, expression of Opg decreased in hypoxia, and Hif-1alpha played a role, in part, in its regulation. PMID:20171183

  11. How do people with chronically painful joint hypermobility syndrome make decisions about activity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anne; Corcoran, Kelley; Grahame, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background: The model of activity avoidance prompted by fear of increased pain and/or harm dominates understanding and research into activity limitation in chronic pain. Yet, the accounts of people with chronic pain on decisions about activity limitation are rarely heard beyond the confines of fear and avoidance questionnaires. Methods: We used semi-structured interviews to explore the decisions of 11 women attending a pain management clinic with chronically painful Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). Results: Six themes emerged from Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: the overall aim of keeping pain to a manageable level, considering whether the planned activity was worth it and, running through all judgements, the influence of pain intensity. The decision was tipped towards avoidance by unpredictability of pain and by high emotional cost and towards going ahead with the activity by the wish to exert control and by low emotional cost. Many accounts described a specifiable cost–benefit analysis of individual decisions, weighing the importance of each activity against its potential aversive consequences, which only in a minority of cases was dominated by fear of pain or injury. Conclusion: Assumptions of fear as the basis of activity avoidance should not be used uncritically in clinical settings. Decisions about activity should explore beyond pain expectancy, incorporating goals, values, and decision processes. Summary points The model of fear of pain or re/injury and associated avoidance, an important insight that has generated effective therapeutic interventions, risks being over-applied and assumed rather than demonstrated. Patients’ own accounts, using qualitative analysis of interview in 11 women with long term chronic pain associated with joint hypermobility, give a more nuanced description of complex decision-making around activity. While a few activities were unquestionably avoided because of such fears, others were undertaken when benefits

  12. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays.

  13. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays. PMID:27505749

  14. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  15. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD.

  16. Effect of lower-limb joint models on subject-specific musculoskeletal models and simulations of daily motor activities.

    PubMed

    Valente, Giordano; Pitto, Lorenzo; Stagni, Rita; Taddei, Fulvia

    2015-12-16

    Understanding the validity of using musculoskeletal models is critical, making important to assess how model parameters affect predictions. In particular, assumptions on joint models can affect predictions from simulations of movement, and the identification of image-based joints is unavoidably affected by uncertainty that can decrease the benefits of increasing model complexity. We evaluated the effect of different lower-limb joint models on muscle and joint contact forces during four motor tasks, and assessed the sensitivity to the uncertainties in the identification of anatomical four-bar-linkage joints. Three MRI-based musculoskeletal models having different knee and ankle joint models were created and used for the purpose. Model predictions were compared against a baseline model including simpler and widely-adopted joints. In addition, a probabilistic analysis was performed by perturbing four-bar-linkage joint parameters according to their uncertainty. The differences between models depended on the motor task analyzed, and there could be marked differences at peak loading (up to 2.40 BW at the knee and 1.54 BW at the ankle), although they were rather small over the motor task cycles (up to 0.59 BW at the knee and 0.31 BW at the ankle). The model including more degrees of freedom showed more discrepancies in predicted muscle activations compared to measured muscle activity. Further, including image-based four-bar-linkages was robust to simulate walking, chair rise and stair ascent, but not stair descent (peak standard deviation of 2.66 BW), suggesting that joint model complexity should be set according to the imaging dataset available and the intended application, performing sensitivity analyses. PMID:26506255

  17. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells. PMID:26554882

  18. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  19. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-min; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability. PMID:27313386

  20. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner. PMID:24259870

  1. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. PMID:27104932

  2. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements.

  3. Role of Synchronous Activation of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Ensembles in Multi-joint Movement Control

    PubMed Central

    Hoogland, Tycho M.; De Gruijl, Jornt R.; Witter, Laurens; Canto, Cathrin B.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is a longstanding question in neuroscience how elaborate multi-joint movements are coordinated coherently. Microzones of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are thought to mediate this coordination by controlling the timing of particular motor domains. However, it remains to be elucidated to what extent motor coordination deficits can be correlated with abnormalities in coherent activity within these microzones and to what extent artificially evoked synchronous activity within PC ensembles can elicit multi-joint motor behavior. To study PC ensemble correlates of limb, trunk, and tail movements, we developed a transparent disk treadmill that allows quantitative readout of locomotion and posture parameters in head-fixed mice and simultaneous cellular-resolution imaging and/or optogenetic manipulation. We show that PC ensembles in the ataxic and dystonic mouse mutant tottering have a reduced level of complex spike co-activation, which is delayed relative to movement onset and co-occurs with prolonged swing duration and reduced phase coupling of limb movements as well as with enlarged deflections of body-axis and tail movements. Using optogenetics to increase simple spike rate in PC ensembles, we find that preferred locomotion and posture patterns can be elicited or perturbed depending on the behavioral state. At rest, preferred sequences of limb movements can be elicited, whereas during locomotion, preferred gait-inhibition patterns are evoked. Our findings indicate that synchronous activation of PC ensembles can facilitate initiation and coordination of limb and trunk movements, presumably by tuning downstream systems involved in the execution of behavioral patterns. PMID:25843032

  4. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group performed 3 sets of 60°/sec. Muscle activity was measured by EMG and balance was measured by one-leg standing test. [Results] For muscle activity, a main effect of group was found in the non-dominant TA, and the dominant TA, GCM and PL. For balance, a main effect of time was found in both groups for the sway area measured support was provided by the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] In terms of muscle activity, the two groups showed a significant difference, and the isokinetic group showed higher muscle activities. In terms of balance, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test. The results of this study may help in the selection of exercises for physical therapy, because they show that muscle activity and balance vary according to the type of exercise. PMID:25729181

  5. Active Joint Mechanism Driven by Multiple Actuators Made of Flexible Bags: A Proposal of Dual Structural Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input. PMID:24385868

  6. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P < 0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). ANOVA performed between CD4 count and unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva in each group demonstrated a statistically significant relationship in Group II (P < 0.05). There were no significant results found between CD4 count and stimulated whole saliva in each groups. Conclusion: The reduction in CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with salivary flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART. PMID:26097309

  7. Temporal Expectation and Attention Jointly Modulate Auditory Oscillatory Activity in the Beta Band

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing. PMID:25799572

  8. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Hedgehog inhibits β-catenin activity in synovial joint development and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rockel, Jason S.; Yu, Chunying; Whetstone, Heather; Craft, April M.; Reilly, Katherine; Ma, Henry; Tsushima, Hidetoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Al-Jazrawe, Mushriq; Keller, Gordon M.; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin–induced Fgf18 expression. Stabilization of β-catenin or treatment with FGF18 rescued hedgehog-induced phenotypes. Hedgehog signaling induced expression of a dominant negative isoform of TCF7L2 (dnTCF7L2) in interzone progeny, which may account for the selective regulation of β-catenin target genes observed. Knockdown of TCF7L2 isoforms in mouse chondrocytes rescued hedgehog signaling–induced Fgf18 downregulation, while overexpression of the human dnTCF7L2 orthologue (dnTCF4) in human chondrocytes promoted the expression of catabolic enzymes associated with OA. Similarly, expression of dnTCF4 in human chondrocytes positively correlated with the aggrecanase ADAMTS4. Consistent with our developmental findings, activation of β-catenin also attenuated hedgehog-induced or surgically induced articular cartilage degeneration in mouse models of OA. Thus, our results demonstrate that hedgehog inhibits selective β-catenin target gene expression to direct interzone progeny fates and articular cartilage development and disease. Moreover, agents that increase β-catenin activity have the potential to therapeutically attenuate articular cartilage degeneration as part of OA. PMID:27018594

  10. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…

  11. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  12. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20-50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  13. Effects of squats accompanied by hip joint adduction on the selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique

    PubMed Central

    Hyong, In Hyouk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effective selective activation method of the vastus medialis oblique for knee joint stabilization in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy college students (9 males, 6 females); mean age, height, and weight: 22.2 years, 167.8 cm, and 61.4 kg, respectively) participated. The knee angle was held at 60°. Muscle activities were measured once each during an ordinary squat and a squat accompanied by hip joint adduction. The muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis were measured by electromyography for five seconds while maintaining 60° knee flexion. Electromyography signals were obtained at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz and band pass filtering at 20–50 Hz. The obtained raw root mean square was divided by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and expressed as a percentage. The selective activity of the vastus medialis oblique was assessed according to the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique to the vastus lateralis. [Results] The activity ratio of the vastus medialis oblique was higher during a squat with hip joint adduction than without. [Conclusion] A squat accompanied by hip joint adduction is effective for the selective activation of the vastus medialis oblique. PMID:26180362

  14. The contribution of activated peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in the inflamed knee joint to anti-nociception.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Wook; Park, Eui Ho; Suh, Hye Rim; Ko, Duk Hwan; Kim, Yang In; Han, Hee Chul

    2016-10-01

    The systemic administration of opioids can be used for their strong analgesic effect. However, extensive activation of opioid receptors (ORs) beyond the targeted tissue can cause dysphoria, pruritus, and constipation. Therefore, selective activation of peripheral ORs present in the afferent fibers of the targeted tissue can be considered a superior strategy in opioid analgesia to avoid potential adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in arthritic pain for the possible use of peripheral ORs as a target in anti-nociceptive therapy. We administered U50488 or nor-BNI/DIPPA, a selective agonist or antagonist of kOR, respectively into arthritic rat knee joints induced using 1% carrageenan. After the injection of U50488 or U50488 with nor-BNI or DIPPA into the inflamed knee joint, we evaluated nociceptive behavior as indicated by reduced weight-bearing on the ipsilateral limbs of the rat and recorded the activity of mechanosensitive afferents (MSA). In the inflamed knee joint, the intra-articular application of 1μM, 10nM, or 0.1nM U50488 resulted in a significant reduction in nociceptive behavior. In addition, 1μM and 10nM U50488 decreased MSA activity. However, in a non-inflamed knee joint, 1μM U50488 had no effect on MSA activity. Additionally, intra-articular pretreatment with 20μM nor-BNI or 10μM DIPPA significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of 1μM U50488 on nociceptive behavior and MSA activity in the inflamed knee joint. These results implicate that peripheral kORs can contribute to anti-nociceptive processing in an inflamed knee joint. PMID:27378583

  15. Biological activity and migration of wear particles in the knee joint: an in vivo comparison of six different polyethylene materials.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, S; Lorber, V; Dedic, M; Paulus, A C; Schröder, C; Gottschalk, O; Schmitt-Sody, M; Jansson, V

    2014-06-01

    Wear of polyethylene causes loosening of joint prostheses because of the particle mediated activity of the host tissue. It was hypothesized that conventional and crosslinked polyethylene particles lead to similar biological effects around the knee joint in vivo as well as to a similar particle distribution in the surrounding tissues. To verify these hypotheses, particle suspensions of six different polyethylene materials were injected into knee joints of Balb/C mice and intravital microscopic, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were done after 1 week. Whereas the biological effects on the synovial layer and the subchondral bone of femur and tibia were similar for all the polyethylenes, two crosslinked materials showed an elevated cytokine expression in the articular cartilage. Furthermore, the distribution of particles around the joint was dependent on the injected polyethylene material. Those crosslinked particles, which remained mainly in the joint space, showed an increased expression of TNF-alpha in articular cartilage. The data of this study support the use of crosslinked polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty. In contrast, the presence of certain crosslinked wear particles in the joint space can lead to an elevated inflammatory reaction in the remaining cartilage, which challenges the potential use of those crosslinked polyethylenes for unicondylar knee prostheses.

  16. A relationship between CD4 count and oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in urban population

    PubMed Central

    Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Alexander, Glory; Rao, Saritha; Venugopal, Reshma; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and variations in the oral manifestations of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients on HAART therapy in urban population and their association with CD4 count. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted by screening eighty patients who were HIV positive in an urban location. Both adult and pediatric patients were screened for oral manifestations and simultaneously CD4 count was also evaluated. Patients with HIV infection for variable time period who are under HAART were considered. Statistical Analysis: Measures of central tendency were used to analyse the data. Results: HIV infection destroys the immune system of an individual, making the patient susceptible to various infections and malignancies. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, the scenario has changed drastically. We have observed that patients with CD4 counts between 164 and 1286 show relatively few oral manifestations. Long-term HAART therapy causes pigmentation, xerostomia and angular cheilitis but is taken up quite well by the patients. Conclusion: In this study, eighty patients with HAART from urban population showed very minimal oral findings because of good accessibility for treatment and awareness about HIV infections. The patients who were on long-standing HAART treatment also showed minimal oral manifestation such as pigmentation and xerostomia. Hence, we conclude that recognition, significance and treatment of these lesions in patients with HIV

  17. The Effects of Elbow Joint Angle Change on the Elbow Flexor Muscle Activation in Pulley with Weight Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position. PMID:24259930

  18. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  19. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  20. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  1. T-cell count

    MedlinePlus

    Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count; T cell count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

  2. Joint spatial-spectral feature space clustering for speech activity detection from ECoG signals.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Vasileios G; Mporas, Iosif; Benz, Heather L; Sgarbas, Kyriakos N; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-04-01

    Brain-machine interfaces for speech restoration have been extensively studied for more than two decades. The success of such a system will depend in part on selecting the best brain recording sites and signal features corresponding to speech production. The purpose of this study was to detect speech activity automatically from electrocorticographic signals based on joint spatial-frequency clustering of the ECoG feature space. For this study, the ECoG signals were recorded while a subject performed two different syllable repetition tasks. We found that the optimal frequency resolution to detect speech activity from ECoG signals was 8 Hz, achieving 98.8% accuracy by employing support vector machines as a classifier. We also defined the cortical areas that held the most information about the discrimination of speech and nonspeech time intervals. Additionally, the results shed light on the distinct cortical areas associated with the two syllables repetition tasks and may contribute to the development of portable ECoG-based communication.

  3. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation < 25th percentile of daily precipitation amounts. The anticyclonic activity is determined by the density of the anticyclonic systems over the greater Mediterranean region, which, during summer, is maximized over the Balkans and the northern African coast. The anticyclonic system density has resulted from the comprehensive climatology of Mediterranean anticyclones that was assembled with the aid of the finding and tracking scheme of the University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  4. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  5. Collaborative Partner or Social Tool? New Evidence for Young Children's Understanding of Joint Intentions in Collaborative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Grafenhain, Maria; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some children's social activities are structured by joint goals. In previous research, the criterion used to determine this was relatively weak: if the partner stopped interacting, did the child attempt to re-engage her? But re-engagement attempts could easily result from the child simply realizing that she needs the partner to reach her own goal…

  6. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G. N.; Asthana, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSiI. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading. A tube-on-plate tensile test was used to evaluate joint strength of Ti-tube/ C-C composite joints. The load-carrying ability was greatest for the Cu-ABA braze joint structures. This system appeared to have the best braze spreading which resulted in a larger braze/C-C composite bonded area compared to the other two braze materials. Also, joint loadcarrying ability was found to be higher for joint structures where the fiber tows in the outer ply of the C-C composite were aligned perpendicular to the tube axis when compared to the case where fiber tows were aligned parallel to the tube axis.

  7. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  8. The mechanics of activated semitendinosus are not representative of the pathological knee joint condition of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Filiz; Temelli, Yener; Yucesoy, Can A

    2016-06-01

    Characteristic cerebral palsy effects in the knee include a restricted joint range of motion and forcefully kept joint in a flexed position. To show whether the mechanics of activated spastic semitendinosus muscle are contributing to these effects, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle's joint range of force exertion is narrow and force production capacity in flexed positions is high. The isometric semitendinosus forces of children with cerebral palsy (n=7, mean (SD)=7years (8months), GMFCS levels III-IV, 12 limbs tested) were measured intra-operatively as a function of knee angle, from flexion (120°) to full extension (0°). Peak force measured in the most flexed position was considered as the benchmark. However, peak force (mean (SD)=112.4N (54.3N)) was measured either at intermediate or even full knee extension (three limbs) indicating no narrow joint range of force exertion. Lack of high force production capacity in flexed knee positions (e.g., at 120° negligible or below 22% of the peak force) was shown except for one limb. Therefore, our hypothesis was rejected for a vast majority of the limbs. These findings and those reported for spastic gracilis agree, indicating that the patients' pathological joint condition must rely on a more complex mechanism than the mechanics of individual spastic muscles. PMID:27128957

  9. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  10. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  11. Activity vs. rest in the treatment of bone, soft tissue and joint injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important advances in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries has come from understanding that controlled early resumption of activity can promote restoration of function, and that treatment of injuries with prolonged rest may delay recovery and adversely affect normal tissues. In the last decade of the nineteenth century two widely respected orthopaedists with extensive clinical experience strongly advocated opposing treatments of musculoskeletal injuries. Hugh Owen Thomas in Liverpool believed that enforced, uninterrupted prolonged rest produced the best results. He noted that movement of injured tissues increased inflammation, and that, "It would indeed be as reasonable to attempt to cure a fever patient by kicking him out of bed, as to benefit joint disease by a wriggling at the articulation." Just Lucas-Championnier in Paris took the opposite position. He argued that early controlled active motion accelerated restoration of function, although he noted that mobility had to be given in limited doses. In general, Thomas' views met with greater acceptance in the early part of this century, but experimental studies of the last several decades generally support Lucas-Championneir. They confirm and help explain the deleterious effects of prolonged rest and the beneficial effects of activity on the musculoskeletal tissues. They have shown that maintenance of normal bone, tendon and ligament, articular cartilage and muscle structure and composition require repetitive use, and that changes in the patterns of tissue loading can strengthen or weaken normal tissues. Although all the musculoskeletal tissues can respond to repetitive loading, they vary in the magnitude and type of response to specific patterns of activity. Furthermore, their responsiveness may decline with increasing age. Skeletal muscle and bone demonstrate the most apparent response to changes in activity in individuals of any age. Cartilage and dense fibrous tissues also can respond to

  12. Anti-HIV-1 activity of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from HIV patients with different CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from saliva of HIV negative individuals inhibit HIV-1 activity by 100% in an in vitro assay. The purpose of this subsequent study was to investigate whether MUC5B and MUC7 from saliva of HIV patients or with full blown AIDS had a similar inhibitory activity against the virus. Methods Salivary MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients with different CD4 counts (< 200, 200-400 and > 400) were incubated with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). Cells were then cultured and viral replication was measured by a qualitative p24 antigen assay. The size, charge and immunoreactivity of mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals was also analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA respectively. Results It was shown that irrespective of their CD4 counts both MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients, unlike the MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV negative individuals, did not inhibit HIV-1 activity. Size, charge and immunoreactivity differences between the mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals and among the mucins from HIV patients of different CD4 count was observed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions Purified salivary mucins from HIV positive patients do not inhibit the AIDS virus in an in vitro assay. Although the reason for the inability of mucins from infected individuals to inhibit the virus is not known, it is likely that there is an alteration of the glycosylation pattern, and therefore of charge of mucin, in HIV positive patients. The ability to inhibit the virus by aggregation by sugar chains is thus diminished. PMID:20946627

  13. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Interagency Task Force on Returning Global War on Terror Heroes, VA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have agreed to develop a joint process in which Global War on Terror (GWOT) service members are evaluated...

  14. 77 FR 74279 - Agency Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim): Activity under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... President Bush's Interagency Task Force on Returning Global War on Terror Heroes, VA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have agreed to develop a joint process in which Global War on Terror (GWOT) service...

  15. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement With Physical Activity Among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696 adults in Detroit, Michigan, multilevel models were used to examine joint effects of residential density and resident involvement in neighborhood activities in relation to physical activity. We found a marginally significant negative interaction of higher residential density and resident neighborhood involvement. Higher residential density was negatively associated with physical activity, and resident neighborhood involvement was positively associated with physical activity. Our findings suggest that future work incorporate additional neighborhood and individual-level characteristics to understand the complexity of the association between the neighborhood environment, resident social engagement in the neighborhood, and physical activity.

  16. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods. PMID:20031433

  17. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  18. Effects of activating fluxes on the weld penetration and corrosion resistant property of laser welded joint of ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonghui; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi

    2015-10-01

    This study was based on the ferritic stainless steel SUS430. Under the parallel welding conditions, the critical penetration power values (CPPV) of 3mm steel plates with different surface-coating activating fluxes were tested. Results showed that, after coating with activating fluxes, such as ZrO2, CaCO3, CaF2 and CaO, the CPPV could reduce 100~250 W, which indicating the increases of the weld penetrations (WP). Nevertheless, the variation range of WP with or without activating fluxes was less than 16.7%. Compared with single-component ones, a multi-component activating flux composed of 50% ZrO2, 12.09% CaCO3, 10.43% CaO, and 27.49% MgO was testified to be much more efficient, the WP of which was about 2.3-fold of that without any activating fluxes. Furthermore, a FeCl3 spot corrosion experiment was carried out with samples cut from weld zone to test the effects of different activating fluxes on the corrosion resistant (CR) property of the laser welded joints. It was found that all kinds of activating fluxes could improve the CR of the welded joints. And, it was interesting to find that the effect of the mixed activating fluxes was inferior to those single-component ones. Among all the activating fluxes, the single-component of CaCO3 seemed to be the best in resisting corrosion. By means of Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) testing, it was found that the use of activating fluxes could effectively restrain the loss of Cr element of weld zone in the process of laser welding, thus greatly improving the CR of welded joints.

  19. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  20. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  1. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Treatment Delays, Disease Activity, Joint Damage and Disability in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Emily; del Rincon, Inmaculada; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Battafarano, Daniel F.; Escalante, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of socioeconomic status (SES) and delays in DMARD treatment with clinical measures in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods RA patients were recruited from rheumatology clinics. We assessed SES based on education, occupation and income and divided patients into tertiles. The time from RA symptom onset to DMARD initiation (DMARD lag) was determined by self-report of the two dates, and distance to the rheumatologist (Distance) was obtained from Google Maps. We examined disease activity, determined by DAS28ESR, joint damage, determined from hand radiographs by Sharp scores, and physical disability, determined by the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). We used linear regression models to examine the relationship between clinical measures and SES, Distance, and DMARD lag. Results We recruited 1,209 RA patients, 1159 of whom had received DMARD treatment. Average ± SD DMARD lag was 6.9 ± 9.0 years. On average, patients with lower SES waited 8.5 ± 10.2 years after onset of RA symptoms to begin DMARD treatment, compared to those in middle and upper SES tertiles who waited 6.1 ± 7.9 years (P=0.002) and 6.1 ± 8.6 years (P=0.009), respectively. Each year of delayed treatment was associated with a DAS28ESR increase of 0.02 (P≤0.001), a Sharp score increase of 1.33 (P≤0.001) and MHAQ score increase of 0.01 (P≤0.001). Conclusion Low SES was associated with delay in DMARD initiation, and both were independently associated with worse clinical measures in RA. Strategies to reduce treatment delay in low SES RA patients are needed. PMID:25581770

  2. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  3. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score.

    PubMed

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the joints

  4. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the

  5. Learning Dictionaries of Sparse Codes of 3D Movements of Body Joints for Real-Time Human Activity Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

  6. ACTIVATION OF B-CATENIN SIGNALLING LEADS TO TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DEFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Li, S.; Xie, W.; Shen, J.; Im, H-J.; Holz, J.D.; Wang, M.; Diekwisch, T.G.H.; Chen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanism of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the constitutive activation of β-catenin in the middle and deep layers of the articular cartilage can compromise the homeostasis of this tissue in the TMJ. Co12CreERT2 transgenic mice were bred with RosamT/mG reporter mice to determine Cre recombination efficiency. Co12CreERT2 mice were then crossed with β-cateninflox (ex3)/+ mice to generate β-catenin conditional activation mice, β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER. TMJ samples were harvested when the mice were 1-, 3- or 6-month-old and evaluated using histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were further crossed with Mmp13flox/flox and Adamts5−/− mice to generate β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)Co12ER and β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER)/Adamts5−/− double mutant mice to investigate the role of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in the development of TMJ disorder. High levels of Cre-recombination were seen in Co12CreERT2;RosamT/mG mice. Progressive TMJ defects developed in 1-, 3- and 6-month-old β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice, as revealed by histology and histomorphometry. Results further demonstrated that the defects observed in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were significantly decelerated after deletion of the Mmp13 or Adamts5 gene in (β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)co12ER or β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER/ Adamts5−/− double mutant mice. In summary, we found that β-catenin is a critical gene in the induction of TMJ cartilage degeneration, and over-expressing β-catenin in TMJ cartilage leads to defects assembling an OA-like phenotype. Deletion of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice ameliorates the development of TMJ defects. This study suggests that Mmp13 and Adamts5 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TMJ disorders. PMID:25340802

  7. Microstructure and Performance of Kovar/Alumina Joints Made with Silver-Copper Base Active Metal Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, JOHN J.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HLAVA,PAUL F.; WALKER,CHARLES A.

    1999-12-15

    Poor hermeticity performance was observed for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic-ceramic joints having a Kovar{trademark} alloy interlayer. The active Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal was used to braze the substrates together. The Ti active element was scavenged from the filler metal by the formation of a (Fe, Ni, Co){sub x}Ti phase (x= 2-3) that prevented development of a continuous Ti{sub x}O{sub y} layer at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. Altering the process parameters did not circumvent the scavenging of Ti. Molybdenum barrier layers 1000, 2500, or 5000 {angstrom} thick on the Kovar{trademark} surfaces successfully allowed Ti{sub x}O{sub y} formation at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and hermetic joints. The problems with the Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal for Kovar{trademark}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} braze joints led to the evaluation of a Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal. The Zr (active element) in Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal was not susceptible to the scavenging problem.

  8. Visual Feedback of the Non-Moving Limb Improves Active Joint-Position Sense of the Impaired Limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task…

  9. Effect of Multipass TIG and Activated TIG Welding Process on the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, K. C.; Balasubramanian, K. R.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.; Chandrasekhar, N.

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a finite element model to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of an activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated using 10 mm thickness of 316LN stainless steel plates in a single pass. To distinguish the merits of ATIG welding process, it was compared with manual multipass tungsten inert gas (MPTIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated with square butt edge configuration using an activating flux developed in-house. The MPTIG-welded joint was fabricated in thirteen passes with V-groove edge configuration. The finite element model was developed to predict the transient temperature, residual stress, and distortion of the welded joints. Also, microhardness, impact toughness, tensile strength, ferrite measurement, and microstructure were characterized. Since most of the recent publications of ATIG-welded joint was focused on the molten weld pool dynamics, this research work gives an insight on the thermo-mechanical behavior of ATIG-welded joint over MPTIG-welded joint.

  10. Hamlet without the Prince: Shortcomings of an Activity-Based Account of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, I consider several strengths of the position adopted by Racine and Carpendale (2007), but suggest that the authors are in danger of overstating their case. In doing so, they appear to sideline an issue that should be pivotal for accounts of joint attention: how does a child come to arrive at an understanding that people, both…

  11. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  12. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to costs, sales, profitability, prices, marketing, or distribution of any product, process, or service that is not reasonably required to conduct the research and development that is the purpose of... joint venture of any product, process, or service, other than the distribution among the parties to...

  13. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:27799688

  14. Collaborative partner or social tool? New evidence for young children's understanding of joint intentions in collaborative activities.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Gräfenhain, Maria; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some children's social activities are structured by joint goals. In previous research, the criterion used to determine this was relatively weak: if the partner stopped interacting, did the child attempt to re-engage her? But re-engagement attempts could easily result from the child simply realizing that she needs the partner to reach her own goal in the activity (social tool explanation). In two experiments, 21- and 27-month-old children interacted with an adult in games in which they either did or did not physically need the partner to reach a concrete goal. Moreover, when the partner stopped interacting, she did so because she was either unwilling to continue (breaking off from the joint goal) or unable to continue (presumably still maintaining the joint goal). Children of both age groups encouraged the recalcitrant partner equally often whether she was or was not physically needed for goal attainment. In addition, they did so more often when the partner was unable to continue than when she was unwilling to continue. These findings suggest that young children do not just view their collaborative partners as mindless social tools, but rather as intentional, cooperative agents with whom they must coordinate intentional states. PMID:22251292

  15. Rapid suppression of HIV-RNA is associated with improved control of immune activation in Mozambican adults initiating antiretroviral therapy with low CD4 counts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jose M; Letang, Emilio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Ayala, Edgar; David, Catarina; Menendez, Clara; Gascon, Joaquim; Alonso, Pedro; Naniche, Denise

    2011-07-01

    The rapidity of HIV-RNA suppression after initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) may impact immune reconstitution in developing countries, where patients initiate cART at low CD4 T cell counts. One hundred and thirty-five HIV-1 Mozambican adults initiating cART were prospectively followed over 16 months within a larger observational study. Plasma HIV-RNA, CD4 counts, and CD8 T cell activation were monitored at the pre-cART visit and at 4, 10, and 16 months during cART. Of the 89 patients with available HIV-RNA data at pre-cART and 4 and 10 months post-cART, 68% (60/89) suppressed HIV-RNA at 4 months and were defined as "early virological controllers"(EC). Twenty of the 29 remaining patients who did not control HIV-RNA at 4 months did so at 10 months and were classified as "late virological controllers"(LC). Nine (10%) patients did not control HIV-RNA at either time point. Both initiating an EFV-containing cART regimen and having pre-cART tuberculosis were significantly associated with early HIV-RNA suppression if locked into a multivariate model [EFV OR: 13.6 (95% CI 1.7; 108.1) p = 0.014) tuberculosis OR: 11.0 (95% CI 1.4; 87.9) p = 0.024]. EC demonstrated significantly lower median activated CD8 T cells at 4, 10, and 16 months post-cART than did LC. Approximately 63% (12/19) of LC experienced reappearance of detectable HIV-RNA at 6 months postcontrol as compared to 15% (2/60) of EC (p = 0.001). This study suggests that rapid suppression of HIV-RNA may lead to a lower rate of reappearance of HIV-RNA, which could impact CD8 T cell activation levels in patients initiating cART at low CD4 counts.

  16. Determining the shear fracture properties of HIP joints of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel by a torsion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Noh, Sanghoon; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2012-08-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a key technology used to fabricate a first wall with cooling channels for the fusion blanket system utilizing a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel. To qualify the HIPped components, small specimen test techniques are beneficial not only to evaluate the thin-wall cooling channels containing the HIP joint but also to use in neutron irradiation studies. This study aims to develop the torsion test method with special emphasis on providing a reasonable and comprehensive method to determine interfacial shear properties of HIP joints during the torsional fracture process. Torsion test results identified that the torsion process shows yield of the base metal followed by non-elastic deformation due to work hardening of the base metal. By considering this work hardening issue, we propose a reasonable and realistic solution to determine the torsional yield shear stress and the ultimate torsional shear strength of the HIPped interface. Finally, a representative torsion fracture process was identified.

  17. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A; Owens, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviews complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The review culminates in Part II with a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuro-musculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention. Imagesp179-a

  18. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A.; Owens, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviewed the complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The concluding part of the review culminates in a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuromusculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention.

  19. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective: To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results: Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions: Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited. PMID:25689561

  20. The Joint Action of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Leaves as an Explanation for the Activity of Cynara cardunculus.

    PubMed

    Rial, Carlos; García, Benito F; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-24

    The work described herein is a continuation of a previous study centered on the bioprospect of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) leaf extracts through the isolation of secondary metabolites with phytotoxic activity. Chromatographic fractionations of the ethyl acetate extract and spectroscopic analysis showed that the majority of the components were sesquiterpene lactones. Of these compounds, aguerin B, grosheimin, and cynaropicrin were very active on etiolated wheat coleoptile, standard target species, and weed growth. The joint action of binary mixtures of these three active sesquiterpene lactones and one nonactive compound (11,13-dihydroxy-8-desoxygrosheimin) was studied. The activities of fixed-ratio mixtures were assessed on wheat coleoptile. The results can be interpreted with respect to a reference model by considering dose-response analyses and isobolograms with linear regression analyses. A total of 17 binary mixtures at different levels of inhibition (ED25, ED50, and ED75) were studied, and predominantly they responded additively (25). Deviations from additivity included seven synergistic responses and two antagonistic responses. The joint action of major sesquiterpene lactones isolated from C. cardunculus can explain the activities observed in extracts and fractions. The results reported here reiterate the utility of the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in binary mixtures. PMID:27487046

  1. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  2. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients.

  3. Effect of Activated Flux on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Residual Stresses of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduraimuthu, V.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthupandi, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-02-01

    A novel variant of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding called activated-TIG (A-TIG) welding, which uses a thin layer of activated flux coating applied on the joint area prior to welding, is known to enhance the depth of penetration during autogenous TIG welding and overcomes the limitation associated with TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific activated flux for enhancing the depth of penetration during autogeneous TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. In the current work, activated flux composition is optimized to achieve 6 mm depth of penetration in single-pass TIG welding at minimum heat input possible. Then square butt weld joints are made for 6-mm-thick and 10-mm-thick plates using the optimized flux. The effect of flux on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses of the A-TIG weld joint is studied by comparing it with that of the weld joints made by conventional multipass TIG welding process using matching filler wire. Welded microstructure in the A-TIG weld joint is coarser because of the higher peak temperature in A-TIG welding process compared with that of multipass TIG weld joint made by a conventional TIG welding process. Transverse strength properties of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel weld produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base materials. The average toughness values of A-TIG weld joints are lower compared with that of the base metal and multipass weld joints due to the presence of δ-ferrite and inclusions in the weld metal caused by the flux. Compressive residual stresses are observed in the fusion zone of A-TIG weld joint, whereas tensile residual stresses are observed in the multipass TIG weld joint.

  4. Evaluating quality of adhesive joints in glass-fiber plastic piping by using active thermal NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, M.; Marinho, C. A.; Nesteruk, D. A.; Rebello, J. M.; Soares, S. D.; Vavilov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    GRP-type composites (Glass-fibre Reinforced Plastics) have been continuously employed in the oil industry in recent years, often on platforms, especially in pipes for water or oil under moderate temperatures. In this case, the pipes are usually connected through adhesive joints and, consequently, the detection of defects in these joints, as areas without adhesive or adhesive failure (disbonding), gains great importance. One-sided inspection on the joint surface (front side) is a challenging task because the material thickness easily exceeds 10 mm that is far beyond the limits of the capacity of thermography applied to GRP inspection, as confirmed by the experience. Detection limits have been evaluated both theoretically and experimentally as a function of outer wall thickness and defect lateral size. The 3D modeling was accomplished by using the ThermoCalc-6L software. The experimental unit consisted of a FLIR SC640 and NEC TH- 9100 IR imagers and some home-made heaters with the power from 1,5 to 30 kW. The results obtained by applying pulsed heating have demonstrated that the inspection efficiency is strongly dependent on the outer wall thickness with a value of about 8 mm being a detection limit.

  5. Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Gillian Hatfield; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal characteristics of all gait variables. The fatigue protocol resulted in decreased knee extensor torque generation and quadriceps median power frequencies for 18 of 20 participants (p < 0.05). The gait data from these 18 participants was analyzed. The knee external rotation angle increased (p < 0.05), the net external flexion and external rotation moments decreased (p < 0.05), and the net external adduction moment increased (p < 0.05). Post-fatigue changes in periarticular muscle activation patterns were consistent with the biomechanical changes, but were not significantly altered. Even for this low demand task of walking the knee motion and loading characteristics were altered following a high intensity fatigue protocol in a manner that may place the knee joint at greater risk for joint pathology and injury.

  6. The Relationships between Weather-Related Factors and Daily Outdoor Physical Activity Counts on an Urban Greenway

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Dana; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between weather and outdoor physical activity (PA). An online weather source was used to obtain daily max temperature [DMT], precipitation, and wind speed. An infra-red trail counter provided data on daily trail use along a greenway, over a 2-year period. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine associations between PA and weather, while controlling for day of the week and month of the year. The overall regression model explained 77.0% of the variance in daily PA (p < 0.001). DMT (b = 10.5), max temp-squared (b = −4.0), precipitation (b = −70.0), and max wind speed (b = 1.9) contributed significantly. Conclusion: Aggregated daily data can detect relationships between weather and outdoor PA. PMID:21556205

  7. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  8. Application of computational lower extremity model to investigate different muscle activities and joint force patterns in knee osteoarthritis patients during walking.

    PubMed

    Nha, Kyung Wook; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Feng, Jun; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.

  9. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  10. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  11. Differences in the impact of the frequency and enjoyment of joint family activities on adolescent substance use and violence.

    PubMed

    Windlin, Béat; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective. PMID:21963683

  12. [Pathophysiological relevance of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) to joint diseases - the pro and con of agonists].

    PubMed

    Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Moulin, David; Koufany, Meriem; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Bianchi, Arnaud; Netter, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-inducible nuclear transacting factors comprising three subtypes, PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma, which play a key role in lipids and glucose homeostasis. All PPAR subtypes have been identified in joint or inflammatory cells and their activation resulted in a transcriptional repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha), early inflammatory genes (NOS(2), COX-2, mPGES-1) or matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, MMP-13), at least for the gamma subtype. PPAR full agonists were also shown to stimulate IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) production by cytokine-stimulated articular cells in a subtype-dependent manner. These anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic properties were confirmed in animal models of joint diseases where PPAR agonists reduced synovial inflammation while preventing cartilage destruction or inflammatory bone loss, although many effects required much higher doses than needed to restore insulin sensitivity or to lower circulating lipid levels. However, these promising effects of PPAR full agonists were hampered by their ability to reduce the growth factor-dependent synthesis of extracellular matrix components or to induce chondrocyte apoptosis, by the possible contribution of immunosuppressive properties to their anti-arthritic effects, by the increased adipocyte differentiation secondary to prolonged stimulation of PPARgamma, and by a variable contribution of PPAR subtypes depending on the system. Clinical data are scarce in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients whereas thousands of patients worldwilde, treated with PPAR agonists for type 2 diabetes or dyslipidemia, are paradoxically prone to suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Whereas high dosage of full agonists may expose RA patients to cardiovascular adverse effects, the proof of concept that PPAR agonists have therapeutical relevance to OA may benefit from an epidemiological follow-up of joint lesions in diabetic or

  13. Proprioceptive deficit in individuals with unilateral tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament after active evaluation of the sense of joint position☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Cossich, Victor; Mallrich, Frédéric; Titonelli, Victor; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Velasques, Bruna; Salles, José Inácio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether the proprioceptive deficit in the sense of joint position continues to be present when patients with a limb presenting a deficient anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are assessed by testing their active reproduction of joint position, in comparison with the contralateral limb. Methods Twenty patients with unilateral ACL tearing participated in the study. Their active reproduction of joint position in the limb with the deficient ACL and in the healthy contralateral limb was tested. Meta-positions of 20% and 50% of the maximum joint range of motion were used. Proprioceptive performance was determined through the values of the absolute error, variable error and constant error. Results Significant differences in absolute error were found at both of the positions evaluated, and in constant error at 50% of the maximum joint range of motion. Conclusion When evaluated in terms of absolute error, the proprioceptive deficit continues to be present even when an active evaluation of the sense of joint position is made. Consequently, this sense involves activity of both intramuscular and tendon receptors. PMID:26229869

  14. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related FMRI using a variational approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In standard within-subject analyses of event-related fMRI data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the so-called region-based Joint Detection-Estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the BOLD response and constraining the parameter estimation by physiological priors using temporal and spatial information in a Markovian model. In contrast to previous works that use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to sample the resulting intractable posterior distribution, we recast the JDE into a missing data framework and derive a Variational Expectation-Maximization (VEM) algorithm for its inference. A variational approximation is used to approximate the Markovian model in the unsupervised spatially adaptive JDE inference, which allows automatic fine-tuning of spatial regularization parameters. It provides a new algorithm that exhibits interesting properties in terms of estimation error and computational cost compared to the previously used MCMC-based approach. Experiments on artificial and real data show that VEM-JDE is robust to model mis-specification and provides computational gain while maintaining good performance in terms of activation detection and hemodynamic shape recovery. PMID:23096056

  15. Joint ventures in medical services.

    PubMed

    Rublee, D A

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an overview of joint-venture activity in healthcare, describing trends in joint ventures and raising issues for physicians. The purposes are to discuss the major current facets of joint-venture alliances in healthcare and to identify policy issues that arise from the trend to use joint ventures as an organizational tool. Speculation is made about the future role of joint ventures in the organization of healthcare.

  16. Modulation of the Relationship Between External Knee Adduction Moments and Medial Joint Contact Forces Across Subjects and Activities

    PubMed Central

    Trepczynski, Adam; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Taylor, William R; Heller, Markus O

    2014-01-01

    Objective The external knee adduction moment (EAM) is often considered a surrogate measure of the distribution of loads across the tibiofemoral joint during walking. This study was undertaken to quantify the relationship between the EAM and directly measured medial tibiofemoral contact forces (Fmed) in a sample of subjects across a spectrum of activities. Methods The EAM for 9 patients who underwent total knee replacement was calculated using inverse dynamics analysis, while telemetric implants provided Fmed for multiple repetitions of 10 activities, including walking, stair negotiation, sit-to-stand activities, and squatting. The effects of the factors “subject” and “activity” on the relationships between Fmed and EAM were quantified using mixed-effects regression analyses in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the slope of the regression. Results Across subjects and activities a good correlation between peak EAM and Fmed values was observed, with an overall R2 value of 0.88. However, the slope of the linear regressions varied between subjects by up to a factor of 2. At peak EAM and Fmed, the RMSE of the regression across all subjects was 35% body weight (%BW), while the maximum error was 127 %BW. Conclusion The relationship between EAM and Fmed is generally good but varies considerably across subjects and activities. These findings emphasize the limitation of relying solely on the EAM to infer medial joint loading when excessive directed cocontraction of muscles exists and call for further investigations into the soft tissue–related mechanisms that modulate the internal forces at the knee. PMID:24470261

  17. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1–2 years postoperatively

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods — Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1–2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results — Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0–140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3–143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60–280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: −7.1 min/week; TKA: −5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: −11 min/week; TKA: −9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (−17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (−30 min/week). Interpretation — Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  18. CSF cell count

    MedlinePlus

    The normal white blood cell count is between 0 and 5. The normal red blood cell count is 0. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about ... use different measurements or may test different specimens.

  19. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  20. Peak muscle activation, joint kinematics, and kinetics during elliptical and stepping movement pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer.

    PubMed

    Rogatzki, Matthew J; Kernozek, Thomas W; Willson, John D; Greany, John F; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John R

    2012-06-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = .01), 29% more knee extension (p = .003), 101% higher peak knee flexor moments (p < .001) 54% greater hip extensor moments (p < .001), 268% greater anterior joint reaction force (p = .009), 37% more RF activation (p < .001), and 200 % more ES activation (p <. 001) for the elliptical motion. Sixteen percent more hip flexion (p < .001), 42% higher knee extensor moments (p < .001), and 54% greater hip flexor moments (p = .041) occurred during the step motion. Biomechanical differences between motions should be considered when planning an exercise regimen. PMID:22808700

  1. Joint United States and People`s Republic of China clean coal activities. Annual report, April 1994--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) and the Ministry of Coal Industry of the People`s Republic of China (China) signed a protocol in the field of fossil energy research and development in April 1985. An annex to this agreement, Annex IX, was signed in April 1994 for cooperation between the U.S. DOE and China`s State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC) in the area of clean coal utilization. Article III of Annex IX requires the United States and China jointly to prepare an annual report i describing the work performed and results achieved. This report, in compliance with Article III, is a description of the activities conducted under Annex IX during the period from April 1994 through December 1995. The report also contains the plans for future activities for the next 12 months, or through December 1996.

  2. Comparison of joint angles and electromyographic activity of the lower extremities during standing with wearing standard and revised high-heeled shoes: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Mansoo; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-04-29

    Revised high-heeled shoes (HHSs) were designed to improve the shortcomings of standard HHSs. This study was conducted to compare revised and standard HHSs with regard to joint angles and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower extremities during standing. The participants were five healthy young women. Data regarding joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities were obtained under three conditions: barefoot, when wearing revised HHSs, and when wearing standard HHSs. Lower extremity joint angles in the three dimensional plane were confirmed using a VICON motion capture system. EMG activity of the lower extremities was measured using active bipolar surface EMG. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by rank applied to analyze differences during three standing conditions. Compared with the barefoot condition, the standard HHSs condition was more different than the revised HHSs condition with regard to lower extremity joint angles during standing. EMG activity of the lower extremities was different for the revised HHSs condition, but the differences among the three conditions were not significant. Wearing revised HHSs may positively impact joint angles and EMG activity of the lower extremities by improving body alignment while standing. PMID:27163313

  3. Interaction between pre-landing activities and stiffness regulation of the knee joint musculoskeletal system in the drop jump: implications to performance.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Komi, P V; Nicol, C; Kyröläinen, H

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the pre-landing activities and the stiffness regulation of the knee joint musculoskeletal system and the takeoff speed during a drop jump (DJ). Nine healthy male subjects performed a DJ test from the height of 50 cm. The surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was recorded to evaluate both the pre-landing and post-landing muscle activation levels. Simultaneous recording of the jumping motion and ground reaction force was performed by a high-speed video camera (100 frames x s(-1)), and a force platform was employed to allow joint moment analysis. Joint stiffness was calculated by a linear regression of the knee joint moment/angle relationship. Elasticity of the knee extensor muscle during DJ was estimated by means of a four-element muscle model consisting of a parallel elastic component, a series elastic component (SEC), a viscous damper, and a contractile element. DJ performance correlated positively with the positive peak power of the knee joint (P < 0.01) and with the moment of the knee joint at the end of stretch (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant relationship between DJ performance and the positive peak power of the ankle joint. The knee joint moment at the end of stretch correlated with the SEC stiffness during the transmission phase from the end of the initial impact to the onset of the concentric action (P < 0.01) and with the maximum rate of isometric force development of the knee extensors (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the SEC stiffness during the transmission phase of the knee joint can be explained by a combination of the pre-activity of the VL muscle and the knee joint angular velocity at touchdown (F = 5.76, P < 0.05). These results seem to emphasize the functional significance of the pre-programmed activity for controlling the subsequent stiffness regulation and then contributing to the performance in DJ

  4. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  5. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  6. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  7. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  8. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  9. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  10. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  11. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  12. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  13. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-xu; Ren, Gao-tong; Xu, Xin-yue; Li, Fei-fei; Tay, Franklin R.; Wang, Mei-qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  14. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-Xu; Ren, Gao-Tong; Xu, Xin-Yue; Li, Fei-Fei; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-07-25

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities.

  15. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-Xu; Ren, Gao-Tong; Xu, Xin-Yue; Li, Fei-Fei; Tay, Franklin R; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  16. Joint toxicity of sediment-associated permethrin and cadmium to Chironomus dilutus: The role of bioavailability and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides and metals commonly co-occurred in sediment and caused toxicity to benthic organisms jointly. To improve accuracy in assessing risk of the sediments contaminated by insecticides and metals, it is of great importance to understand interaction between the contaminants and reasons for the interaction. In the current study, permethrin and cadmium were chosen as representative contaminants to study joint toxicity of pyrethroids and metals to a benthic invertebrate Chironomus dilutus. A median effect/combination index-isobologram was applied to evaluate the interaction between sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium at three dose ratios. Antagonistic interaction was observed in the midges for all treatments. Comparatively, cadmium-dominated group (the ratio of toxicity contribution from permethrin and cadmium was 1:3) showed stronger antagonism than equitoxicity (1:1) and permethrin-dominated groups (3:1). The reasons for the observed antagonism were elucidated from two aspects, including bioavailability and enzymatic activity. The bioavailability of permethrin, expressed as the freely dissolved concentrations in sediment porewater and measured by solid phase microextraction, was not altered by the addition of cadmium, suggesting the change in permethrin bioavailability was not the reason for the antagonism. On the other hand, the activities of metabolic enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the midges which were exposed to mixtures of permethrin and cadmium were significantly higher than those in the midges exposed to permethrin solely. Cadmium considerably enhanced the detoxifying processes of permethrin in the midges, which largely explained the observed antagonistic interaction between permethrin and cadmium.

  17. Effects of Patellar Taping on Brain Activity During Knee Joint Proprioception Tests Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    McKie, Shane; Richardson, Paul; Oldham, Jacqueline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patellar taping is a common treatment modality for physical therapists managing patellofemoral pain. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear, with much debate as to whether its efficacy is due to a change in patellar alignment or an alteration in sensory input. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory input hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging when taping was applied to the knee joint during a proprioception task. Design This was an observational study with patellar taping intervention. Methods Eight male volunteers who were healthy and right-leg dominant participated in a motor block design study. Each participant performed 2 right knee extension repetitive movement tasks: one simple and one proprioceptive. These tasks were performed with and without patellar taping and were auditorally paced for 400 seconds at 72 beats/min (1.2 Hz). Results The proprioception task without patellar taping caused a positive blood oxygenation level–dependant (BOLD) response bilaterally in the medial supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor area, the basal ganglion, and the thalamus and medial primary sensory motor cortex. For the proprioception task with patellar taping, there was a decreased BOLD response in these regions. In the lateral primary sensory cortex, there was a negative BOLD response with less activity for the proprioception task with taping. Limitations This study may have been limited by the small sample size, a possible learning effect due to a nonrandom order of tasks, and use of a single-joint knee extension task. Conclusions This study demonstrated that patellar taping modulates brain activity in several areas of the brain during a proprioception knee movement task. PMID:22282771

  18. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  19. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on

  20. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  1. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force.

    PubMed

    Zenan, Joan S

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed.

  2. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  3. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., “behavioral types”) may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator–prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator–prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator–prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator–prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  4. Situated Uses of ICT and Mediation of Joint Activity in a Primary Education Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cesar; Rochera, Maria J.; Colomina, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: From a socioconstructivist and situated perspective of teaching and learning processes, the authors analyze how one teacher and her group of 19 sixth-grade pupils use ICT. The study focuses on the way these tools mediate their activity, and evaluates the tools' potential for teaching and learning innovation. Method: A case study…

  5. Guided Participation in Three Youth Activism Organizations: Facilitation, Apprenticeship, and Joint Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Multiracial youth activism groups, based in working class and poor neighborhoods, seek to improve social conditions by organizing grassroots campaigns. Campaigns such as these, which require sophisticated planning, organizing, and advocacy skills, are noteworthy not just for their political impact, but also because of the insights they provide…

  6. Imaging active faults in a region of distributed deformation from joint focal mechanism and hypocenter clustering: Application to western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Lima, V.; Vales, D.; Carrilho, F.; Cesca, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mainland Portugal, on the SW edge of the European continent, is located directly north of the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates. It lies in a region of slow lithospheric deformation, which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. We analyse the instrumental earthquake catalog for western Iberia, enriched with data from recent dense broadband deployments. We show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several distributed faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse. Rather, when located using high quality data, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and lineations. We then present a new joint focal mechanism and hypocenter cluster algorithm that is able to extract coherent information between hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with emphasis on western Iberia. In addition to identifying well-known seismo-tectonic features, the joint clustering algorithm identifies eight new clusters of earthquakes with a good match between the directions of epicentre lineations and focal mechanism fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wider fault zones accommodating a consistent type of faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip faulting, consistent with the NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented lineations. The region offshore SW Iberia displays clusters that are either predominantly strike-slip or reverse, indicating slip partitioning. This work shows that the study of low-magnitude earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is a powerful tool to study lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions, where high-magnitude earthquakes occur with long recurrence intervals.

  7. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  8. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  9. Chronic Inflammation and Neutrophil Activation as Possible Causes of Joint Diseases in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of a ballet class on the kinetic profiles of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, cytokines, complement component 3 (C3), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), IgA and IgM, in ballerinas. We also verified neutrophil death and ROS release. Blood samples were taken from 13 dancers before, immediately after, and 18 hours after a ballet class. The ballet class increased the plasma activities of CK-total (2.0-fold) immediately after class, while the activities of CK-cardiac muscle (1.0-fold) and LDH (3.0-fold) were observed to increase 18 hours after the class. Levels of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IgG, and IgA were not affected under the study conditions. The exercise was found to induce neutrophil apoptosis (6.0-fold) 18 hours after the ballet class. Additionally, immediately after the ballet class, the neutrophils from the ballerinas were found to be less responsive to PMA stimulus. Conclusion. Ballet class was found to result in inflammation in dancers. The inflammation caused by the ballet class remained for 18 hours after the exercise. These findings are important in preventing the development of chronic lesions that are commonly observed in dancers, such as those with arthritis and synovitis. PMID:24701035

  10. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  11. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = - 0.01; 95% CI: - 0.01 to - 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.0003; 95% CI: - 0.001-0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.02; 95% CI: - 0.03 to - 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  12. Acceleration control system for semi-active in-car crib with joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce the risk of injury to an infant in an in-car crib (or in a child safety bed) collision shock during a car crash, it is necessary to maintain a constant force acting on the crib below a certain allowable value. To realize this objective, we propose a semi-active in-car crib system with the joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms. The arms of the proposed crib system support the crib like a pendulum while the pendulum system itself is supported like an inverted pendulum by the arms. In addition, the friction torque of each arm is controlled using a brake mechanism that enables the proposed in-car crib to decrease the acceleration of the crib gradually and maintain it around the target value. This system not only reduces the impulsive force but also transfers the force to the infant's back using a spin control system, i.e., the impulse force acts is made to act perpendicularly on the crib. The spin control system was developed in our previous work. This work focuses on the acceleration control system. A semi-active control law with acceleration feedback is introduced, and the effectiveness of the system is demonstrated using numerical simulation and model experiment.

  13. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  14. Joint influence of transmural heterogeneities and wall deformation on cardiac bioelectrical activity: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Colli Franzone, P; Pavarino, L F; Scacchi, S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate, by means of numerical simulations, the influence of myocardial deformation due to muscle contraction and relaxation on the cardiac repolarization process in presence of transmural intrinsic action potential duration (APD) heterogeneities. The three-dimensional electromechanical model considered consists of the following four coupled components: the quasi-static transversely isotropic finite elasticity equations for the deformation of the cardiac tissue; the active tension model for the intracellular calcium dynamics and cross-bridge binding; the anisotropic Bidomain model for the electrical current flow through the deforming cardiac tissue; the membrane model of ventricular myocytes, including stretch-activated channels. The numerical simulations are based on our finite element parallel solver, which employs Multilevel Additive Schwarz preconditioners for the solution of the discretized Bidomain equations and Newton-Krylov methods for the solution of the discretized non-linear finite elasticity equations. Our findings show that: (i) the presence of intrinsic transmural cellular APD heterogeneities is not fully masked by electrotonic current flow or by the presence of the mechanical deformation; (ii) despite the presence of transmural APD heterogeneities, the recovery process follows the activation sequence and there is no significant transmural repolarization gradient; (iii) with or without transmural APD heterogeneities, epicardial electrograms always display the same wave shape and discordance between the polarity of QRS complex and T-wave; (iv) the main effects of the mechanical deformation are an increase of the dispersion of repolarization time and APD, when computed over the total cardiac domain and over the endo- and epicardial surfaces, while there is a slight decrease along the transmural direction. PMID:27545966

  15. BOUSSOLE: A Joint CNRS-INSU, ESA, CNES, and NASA Ocean Color Calibration and Validation Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, David; Chami, Malik; Claustre, Herve; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Morel, Andre; Becu, Guislain; Gentili, Bernard; Louis, Francis; Ras, Josephine; Roussier, Emmanuel; Scott, Alec J.; Tailliez, Dominique; Hooker, Stanford B.; Guevel, Pierre; Deste, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril; Adams, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the Bouee pour l'acquisition de Series Optiques a Long Terme (BOUSSOLE) project, the primary objectives of which are to provide a long-term time series of optical properties in support of a) calibration and validation activities associated with satellite ocean color missions, and b) bio-optical research in oceanic waters. The following are included in the report: 1) an introduction to the rationale for establishing the project; 2) a definition of vicarious calibration and the specific requirements attached to it; 3) the organization of the project and the characteristics of the measurement site--in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 4) a qualitative overview of the collected data; 5) details about the buoy that was specifically designed and built for this project; 6) data collection protocols and data processing techniques; 7) a quantitative summary of the collected data, and a discussion of some sample results, including match-up analyses for the currently operational ocean color sensors, namely MERIS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS; and 8) preliminary results of the vicarious radiometric calibration of MERIS, including a tentative uncertainty budget. The results of this match-up analysis allow performance comparisons of various ocean color sensors to be performed, demonstrating the ability of the BOUSSOLE activity, i.e., combining a dedicated platform and commercial-off-the-shelf instrumentation, to provide data qualified to monitor the quality of ocean color products on the long term.

  16. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules.

  17. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules. PMID:23972283

  18. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  19. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  20. Counting Tech Prep Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the problems surrounding the counting of tech prep students. Suggests that one problem is the lack of a single definition for the term "tech prep." Suggests that if it is to be evaluated as a program, it needs more resources. (JOW)

  1. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  2. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  3. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

  4. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  5. Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe

    2011-10-15

    In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.

  6. Effects of co-infection with hepatitis C virus and GB virus C on CD4 cell count and HIV-RNA level among HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Voirin, Nicolas; Trépo, Christian; Estève, Jacques; Chevallier, Philippe; Ritter, Jacques; Fabry, Jacques; Vanhems, Philippe

    2002-07-26

    The effects of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C) on CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV-RNA levels has been investigated in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients co-infected with HCV and GBV-C experienced a CD4 cell increase during 4 years of HAART, whereas the increase stopped after 2 years in the other groups.

  7. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  8. Independent and joint effects of personality on intentions to become an active participant in local union activities in Canada.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Deborah M; Sears, Greg J; Wiesner, Willi H

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this field study (N = 282) investigates the impact of two focal personality traits, extraversion and conscientiousness, on employees' attitudes and intentions to actively participate in their local union. Consistent with the TPB, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes toward participation each explained unique variance in union participation intentions. Furthermore, results revealed that extraversion was positively related, and conscientiousness was negatively related to participation intentions, with attitudes toward participation mediating these effects. A significant interaction between extraversion and conscientiousness was also observed, such that introverted workers higher in conscientiousness were less inclined to express positive attitudes toward union participation. Overall, these results provide support for the utility of the TPB in predicting union participation intentions and highlight the vital role that personality traits may play in determining union participation attitudes and intentions. PMID:24684076

  9. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  10. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  11. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts.

  12. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479

  13. Visual feedback of the non-moving limb improves active joint-position sense of the impaired limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Smorenburg, Ana R P; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task was performed in three visual conditions: without visual feedback (no vision); with visual feedback of the non-moving limb (screen); and with visual feedback of the non-moving limb and its mirror reflection (mirror). In addition to the proprioceptive measure, a functional test [Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST)] was performed and the amount of spasticity was determined in order to examine their relation with proprioceptive ability. The accuracy of matching was significantly influenced by the distance that had to be covered by the matching limb; a larger distance resulted in a lower matching accuracy. Moreover it was demonstrated that static (mirror) visual feedback improved the matching accuracy. A clear relation between functionality, as measured by the QUEST, and active joint-position sense was not found. This might be explained by the availability of visual information during the performance of the QUEST. It is concluded that static visual feedback improves matching accuracy in children with SHCP and that the initial distance between the limbs is an influential factor which has to be taken into account when measuring joint-position sense. PMID:21306868

  14. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  15. Gray-scale and color duplex Doppler ultrasound of hand joints in the evaluation of disease activity and treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanac, Gordana; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Brkljačić, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of gray-scale and color duplex-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of changes of hand joints and assessment of treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing qualitative and quantitative US parameters with clinical and laboratory indicators of disease activity. Methods Ulnocarpal (UC), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 30 patients with RA were examined by gray-scale and CDUS before and after six months of treatment. Morphologic and quantitative Doppler findings (synovial thickness, effusion quantity, vascularization degree, resistance index, velocities) were compared with clinical indicators of disease progression: disease activity score (DAS 28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP). Results Clinical indicators changed significantly after treatment: ESR from 38.1 ± 22.4 mm/h to 27.8 ± 20.9 mm/h (P = 0.013), DAS 28 from 5.47 ± 1.56 to 3.87 ± 1.65 (P < 0.001), and HAQ from 1.26 ± 0.66 to 0.92 ± 0.74 (P = 0.030), indicating therapeutic effectiveness. In all MCP and UC joints we observed a significant change in at least one US parameter, in 6 out of 12 joints we observed a significant change in ≥2 parameters, and in 2 UC joints we observed significant changes in ≥3 parameters. The new finding was that the cut-off values of resistance index of 0.40 at baseline and of 0.55 after the treatment indicated the presence of active disease and the efficacy of treatment, respectively; also it was noticed that PIP joints can be omitted from examination protocol. Conclusion Gray scale and CDUS are useful in diagnosis of changes in UC and MCP joints of patients with RA and in monitoring the treatment efficacy. PMID:26088853

  16. Toxic effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on soil microorganism and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2014-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil culturable microbial population and enzyme activity of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the eco-toxicological response in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated some notable toxic effects due to long-term exposure to either or both contaminants. The inhibition ratios of microbial populations increased with incubation time and increasing concentrations of BDE209 or TBBPA following certain dose-response relationships and time-effect trends. The response sensitivity sequence was fungi>bacteria>actinomycete. The influence of the two chemicals on soil enzymes reached peak values on day 7, and highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed compared to the controls. Urease was more susceptive to the two chemicals than catalase and saccharase activities. Generally, the joint toxicity of both contaminants on soil microbes, catalase or saccharase activities indicated antagonistic effects, while, as for urease activity, addition role was dominant. Such observations have provided the useful information of potential ecological effects of brominated flame retardants contamination in the environment. PMID:25195096

  17. Toxic effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on soil microorganism and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2014-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil culturable microbial population and enzyme activity of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the eco-toxicological response in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated some notable toxic effects due to long-term exposure to either or both contaminants. The inhibition ratios of microbial populations increased with incubation time and increasing concentrations of BDE209 or TBBPA following certain dose-response relationships and time-effect trends. The response sensitivity sequence was fungi>bacteria>actinomycete. The influence of the two chemicals on soil enzymes reached peak values on day 7, and highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed compared to the controls. Urease was more susceptive to the two chemicals than catalase and saccharase activities. Generally, the joint toxicity of both contaminants on soil microbes, catalase or saccharase activities indicated antagonistic effects, while, as for urease activity, addition role was dominant. Such observations have provided the useful information of potential ecological effects of brominated flame retardants contamination in the environment.

  18. Muscle Activation and Estimated Relative Joint Force During Running with Weight Support on a Lower-Body Positive-Pressure Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente R; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine L

    2016-08-01

    Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force.

  19. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  20. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  1. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  2. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sunday 1:00 CST, November 6, 2016 Workplace Violence Prevention Resources The Joint Commission has launched “Workplace Violence Prevention Resources,” an online resource center dedicated to ...

  3. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  4. The Correlation between the Muscle Activity and Joint Angle of the Lower Extremity According to the Changes in Stance Width during a Lifting Task

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the correlation between the muscle activities and joint angle of the hip and knee according to the changes in stance width during a lifting task. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 15 healthy students. A three-dimensional motion analyzer (SMART-E, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the joint angles of hip and knee during lifting. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure muscle activities of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior during lifting. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson-test and SPSS 18.0. [Result] The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior was significantly decreased by increasing the stance width (r= −0.285). Muscle activity of the erector spinae was significantly decreased by increasing the knee angle (r= −0.444). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased by increasing the muscle activity of the tibialis anterior (r= 0.295). [Conclusion] Efficient lifting is possible when stance width and knee flexion are increased, which results in reduced muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and the erector spinae. Lifting is facilitated when the muscle activities of the gluteus maximus and tibialis anterior are correlated. PMID:24259908

  5. Irradiation response in weldment and HIP joint of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Takanori; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Ando, M.; Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Stoller, Roger E; Odette, G.R.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates irradiation response in the joints of F82H employed for a fusion breeding blanket. The joints, which were prepared using welding and diffusion welding, were irradiated up to 6 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tests revealed hardening in weldment (WM) and base metal (BM) greater than 300 MPa. However, the heat affected zones (HAZ) exhibit about half that of WM and BM. Therefore, neutron irradiation decreased the strength of the HAZ, leaving it in danger of local deformation in this region. Further the hardening in WM made with an electron beam was larger than that in WM made with tungsten inert gas welding. However the mechanical properties of the diffusion-welded joint were very similar to those of BM even after the irradiation.

  6. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence | will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  7. Disease activity and response assessment in psoriatic arthritis using the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA). A brief review.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Schoels, Monika; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this review we provide reasons to use joint specific composite measures of disease activity for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) rather than composite scores that combine several manifestations of psoriatic disease, including skin involvement. Based on a principal component analysis, which, indeed, excluded skin involvement as a major factor in PsA, the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) was validated using clinical trial and observational data. Further, disease activity states and response criteria were recently defined. The DAPSA is simply calculated by summing swollen + tender joint counts + patient pain + patient global assessments + CRP, using 66/68 joint counts. DAPSA has meanwhile been validated in other studies and has shown to have a very high level of validity, also when compared with joint sonography. Thus, DAPSA is useful in clinical practice, clinical trials and observational studies.

  8. Cellular interpretation of the long-range gradient of Four-jointed activity in the Drosophila wing

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Rosalind; Brittle, Amy L; Fisher, Katherine H; Monk, Nicholas A M; Strutt, David

    2015-01-01

    To understand how long-range patterning gradients are interpreted at the cellular level, we investigate how a gradient of expression of the Four-jointed kinase specifies planar polarised distributions of the cadherins Fat and Dachsous in the Drosophila wing. We use computational modelling to test different scenarios for how Four-jointed might act and test the model predictions by employing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching as an in vivo assay to measure the influence of Four-jointed on Fat-Dachsous binding. We demonstrate that in vivo, Four-jointed acts both on Fat to promote its binding to Dachsous and on Dachsous to inhibit its binding to Fat, with a bias towards a stronger effect on Fat. Overall, we show that opposing gradients of Fat and Dachsous phosphorylation are sufficient to explain the observed pattern of Fat–Dachsous binding and planar polarisation across the wing, and thus demonstrate the mechanism by which a long-range gradient is interpreted. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05789.001 PMID:25707557

  9. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  10. A Promotion Program of Academic-Industrial Collaboration with Active and Joint Participation by Technical College Students Utilizing the Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusaki, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Shigeta; Kojima, Yoichiro; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Yoshizawa, Kousuke; Tada, Mitsuhiro

    Since 2005, Tomakomai National College of Technology has been conducting “A Promotion Program of Academic-Industrial Collaboration with Active and Joint Participation by Technical College Students” , in which the students actively challenged to resolve technical problems of local companies through internships and graduation researches. This project was adopted as part of the Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. It has been revealed that the program is practical and effective engineering education for the students, i.e. “Future Engineers” . In addition, it leads to the revitalization of local companies which carried out collaborative researches with the participating students.

  11. Non-invasive dual fluorescence in vivo imaging for detection of macrophage infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in inflammatory arthritic joints

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hongsik; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Yoon, Tae Won; Hasty, Karen A.; Stuart, John M.; Yi, Ae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Detection and intervention at an early stage is a critical factor to impede arthritis progress. Here we present a non-invasive method to detect inflammatory changes in joints of arthritic mice. Inflammation was monitored by dual fluorescence optical imaging for near-infrared fluorescent (750F) matrix-metalloproteinase activatable agent and allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-mouse CD11b. Increased intensity of allophycocyanin (indication of macrophage accumulation) and 750F (indication of matrix-metalloproteinase activity) showed a biological relationship with the arthritis severity score and the histopathology score of arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that this method can be used to detect early stages of arthritis with minimum intervention in small animal models. PMID:27231625

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  13. Independent and joint associations between multiple measures of the built and social environment and physical activity in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Amy; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Israel, Barbara A; Max, Paul; Zenk, Shannon N; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of a number of health outcomes, yet fewer than half of adults in the United States report recommended levels of physical activity. Analyses of structural characteristics of the built environment as correlates of physical activity have yielded mixed results. We examine associations between multiple aspects of urban neighborhood environments and physical activity in order to understand their independent and joint effects, with a focus on the extent to which the condition of the built environment and indicators of the social environment modify associations between structural characteristics and physical activity. We use data from a stratified, multi-stage proportional probability sample of 919 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults in an urban community, observational data from their residential neighborhoods, and census data to examine independent and joint associations of structural characteristics (e.g., street network connectivity), their condition (e.g., sidewalk condition), and social environments (e.g., territoriality) with physical activity. Our findings suggest that sidewalk condition is associated with physical activity, above and beyond structural characteristics of the built environment. Associations between some structural characteristics of the built environment and physical activity were conditional upon street condition, physical deterioration, and the proportion of parks and playgrounds in good condition. We found modest support for the hypothesis that associations between structural characteristics and physical activity are modified by aspects of the social environment. Results presented here point to the value of and need for understanding and addressing the complexity of factors that contribute to the relationships between the built and social environments and physical activity, and in turn, obesity and co-morbidities. Bringing together urban planners, public health

  14. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  15. Support of Joint Function, Range of Motion, and Physical Activity Levels by Consumption of a Water-Soluble Egg Membrane Hydrolyzate

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S.; Lenninger, Miki R.; Beaman, Joni L.; Taylor, Robert; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the effects of consumption of hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on joint function in an otherwise healthy population experiencing chronic pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study included two 4-week periods of placebo and WSEM consumption, separated by a 4-week washout period. Twenty-five study participants were randomized to either the “placebo-first” or “WSEM first” sequence in the crossover trial, and 22 participants completed the study requirements. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using digital inclinometry for joints associated with vertical weight bearing from neck to knees and for shoulders. Pain at rest and when physically active was scored for the same anatomical areas using visual analog scales (VAS). Physical functioning was tracked using questionnaires with VAS. Consumption of WSEM was associated with improved ROM for neck, spine, hips, and knees, with ROM for the neck and right knee being significantly improved during WSEM consumption compared to placebo (P < .05). ROM improvement for the dominant shoulder was highly significant during WSEM consumption (P < .01). Physical activity levels were significantly higher after WSEM than after placebo consumption (P < .05). Many aspects of physical functioning as part of daily living improved. Subgroup analysis showed rapid improvement of lower back pain after 5 days of WSEM consumption compared to placebo consumption (P < .05) in subjects who participated in the study during the winter season. Daily consumption of 450 mg WSEM was associated with improved joint function, comfort during daily activities, and increased physical activity. PMID:26355952

  16. Shape analysis of counts maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

  17. Age-associated reduction of the count and functional activity of stromal precursor cells can be caused by both true reduction (exhaustion) of cell pool and regulatory effects of the organism.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Nesterenko, V G

    2011-06-01

    The study was carried out on CBA mice using the method of heterotopic transplantation. A fragment of the femoral bone marrow (1/2) or spleen (1/5 of the organ) was transplanted under the renal capsule of a recipient. The following donor-recipient cross-transplantation variants were studied: young-young (Y-Y), young-old (Y-O), old-old (O-O), and old-young (O-Y). Cell suspensions were prepared from 2-month transplants inoculated in monolayer cultures and the cloning efficiency (ECF-F) of stromal precursor cells (CFC-F) was evaluated. The bone marrow transplant ECF-F and the count of CFC-F in the O-O group were 8-fold lower than in the Y-Y group. In the O-Y group, ECF-F was 3-fold higher than in the O-O group, but by 2.5 times lower than in the Y-Y group. ECF-F in Y-O group was 2-fold lower than in Y-Y group. The ECF-F and CFC-F count in spleen transplants in the O-O group were 4- and 6-fold lower, respectively, than in Y-Y group. However, in O-Y group ECF-F was 7-fold higher than in O-O group and higher than even in Y-Y group. The weight of induced ectopic bone tissue after transplantation of the osteoinductor (fragments of the allogenic urinary bladder mucosa) was 2-fold lower in the O-O vs. Y-Y group. However, comparison of the ectopic bone tissue weights in different experimental groups showed that osteoinductor activity of the bladder epithelium did not decrease, but increased 3-fold with age (O-Y:Y-Y). A 5-fold reduction of this proportion in groups where the osteoinductor was transplanted from old donors to old and young recipients (O-Y:O-O) could be attributed to age-specific reduction of the count of inducible osteogenic precursor cells (IOPC). The data in general suggest that age-specific reduction of the stromal precursor count and functional activity could be caused by the true reduction (exhaustion) of cell pool (bone marrow CFC-F; presumably, IOPC) and by the regulatory effects of the organism (bone marrow and splenic CFC-F, IOPC). These data seem to be

  18. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  19. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  20. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  3. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: As the technological level of healthcare increases, it is important not to lose sight of the basics of patient care. No matter how sophisticated dental techniques have become, preventive dentistry still remains the foundation for oral health. Therefore, antimicrobial mouthrinses are developed to provide an effective means of preventing colonization by micro-organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling, herbal mouthrinses and fluoride mouthwash on the caries activity and S. mutans counts in the saliva of children, using Oratest and Dentocult SM kit. Design: Fifty-two healthy children between the age group of 6 to 12 years were selected for the study and divided into four groups based on the mouthrinse used as group 1: fluoride, group 2: herbal, group 3: oil pulling and group 4: control. The estimation of caries activity and S. mutans was done prior to and after the subjects were instructed to use the mouthrinse twice daily for a period of 2 weeks. Statistical analysis: The comparisons were made by applying paired ‘t’ test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Difference between more than two mean values was done by using ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons. Results and conclusion: The efficacy of fluoride and herbal mouthrinses was found to be comparable while oil pulling did not provide any additional benefit to be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in reducing the bacterial colonization of an individual. How to cite this article: Jauhari D, Srivastava N, Rana V, Chandna P. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):114-118. PMID:26379378

  5. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  6. Active Vibration Control of a Large Flexible Manipulator by Inertial Force and Joint Torque. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency and positional accuracy of a lightweight flexible manipulator are limited by its flexural vibrations, which last after a gross motion is completed. The vibration delays subsequent operations. In the proposed work, the vibration is suppressed by inertial force of a small arm in addition to the joint actuators and passive damping treatment. The proposed approach is: (1) Dynamic modeling of a combined system, a large flexible manipulator and a small arm, (2) Determination of optimal sensor location and controller algorithm, and (3) Verification of the fitness of model and the performance of controller.

  7. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  8. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Barnard, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set approximately outnumbered the first set, monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before it was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm to increment and compare quantities in sequence. This algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949

  9. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  10. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  11. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity. PMID:25627949

  12. Microstructural Variations Across a Dissimilar 316L Austenitic: 9Cr Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel Weld Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Karthikeyan, T.; Dasgupta, Arup; Sudha, C.; Hajra, R. N.; Albert, S. K.; Saroja, S.; Jayakumar, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discuss the microstructural variations across a dissimilar weld joint between SS316 and 9Cr-RAFM steel and its modifications on post weld heat treatments (PWHT). Detailed characterization showed a mixed microstructure of austenite and martensite in the weld which is in agreement with the phases predicted using Schaeffler diagram based on composition measurements. The presence of very low volume fraction of δ-ferrite in SS316L has been identified employing state of the art electron back-scattered diffraction technique. PWHT of the ferritic steel did not reduce the hardness in the weld metal. Thermal exposure at 973 K (700 °C) showed a progressive reduction in hardness of weld joint with duration of treatment except in austenitic base metal. However, diffusion annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) for 100 hours resulted in an unexpected increase in hardness of weld metal, which is a manifestation of the dilution effects and enrichment of Ni on the transformation characteristics of the weld zone. Migration of carbon from ferritic steel aided the precipitation of fine carbides in the austenitic base metal on annealing at 973 K (700 °C); but enhanced diffusion at 1073 K (880 °C) resulted in coarsening of carbides and thereby reduction of hardness.

  13. Joint Loads in Marsupial Ankles Reflect Habitual Bipedalism versus Quadrupedalism

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kristian J.; Jashashvili, Tea; Houghton, Kimberley; Westaway, Michael C.; Patel, Biren A.

    2013-01-01

    Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion). Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species), arboreal quadrupedal (4 species), and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species) marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia) exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus) or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus), which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and xenarthrans

  14. Joint loads in marsupial ankles reflect habitual bipedalism versus quadrupedalism.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Houghton, Kimberley; Westaway, Michael C; Patel, Biren A

    2013-01-01

    Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion). Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species), arboreal quadrupedal (4 species), and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species) marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia) exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus) or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus), which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and xenarthrans

  15. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  16. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  17. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  18. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  1. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  2. 7 CFR 1400.203 - Joint operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint operations. 1400.203 Section 1400.203... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.203 Joint operations. (a) A member of a joint operation will be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to...

  3. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  4. 11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 110.11, a joint fundraising notice shall be included with every solicitation for contributions... CFR 100.5; (B) The allocation formula to be used for distributing joint fundraising proceeds; (C) A... as defined in 11 CFR 110.3 prior to the joint fundraising activity and are not committees of the...

  5. Navigating Joint Projects in Telephone Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Clark, Herbert H.; Katz, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    Conversation coordinates joint activities and the joint projects that compose them. Participants coordinate (1) vertical transitions on entering and exiting joint projects; and (2) horizontal transitions in continuing within them. Transitions are coordinated using project markers such as uh-huh, yeah, right, and okay. In the authors' proposal,…

  6. Joint erosion in rheumatoid arthritis: interactions between tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) regulate osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    O', G; Ireland, D; Bord, S; Compston, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Osteoclasts, specialised bone resorbing cells regulated by RANKL and M-CSF, are implicated in rheumatoid joint erosion. Lymphocyte-monocyte interactions activate bone resorption, this being attributed to tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1 ß (IL1ß) enhanced osteoblast expression of RANKL. In animal studies, TNF potently increases osteoclast formation in the presence of RANKL. RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis also occurs, though IL1 is required for resorptive function in most studies. These inflammatory cytokines have a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis, Objective: To study the interactions of TNFα and IL1ß with RANKL, particularly the time course of the interactions and the role of lymphocytes. Method: Cultures of lymphocytes and monocytes (osteoclast precursors) or of purified CD14+ cells alone (osteoclast precursors) were exposed to various combinations of TNFα, RANKL, and IL1ß or the inhibitors osteoprotegerin, IL1 receptor antagonist, or neutralising antibodies to RANKL or to IL1. Osteoclastogenesis and resorptive activity were assessed on microscopy of dentine slices. Results: TNFα potently increased osteoclast proliferation/differentiation in the presence of RANKL. This effect was greatest when RANKL was present before but not after exposure of osteoclast precursor cells to TNFα. The resorptive activity of osteoclasts generated by TNFα in the absence of RANKL was critically dependent upon IL1, which was expressed by lymphocyte-monocyte interaction. Conclusion: TNFα potently enhances RANKL mediated osteoclast activity. Interactions between TNFα and IL1 also result in osteoclastic activity independently of RANKL. These findings will inform therapeutic approaches to the prevention of joint erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15020327

  7. The origins of counting algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949

  8. Semitendinosus snapping: analysis of movement, electromyographic activities, muscle strength and endurance, motor control and joint position sense

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Hande; Kaya, Defne; Yilgor, Caglar; Cilli, Murat; Aritan, Serdar; Yuksel, Inci; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2013-01-01

    Summary A female ballet with a history of two-years of semi-tendinosus (ST) snapping was assessed. On physical examination snapping was observed during hyperextension of the knee. Neither any history of trauma nor treatment was recalled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), movement analysis, onset timing of ST and Bisceps Femoris (BF), motor control, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, joint position sense (JPS) were assessed. The MRI findings were normal. There were abnormal oscillations observed during hyperextension of the snapping knee compared to healthy side. There were no isokinetic muscle strength nor do muscle endurance differences. The motor control and JPS deficits were greater on the snapping knee than the healthy side. ST onset timing was earlier than BF on the snapping side. Snapping of the semitendinosus tendon has an adverse affect on JPS, motor control and onset timing of the knee muscles. PMID:24367776

  9. Semitendinosus snapping: analysis of movement, electromyographic activities, muscle strength and endurance, motor control and joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Guney, Hande; Kaya, Defne; Yilgor, Caglar; Cilli, Murat; Aritan, Serdar; Yuksel, Inci; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2013-07-01

    A female ballet with a history of two-years of semi-tendinosus (ST) snapping was assessed. On physical examination snapping was observed during hyperextension of the knee. Neither any history of trauma nor treatment was recalled. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), movement analysis, onset timing of ST and Bisceps Femoris (BF), motor control, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, joint position sense (JPS) were assessed. The MRI findings were normal. There were abnormal oscillations observed during hyperextension of the snapping knee compared to healthy side. There were no isokinetic muscle strength nor do muscle endurance differences. The motor control and JPS deficits were greater on the snapping knee than the healthy side. ST onset timing was earlier than BF on the snapping side. Snapping of the semitendinosus tendon has an adverse affect on JPS, motor control and onset timing of the knee muscles.

  10. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  11. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  12. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular joint inflammation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Barretto, S R; de Melo, G C; dos Santos, J C; de Oliveira, M G B; Pereira-Filho, R N; Alves, A V F; Ribeiro, M A G; Lima-Verde, I B; Quintans Júnior, L J; de Albuquerque-Júnior, R L C; Bonjardim, L R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nociceptive behavioral as well as histomorphological aspects induced by injection of formalin and carrageenan into the rat temporomandibular joint. The 2.5% formalin injection (FRG group) induced behavioral responses characterized by rubbing the orofacial region and flinching the head quickly, which were quantified for 45 min. The pretreatment with systemic administration of diclofenac sodium-DFN group (10 mg/kg i.p.) as well as the irradiation with LLLT infrared (LST group, 780 nm, 70 mW, 30 s, 2.1 J, 52.5 J/cm(2), GaAlAs) significantly reduced the formalin-induced nociceptive responses. The 1% carrageenan injection (CRG group) induced inflammatory responses over the time-course of the study (24 h, and 3 and 7 days) characterized by the presence of intense inflammatory infiltrate rich in neutrophils, scanty areas of liquefactive necrosis and intense interstitial edema, extensive hemorrhagic areas, and enlargement of the joint space on the region. The DFN and LST groups showed an intensity of inflammatory response that was significantly lower than in CRG group over the time-course of the study, especially in the LST group, which showed exuberant granulation tissue with intense vascularization, and deposition of newly formed collagen fibers (3 and 7 days). It was concluded that the LLLT presented an anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory response on the inflammation induced in the temporomandibular joint of rodents.

  13. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  14. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis.

  15. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Burr, Tom; Favalli, Andrea; Nicholson, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of 238U and 235U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar - Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of 235U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  16. Clinical laboratory parameters in osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions correlated to trace element concentrations.

    PubMed

    Krachler, M; Domej, W

    2001-02-01

    Interactions of clinical laboratory parameters with trace elements in knee-joint effusions might turn out to be potential diagnostic tool, increasing our pathophysiological understanding and knowledge on knee-joint effusions. Thus, the 11 clinical laboratory parameters, total protein, albumin, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, uric acid, pH, rheumatoid factor, antistreptolysin, C-reactive protein, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts were determined in 39 osteoarthritic knee-joint effusions and in corresponding sera. Additionally, concentrations of the 17 trace elements barium, beryllium, calcium, cadmium, cesium, copper, lanthanum, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, lead, rubidium, antimony, tin, strontium, thallium, and zinc in both effusions and corresponding sera were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of most laboratory parameters in synovial fluid were within the normal ranges for serum. However, concentrations of total protein and albumin in effusions were distinctly lower than in sera of healthy adults. Results for rheumatoid factor, antistreptolysin, and C-reactive protein in the effusions were below their corresponding threshold values for serum. An indicator for inflammation, the leukocyte count had a median < 6.3 G/L. The erythrocyte count (median: < 0.06 T/L) revealed a very low presence of red blood cells in the effusions. Total protein concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the effusions correlated positively with effusion copper (r = 0.61 and 0.66) and effusion zinc (r = 0.71 and 0.49). For cesium, a negative correlation in both sera (r = -0.44) and effusions (r = -0.44) with LDH activity could be established. Concentrations of rubidium, strontium, and cesium responded to albumin concentrations in sera and in effusions, establishing an inverse correlation. All other trace elements showed no or only weak associations with the clinical laboratory parameters determined. Although distinct relationships

  17. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  18. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  19. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  20. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts at diagnosis are associated with overall survival of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Xie, Zhihui; Shao, Zhenyi; Chen, Wen; Xie, Hua; Qin, Guoyou; Zhao, Naiqing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (PC) survival. However, no existing studies discussed the association between neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and PC survival jointly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the influence of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts measured at disease diagnosis on the overall survival (OS) of PC. A total of 288 PC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively selected from a population-based electronic inpatients database. Multivariate Cox model and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were used to estimate the associations between neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and OS of PC. We found that a decreased lymphocyte count at diagnosis was significantly associated with OS of PC: for PC patients whose lymphocyte counts were less than 1.5 × 109/L, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval: 1.37–2.40). Although abnormally increased baseline neutrophil count in general was not associated with OS of PC, RCS found a prominently deteriorated survival for PC patients whose baseline neutrophil counts were close to the cutoff point (7.0 × 109/L). Our study results indicate that neutrophil and lymphocyte counts at diagnosis may have prognostic relevance in PC survival, especially lymphocyte count. The clinical significance of neutrophil inhibition and lymphocyte promotion treatments in PC patients should be further discussed. PMID:27749562

  1. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Schweikert, Bernd; John, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance. PMID:22536517

  2. Effects of soft tissue artifacts on differentiating kinematic differences between natural and replaced knee joints during functional activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2016-05-01

    Functional performance of total knee replacement (TKR) is often assessed using skin marker-based stereophotogrammetry, which can be affected by soft tissue artifacts (STA). The current study aimed to compare the STA and their effects on the kinematics of the knee between twelve patients with TKR and twelve healthy controls during sit-to-stand, and to assess the effects of STA on the statistical between-group comparisons. Each subject performed the sit-to-stand task while motions of the skin markers and the knees were measured by a motion capture system integrated with a three-dimensional fluoroscopy technique. The bone motions measured by the three-dimensional fluoroscopy were taken as the gold standard, with respect to which the STA of the markers were obtained. The STA were found to affect the calculated segmental poses and knee kinematics between the groups differently. The STA resulted in artefactual posterior displacements of the knee joint center, with magnitudes significantly greater in TKR than controls (p<0.01). The STA-induced knee external rotations in TKR were smaller than those in controls with mean differences of 2.3-3.0°. These between-group differences in the STA effects on knee kinematics in turn concealed the true between-group differences in the anterior-posterior translation and internal/external rotation of knee while leading to false significant between-group differences in the abduction/adduction and proximal-distal translation.

  3. Making the Middle Count

    PubMed Central

    Esbenshade, Angie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three ways in which dramatic improvements in middle flow, or examination-to-disposition time, can be driven by emergency department (ED) nursing leadership. By operationalizing a “results pending” area, low-acuity patients who are unlikely to be admitted can await diagnostic results or be actively monitored by a dedicated nurse, ED rooms and beds may be reserved for higher acuity patients. Monthly operational stakeholder meetings can provide a consistent opportunity to track, monitor, and improve flow while also celebrating successes and identifying needed performance improvements based on objective metrics for shared goals. Internal customer rounding is a process that serves as effective follow-up from the stakeholder meeting to ensure aligned behaviors to meet identified goals. Frequency of rounding is identified during the stakeholder meeting. By using these three tools, ED stakeholders can effectively focus on solutions instead of barriers to improving middle flow. PMID:25569321

  4. Long-Term Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on CD4+ Cell Evolution among Children and Adolescents Infected with HIV: 5 Years and Counting

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunjal; Hernán, Miguel A.; Williams, Paige L.; Seeger, John D.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Seage, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower percentages of CD4+ T lymphocytes are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte percentage generally increases with receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but long-term follow-up is required to assess whether these increases in CD4+ cell percentage are maintained and whether they lead to normal CD4+ cell percentages in children with severe immunosuppression. Methods The study population included 1236 children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV who were enrolled in a US-based multicenter prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C) and who were not receiving HAART at study initiation. We estimated the effects of HAART, HAART with protease inhibitors, and HAART with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors on CD4+ cell percentage, using marginal structural models to account for confounding by severity. Results Initiation of any type of HAART increased CD4+ cell percentage by 2.34% (95% confidence interval, 1.35%–3.33%) in the first year, relative to noninitiation of HAART. The substantial increases in CD4+ cell percentage observed after the first year of experience with these combination therapies were followed by relatively smaller increases that continued for 5 years after initiation. Although larger increases in CD4+ cell percentage were observed among children with a greater degree of immunosuppression at baseline, the mean CD4+ cell percentage after 5 years of HAART did not reach normal levels. Conclusions Our study supports the initiation of HAART in children before severe immunosuppression occurs for long-term maintenance of normal CD4+ cell percentages. This beneficial result must be weighed against the evidence of potential adverse events associated with the prolonged use of such therapy. PMID:18426371

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of the severity of inflammation of the joints with 99TCm-HIG in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pons, F; Sanmarti, R; Herranz, R; Collado, A; Piera, C; Vidal-Sicart, S; Muñoz-Gomez, J; Setoain, J

    1996-06-01

    A prospective study was carried out to determine the usefulness of 99TCm-human immunoglobulin G (HIG) scintigraphy in the assessment of the severity of joint inflammation. Twenty-four patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. The presence or absence of pain and/or swelling was evaluated in 34 joints and a clinical index taking into account the surface area of each joint was calculated. We measured the following biological markers of inflammation activity: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, haemoglobin, platelet count, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and soluble receptors of IL-2. Scintigraphic was performed 4 h after the injection of 740 MBq 99Tcm-HIG. The scans were evaluated by visual and quantitative analysis and the scores in each joint were weighted for joint size. Pathological uptake of the radiopharmaceutical was noted in 46% (24/52) of joints evaluated as painful, 89% (146/164) of swollen joints and 94% (78/83) of both painful and swollen joints. Both the visual and the quantitative scintigraphic indices correlated significantly with the clinical index, the number of painful joints, the number of swollen joints and several biological markers of inflammation. A very high correlation was also found between the visual and the quantitative scintigraphic indices (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, 99Tcm-HIG scintigraphy is an objective test to detect synovitis and to assess the severity of inflammation. A careful visual analysis of scans is good enough for routine evaluations and computer quantitative analysis should be used when more accurate intra-individual variation is required.

  6. Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid having the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.

  7. The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-eun; Moon, Dong-chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate. PMID:25642052

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Balance between herbicidal activity and toxicity effect: a case study of the joint effects of triazine and phenylurea herbicides on Selenastrum capricornutum and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hongming; Lin, Zhifen; Yao, Zhifeng; Gao, Ya; Cong, Yongping; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    The use of herbicide mixtures has become a cost-effective strategy against the evolution of herbicide resistance to protect global food production. Much research has focused on investigating either the herbicidal activities or the toxicity effects of herbicides; however, few of them have investigated both factors. This study investigates the balance between herbicidal activity for Selenastrum capricornutum and toxicity effect toward Photobacterium phosphoreum by determining the joint effects of triazine (simetryn, atrazine, prometon and prometryn) and phenylurea (fenuron, monuron, monolinuron and diuron) herbicides. The results showed that among the four triazines, only simetryn exhibited a unique effect (formation of a pi-sigma bond with the D1 microalga protein and an H-bond with the Luc photobacterial protein); and among 16 triazine-phenylurea binary mixtures, only the mixtures containing simetryn resulted in TU1 values (herbicidal activities of mixtures on S. capricornutum) >TU2 values (toxicity effects of mixtures on P. phosphoreum). However, the other 12 mixtures, which did not contain simetryn, showed the opposite result (TU1activity and toxicity effect, which will encourage thoughtful efforts for how to best combine herbicides in a sustainable way. PMID:24681700

  10. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  11. Regression analysis of overdispersed correlated count data with subject specific covariates.

    PubMed

    Solis-Trapala, I L; Farewell, V T

    2005-08-30

    A robust likelihood approach for the analysis of overdispersed correlated count data that takes into account cluster varying covariates is proposed. We emphasise two characteristics of the proposed method: That the correlation structure satisfies the constraints on the second moments and that the estimation of the correlation structure guarantees consistent estimates of the regression coefficients. In addition we extend the mean specification to include within- and between-cluster effects. The method is illustrated through the analysis of data from two studies. In the first study, cross-sectional count data from a randomised controlled trial are analysed to evaluate the efficacy of a communication skills training programme. The second study involves longitudinal count data which represent counts of damaged hand joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Motivated by this study, we generalize our model to accommodate for a subpopulation of patients who are not susceptible to the development of damaged hand joints.

  12. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Herman, A W

    1992-08-01

    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  13. "Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.

    PubMed

    Vipperman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

  14. Joint Associations of Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness on the Development of Incident Hypertension: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Evans, Natalie S.; Church, Timothy S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Jacobs, David R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Sidney, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Fitness and physical activity are each inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We tested whether fitness and physical activity were independently associated with the 20-year incidence of hypertension in 4618 men and women. Hypertension was determined in participants who had systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or who reported antihypertensive medication use. Fitness was estimated based on the duration of a symptom-limited graded exercise treadmill test and physical activity was self-reported. The incidence rate of hypertension was 13.8 per 1000 person-years (n=1022). Both baseline fitness (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.70 per standard deviation [SD; 2.9 minutes]) and physical activity (HR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.84 per SD [297 exercise units]) were inversely associated with incident hypertension when included jointly in a model that also adjusted for age, sex, race, baseline smoking status, SBP, alcohol intake, HDL cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, fasting glucose and BMI. The magnitude of association between physical activity and hypertension was strongest among participants in the high fitness (HR= 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.94) category, whereas the magnitude of association between fitness and hypertension was similar across tertiles of physical activity. The estimated proportion of hypertension cases that could be prevented if participants moved to a higher fitness category (i.e., preventive fraction) was 34% and varied by race and sex group. Fitness and physical activity are each associated with incident hypertension, and low fitness may account for a substantial proportion of hypertension incidence. PMID:20516395

  15. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  16. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  17. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  18. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  19. Reticulocyte counting using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nobes, P R; Carter, A B

    1990-08-01

    A flow cytometric method for the quantitation of reticulocytes was refined for routine laboratory use. Blood (2 microliters) is added to 2 ml of 0.4 microM thiazole orange in phosphate buffered saline, incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes, and analysed on a Coulter EPICS Profile flow cytometer, with gating for red cells on the basis of forward and right angled light scatter. Blood (2 microliters) is also incubated with phosphate buffered saline alone as an unstained control. The adult reference range (mean +/- 2 SD), established from 30 laboratory personnel, is 19.4-59.2 x 10(9)/l (0.2-1.6%). Comparison of this technique was made on 39 selected patient samples with visual counting of cells stained with brilliant cresyl blue. The correlation between the two methods was 0.99 with slope 0.96 and intercept 0.02. The precision of the automated technique in three subjects with reticulocyte counts of 0.12%, 1.84%, and 14.3% was 33.3%, 7.3%, and 1.4%, respectively (coefficient of variations). In three patients studied serially after intensive chemotherapy, in whom the reticulocyte count quantitated by routine visual methods approached zero (0-0.1%) for eight to 18 days, the automated counts varied between 0 and 0.5%. Flow cytometric reticulocyte counting is thus a simple and highly reliable methodology for the quantitation of normal and raised reticulocyte counts but cannot be reliably used to quantitate a subnormal level.

  20. GalaxyCount: Galaxy counts and variance calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Ellis, Simon

    2013-12-01

    GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.

  1. Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1…

  2. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  3. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  4. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    of cohorts with their chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposure. The 26,000 workers at Mayak were highly exposed to external gamma and inhaled plutonium. A cohort of individuals raised as children in Ozersk is under evaluation for their exposures to radioiodine. The Techa River Cohort consists of over 30,000 people who were born before the start of exposure in 1949 and lived along the Techa River. The Techa River Offspring Cohort consists of ~21,000 persons born to one or more exposed parents of this group, many who also lived along the contaminated river. The EURT Cohort consists of ~18,000 people who were evacuated from the EURT soon after the 1957 explosion and another 8,000 who remained. These groups together are the focus of dose reconstruction and epidemiological studies funded by the United States, Russia, and the European Union to address the question, "Are doses delivered at low dose rates as effective in producing health effects as the same doses delivered at high dose rates?"Introduction of Joint U.S. and Russian Studies of Population Exposures (Video 2:13, http://links.lww.com/HP/A28).

  5. Joint U.S./Russian studies of population exposures resulting from nuclear production activities in the southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce A

    2014-02-01

    of cohorts with their chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposure. The 26,000 workers at Mayak were highly exposed to external gamma and inhaled plutonium. A cohort of individuals raised as children in Ozersk is under evaluation for their exposures to radioiodine. The Techa River Cohort consists of over 30,000 people who were born before the start of exposure in 1949 and lived along the Techa River. The Techa River Offspring Cohort consists of ~21,000 persons born to one or more exposed parents of this group, many who also lived along the contaminated river. The EURT Cohort consists of ~18,000 people who were evacuated from the EURT soon after the 1957 explosion and another 8,000 who remained. These groups together are the focus of dose reconstruction and epidemiological studies funded by the United States, Russia, and the European Union to address the question, "Are doses delivered at low dose rates as effective in producing health effects as the same doses delivered at high dose rates?"Introduction of Joint U.S. and Russian Studies of Population Exposures (Video 2:13, http://links.lww.com/HP/A28). PMID:24378505

  6. Joint effects of crude oil and heavy metals on the gill filament EROD activity of marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ronghui; Chen, Huanbin; Bo, Jun; Xie, Qing; Hong, Fukun; Zhang, Yusheng

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent responses of gill 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity from Juvenile marbled rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) exposed to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) or Pb(Ⅱ) alone or in mixture. Compared to the control group, gill filament EROD activity in S. marmoratus was significantly induced after exposure to the WAF from 80 to 320μg/L for 5 days in dose response experiment and after exposure to 40μg/L WAF for 6-10 days in time course experiment, respectively. In the other hand, gill filament EROD activity were not significantly affected compared to the control group or related WAF groups no matter in the dose response experiment or in the time course experiment of Cd(Ⅱ), Pb(Ⅱ) or its mixture with WAF. The results suggest the use of gill filament EROD activity as a biomarker of exposure to waterborne AhR agonists in marine ecosystems while simultaneously being exposed to environmental concentrations of Cd(Ⅱ) or Pb(Ⅱ). PMID:27290642

  7. Photon counting ladar work at FOI, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Sjöqvist, Lars; Henriksson, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Photon counting techniques using direct detection has recently gained considerable interest within the laser radar community. The high sensitivity is of special importance to achieve high area coverage in surveillance and mapping applications and long range with compact systems for imaging, profiling and ranging. New short pulse lasers including the super continuum laser is of interest for active spectral imaging. A special technique in photon counting is the "time correlated single photon counting" (TCSPC). This can be utilized together with short pulse (ps) lasers to achieve very high range resolution and accuracy (mm level). Low average power lasers in the mW range enables covert operation with respect to present laser warning technology. By analyzing the return waveform range and shape information from the target can be extracted. By scanning the beam high resolution 3D images are obtained. At FOI we have studied the TCSPC with respect to range profiling and imaging. Limitations due to low SNR and dwell times are studied in conjunction with varying daylight background and atmospheric turbulence. Examples of measurements will be presented and discussed with respect to some system applications.

  8. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  9. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  10. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  11. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

  12. Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

  13. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  14. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  15. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  16. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  17. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  18. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  19. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  20. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  1. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  2. Microstructural characterization of weld joints of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel fabricated by different joining methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Paul, V.; Saroja, S.; Albert, S.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed electron microscopy study on the microstructure of various regions of weldment fabricated by three welding methods namely tungsten inert gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding in an indigenously developed 9Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. Electron back scatter diffraction studies showed a random micro-texture in all the three welds. Microstructural changes during thermal exposures were studied and corroborated with hardness and optimized conditions for the post weld heat treatment have been identified for this steel. Hollomon–Jaffe parameter has been used to estimate the extent of tempering. The activation energy for the tempering process has been evaluated and found to be corresponding to interstitial diffusion of carbon in ferrite matrix. The type and microchemistry of secondary phases in different regions of the weldment have been identified by analytical transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Comparison of microstructural parameters in TIG, electron beam and laser welds of RAFM steel • EBSD studies to illustrate the absence of preferred orientation and identification of prior austenite grain size using phase identification map • Optimization of PWHT conditions for indigenous RAFM steel • Study of kinetics of tempering and estimation of apparent activation energy of the process.

  3. Acromioclavicular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J R

    1998-04-01

    The acromioclavicular joint is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Most commonly, a sprain to the joint occurs with variability in the amount of ligamentous damage and displacement that occurs. In all but the most severe dislocations, treatment consists of initial sling immobilization and early functional rehabilitation. The outcome is usually excellent with full return of function following these injuries. The rarer types (IV, V, and VI) require operative reduction and fixation. Distal clavicle fractures are related injuries, which many times disrupt the stabilizing ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint. Many can be treated nonoperatively, but there are several subtypes that should be considered for early fixation to reduce complications of pain and shoulder dysfunction. An atraumatic, overuse condition, which is becoming more prevalent and seems related to weight training, is osteolysis of the distal clavicle. There is insidious onset of shoulder pain with symptoms and signs consistent with acromioclavicular pathology. Activity modification is the best method of controlling symptoms. Failure of the conservative approach necessitates operative excision of the distal clavicle.

  4. Alternative complement pathway activation is essential for inflammation and joint destruction in the passive transfer model of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Banda, Nirmal K; Thurman, Joshua M; Kraus, Damian; Wood, Allyson; Carroll, Michael C; Arend, William P; Holers, V Michael

    2006-08-01

    Activation of each complement initiation pathway (classical, alternative, and lectin) can lead to the generation of bioactive fragments with resulting inflammation in target organs. The objective of the current study was to determine the role of specific complement activation pathways in the pathogenesis of experimental anti-type II collagen mAb-passive transfer arthritis. C57BL/6 mice were used that were genetically deficient in either the alternative pathway protein factor B (Bf(-/-)) or in the classical pathway component C4 (C4(-/-)). Clinical disease activity was markedly decreased in Bf(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice (0.5 +/- 0.22 (n = 6) in Bf(-/-) vs 8.83 +/- 0.41 (n = 6) in WT mice (p < 0.0001)). Disease activity scores were not different between C4(-/-) and WT mice. Analyses of joints showed that C3 deposition, inflammation, pannus, cartilage, and bone damage scores were all significantly less in Bf(-/-) as compared with WT mice. There were significant decreases in mRNA levels of C3, C4, CR2, CR3, C3aR, and C5aR in the knees of Bf(-/-) as compared with C4(-/-) and WT mice with arthritis; mRNA levels for complement regulatory proteins did not differ between the three strains. These results indicate that the alternative pathway is absolutely required for the induction of arthritis following injection of anti-collagen Abs. The mechanisms by which these target organ-specific mAbs bypass the requirements for engagement of the classical pathway remain to be defined but do not appear to involve a lack of alternative pathway regulatory proteins. PMID:16849503

  5. Joint functions of protein residues and NADP(H) in oxygen activation by flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Orru, Roberto; Pazmiño, Daniel E Torres; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    The reactivity of flavoenzymes with dioxygen is at the heart of a number of biochemical reactions with far reaching implications for cell physiology and pathology. Flavin-containing monooxygenases are an attractive model system to study flavin-mediated oxygenation. In these enzymes, the NADP(H) cofactor is essential for stabilizing the flavin intermediate, which activates dioxygen and makes it ready to react with the substrate undergoing oxygenation. Our studies combine site-directed mutagenesis with the usage of NADP(+) analogues to dissect the specific roles of the cofactors and surrounding protein matrix. The highlight of this "double-engineering" approach is that subtle alterations in the hydrogen bonding and stereochemical environment can drastically alter the efficiency and outcome of the reaction with oxygen. This is illustrated by the seemingly marginal replacement of an Asn to Ser in the oxygen-reacting site, which inactivates the enzyme by effectively converting it into an oxidase. These data rationalize the effect of mutations that cause enzyme deficiency in patients affected by the fish odor syndrome. A crucial role of NADP(+) in the oxygenation reaction is to shield the reacting flavin N5 atom by H-bond interactions. A Tyr residue functions as backdoor that stabilizes this crucial binding conformation of the nicotinamide cofactor. A general concept emerging from this analysis is that the two alternative pathways of flavoprotein-oxygen reactivity (oxidation versus monooxygenation) are predicted to have very similar activation barriers. The necessity of fine tuning the hydrogen-bonding, electrostatics, and accessibility of the flavin will represent a challenge for the design and development of oxidases and monoxygenases for biotechnological applications.

  6. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (≥type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these

  7. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  8. [Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory joint diseases treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR) and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology (SPP) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (AT) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD), namely rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists. Due to the high risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with IJD, LTBI and AT screening should be performed as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis. Even if TB screening was performed at the beginning of the disease, the evaluation should be repeated before starting anti-TNF-alpha therapy. When TB (LTBI orAT) treatment is indicated, it should be performed before the beginning of anti-TNF-alpha therapy. If the IJD activity requires urgent anti-TNF-alpha therapy, these drugs can be started after two months of antituberculosis therapy in AT cases, or after one month in LTBI cases. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If abnormal, e.g. Gohn complex, the patient should be treated as LTBI; residual lesions require the exclusion of AT and patients with history of untreated or incomplete TB treatment should be treated as LTBI. In cases of suspected active lesions, AT diagnosis should be confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test (TST), with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If induration is less than 5 mm, the test should be repeated after 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and should be considered negative if the result is again inferior to 5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment. IfTST is performed in immunosupressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test.

  9. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors: March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFalpha therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn s complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk/benefit assessment.

  10. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors - March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFα therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFα therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFα therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn's complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions, ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNF-α therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk / benefit assessment. Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIV (2): 271-283.

  11. The shoulder and elbow joints and right and left sides demonstrate similar joint position sense.

    PubMed

    King, Jacqlyn; Harding, Elizabeth; Karduna, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Proper orientation of the shoulder and elbow is necessary for accurate and precise positioning of the hand. The authors' goal was to compare these joints with an active joint position sense task, while also taking into account the effects of joint flexion angle and arm dominance. Fifteen healthy subjects were asked to replicate presented joint angles with a single degree of freedom active positioning protocol. There were no significant differences in angular joint position sense errors with respect to joint (shoulder vs. elbow) and side (left vs. right). However, when considering linear positioning, errors were lower for the elbow, due to a shorter lever arm. Also, as flexion angles increased toward 90°, there was a consistent pattern of lower errors for both joints.

  12. The Unenlarged Lymph Nodes of HIV-1–infected, Asymptomatic Patients with High CD4 T Cell Counts Are Sites for Virus Replication and CD4 T Cell Proliferation. The Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tenner-Racz, Klara; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; van Lunzen, Jan; Schneider, Claus; Jacobs, Jan-Peter; Raschdorff, Birgit; Großschupff, Gudrun; Steinman, Ralph M.; Racz, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy of triple drug therapy for HIV-1 infection encourages its early use to prevent damage to the immune system. We monitored the effects of such therapy on 12 patients with 14–75-mo histories of minimal disease, i.e., CD4+ counts constantly >500/μl and little or no lymph node enlargement. In this way, we could first determine the extent of viral replication and immunoarchitectural changes in unenlarged nodes early in disease, and second follow the response to triple therapy in plasma and lymphoid tissue in tandem. As is known for lymph nodes with more advanced disease, the germinal centers showed productively infected T cells, i.e., CD4+CD1a−CD68− cells labeling intensely for HIV-1 RNA after in situ hybridization. The unenlarged nodes also showed extensive HIV-1 RNA retention on a well-preserved, follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network, and the follicles were abnormal. There were numerous CD8+ cells, many expressing TIA-1 granule antigen. Also, in contrast to normal follicles, CD4+ T cell proliferation was active, with marked increases in the number of cycling, Ki-67+CD4+CD45R0+ cells. After 28 d and 3 mo of therapy, productively infected T cells decreased dramatically and often were not apparent. The labeling of the FDC network for viral RNA also decreased, but not for gag protein. We conclude that HIV-1 replicates and accumulates in lymphoid organs before damage of the immune system, that at this stage of disease de novo production of T cells occurs in the lymphoid tissue, and that the infection is sensitive to triple drug therapy in both plasma and lymph nodes. PMID:9500797

  13. Uncertain Forecast: Education Adjusts to a New Economic Reality. Quality Counts, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This year's "Quality Counts" report, the 15th edition of this annual report produced through the joint efforts of the "Education Week" newsroom and the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center, arrives at a time of continued fiscal anxiety and education policy ferment in the wake of what has been widely described as the "Great Recession" of…

  14. Modeling joint effects of mixtures of chemicals on microorganisms using quantitative structure activity relationships. Annual report, 20 August 1991-19 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Nirmalakhandan, N.; Mohsin, M.; Arulgnanendran, V.; Bangxin, S.; Cadena, F.

    1992-01-01

    Toxicity of 50 organic chemicals to microorganisms was determined using the respirometeric approach. Using this experimental database, models for predicting toxicity (IC50 values) were developed using QSAR techniques. Toxicity measurements were also made for ten binary mixtures, and sixteen multi-component mixtures. The joint effects of organic chemicals in mixtures were analyzed by three different approaches. Using the QSAR model developed from single chemical studies, an approach was developed to analyze and predict joint effects of chemicals in mixtures. The results of this study indicate that the joint effects could be considered simply additive for the different classes of chemicals tested.

  15. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (P<0.01). An overall positive correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (pre-HAART, r=0.73, P=0.0001; follow-up HAART, r=0.56, P=0.0001). The ROC curve between TLC and CD4 count showed that TLC ≤ 1200 cells/mm(3) could predict CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3) with a sensitivity of 71.12%, specificity of 66.35% at pre-HAART. After 12-month HAART, the optimum prediction for CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 was a TLC ≤ 1300 cells/mm(3), with a sensitivity of 63.27%, and a specificity of 74.84%. Further finding indicated that TLC change was positively correlated to CD4 change (r=0.77, P=0.0001) at the time point of 12-month treatment, and the best prediction point of TLC change for CD4 increasing was 135 cells/mm(3). TLC and its change can be used as a surrogate marker for CD4 count and its change of HIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  16. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  17. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  18. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    The density and pin count for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has been increasing, and has exceeded current methods of solder joint inspection, making early detection of failures more problematic. These failures are a concern for both flight safety and maintenance in commercial aviation. Ridgetop Group, Inc. has developed a method for detecting solder joint failures in real time. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a set of boards to test this method in ground environmental and accelerated testing as well as flight test on a Dryden F-15 or F-18 research aircraft. In addition to detecting intermittent and total solder joint failures, environmental data on the boards, such as temperature and vibration, will be collected and time-correlated to aircraft state data. This paper details the technical approach involved in the detection process, and describes the design process and products to date for Dryden s FPGA failure detection boards.

  19. Pressure suit joint analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Webbon, B. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A measurement system for simultaneously measuring torque and angular flexure in a pressure suit joint is described. One end of a joint under test is held rigid. A torque transducer is pivotably supported on the other movable end of a joint. A potentiometer is attached to the transducer by an arm. The wiper shaft of the potentiometer is gripped by a reference arm that rotates the wiper shaft the same angle as the flexure of joint. A signal is generated by the potentiometer which is representative of the joint flexure. A compensation circuit converts the output of the transducer to a signal representative of joint torque.

  20. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament rupture on the timing and amplitude of gastrocnemius muscle activation: a study of alterations in EMG measures and their relationship to knee joint stability.

    PubMed

    Klyne, David M; Keays, Susan L; Bullock-Saxton, Joanne E; Newcombe, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Changes in hamstring and quadriceps activity are well known in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) to potentially compensate for knee joint instability. However, few studies have explored gastrocnemius activity or its relationship to knee stability. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the activation characteristics of medial gastrocnemius (MG) in ACLD subjects and relate any changes to knee joint laxity. Two subject cohorts were assessed: those with unilateral ACLD (n=15) and uninjured control subjects (n=11). Surface EMG of the left and right MG were recorded during a controlled single leg hop on each limb. Onset and offset of MG activation relative to take-off, during flight and landing were calculated as well as muscle activity (RMS). Passive antero-posterior knee laxity was measured with a KT1000 arthrometer during a maximal manual displacement test. Medial gastrocnemius activity on the injured side of ACLD participants demonstrated significantly prolonged activation in preparation to hop, minimal muscle inactivity prior to take-off, and increased duration of overall muscle activity when compared to the uninjured side and control subjects (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between passive knee joint laxity and prolonged activation prior to knee bend. RMS of the muscle signal was not significantly different between limbs. Overall, MG on the ACLD side demonstrated longer activation, with minimal rest during the hop test, which may be an attempt to maintain knee stability. Furthermore, the strong relationship between knee laxity and prolonged muscle activation suggests that individuals with a loss of knee stability are more reliant on active control of the gastrocnemius muscle.

  1. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. The differential count measures the percentages of each type of leukocyte present. WBC's are composed of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, ...

  2. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  3. Activities implemented jointly: First report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accomplishments and descriptions of projects accepted under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the US view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively--called joint implementation (JI)--holds significant potential both for combating the threat of global warming and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the US launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) in October 1993, and designed the program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate climate change. The USIJI provides a mechanism for investments by US entities in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and has developed a set of criteria for evaluating proposed projects for their potential to reduce net GHG emissions.

  4. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  5. Count rate limitations in pulsed accelerator fields

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan L

    2010-12-15

    This paper discusses various concepts involved in the counting losses of pulse-counting health physics instrumentation when used within the pulsed radiation environments of typical accelerator fields, in order to pre-establish appropriate limitations in use. Discussed are the 'narrow' pulse and the 'wide' pulse cases, the special effect of neutron moderating assemblies, and the effect of pulse microstructure on the counting losses of the pulse-counting instrumentation. Examples are provided which highlight the various concepts and limitations.

  6. The 1995 Mw 7.2 Gulf of Aqaba Earthquake revisited: Identifying active fault segments by joint inversion of geodetic and teleseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, H.; Feng, G.; Heimann, S.; Jonsson, S.; Mai, P. M.; Nikkhoo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The largest earthquakes in Saudi Arabia occur at the northwestern boundary of the Arabian plate on a system of left-lateral transform faults extending from the Red Sea in the South and North through the Gulf of Aqaba. The last major earthquake along this boundary occurred in November 1995 and in a complex tectonic setting offshore in the Gulf of Aqaba, consisting of several transform faults and pull-apart basins. Various authors have studied this earthquake in the past, either by using geodetic radar (InSAR) or teleseismic (P and S waves) data, and several source models of the earthquake rupture and the active fault segments have been proposed. However, these source models differ significantly from each other and it still remains unclear which fault segments within the Gulf were activated during the event. There are various reasons for these differences. Teleseismic data alone cannot locate the event well, whereas the lack of near field co-seismic displacement data (due to the event's offshore location) and the quasi north-south oriented strike-slip faulting of the earthquake result in a low SNR in the radar data. Consequently, the uncertainties of inferred model parameters are large and have not been properly estimated so far. In this work, we use radar data from two additional tracks that have not been used before, which provides a more complete displacement field of the earthquake. By using multiple aperture radar interferometry it is possible to better constrain the south-north oriented strike-slip component. In addition, we include both the geodetic data and the teleseismic data in a joint inversion setup allowing combining the strengths of each dataset to constrain the model parameters. By including the full data-variance covariance-matrixes in Bayesian inference sampling, we estimate the model-uncertainties and the related range of likely source models. Consequently, we re-evaluate, which fault segments were activated during the earthquake in the Gulf of

  7. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  8. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  9. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  11. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  12. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  13. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  14. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  15. Airborne dust particle counting techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S G; Prasad, B D

    2006-03-01

    The paper briefly describes an electro-optical system for counting of dust particles, which is based on the scattering phenomena. Utilizing the scattering of light by various size particles present in the environment, various particle counting techniques have been developed in order to measure the scattered intensity of light. Light scatters in all directions but much more in the so-called near forward direction 17( composite function) off axis, at 163( composite function) from the light source in the visible range. On the basis of two techniques, the right angle and forward angle scattering, opto-mechanical systems have been developed which measure scattered intensity and particulate matter. The forward scattering Nephelometer is more sensitive and therefore is more suitable for pollution monitoring than the right angle scattering Nephelometer. Whereas the right angle scattering Nephelometer has the utility in extremely low concentration in ppb level owing to the excellent light trap efficiency in comparison to forward scattering Nephelometer. In this paper measurement techniques and measurement results associated with design and development of a real time particle analyser are also discussed.

  16. Atypical molecular profile for joint development in the avian costal joint.

    PubMed

    Winslow, B B; Burke, A C

    2010-10-01

    Development of synovial joints involves generation of cartilaginous anlagen, formation of interzones between cartilage anlagen, and cavitation of interzones to produce fluid filled cavities. Interzone development is not fully understood, but interzones are thought to develop from skeletogenic cells that are inhibited from further chondrogenic development by a cascade of gene expression including Wnt and Bmp family members. We examined the development of the rarely studied avian costal joint to better understand mechanisms of joint development. The costal joint is found within ribs, is morphologically similar to the metatarsophalangeal joint, and undergoes cavitation in a similar manner. In contrast to other interzones, Wnt14/9a, Gdf5, Chordin, Barx1, and Bapx1 are absent from the costal joint interzone, consistent with the absence of active β-catenin and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. However Autotaxin and Noggin are expressed. The molecular profile of the costal joint suggests there are alternative mechanisms of interzone development. PMID:20730871

  17. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed.

  18. Effect of repeated through-and-through joint lavage on serum amyloid A in synovial fluid from healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Teran, A F; Bracamonte, J L; Hendrick, S; Riddell, L; Musil, K; Hoff, B; Rubio-Martínez, L M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of through-and-through joint lavage on systemic and synovial serum amyloid A (SAA), total protein, nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils in the synovial fluid of six healthy horses. A prospective experimental study was performed where one healthy tarsocrural joint of each horse was randomly assigned to receive repeated through-and-through joint lavage at 0, 48 and 96 h. Synovial fluid and blood samples were collected at 0 (baseline), 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Systemic and synovial SAA, total protein, nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils were measured and compared to baseline. Concentrations of systemic and synovial SAA percentage of neutrophils were not increased from baseline in contrast to total protein and nucleated cell counts (except for nucleated cell count at 96 h). In conclusion, repeated through-and-through joint lavage did not affect synovial SAA concentrations in horses; however, synovial total protein and nucleated cell count values increased. Some of the total protein and nucleated cell count values observed in this study were within the range reported for septic arthritis 24 h after joint lavage. Hence, synovial SAA may be a valuable marker to evaluate the clinical progression of septic joints after through-and-through joint lavage. Clinical studies evaluating synovial fluid SAA concentrations while treating synovial sepsis with through-and-through joint lavage are warranted.

  19. Markedly elevated intra-articular white cell count caused by gout alone.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Brian M; Watling, Jonathan P; Vosseller, J Turner; Strauch, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Joint pain accompanied by erythema, swelling, and decreased range of motion is concerning for septic arthritis and typically warrants joint aspiration. The synovial fluid white blood cell count plays a central role in the decision-making process regarding these patients. Traditional teaching holds that a cell count greater than 50,000 white blood cells/µL is likely caused by infection and therefore warrants either operative intervention or serial aspiration. This report describes 2 patients with extremely high synovial fluid white blood cell counts in the absence of infection. Case 1 involved a 59-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of atraumatic left elbow pain and was found to have a white blood cell count of 168,500 white blood cells/µL on joint aspiration and innumerable monosodium urate crystals. The patient ultimately improved with treatment with oral prednisone, avoiding operative intervention. Case 2 involved a 69-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of atraumatic left knee pain. On arthrocentesis, the patient had a cell count of 500,000 white blood cells/µL and was therefore taken to the operating room for arthroscopic irrigation and debridement. Final analysis of the synovial fluid showed monosodium urate crystals and negative culture findings. These cases illustrate the highest synovial fluid white blood cell count reported in patients with gout and highlight the potential difficulty in differentiating between acute gout and septic arthritis in the setting of markedly elevated white blood cell count.

  20. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  1. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  2. The development of a four-way linking framework in Egypt: an example of the FAO, OIE and WHO joint activities to facilitate national risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Simona; El-din El Tantawy, Nasr; Yilma, Jobre; AbdelNabi, Amira; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectoral assessment of health risks arising or existing at the human-animal interface is crucial to identifying and implementing effective national disease control measures. This requires availability of information from 4 functional information 'streams' - epidemiological, laboratory, animal, and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/ World Health Organization (WHO) Four-Way Linking (4WL) project promotes the establishing of a national-level joint framework for data sharing, risk assessment, and risk communication, in order to both improve communications within and among governmental public health and animal health influenza laboratories, epidemiology offices, national partners, with the aim of strengthening the national capacity to detect, report and assess risks arising from emerging influenza viruses. The project is currently being implemented in countries where H5N1 avian influenza is endemic and where human cases have been reported. The project is comprised of two main activities at country level: a 'review mission', which is the project launch in the country and has the objective to assess the existing situation; and a 'scenario based workshop', with the scope to bring together key national partners and build relationships among people working in the 4 information streams and to improve understanding of national strengths and gaps. During the workshop the delegates engaged in interactive sessions on basic risk assessment and devoted to specify the needs and roles of the 4 different streams. The participants work through a mock influenza outbreak scenario, which practically illustrates how risk assessment and communication of an emergency at the animal-human interface is more effective when there is linking of the 4 streams, collaboration, communication, and coordinated action. In 2010, Egypt was the first country where the project was successfully implemented

  3. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  4. The forelimb in walking horses: 2. Net joint moments and joint powers.

    PubMed

    Clayton, H M; Hodson, E; Lanovaz, J L

    2000-07-01

    The objective was to measure the net joint moments and joint powers for the joints of the equine forelimb during the walk. Videographic and force data were combined with morphometric information using an inverse dynamics method. During stance phase the predominant joint moment was on the palmar aspect of all forelimb joints except the shoulder, where the peak moment was considerably higher than at any other joint. The entire forelimb showed net energy absorption in both stance and swing phases. The elbow was the only joint that showed net generation of energy, which was used to maintain the limb in extension in early stance as the horse's body vaults over the limb and to drive protraction and retraction of the limb during swing. The carpus aligned the limb into a supportive strut, but did not play an important role in energy absorption or generation. A small burst of positive work on the flexor aspect at the start of breakover indicated that the carpus played an active role in initiating breakover during walking. The fetlock functioned elastically to store and release strain energy during stance. The coffin joint acted as an energy damper during most of stance with a small burst of energy generation on the flexor aspect as the joint flexed during breakover. The magnitude of the peak joint power during swing decreased in a proximal to distal sequence. It is concluded that the elbow joint is the main site of energy generation. The shoulder and coffin joints act as energy dampers during stance. The distal joints had very low joint powers and appeared to be driven by inertial forces during the swing phase. This information will be applied to describe how horses compensate for different lamenesses in terms of redistributing the functions of energy generation and absorption between joints.

  5. Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper bedding.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L; Todhunter, D A; Schoenberger, P S

    1990-07-01

    Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper, wood shavings, and pelleted corn cobs used as bedding for lactating dairy cows were compared. Chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and streptococcal bedding counts. Staphylococcal counts in pelleted corn cobs were greater than in chopped newspaper. Conversely, gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcal counts in chopped newspaper were greater than in wood shavings. Coliform and streptococcal counts did not differ between chopped newspaper and wood shavings bedding materials. Teat swab counts from cows bedded on pelleted corn cobs were greater than those from cows bedded on chopped newspaper for gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, and staphylococci. Streptococcal teat swab counts did not differ between cows bedded on chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs. Cows bedded on chopped newspaper and wood shavings had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and Klebsiella species teat swab counts. Streptococcal and staphylococcal teat swab counts were greater from cows bedded on chopped newspaper than those from cows bedded on wood shavings. Teat swab and bedding counts were correlated. In general, bacterial counts in bedding suggest no advantage in using chopped newspaper over pelleted corn cobs or wood shavings in reducing exposure of teats to environmental mastitis pathogens. PMID:2229587

  6. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  7. Joint custody: preliminary impressions.

    PubMed

    Awad, G A

    1983-02-01

    Joint custody is currently a popular and debatable issue. It is felt that some of the controversy is due to the lack of agreement on a definition. Following some examples of the differences in personal and judicial definitions of joint custody, a classification of custody is offered. Four types of custody arrangements are described: Absolute Sole Custody, Sole Custody, Non-Alternating Joint Custody (disputed and undisputed) and Alternating Joint Custody (disputed and undisputed). A critical review of the literature follows. Finally, clinical impressions about the two types of joint custody are discussed. PMID:6839267

  8. The Money/Counting Kit. The Prospectus Series, Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musumeci, Judith

    The Money/Counting Kit for Handicapped Children and Youth, frees the teacher from lessons in money and counting concepts and enables a student to learn at his own rate with immediate feedback from activity cards, name cards, thermoformed coin cards (optional), and self-instructional booklets. The activity cards, which may be used individually or…

  9. Counting hypermaps by Egorychev's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednykh, Alexander; Nedela, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to find explicit formulae for the number of rooted hypermaps with a given number of darts on an orientable surface of genus g≤ 3. Such formulae were obtained earlier for g=0 and g=1 by Walsh and Arquès respectively. We first employ the Egorychev's method of counting combinatorial sums to obtain a new version of the Arquès formula for genus g=1. Then we apply the same approach to get new results for genus g=2,3. We could do it due to recent results by Giorgetti, Walsh, and Kazarian, Zograf who derived two different, but equivalent, forms of the generating functions for the number of hypermaps of genus two and three.

  10. Counting solutions from finite samplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290

  11. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  12. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  13. Well coincidence counting and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; Ceo, R.N.; Collins, L.L.

    1994-03-01

    In several recent papers a physical/mathematical model was developed to describe the nuclear multiplicative processes in samples containing fissile material from a general statistical viewpoint, starting with the basic underlying physical phenomena. The results of this model agreed with the established picture used in ``standard`` HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) measurements, but considerably extended them, and allowed a more detailed interpretation of the underlying physical mechanisms and of the higher moments of the neutron counts. The present paper examines some recent measurements made at Y-12 (Oak Ridge) using the AWCC, in the light of this model. The results show internal consistency under a variety of conditions, and give good agreement between experiment and theory.

  14. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  15. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Pablo; Kemp, Garreth; Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  16. Counting Electrons on Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, Phillip

    2004-03-01

    Electrons on liquid helium, localised in an array of quantum dots, have been proposed as condensed matter qubits [M.I.Dykman et al. Phys.Rev. B 67, 155402 (2003)]. The ground and first excited Rydberg states in the vertical potential well on the helium surface would represent |0> and |1>. This requires (a) novel electronic devices on helium using microstructured substrates, (b) excitation of Rydberg states using millimetric microwaves and (c) detection of individual electrons and their quantum states. Progress in meeting these challenges will be presented. An AC-coupled Field Effect Transistor (FET) has been made on GaAs, using free electrons on suspended liquid helium microchannels, 16 micron wide and 1.6 microns deep [P.Glasson et al, Phys.Rev.Lett. 87 176802 (2001)]. The microwave absorption to the first excited Rydberg state near 200 GHz has been measured below 1 K [E.Collin et al. Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 245301 (2002)], where the temperature-dependent contribution to the linewidth is small. High values of the ratio of the Rabi frequency to the linewidth are obtained. Electrons are trapped on a 5 micron diameter pool of superfluid helium, above a single-electron-transistor (SET) as a detector. The pool is charged from a surface electron reservoir and we count the electrons into and out of the trap. Individual electrons can be stored, detected and counted: the next stage is quantum state detection. The prospects for qubits and quantum information processing with electrons on helium will be assessed.

  17. Joint Associations of Physical Activity and Hypertension with the Development of Type 2 Diabetes among Urban Men and Women in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, YouFa; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and hypertension (HTN) are important influences on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the joint impact of PA and HTN on T2D development is unknown. Methods Two community-based prospective cohort studies, with the same protocols, instruments and questionnaires, were conducted among adults in urban areas of Nanjing, China, during 2004–2007 and 2007–2010. T2D was defined using World Health Organization criteria based on physicians' diagnosis and fasting blood glucose concentration. PA level (sufficient/insufficient) and blood pressure status (hypertensive/normotensive) were assessed at baseline and the third year of follow-up. We pooled and analyzed data from these two studies. Results Among 4550 participants aged 35 years or older, the three-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants with sufficient PA were less likely to develop T2D than those with insufficient PA (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.27, 0.68) and those who were normotensive were less likely to develop T2D than those who were hypertensive (OR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.29, 0.51). Compared to participants with insufficient PA and who were hypertensive, those with sufficient PA and hypertension were at lower risk of developing T2D (OR = 0.36, 95%CI = 0.19, 0.69), as were those with insufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.28, 0.50) and those with sufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.37). Conclusions Insufficient PA was found to be associated with the development of T2D among adults with and without hypertension. These findings support a role for promoting higher physical activity levels to lower T2D risk in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. PMID:24551143

  18. Temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis and temporomandibular joint hypermobility.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P U; de Bont, L G; de Leeuw, R; Stegenga, B; Boering, G

    1993-10-01

    For studying the relationship between condylar hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and osteoarthrosis (OA), 13 patients with bilateral condylar hypermobility were evaluated clinically and radiographically, 30 years after non-surgical treatment. The evaluation included range of motion, joint and muscle tenderness to palpation, joint sounds and masticatory function. Radiographs of the TMJs were evaluated for the absence or presence of degenerative changes. The hypermobile group (HG) was compared with a control group (CG) (n = 13). The CG was evaluated in the same way as the HG. Statistics included t-tests (to compare ranges of motion in the HG over time and to compare ranges of motion in HG and CG), non-parametric tests (to compare tenderness of muscles and joints, joint sounds, masticatory function and radiographic changes over time in the HG). The tests were also used to compare the same variables between the HG and CG group. The groups' only difference was the presence of radiographic signs of OA. In the HG the number of joints with radiographic degenerative changes increased significantly over time and was significantly higher than the CG. Clinically and functionally, the HG and CG did not differ. Therefore, it is concluded that TMJ hypermobility is a subsidiary factor in the development of TMJ OA. PMID:8118897

  19. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  20. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    PubMed

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  1. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    PubMed

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  2. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    SciTech Connect

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  3. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  7. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  8. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Turkmensoy, Fatih; Erinc, Samet; Ergin, Omer Naci; Ozkan, Korhan; Kemah, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level. PMID:25861501

  9. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Septic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    The pathological invasion of a joint and subsequent inflammation is known as septic arthritis. The knee and hip are the most frequently involved joints. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. An acute onset of illness with an inflamed painful joint and restricted movements and inability to use joint (pseudoparalysis) clinically indicates septic arthritis. The diagnosis is difficult in a neonate or young child where refusal to feed, crying, discomfort during change of diaper (if hip is involved) or attempted joint movement may be the only findings. Fever and other systemic signs may also be absent in neonates. Septic arthritis is diagnosed clinically, supported by appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations. The peripheral blood white cell count is frequently raised with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often markedly raised. Ultrasonography and MRI are preferred investigations in pediatric septic arthritis. Determination of infecting organism in septic arthritis is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management. Joint aspirate and/or blood culture should be obtained before starting antibiotic treatment. Several effective antibiotic regimes are available for managing septic arthritis in children. Presence of large collections, thick pus, joint loculations and pus evacuating into surrounding soft tissues are main indications for surgical drainage. Joint aspiration can be a practical alternative in case the lesion is diagnosed early, with uncomplicated presentations and superficial joints. PMID:26189923

  10. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Septic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    The pathological invasion of a joint and subsequent inflammation is known as septic arthritis. The knee and hip are the most frequently involved joints. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. An acute onset of illness with an inflamed painful joint and restricted movements and inability to use joint (pseudoparalysis) clinically indicates septic arthritis. The diagnosis is difficult in a neonate or young child where refusal to feed, crying, discomfort during change of diaper (if hip is involved) or attempted joint movement may be the only findings. Fever and other systemic signs may also be absent in neonates. Septic arthritis is diagnosed clinically, supported by appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations. The peripheral blood white cell count is frequently raised with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often markedly raised. Ultrasonography and MRI are preferred investigations in pediatric septic arthritis. Determination of infecting organism in septic arthritis is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management. Joint aspirate and/or blood culture should be obtained before starting antibiotic treatment. Several effective antibiotic regimes are available for managing septic arthritis in children. Presence of large collections, thick pus, joint loculations and pus evacuating into surrounding soft tissues are main indications for surgical drainage. Joint aspiration can be a practical alternative in case the lesion is diagnosed early, with uncomplicated presentations and superficial joints.

  11. Reviving common standards in point-count surveys for broad inference across studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, Steven M.; Mahon, C. Lisa; Handel, Colleen M.; Solymos, Peter; Bayne, Erin M.; Fontaine, Patricia C.; Ralph, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the common standards recommended by Ralph et al. (1993, 1995a) for conducting point-count surveys to assess the relative abundance of landbirds breeding in North America. The standards originated from discussions among ornithologists in 1991 and were developed so that point-count survey data could be broadly compared and jointly analyzed by national data centers with the goals of monitoring populations and managing habitat. Twenty years later, we revisit these standards because (1) they have not been universally followed and (2) new methods allow estimation of absolute abundance from point counts, but these methods generally require data beyond the original standards to account for imperfect detection. Lack of standardization and the complications it introduces for analysis become apparent from aggregated data. For example, only 3% of 196,000 point counts conducted during the period 1992-2011 across Alaska and Canada followed the standards recommended for the count period and count radius. Ten-minute, unlimited-count-radius surveys increased the number of birds detected by >300% over 3-minute, 50-m-radius surveys. This effect size, which could be eliminated by standardized sampling, was ≥10 times the published effect sizes of observers, time of day, and date of the surveys. We suggest that the recommendations by Ralph et al. (1995a) continue to form the common standards when conducting point counts. This protocol is inexpensive and easy to follow but still allows the surveys to be adjusted for detection probabilities. Investigators might optionally collect additional information so that they can analyze their data with more flexible forms of removal and time-of-detection models, distance sampling, multiple-observer methods, repeated counts, or combinations of these methods. Maintaining the common standards as a base protocol, even as these study-specific modifications are added, will maximize the value of point-count data, allowing compilation and

  12. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in C-C and C-SiC Composites to Copper-Clad-Molybdenum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices, and C/SiC composites reinforced with T-300 carbon fibers in a CVI SiC matrix were joined to Cu-clad Mo using two Ag-Cu braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward delamination in resin-derived C/C composite. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the C/C joints indicated sharp gradients at the interface, and a higher hardness in Ticusil than in Cusil-ABA. For the C/SiC composite to Cu-clad-Mo joints, the effect of composite surface preparation revealed that ground samples did not crack whereas unground samples cracked. Calculated strain energy in brazed joints in both systems is comparable to the strain energy in a number of other ceramic/metal systems. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that such joined systems may be promising for thermal management applications.

  13. How providers can preserve mutually beneficial joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, S W; Olson, C E; Shirilla, P M

    1992-09-01

    Joint ventures between hospitals and physicians were formed at a dizzying pace during the 1980s. Many of these joint ventures are now a source of concern for both hospital and physician partners. In the following article, the authors discuss their experience with joint ventures in the wake of recent and proposed regulatory and legislative activity and present several practical strategies for hospital executives to consider regarding their joint ventures.

  14. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  15. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  16. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  17. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  18. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  19. What face inversion does to infants' counting abilities.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Luca L; Frot, Emmanuel; Mehler, Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Infants younger than 1 year do not correctly count the number of objects in a scene by using differences among their properties, unless these differences cross the broad category boundaries separating humans, animals, and artifacts. Here we show that face orientation influences whether 10- and 12-month-old infants count correctly or incorrectly. When infants saw two puppets appearing and disappearing behind an occluder successively and had no cues for numerosity other than differences among the puppets' properties, they correctly counted two puppets if one had an upright face and one an upside-down face. However, when the same puppets were both shown with faces upright, infants failed the task. Overall, this pattern of success and failure closely parallels the pattern of brain activations registered when adults and infants watch objects characterized by the same property contrasts.

  20. Advantages of Photon Counting Detectors for Terahertz Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ezawa, Hajime

    2016-08-01

    For astronomical observation at terahertz frequencies, a variety of cryogenic detector technologies are being developed to achieve background-limited observation from space, where a noise equivalent power (NEP) of less than 10^{-18} W/Hz^{0.5} is often required. When each photon signal is resolved in time, the requirements on NEP are reduced and 1 ns time resolution corresponds to an NEP of approximately 10^{-17} W/Hz^{0.5} at THz frequencies. Furthermore, fast photon counting detectors have a high dynamic range to observe bright terahertz sources such as stars and active galactic nuclei. Applications of photon counting detector are discussed for cosmic microwave background and photon counting terahertz interferometry.

  1. How does joint remodeling work?: new insights in the molecular regulation of the architecture of joints.

    PubMed

    Schett, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Remodeling of joints is a key feature of inflammatory and degenerative joint disease. Bone erosion, cartilage degeneration and growth of bony spurs termed osteophytes are key features of structural joint pathology in the course of arthritis, which lead to impairment of joint function. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential to tailor targeted therapeutic approaches to protect joint architecture from inflammatory and mechanical stress. This addendum summarizes the new insights in the molecular regulation of bone formation in the joint and its relation to bone resorption. It describes how inflammatory cytokines impair bone formation and block the repair response of joints towards inflammatory stimuli. It particularly points out the key role of Dickkopf-1 protein, a regulator of the Wingless signaling and inhibitor of bone formation. This new link between inflammation and bone formation is also crucial for explaining the generation of osteophytes, bony spurs along joints, which are characterized by new bone and cartilage formation. This mechanism is largely dependent on an activation of wingless protein signaling and can lead to complete joint fusion. This addendum summarized the current concepts of joint remodeling in the limelight of these new findings.

  2. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  3. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. PMID:27554487

  4. A new shoulder model with a biologically inspired glenohumeral joint.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2016-09-01

    Kinematically unconstrained biomechanical models of the glenohumeral (GH) joint are needed to study the GH joint function, especially the mechanisms of joint stability. The purpose of this study is to develop a large-scale multibody model of the upper limb that simulates the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the GH joint and to propose a novel inverse dynamics procedure that allows the evaluation of not only the muscle and joint reaction forces of the upper limb but also the GH joint translations. The biomechanical model developed is composed of 7 rigid bodies, constrained by 6 anatomical joints, and acted upon by 21 muscles. The GH joint is described as a spherical joint with clearance. Assuming that the GH joint translates according to the muscle load distribution, the redundant muscle load sharing problem is formulated considering as design variables the 3 translational coordinates associated with the GH joint translations, the joint reaction forces associated with the remaining kinematic constraints, and the muscle activations. For the abduction motion in the frontal plane analysed, the muscle and joint reaction forces estimated by the new biomechanical model proposed are similar to those estimated by a model in which the GH joint is modeled as an ideal spherical joint. Even though this result supports the assumption of an ideal GH joint to study the muscle load sharing problem, only a 6 DOF model of the GH joint, as the one proposed here, provides information regarding the joint translations. In this study, the biomechanical model developed predicts an initial upward and posterior migration of the humeral head, followed by an inferior and anterior movement, which is in good agreement with the literature. PMID:27381499

  5. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  6. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  7. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    PubMed Central

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115

  8. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization.

    PubMed

    Peronio, P; Acconcia, G; Rech, I; Ghioni, M

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115

  9. Public hospitals: the legal obstacles of entering into joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Miller, J N

    1986-03-01

    Public hospitals, as public entities, are limited in many of their activities by state constitutions and statutes. One area where activity can be particularly limited is the joint venture. Constitutional and statutory limitations can influence several aspects of the joint venture: scope of activities, geographic boundaries, authority to enter into joint ventures, gift of public funds prohibition, and stock ownership. Therefore, public hospitals must be aware of possible legal obstacles and carefully consider their options.

  10. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  11. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image. PMID:25880881

  12. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  13. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical breakdown of rock across a broad scale spectrum involves fracturing. In many areas large fractures develop near the topographic surface, with sheeting joints being among the most impressive. Sheeting joints share many geometric, textural, and kinematic features with other joints (opening-mode fractures) but differ in that they are (a) discernibly curved, (b) open near the topographic surface, and (c) form subparallel to the topographic surface. Where sheeting joints are geologically young, the surface-parallel compressive stresses are typically several MPa or greater. Sheeting joints are best developed beneath domes, ridges, and saddles; they also are reported, albeit rarely, beneath valleys or bowls. A mechanism that accounts for all these associations has been sought for more than a century: neither erosion of overburden nor high lateral compressive stresses alone suffices. Sheeting joints are not accounted for by Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criteria. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, together with the mechanical effect of a curved topographic surface, do provide a basis for understanding sheeting joint growth and the pattern sheeting joints form. Compressive stresses parallel to a singly or doubly convex topographic surface induce a tensile stress perpendicular to the surface at shallow depths; in some cases this alone could overcome the weight of overburden to open sheeting joints. If regional horizontal compressive stresses, augmented by thermal stresses, are an order of magnitude or so greater than a characteristic vertical stress that scales with topographic amplitude, then topographic stress perturbations can cause sheeting joints to open near the top of a ridge. This topographic effect can be augmented by pressure within sheeting joints arising from water, ice, or salt. Water pressure could be particularly important in helping drive sheeting joints downslope beneath valleys. Once sheeting joints have formed, the rock sheets between

  14. Computer networks for financial activity management, control and statistics of databases of economic administration at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyupikova, T. V.; Samoilov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    Modern information technologies urge natural sciences to further development. But it comes together with evaluation of infrastructures, to spotlight favorable conditions for the development of science and financial base in order to prove and protect legally new research. Any scientific development entails accounting and legal protection. In the report, we consider a new direction in software, organization and control of common databases on the example of the electronic document handling, which functions in some departments of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  15. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  16. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  17. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  18. Accuracy of Carbohydrate Counting in Adults.

    PubMed

    Meade, Lisa T; Rushton, Wanda E

    2016-07-01

    In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education. PMID:27621531

  19. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  20. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a) The... ineligibility determinations, the requests shall be counted no later than the 14th business day following...