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Sample records for active joint disease

  1. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  2. Inflammatory synovial fluid microenvironment drives primary human chondrocytes to actively take part in inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Röhner, Eric; Matziolis, Georg; Perka, Carsten; Füchtmeier, Bernd; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank; Hoff, Paula

    2012-06-01

    The role of human chondrocytes in the pathogenesis of cartilage degradation in rheumatic joint diseases has presently gained increasing interest. An active chondrocyte participation in local inflammation may play a role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory joint diseases and in a disruption of cartilage repair mechanisms resulting in cartilage degradation. In the present study, we hypothesized that inflammatory synovial fluid triggers human chondrocytes to actively take part in inflammatory processes in rheumatic joint diseases. Primary human chondrocytes were incubated in synovial fluids gained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis arthritis and reactive arthritis. The detection of vital cell numbers was determined by using Casy Cell Counter System. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin-V and 7AAD staining. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was determined by a multiplex suspension array. Detection of vital cells showed a highly significant decrease in chondrocyte numbers. Flow cytometry demonstrated a significant increase in apoptotic chondrocytes after the incubation. An active secretion of cytokines such as MCP-1 and MIF by chondrocytes was observed. The inflammatory synovial fluid microenvironment mediates apoptosis and cell death of chondrocytes. Moreover, in terms of cytokine secretion, it also induces an active participation of chondrocytes in ongoing inflammation.

  3. Degenerative Joint Diseases and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Mariella; Skaper, Stephen D; Coaccioli, Stefano; Varrassi, Giustino; Paladini, Antonella

    2016-12-31

    Rheumatic and joint diseases, as exemplified by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are among the most widespread painful and disabling pathologies across the globe. Given the continuing rise in life expectancy, their prevalence is destined to grow. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is, in particular, on its way to becoming the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020, with the rising incidence of obesity in addition to age being important factors. It is estimated that 25% of osteoarthritic individuals are unable to perform daily activities. Accompanying osteoarthritis is rheumatoid arthritis, which is a chronic systemic disease that often causes pain and deformity. At least 50% of those affected are unable to remain gainfully employed within 10 years of disease onset. A growing body of evidence now points to inflammation, locally and more systemically, as a promoter of damage to joints and bones, as well as joint-related functional deficits. The pathogenesis underlying joint diseases remains unclear; however, it is currently believed that cross-talk between cartilage and subchondral bone-and loss of balance between these two structures in joint diseases-is a critical element. This view is amplified by the presence of mast cells, whose dysregulation is associated with alterations of junction structures (cartilage, bone, synovia, matrix, nerve endings, and blood vessels). In addition, persistent activation of mast cells facilitates the development of spinal neuroinflammation mediated through their interaction with microglia. Unfortunately, current treatment strategies for rheumatic and articular disease are symptomatic and do little to limit disease progression. Research now should be directed at therapeutic modalities that target osteoarticular structural elements and thereby delaying disease progression and joint replacement.

  4. Relationship between electromyographic activity and clinically assessed rigidity studied at the wrist joint in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Meara, R J; Cody, F W

    1992-08-01

    The electromyographic (EMG) patterns recorded from wrist muscles during manually applied, repetitive flexion and extension movements of the wrist joint, used for simultaneous clinical assessment of rigidity, were studied in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Recordings were made whilst patients/subjects attempted voluntarily to relax the muscle of the arm whose wrist joint was manipulated. Individual patients were investigated before and at varying times after their routine daily medication as their clinical rigidity underwent associated modulations. It was often possible to induce additional alterations in clinical rigidity by instructing patients to perform an activation or Jendrassik-like manoeuvre (clenching the contralateral fist). In rigid patients, the approximately sinusoidal wrist displacements (60 deg, 1-1.5 Hz) typically elicited pronounced, cyclic modulations of EMG activities in wrist flexors and extensors; increases in EMG activity were phase-locked to the respective periods of muscle stretch. Stretch-related EMG activity reduced or disappeared as rigidity was abolished by drug therapy. The EMG patterns of patients showing cogwheel rigidity featured discrete, phasic bursts superimposed upon more generalized stretch-related increases in activity. In healthy subjects, showing no clinical rigidity, the pronounced cyclic modulations of EMG activity characteristic of rigid patients were absent during similar manually applied wrist displacements. Quantitative EMG measurements for individual patients, made 'on' and 'off' medication and as their rigidity fluctuated, indicated that mild (grade 1) and moderate (grade 2) rigidity was consistently associated with increased stretch-related activity compared with non-rigid conditions. Pair-wise statistical analysis indicated such increases in EMG to be significant. Similarly, the ratios of EMG activities in the stretched versus released muscles were significantly greater for grades 1 and 2

  5. Rheumatoid factor measured by fluoroimmunoassay: a responsive measure of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity that is associated with joint damage

    PubMed Central

    Knijff-Dutmer, E; Drossaers-Bakker, W; Verhoeven, A; van der Sluijs, Ve... G; Boers, M; van der Linden, S; van de Laar, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether rheumatoid factors (RFs), measured as continuous variables by time resolved fluoroimmunoassay, reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Further, to study the association of RFs and other disease activity parameters with radiological joint damage, especially in individual patients. Methods: In active, early RA, IgM and IgA RFs, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), tender joint score, and swollen joint score were assessed regularly. At the study start and at 56 and 80 weeks, radiographs of hands and feet were assessed by the Sharp score (van der Heijde modification). Associations between RFs and disease activity parameters were studied. In addition, associations between radiographic damage and disease activity parameters (baseline and time integrated) were analysed by non-parametric tests and multiple regression analysis. The relation between time integrated disease activity parameters and radiological damage in individual patients was analysed and visualised. Results: 155 patients were included. RF levels were strongly associated with the disease activity parameters (especially ESR and CRP) and with each other. All disease activity parameters, at baseline as well as time integrated parameters, were associated with (the progression of) radiographic damage. Moreover, in individual patients, a linear relationship between time integrated disease activity parameters and progression of radiological damage was seen. Conclusion: RFs, measured as continuous variables, can be considered as disease activity parameters in patients with RA. The level of RF at baseline and the exposure to RF over time is associated with radiological damage. In individual patients, there is a constant relation between disease activity and radiological damage. PMID:12079900

  6. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet L C M; Renskers, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials. The EULAR response criteria classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, dependent on the magnitude of change and level of disease activity reached. In addition, already in the early nineties, cut points were developed to categorise patients in remission. The DAS28 is incorporated in several electronic patient records and web-based systems for monitoring purposes in daily clinical practice. In addition to this, it is being used in combination with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to facilitate self-monitoring.

  7. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint. PMID:27504021

  8. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Przepióra, Wiktor; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    According to the forecasts of the Central Statistical Office of Poland, in 2030 people at the age of 65 and older will account for 23.8%, i.e. their number will amount to approx. 8.5 m people. Geriatric rheumatic patients more often decide to undergo surgical joint replacement. According to the National Health Fund, the number of joint replacement services provided in 2014 increased by 93%, as compared to 2005. Improving the physical performance of this constantly expanding group of patients requires taking into account many factors to raise their functional status, reduce the risk of falling, teach rules of proper functioning with an artificial joint and encourage unassisted physical activity. Restoring fitness and independence is a difficult but necessary task due to an increasing number of seniors with replaced joint.

  9. Glycoconjugate markers of joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Popko, Janusz; Olszewski, Sławomir; Guszczyn, Tomasz; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2011-01-01

    A number of different types of glycoconjugate are found associated with joint tissue and fluids, comprising glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. Oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates are degraded by exoglycosidases, and the dominant exoglycosidase found in human blood, synovial fluid, the synovial membrane and chondrocytes of articular cartilage is HEX (N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase). HEX is localized mostly intracellularly in synovial cells. Serum activity of HEX may be used to monitor the course and efficiency of treatment of Lyme arthritis, and activity of HEX, above 10 μkat/kg of protein in the synovial fluid, suggests rheumatoid disease. There is a shortage of HEX inhibitors able to penetrate synoviocytes, so the development of drugs which inhibit synthesis and/or the activity of HEX will be a promising field for future investigations.

  10. [Metabolic bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Endo, Itsuro

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic bone and joint diseases in adults include osteomalacia, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis. Recently, the newest molecular biology procedures and the clinical observation studies can produce good results for understanding of these diseases. From this perspective, the author introduced updated information of the pathophysiology, the latest diagnostic criteria and the therapy of these diseases.

  11. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score.

    PubMed

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the joints

  12. [Pathophysiological relevance of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) to joint diseases - the pro and con of agonists].

    PubMed

    Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Moulin, David; Koufany, Meriem; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Bianchi, Arnaud; Netter, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-inducible nuclear transacting factors comprising three subtypes, PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma, which play a key role in lipids and glucose homeostasis. All PPAR subtypes have been identified in joint or inflammatory cells and their activation resulted in a transcriptional repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha), early inflammatory genes (NOS(2), COX-2, mPGES-1) or matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, MMP-13), at least for the gamma subtype. PPAR full agonists were also shown to stimulate IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) production by cytokine-stimulated articular cells in a subtype-dependent manner. These anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic properties were confirmed in animal models of joint diseases where PPAR agonists reduced synovial inflammation while preventing cartilage destruction or inflammatory bone loss, although many effects required much higher doses than needed to restore insulin sensitivity or to lower circulating lipid levels. However, these promising effects of PPAR full agonists were hampered by their ability to reduce the growth factor-dependent synthesis of extracellular matrix components or to induce chondrocyte apoptosis, by the possible contribution of immunosuppressive properties to their anti-arthritic effects, by the increased adipocyte differentiation secondary to prolonged stimulation of PPARgamma, and by a variable contribution of PPAR subtypes depending on the system. Clinical data are scarce in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients whereas thousands of patients worldwilde, treated with PPAR agonists for type 2 diabetes or dyslipidemia, are paradoxically prone to suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Whereas high dosage of full agonists may expose RA patients to cardiovascular adverse effects, the proof of concept that PPAR agonists have therapeutical relevance to OA may benefit from an epidemiological follow-up of joint lesions in diabetic or

  13. Further Optimization of the Reliability of the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald E.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) combines scores on a 28-tender and swollen joint count (TJC28 and SJC28), a patient-reported measure for general health (GH), and an inflammatory marker (either the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] or the C-reactive protein [CRP]) into a composite measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study examined the reliability of the DAS28 in patients with early RA using principles from generalizability theory and evaluated whether it could be increased by adjusting individual DAS28 component weights. Methods Patients were drawn from the DREAM registry and classified into a “fast response” group (N = 466) and “slow response” group (N = 80), depending on their pace of reaching remission. Composite reliabilities of the DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP were determined with the individual components' reliability, weights, variances, error variances, correlations and covariances. Weight optimization was performed by minimizing the error variance of the index. Results Composite reliabilities of 0.85 and 0.86 were found for the DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP, respectively, and were approximately equal across patients groups. Component reliabilities, however, varied widely both within and between sub-groups, ranging from 0.614 for GH (“slow response” group) to 0.912 for ESR (“fast response” group). Weight optimization increased composite reliability even further. In the total and “fast response” groups, this was achieved mostly by decreasing the weight of the TJC28 and GH. In the “slow response” group, though, the weights of the TJC28 and SJC28 were increased, while those of the inflammatory markers and GH were substantially decreased. Conclusions The DAS28-ESR and the DAS28-CRP are reliable instruments for assessing disease activity in early RA and reliability can be increased even further by adjusting component weights. Given the low reliability and weightings of the general health

  14. Chronic Inflammation and Neutrophil Activation as Possible Causes of Joint Diseases in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of a ballet class on the kinetic profiles of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, cytokines, complement component 3 (C3), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), IgA and IgM, in ballerinas. We also verified neutrophil death and ROS release. Blood samples were taken from 13 dancers before, immediately after, and 18 hours after a ballet class. The ballet class increased the plasma activities of CK-total (2.0-fold) immediately after class, while the activities of CK-cardiac muscle (1.0-fold) and LDH (3.0-fold) were observed to increase 18 hours after the class. Levels of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IgG, and IgA were not affected under the study conditions. The exercise was found to induce neutrophil apoptosis (6.0-fold) 18 hours after the ballet class. Additionally, immediately after the ballet class, the neutrophils from the ballerinas were found to be less responsive to PMA stimulus. Conclusion. Ballet class was found to result in inflammation in dancers. The inflammation caused by the ballet class remained for 18 hours after the exercise. These findings are important in preventing the development of chronic lesions that are commonly observed in dancers, such as those with arthritis and synovitis. PMID:24701035

  15. Measurement of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in synovial fluid by a modified MPO assay and evaluation of joint diseases - an initial case study.

    PubMed

    Fietz, S; Bondzio, A; Moschos, A; Hertsch, B; Einspanier, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a specific myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay in the synovial fluid of horses and investigate whether MPO activity is increased in different forms of joint diseases. Synovial fluid samples were taken from affected joints from horses with osteoarthritis, chronic non-septic arthritis and septic arthritis, and from healthy control horses. MPO activity was measured using a specific modified o-dianisidine-assay containing 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide as a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPO. This assay is characterized by high reproducibility. The results reveal only a slight elevation of MPO activity in the synovial fluid of horses with osteoarthritis and chronic non-septic arthritis. However, in the cases of septic arthritis a significant increase in MPO activity was found when compared to the controls. In conclusion the first field study suggests that synovial fluid MPO may be used as a marker for septic arthritis in horses.

  16. [Syringomyelia and associated bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Alnot, J-Y; Rossarie, R; Welby, F

    2007-05-01

    Syringomyelia can occur in patients presenting bone and joint diseases of various origins. When joint destruction of the shoulder or elbow produces little pain, a neurological cause might be involved. In this case, the disease history can be of utmost importance because an initial diagnosis of rheumatoid polyarthritis, polyosteoarthritis, or destructive joint disease can be misleading before the syringomyelic origin of the bone and joint disease becomes patent. We report two cases illustrating this association and the diagnostic pitfalls which can delay recognition of the syringomyelia. Better awareness of the prevalence of this condition should be helpful in establishing the diagnosis and in selecting patients who can benefit from neurosurgical treatment. The two cases presented here suggest that syringomyelia could be underdiagnosed in certain patients with an initially atypical presentation. A review of the current knowledge of syringomyelia suggests that arthroplasty is generally not advisable for destroyed dislocated syringomyelic joints.

  17. How the EUCERD Joint Action supported initiatives on Rare Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Stephen; Hedley, Victoria; Atalaia, Antonio; Evangelista, Teresinha; Bushby, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Joint Actions are successful initiatives from the European Commission (EC) that have helped to raise awareness and to bring significant benefit to those suffering from a rare disease (RD). In this paper, we will focus on the activities developed by the EUCERD Joint Action (EJA) and by the Orphanet Joint Action ("Orphanet Europe"). EUCERD Joint Action was co-funded by the EC and the Member States between 2012 and 2015 to help to define the activities and policies in the field of RD and foster exchange of experiences amongst Member States. This project is the continuation of previous efforts to turn RD a priority in the EC Health Programmes. "Orphanet Europe" was a Joint Action co-funded by INSERM, the French Directorate General for Health and the EC to address the need for a common portal that would gather the most update information regarding RD. This need was identified in the European Commission report "Rare Diseases: Europe's challenge" and in the Recommendation of the Council for a European RD portal. These joint actions have supported the policy development work of the European Commission, through the support of their committees for rare diseases. In this paper, the authors aim to raise awareness of the work done by the EUCERD Joint Action on behalf of the rare disease community and the policies established.

  18. [Rheumatic joint diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Shunta; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The most frequent rheumatic joint disease in the elderly is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent advances in the treatment of RA improve prognosis, and gradually increase the elderly patients with RA. There are some differences in clinical features between the patients with elderly onset RA and young onset RA, such as systemic symptoms and distribution of affected joints. In addition, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate elderly onset RA from the other rheumatic diseases like polymyalgia rheumatica and RS3PE syndrome, pseudogout, and osteoarthritis. Since elderly patients tend to have more co-morbidity and co-existing diseases requiring treatment with other drugs, a risk/benefit profile must always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment in elderly patients with rheumatic joint diseases.

  19. [Chronic diseases of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Rand, T; Trattnig, S; Breitenseher, M; Kreuzer, S; Wagesreither, S; Imhof, H

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of chronic diseases of the ankle joint comprises a wide spectrum including chronic inflammatory processes and chronic degenerative, tumorous and neuropathic processes, as well as some specific syndromes based on chronic changes of the ankle joint. Of the inflammatory processes, chronic juvenile arthritis (JVC) is the most common disease. However, also Reiter disease, psoriasis or chronic monoarthritid diseases such as gout, as well as granulomatous diseases (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and fungal infections, may affect the ankle joint in a chronic course. Chronic degenerative changes are usually secondary due to abnormal positioning of the joint constituents or repetitive trauma. Neuropathic changes, as frequently seen in the course of diabetes, present with massive osseous destruction and malposition of the articular constituents. Chronic osseous as well as cartilaginous and synovial changes are seen in hemophilic patients. Chronic traumatic changes are represented by pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), and chondromatosis, both with a predilection for the ankle joint. Due to the possibilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnosis of chronic ankle changes includes chronic ligamentous, tendinous and soft tissue changes. With the use of MRI, specific syndromes can be defined which particularly affect the ankle joint in a chronic way, such as the os trigonum syndrome, the anterolateral impingement syndrome and the sinus tarsi syndrome. Nevertheless, plain film radiographs are still the basic element of any investigation. MRI, however, can be potentially used as a second investigation, saving an unnecessary cascade of investigations with ultrasound and CT. The latter investigations are used only with very specific indications, for instance CT for subtle bone structures and sonography for a limited investigation of tendons or evaluation of fluid. Particularly due to the possibilities of MRI and the development of special gradient-echo imaging

  20. The Use of Functional Data Analysis to Evaluate Activity in a Spontaneous Model of Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Pain in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E.; Worth, Alicia C.; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results and conclusions Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across

  1. The joint synovium: A critical determinant of articular cartilage fate in inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Chandrasekharan, Unnikrishnan

    2017-02-01

    The synovium constitutes the envelope of articular joints and is a critical provider of synovial fluid components and articular cartilage nutrients. Its inflammation is a predominant feature and cause of joint degeneration in diseases as diverse as rheumatoid, psoriatic, juvenile and idiopathic arthritis, and lupus, gout and lyme disease. These inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) are due to a wide variety of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that trigger, promote, and perpetuate joint destabilization. In spite of this variety of causes, IJDs share main pathological features, namely inflammation of the joint synovium (synovitis) and progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. In addition to being a driving force behind the destruction of articular cartilage in IJD, synovitis is also increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor of articular cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, a disease primarily due to aging- or trauma-related wear and tear of cartilage surfaces. In view of this important role of the synovium in determining the fate of articular cartilage, this review focuses on its underlying mechanisms in the pathology of IJD. We address the roles of synovial fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells in the maintenance of joint health and in the destruction of articular cartilage integrity during IJD. Molecular mechanisms that have been recently shown to govern the pathological activities of the resident synovial cells are highlighted. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of targeting these new molecular mechanisms for preventing cartilage degeneration due to chronic inflammation are also discussed.

  2. Suspending and Reinstating Joint Activities with Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalley, Eric; Bangerter, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are common in joint activities like conversations. Typically, interrupted participants suspend the activity, address the interruption, and then reinstate the activity. In conversation, people jointly commit to interact and to talk about a topic, establishing these commitments sequentially. When a commitment is suspended, face is…

  3. Sustaining disease-specific performance improvement measures for joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Cress, Deborah; Hansen, Linda; Pelton, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    To maintain standards of excellence and continuously improve their outcomes, specialized joint replacement centers must develop, implement, and sustain specific performance improvement activities. This article describes the activities at one. Midwestern healthcare system's joint replacement center related to three disease-specific performance improvement measures: fall prevention, preoperative education, and pain management. Specific steps in the process for each measure are described. These include current-state analyses, goals established, the use of Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) methodology to identify and implement appropriate interventions, and the use of the Six Sources of Influence model to promote successful change. Outcomes, lessons learned, and suggestions for replication by other institutions are discussed.

  4. Joint spatial analysis of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Held, Leonhard; Graziano, Giusi; Frank, Christina; Rue, Håvard

    2006-10-01

    A major obstacle in the spatial analysis of infectious disease surveillance data is the problem of under-reporting. This article investigates the possibility of inferring reporting rates through joint statistical modelling of several infectious diseases with different aetiologies. Once variation in under-reporting can be estimated, geographic risk patterns for infections associated with specific food vehicles may be discerned. We adopt the shared component model, proposed by Knorr-Held and Best for two chronic diseases and further extended by (Held L, Natario I, Fenton S, Rue H, Becker N. Towards joint disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005b; 14: 61-82) for more than two chronic diseases to the infectious disease setting. Our goal is to estimate a shared component, common to all diseases, which may be interpreted as representing the spatial variation in reporting rates. Additional components are introduced to describe the real spatial variation of the different diseases. Of course, this interpretation is only allowed under specific assumptions, in particular, the geographical variation in under-reporting should be similar for the diseases considered. In addition, it is vital that the data do not contain large local outbreaks, so adjustment based on a time series method recently proposed by (Held L, Höhle M, Hofmann M. A statistical framework for the analysis of multivariate infectious disease surveillance data. Statistical Modelling 2005a; 5: 187-99) is made at a preliminary stage. We will illustrate our approach through the analysis of gastrointestinal diseases notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide and Inflammatory Joint Diseases.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena Fernandez; Meijide-Failde, Rosa; Blanco, Francisco J

    2016-08-29

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are widespread rheumatic diseases characterized by persistent inflammation and joint destruction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gas with important physiologic functions in the brain, vasculature and other organs. Recent studies have found H2S to be a mediator in inflammatory joint diseases. H2S exhibited anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and/or anti-oxidant effects in rodent models of acute arthritis and in in vitro models using human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes from RA and OA tissues. These findings suggest that exogenous supplementation of H2S may provide a viable therapeutic option for these diseases. The earliest studies used fast-dissolving salts, such as NaSH, but GYY4137, which produces H2S more physiologically, shortly appeared. More recently still, new H2S-forming compounds that target mitochondria have been synthesized. These compounds open exciting opportunities for investigating the role of H2S in cell bioenergetics, typically altered in arthritides. Positive results have been also obtained when H2S is administered as a sulphurous water bath, an option meriting further study. This review summarizes the recent literature concerning H2S and inflammatory joint diseases, highlighting relevant developments.

  6. TRPV4 as a therapeutic target for joint diseases.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Amy L; Leddy, Holly A; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Guilak, Farshid

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical factors play a critical role in regulating the physiology as well as the pathology of multiple joint tissues and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals may provide novel targets for the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that serves as a sensor of mechanical or osmotic signals in several musculoskeletal tissues, including cartilage, bone, and synovium. The importance of TRPV4 in joint homeostasis is apparent in patients harboring TRPV4 mutations, which result in the development of a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias and arthropathies. In addition, the genetic knockout of Trpv4 results in the development of osteoarthritis and decreased osteoclast function. In engineered cartilage replacements, chemical activation of TRPV4 can reproduce many of the anabolic effects of mechanical loading to accelerate tissue growth and regeneration. Overall, TRPV4 plays a key role in transducing mechanical, pain, and inflammatory signals within joint tissues and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to modulate the effects of joint diseases. In pathological conditions in the joint, when the delicate balance of TRPV4 activity is altered, a variety of different tools could be utilized to directly or indirectly target TRPV4 activity.

  7. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease

    SciTech Connect

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

    1986-03-07

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

  8. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  9. [Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory joint diseases treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR) and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology (SPP) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (AT) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD), namely rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists. Due to the high risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with IJD, LTBI and AT screening should be performed as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis. Even if TB screening was performed at the beginning of the disease, the evaluation should be repeated before starting anti-TNF-alpha therapy. When TB (LTBI orAT) treatment is indicated, it should be performed before the beginning of anti-TNF-alpha therapy. If the IJD activity requires urgent anti-TNF-alpha therapy, these drugs can be started after two months of antituberculosis therapy in AT cases, or after one month in LTBI cases. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If abnormal, e.g. Gohn complex, the patient should be treated as LTBI; residual lesions require the exclusion of AT and patients with history of untreated or incomplete TB treatment should be treated as LTBI. In cases of suspected active lesions, AT diagnosis should be confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test (TST), with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If induration is less than 5 mm, the test should be repeated after 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and should be considered negative if the result is again inferior to 5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment. IfTST is performed in immunosupressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test.

  10. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors: March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFalpha therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn s complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk/benefit assessment.

  11. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in inflammatory joint diseases candidates for therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors - March 2008 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology have updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (ATB) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) that are candidates to therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists. In order to reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation and the incidence of new infections, TB screening is recommended to be done as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis, and patient assessment repeated before starting anti-TNFα therapy. Treatment for ATB and LTBI must be done under the care of a TB specialist. When TB treatment is indicated, it should be completed prior to starting anti-TNFα therapy. If the IJD activity justifies the need for immediate treatment, anti-TNFα therapy can be started two months after antituberculous therapy has been initiated, in the case of ATB, and one month after in the case of LTBI. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If Gohn's complex is present, the patient should be treated for LTBI; healed lesions require the exclusion of ATB. In cases of suspected active lesions, ATB should be excluded/confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test, with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If the induration is <5 mm, the test should be repeated within 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and will be considered negative only if the result is again <5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment, unless previous proper treatment was provided. If TST is performed in immunossuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNF-α therapy, even in the presence of a negative test, after risk / benefit assessment. Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIV (2): 271-283.

  12. Early rheumatoid disease. II. Patterns of joint involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Benn, R T; Corbett, M; Wood, P H

    1976-01-01

    Data from the first research clinic visit (Fleming and others, 1976) have been subjected to factor analysis to identify early patterns of joint involvement. Nine patterns emerged. Two patterns, if present early, were found to have prognostic significance. An eventually more severe disease was associated with a pattern of large joint involvement (shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee) and a pattern based on metatarsophalangeal joints I and III. PMID:970995

  13. Joint Modeling of Transitional Patterns of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    While the experimental Alzheimer's drugs recently developed by pharmaceutical companies failed to stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease, clinicians strive to seek clues on how the patients would be when they visit back next year, based upon the patients' current clinical and neuropathologic diagnosis results. This is related to how to precisely identify the transitional patterns of Alzheimer's disease. Due to the complexities of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the condition of the disease is usually characterized by multiple clinical and neuropathologic measurements, including Clinical Dementia Rating (CDRGLOB), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a score derived from the clinician judgement on neuropsychological tests (COGSTAT), and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). In this research article, we investigate a class of novel joint random-effects transition models that are used to simultaneously analyze the transitional patterns of multiple primary measurements of Alzheimer's disease and, at the same time, account for the association between the measurements. The proposed methodology can avoid the bias introduced by ignoring the correlation between primary measurements and can predict subject-specific transitional patterns. PMID:24073268

  14. Treatment of Nongout Joint Deposition Diseases: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Richette, Pascal; Flipo, René-Marc

    2014-01-01

    This update develops the actual therapeutic options in the management of the joint involvement of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD), basic calcium phosphate (BCP) deposition disease, hemochromatosis (HH), ochronosis, oxalosis, and Wilson's disease. Conventional pharmaceutical treatment provides benefits for most diseases. Anti-interleukine-1 (IL-1) treatment could provide similar results in CPPD than in gout flares. There is only limited evidence about the efficacy of preventive long-term colchicine intake, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine in chronic CPPD. Needle aspiration and lavage have satisfactory short and midterm results in BCP. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy has also proved its efficacy for high-doses regimes. Phlebotomy does not seem to have shown real efficacy on joint involvement in HH so far. Iron chelators' effects have not been assessed on joint involvement either, while IL-1 blockade may prove useful. NSAIDs have limited efficacy on joint involvement of oxalosis, while colchicine and steroids have not been assessed either. The use of nitisinone for ochronotic arthropathy is still much debated, but it could provide beneficial effects on joint involvement. The effects of copper chelators have not been assessed either in the joint involvement of Wilson's disease. NSAIDs should be avoided because of the liver affection they may worsen. PMID:24895535

  15. Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

    2012-12-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey-white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD.

  16. Characterization of joint disease in mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patricia G; Baldo, Guilherme; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Martinelli, Barbara; Meurer, Luise; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula; Xavier, Ricardo M

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by mutations in enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Joint disease is present in most forms of MPS, including MPS I. This work aimed to describe the joint disease progression in the murine model of MPS I. Normal (wild-type) and MPS I mice were sacrificed at different time points (from 2 to 12 months). The knee joints were collected, and haematoxylin–eosin staining was used to evaluate the articular architecture. Safranin-O and Sirius Red staining was used to analyse the proteoglycan and collagen content. Additionally, we analysed the expression of the matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, using immunohistochemistry. We observed progressive joint alterations from 6 months, including the presence of synovial inflammatory infiltrate, the destruction and thickening of the cartilage extracellular matrix, as well as proteoglycan and collagen depletion. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which could conceivably explain the degenerative changes. Our results suggest that the joint disease in MPS I mice may be caused by a degenerative process due to increase in proteases expression, leading to loss of collagen and proteoglycans. These results may guide the development of ancillary therapies for joint disease in MPS I. PMID:23786352

  17. Work in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Gobelet, C; Luthi, F; Al-Khodairy, A T; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-09-15

    This article focuses on work disability and sick leave and their cost; it also discusses the value of vocational rehabilitation programmes in rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, hip and knee osteoarthritis. It acknowledges the importance of work not only for the worker who has one of these diseases but also for the public purse. Much can be done to improve the health of the persons and reduce their disability and its impact in the workplace which will have an important effect on their and their family's quality of life. It is important that neither rehabilitation nor vocational rehabilitation are regarded as bolt-on activities after drug treatment but are seen as an integral part of effective management. Publications dealing with return to work are relatively common in rheumatoid arthritis, less common in ankylosing spondylitis and relatively rare in osteoarthritis. Vocational rehabilitation programmes should aim to facilitate job retention or, failing that, to improve the ability to return to work. The process must be started with in the health arena and it has to be recognised that slow or poor practice in the health service can jeopardise the patient's work potential.

  18. Femoral neck erosions: sign of hip joint synovial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Weissman, B.N.; Naimark, A.

    1983-07-01

    Pathologic synovial processes in the hip joint can cause characteristic extrinsic erosions of the femoral neck, which in extreme cases produce an ''apple core'' appearance. Nine such cases of synovial diseases, including synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and amyloidosis, that demonstrate this radiographic finding are presented. The anatomic relations of the hip joint that result in theis appearance, differential diagnosis, and radiographic techniques useful in diagnosis are discussed.

  19. Adipokines as drug targets in joint and bone disease.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; López, Veronica; Gómez-Reino, Juan; Lago, Francisca; Moilanen, Eeva; Gualillo, Oreste

    2014-03-01

    White adipose tissue is now recognized to be a multifactorial organ secreting several adipose-derived factors that have been collectively termed 'adipokines'. Adipokines are pleiotropic molecules that contribute to the so-called 'low-grade inflammatory state' of obese subjects creating a cluster of metabolic aberrations including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that affect joints and bone. The aim of this review is to present knowledge about the role of adipokines in bone and cartilage function, as well as in inflammatory and degenerative joint disease. We discuss clinical implications and then survey attempts to exploit this role for therapeutic gain, which holds potential as a novel approach for drug development in bone and joint disease.

  20. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care.

  1. Autoimmune joint diseases in Late Medieval skeletal sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Rajić Sikanjić, Petra; Vlak, Dejana

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 25 skeletons from Late Medieval cemetery Uzdolje-Grablje near Knin, Croatia, revealed three cases of systematic pathological changes to joints. Observed pathological lesions were examined macroscopically and radiologically and compared to the available paleopathological standards in order to formulate a differential diagnosis. In all three cases observed changes were most consistent with autoimmune joint diseases including ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Based on published clinical studies, we suggest that the high prevalence of autoimmune diseases in our skeletal sample stems from the genetic basis of the autoimmunity, and that three individuals describe here are possibly closely related.

  2. Active chaotic excitation for bolted joint monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2006-03-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency chaotic excitation and state space reconstruction may be used to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study, a new experiment is undertaken with updated test equipment, including a piezostack actuator that allows for precise control of bolt preload. The excitation waveform is applied to a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch that is bonded to the test structure and is sensed in an active manner using a second MFC patch. A novel prediction error algorithm, based on comparing filtered properties of the guided chaotic waves, is used to determine the damage state of a frame structure and is shown to be highly sensitive to small levels of bolt preload loss. The performance of the prediction error method is compared with standard structural health monitoring damage features that are based on time series analysis using auto-regressive (AR) models.

  3. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction in various rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Avila, F J; Chávez-López, M; Chavira-González, J R; Ramos-Remus, C

    2013-07-24

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an inclusive term in which those conditions disturbing the masticatory function are embraced. It has been estimated that 33% of the population have signs of TMD, but less than 5% of the population will require treatment. The objective of this study was to measure the frequency of TMD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthrosis (OA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus, and to define the limitations in everyday's life that patients perceive when present. A six-month survey of consecutive outpatients in a rheumatology clinic in a teaching hospital in Mexico was carried out. We defined TMD as: 1) the presence of pain; 2) difficulty on mouth opening, chewing or speaking; 3) the presence of non-harmonic movements of the temporomaxilar joints. All three characteristics had to be present. Z test was used to define differences between proportions. We present the results of 171 patients. Overall, 50 patients had TMD according to our operational definition (29.24%). Up to 76% of the sample had symptoms associated with the condition. TMD is more frequent in OA and in AS (29.24% vs 38% OA, P=0.009; 39% AS; P=0.005). We found no association between the severity of TMD and the request for specific attention for the discomfort produced by the condition. Only 8 of 50 (16%) patients with TMD had requested medical help for their symptoms, and they were not the most severe cases. TMD is more frequent in RA and OA. Although it may produce severe impairment, patients seem to adapt easily.

  4. The radiology of joint disease. Volume 2. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book explains the diagnostic criteria and radiologic appearance of joint disease - principally arthritis. It covers the soft tissues, alignment abnormalities, bony mineralization, and abnormalities of the cartilage space of the hand; arthritis from head to foot; and the differential diagnosis of arthritis.

  5. Leptin in joint and bone diseases: new insights.

    PubMed

    Scotece, M; Conde, J; Lopez, V; Lago, F; Pino, J; Gomez-Reino, J J; Gualillo, O

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine with pleiotropic actions that regulates food intake, energy metabolism, inflammation and immunity, and also participates in the complex mechanism that regulates skeleton biology, both at bone and cartilage level. Leptin is increased in obesity and contributes to the "low-grade inflammatory state" of obese subjects causing a cluster of metabolic aberrations that affects joints and bone. In this review, we report the most recent research advances about the role of leptin in bone and cartilage function and its implication in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  6. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role.

  7. Hemophilic arthropathy: effect of home care on treatment patterns and joint disease.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, E E; Hilgartner, M W; Miller, C H; Vienne, G

    1980-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of home care therapy on hemophilic arthropathy, data were analyzed in 19 patients with hemophilia who had been on home therapy for more than four years. Usage of replacement material, number of bleeding episodes, and clinical and radiographic assessment of joint status were evaluated. Patients were divided into three treatment groups (prophylaxis, combination, and episodic care) for further comparison. In all treatment groups, a significant decrease in product usage occurred with age (P < 0.01). The number of bleeding episodes also decreased significantly with age (P < 0.01). The patients' joints which were clinically and radiographically normal on entry into home therapy remained free of arthropathic changes. The outcome of diseased joints varied across treatment groups, with a majority of these joints remaining stable. Younger patients evidenced new and progressive arthropathy, whereas older patients demonstrated stable arthropathy. Although no single treatment protocol appears to be indicated for all patients with hemophilpia, a treatment goal may be to treat younger patients actively in order to preserve normal joint status, stablize diseased joints, and prevent subsequent disability.

  8. A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Short, Andrea D; Barnes, Annette; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ferguson, John F; Butterworth, Steven J; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Pead, Matthew; Bennett, David; Innes, John F; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2010-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis (OA) commonly occurs in association with articular diseases, such as hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), or cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We hypothesized that a common genomic risk for the development of canine joint disease and canine OA would be identified by evaluating the allele frequencies of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dogs with OA associated with different articular diseases when compared with a general population of breed-matched dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers surgically treated for ED, HD, and CCLR and confirmed to have radiographic evidence of OA. One hundred and thirteen SNPs in 20 candidate genes were genotyped. No significant associations were identified for SNPs or haplotypes in the candidate genes for the diseases evaluated. The candidate gene approach for the study of genetic association is unlikely to be successful for complex canine diseases such as OA without prior trait mapping evaluation.

  9. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Anti-cytokine therapies for bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2010-10-01

    The efficacy of biologics targeting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6 for bone and joint diseases has been emerging. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis and bone damage. By the use of TNF-inhibitors, clinical remission, structural remission and functional remission have become possible during the treatment of RA. Especially, the progress of joint and bone destruction is completely suppressed by TNF-inhibitors in the vast majority of RA patients. On the other hand, anti-RANKL antibody inhibits joint destruction as well as systemic osteoporosis, though no effects on synovitis of RA. Thus, differential efficacy of different therapies in bone destruction and osteoporosis would warrant further study to clarify the mechanisms of bone and joints diseases.

  10. [Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory joint diseases proposed for treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonist drugs].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Lucas, Helena; Canhão, Helena; Duarte, Raquel; Santos, Maria José; Villar, Miguel; Faustino, Augusto; Raymundo, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR) and the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology (SPP) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (AT) in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD), namely rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) antagonists. Due to the high risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with IJD, LTBI and AT screening should be performed as soon as possible, ideally at the moment of IJD diagnosis. Even if TB screening was performed at the beginning of the disease, the evaluation should be repeated before starting anti-TNF-a therapy. When TB (LTBI or AT) treatment is indicated, it should be performed before the beginning of anti-TNF-a therapy. If the IJD activity requires urgent anti-TNF-a therapy, these drugs can be started after two months of antituberculosis therapy in AT cases, or after one month in LTBI cases. Chest X-ray is mandatory for all patients. If abnormal, e.g. Gohn complex, the patient should be treated as LTBI; residual lesions require the exclusion of AT and patients with history of untreated or incomplete TB treatment should be treated as LTBI. In cases of suspected active lesions, AT diagnosis should be confirmed and adequate therapy initiated. Tuberculin skin test (TST), with two units of RT23, should be performed in all patients. If induration is less than 5 mm, the test should be repeated after 1 to 2 weeks, on the opposite forearm, and should be considered negative if the result is again inferior to 5 mm. Positive TST implicates LTBI treatment. If TST is performed in immunosuppressed IJD patients, LTBI treatment should be offered to the patient before starting anti-TNF-a therapy, even in the presence of a negative test.

  11. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Inger M.J.; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A.; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification. This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L. Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation. Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4). Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown. PMID:28072726

  12. Symptomatic sacroiliac joint disease and radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patrick M; Anderson, Anthony W; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic sacroiliac (SI) joint disease is poorly understood. The literature provides no clear aetiology for SI joint pathology, making evaluation and diagnosis challenging. We hypothesised that patients with documented sacroiliac pain might provide insight into the aetiology of these symptoms. Specifically, we questioned whether SI joint symptoms might be associated with abnormal hip radiographs. We reviewed the pelvic and hip radiographs of a prospectively collected cohort of 30 consecutive patients with SI joint pathology. This database included 33 hips from 30 patients. Radiographic analysis included measurements of the lateral centre edge angle, Tönnis angle, and the triangular index, of the ipsilateral hip. Evidence for retrotorsion of the hemipelvis was recorded. Hips were graded on the Tönnis grading system for hip arthrosis. In this cohort 14/33 (42%) of hips had evidence of significant osteoarthrosis indicated by Tönnis grade 2 or greater and 15/33 (45%) displayed subchondral cyst formation around the hip or head neck junction. In assessing acetabular anatomy, 21% (7/33) had retroversion, 12% (4/33) had a lateral centre edge angle >40° with 3% (1/33) >45°. Tönnis angle was <0° in 27% (9/33). Coxa profunda and acetabuli protrusio were present in 47% (17/33) and 3% (1/33), respectively. When femoral head morphology was assessed, 33% (11/33) showed evidence of cam impingement. Overall, 76% (25/33) had at least one abnormality on their hip radiograph. A significant number of patients meeting strict diagnostic criteria for SI joint pain had radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip arthrosis. The clinician should maintain FAI in the differential diagnosis when investigating patients with buttock pain.

  13. Jacob's disease associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Blasco, Ana; Muñoz, Mario F

    2005-01-01

    Jacob's disease is regarded a rare condition in which a joint formation is established between an enlarged mandibular coronoid process and the inner aspect of the zygomatic body. Chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk displacement has been proposed as etiological factor of coronoid process enlargement. We present a 23-year-old woman with long-standing TMJ dysfunction and restricted interincisal opening, who developed a progressive zygomatic asymmetry. The patient underwent treatment by intraoral coronoidectomy and homolateral TMJ arthroscopy in the same surgery. The histopathological diagnosis of the coronoid sample was cartilage-capped exostoses with presence of articular fibrous cartilage. Although the low prevalence of this entity, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with progressive limitation of mouth opening, although a TMJ syndrome may be present as a cause of this entity.

  14. Interactions of the complement system with molecules of extracellular matrix: relevance for joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Kaisa E; Heinegård, Dick; Saxne, Tore; Blom, Anna M

    2012-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly disabling disease affecting all structures of the joint. Understanding the pathology behind the development of RA is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies as well as for developing novel markers to predict disease onset. Several molecules normally hidden within the cartilage tissue are exposed to complement components in the synovial fluid upon cartilage breakdown. Some of these have been shown to activate complement and toll-like receptors, which may enhance an already existing inflammatory response, thereby worsening the course of disease. Other cartilage-resident molecules have in contrast shown to possess complement-inhibitory properties. Knowledge about mechanisms behind pathological complement activation in the joints will hopefully lead to methods which allow us to distinguish patients with pathological complement activation from those where other inflammatory pathways are predominant. This will help to elucidate which patients will benefit from complement inhibitory therapies, which are thought to aid a specific subset of patients or patients at a certain stage of disease. Future challenges are to target the complement inhibition specifically to the joints to minimize systemic complement blockade.

  15. [Disability due to traumas and diseases of a knee joint].

    PubMed

    Strafun, S S; Kostogryz, O A; Rygan, M M; Ilyin, Yu V; Kostogryz, Yu O; Nechyporenko, R V

    2015-02-01

    The invalidism structure was analyzed for patients, suffering consequences of traumas and diseases of a knee joint (KJ). The primary invalidism level because of traumas and diseases of a KJ have constituted in 2013 yr 12.4%. The cause of invalidism in men is predominantly a one-side gonarthrosis, and in women--a bilateral one--due to concurrent aggravating causes (dishormonal changes, excessive body mass). The invalidism indices enhancement is caused by absence of a dispensary follow-up, insufficient treatment on various stages of the disease course, severity and irreversibility of pathological process in a KJ, socio-economic factors, low rehabilitational potential, prognosticated impossibility to conduct a professional-labour rehabilitation in a prepensionable and pensionable age.

  16. The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Near infrared fluorescence imaging for early detection, monitoring and improved intervention of diseases involving the joint.

    PubMed

    Slooter, M D; Bierau, K; Chan, A B; Löwik, C W G M

    2015-04-01

    Joints consist of different tissues, such as bone, cartilage and synovium, which are at risk for multiple diseases. The current imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler ultrasound, X-ray, computed tomography and arthroscopy, lack the ability to detect disease activity before the onset of anatomical and significant irreversible damage. Optical in vivo imaging has recently been introduced as a novel imaging tool to study the joint and has the potential to image all kinds of biological processes. This tool is already exploited in (pre)clinical studies of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and cancer. The technique uses fluorescent dyes conjugated to targeting moieties that recognize biomarkers of the disease. This review will focus on these new imaging techniques and especially where Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been used to visualize diseases of the joint. NIR fluorescent imaging is a promising technique which will soon complement established radiological, ultrasound and MRI imaging in the clinical management of patients with respect to early disease detection, monitoring and improved intervention.

  18. Joint amplitude and frequency analysis of tremor activity.

    PubMed

    Foerster, F; Smeja, M

    1999-01-01

    Clinical tremor analysis mostly is used for the measurement of tremor frequency. The analysis is based on short segments of EMG recordings and on clinical ratings of tremor intensity. Accelerometry appears to have some practical advantages. The present study was concerned with the development of a methodology for assessing tremor activity using the three parameters, frequency (Hz), amplitude (g), and occurrence of tremor (in per cent of time). These parameters were derived from joint amplitude frequency analysis of the calibrated accelerometer raw signal and from appropriate decision rules. This methodology was used in connection with 27 patients with Parkinson's disease, to investigate the aforesaid parameters of tremor activity. Postural tremor had a higher occurrence time (right-hand only) and higher frequency (left-hand only) than resting tremor, however, the average amplitudes did not differ. The correlations between right-hand and left-hand measures were higher during postural tremor test. Frequency was not correlated to amplitude or occurrence time, however, moderate correlations did exist between amplitude and occurrence time. In addition to the assessment of tremor activity, multi-channel accelerometry may be used for the detection of posture and motion. Further applications of this methodology, for example, in 24 hr ambulatory monitoring of tremor, are discussed.

  19. Raptor Acupuncture for Treating Chronic Degenerative Joint Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Keum Hwa; Buhl, Gail; Ponder, Julia

    2016-12-01

    A permanently captive 21-year-old male bald eagle was diagnosed with chronic degenerative joint disease in the right stifle with severe lameness (Grade 5) based on radiography. Clinical signs included decreased movement, vocalization, non weight-bearing on the affected limb, inappetence, depression, and pododermatitis on the left foot (bumblefoot, Grade 3). The eagle was treated with anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs including carprofen and celecoxib. As there was no observed clinical improvement with any of the treatments, acupuncture treatment was provided. The eagle was treated with dry needle acupuncture once per week for 2 months and biweekly for another 2 months. The Traditional Eastern Medicine diagnosis of this eagle was Bony Bi syndrome. The selected acupuncture points were ST 36, LI 4, BL 40, BL 60, GB 34, and Ba Feng (Table 3). The lameness score improved from Grade 5 to Grade 1 after 4 months of acupuncture treatment. The observed pododermatitis improved from Grade 3 to Grade 0. Symptoms including inappetence and vocalizations were significantly reduced over the 4 month period. There was no significant improvement in the radiographic signs. In conclusion, acupuncture may be a potential medical option for permanently captive raptors having musculoskeletal conditions, such as degenerative joint disease.

  20. Joint diseases and matrix metalloproteinases: a role for MMP-13.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Hironari; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Dalal, Seema; Okada, Yasunori; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2008-02-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases in disease has been investigated over the last two decades. A focus on this family of proteases is particularly emphasized in two major arthritides in humans, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Early work described the presence of multiple MMP family members in the joint of the disease state and recent advances in the development of new knockout mice and disease models have allowed investigators to directly test the role of the MMP proteases in arthritis. MMP-13 is expressed by chondrocytes and synovial cells in human OA and RA and is thought to play a critical role in cartilage destruction. The recent development of an MMP-13 knockout mouse has documented the important role for this enzyme in cartilage formation and further studies under disease conditions promise to reveal the function of this enzyme in disease pathology. This review describes a body of research that supports the development of novel selective MMP-13 inhibitors with the hope of developing these compounds in clinical trials for the treatment of arthritis.

  1. Local Interleukin-1-Driven Joint Pathology Is Dependent on Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Koenders, Marije I.; van den Brand, Ben T.; van de Loo, Fons A.J.; van den Berg, Wim B.

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory destructive diseases through the recognition of endogenous ligands produced on either inflammation or degeneration of the extracellular matrix. The presence of endogenous TLR agonists has been reported in rheumatoid joints. In the present study, we investigated the significance of TLR2 and TLR4 activation by locally- produced endogenous ligands in the severity of joint inflammation and destruction. Local joint pathology independent of systemic immune activation was induced by overexpression of interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF in naive joints using adenoviral gene transfer. Here, we report that at certain doses, IL-1-induced local joint inflammation, cartilage proteoglycan depletion, and bone erosion are dependent on TLR4 activation, whereas TLR2 activation is not significantly involved. In comparison, tumor necrosis factor α-driven joint pathology seemed to be less dependent on TLR2 and TLR4. The severity of IL-1-induced bone erosion and irreversible cartilage destruction was markedly reduced in TLR4−/− mice, even though the degree of inflammation was similar, suggesting uncoupled processes. Furthermore, the expression of cathepsin K, a marker for osteoclast activity, induced by IL-1β was dependent on TLR4. Overexpression of IL-1β in the joint as well as ex vivo IL-1 stimulation of patellae provoked the release of endogenous TLR4 agonists capable of inducing TLR4-mediated cytokine production. These data emphasize the potential relevance of TLR4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis, particularly with respect to IL-1-mediated joint pathology. PMID:19834062

  2. Feedforward postural adjustments in a simple two-joint synergy in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Latash, M L; Aruin, A S; Neyman, I; Nicholas, J J; Shapiro, M B

    1995-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease, age-matched controls and young control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist movements in a sagittal plane under the instruction to move one of the joints "as fast as possible." Relative stability of the other, postural joint was comparable in all 3 groups, while movement time was the highest in the patients and the lowest in young controls. Typically, EMG patterns in both muscle pairs acting at the joints demonstrated a commonly observed "tri-phasic" pattern. A cross-correlation analysis of the EMGs confirmed virtually simultaneous bursts in the wrist and elbow flexors and in the wrist and elbow extensors. In all 3 groups, there were no signs of anticipatory activation of postural muscles in about 90% of movements. We consider postural anticipation not a separate process, but a separate peripheral pattern of a single control process that may involve a number of joints and muscles. We conclude that the postural deficits in Parkinson's disease are not related to a basic deficit in the ability to generate feedforward postural adjustments but to other factors that may include the specificity of maintaining the vertical posture in the field of gravity.

  3. Multi-joint movements with reversal in Parkinson's disease: Kinematics and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci; Dionísio, Valdeci Carlos; Almeida, Gil Lúcio

    2011-04-01

    Subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) presented difficulties in the performance of multi-joint movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the slowness of such movements was caused by the generation of non-linear trajectories and/or by a reduction or a deficit in the modulation of EMG activity. Nine healthy subjects and 10 subjects with PD performed multi-joint movements involving elbow and shoulder with reversal towards three targets in the sagittal plane without any constraint. The movement kinematics were calculated using X and Y coordinates of the markers positioned on the joints. EMG signals were recorded for the muscles related to these movements. The results revealed that subjects with PD presented a lower linear speed and the differences between them and healthy subjects increased with target distance. The trajectory was found to be linear and both groups of subjects had few errors in the targets despite the slower muscle activity in subjects with PD. Another interesting finding was the EMG pattern of subjects with PD. They showed a difficulty in modulating the activity of agonists and antagonists during the different movement phases. The low speed movements of PD subjects were attributable to the low EMG activity and difficulty in modulating the bursts of muscle activity.

  4. The retinoic acid binding protein CRABP2 is increased in murine models of degenerative joint disease

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ian D; Cowan, Matthew F; Beier, Frank; Underhill, Tully M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease with poorly defined aetiology. Multiple signals are involved in directing the formation of cartilage during development and the vitamin A derivatives, the retinoids, figure prominently in embryonic cartilage formation. In the present study, we examined the expression of a retinoid-regulated gene in murine models of OA. Methods Mild and moderate forms of an OA-like degenerative disease were created in the mouse stifle joint by meniscotibial transection (MTX) and partial meniscectomy (PMX), respectively. Joint histopathology was scored using an Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) system and gene expression (Col1a1, Col10a1, Sox9 and Crabp2) in individual joints was determined using TaqMan quantitative PCR on RNA from microdissected articular knee cartilage. Results For MTX, there was a significant increase in the joint score at 10 weeks (n = 4, p < 0.001) in comparison to sham surgeries. PMX surgery was slightly more severe and produced significant changes in joint score at six (n = 4, p < 0.01), eight (n = 4, p < 0.001) and 10 (n = 4, p < 0.001) weeks. The expression of Col1a1 was increased in both surgical models at two, four and six weeks post-surgery. In contrast, Col10a1 and Sox9 for the most part showed no significant difference in expression from two to six weeks post-surgery. Crabp2 expression is induced upon activation of the retinoid signalling pathway. At two weeks after surgery in the MTX and PMX animals, Crabp2 expression was increased about 18-fold and about 10-fold over the sham control, respectively. By 10 weeks, Crabp2 expression was increased about three-fold (n = 7, not significant) in the MTX animals and about five-fold (n = 7, p < 0.05) in the PMX animals in comparison to the contralateral control joint. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that the retinoid signalling pathway is activated early in the osteoarthritic process and is sustained during the course of

  5. DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The general conditions for DOD-DOE interactions were delineated in an October 1978, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that identified two basic goals: improving energy efficiency and availability within DOD, and utilizing DOD and DOE expertise and facilities to carry out projects of mutual interest. There has been considerable interaction between DOD and DOE, including a number of proposed joint initiatives but a systematic and coordinated approach for nurturing, maintaining, and expanding these relationships has not been developed. A DOD-DOE Workshop on Joint Energy Activities was held on March 10-12, 1980. The workshop was structured into five working groups - Mobility Fuels, Conservation, Fossil Fuels for Fixed Facilities, Solar and Renewable Energy Sources, and Special Projects - with DOD and DOE cochairmen for each. Over a hundred DOD and DOE management, program, and policymaking representatives were brought together by the workshop Steering Committee to identify specific programs for inclusion in an overall plan for implementing the MOU and to deal with fundamental issues and problems of maintaining future communications. The workshop accomplished its goals, these being to: (1) improve communication among the appropriate key DOD and DOE personnel at all levels and promote information exchange; (2) review ongoing and already-proposed joint DOD and DOE programs; (3) initiate a coordinated, systematic effort to establish joint DOD-DOE energy-security programs; and (4) propose specific programs and projects of mutual interest for inclusion in a follow-on joint-implementation plan.

  6. Degenerative joint diseases and enthesopathies in a Joseon Dynasty population from Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Pak, Sunyoung

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine whether degenerative joint diseases (DJD) and enthesopathies can be used in conjunction in research that aims to understand the activity levels of past populations. To examine this, the relationship between DJD and enthesopathies needs to be explored while taking different peripheral joints and types of entheses into account. In addition, the present research aims to examine the frequency of DJD and enthesopathies in the Joseon Dynasty population of Korea with comparisons with data in other skeletal series of similar dates. In this research, 173 individuals who had been interred in Eunpyeong Cemetery (Seoul, Korea, mid-15th-early 20th centuries) were analyzed. The occurrence of DJD and enthesopathies at six peripheral joints - the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle - were compared. The results presented in this study suggest that DJD and enthesopathies are positively correlated in specific joints. The overall pattern of DJD and enthesopathies by sex was not found to be aligned with each other. While both markers were strongly associated with age in similar joints and bone elements, differences by sex showed a significant association in only some enthesopathies. This result suggests that DJD and enthesopathies react in different ways to variable etiological factors because they have different levels of vulnerability to various causes. Therefore, the distribution and pattern of DJD and enthesopathies should be discussed with caution when they are used together as activity markers. In addition, the population from Eunpyeong Cemetery seems not to have experienced a great deal of habitual stress.

  7. Innate immunity sensors participating in pathophysiology of joint diseases: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Konttinen, Yrjo T; Nich, Christophe; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system consists of functionally specialized "modules" that are activated in response to a particular set of stimuli via sensors located on the surface or inside the tissue cells. These cells screen tissues for a wide range of exogenous and endogenous danger/damage-induced signals with the aim to reject or tolerate them and maintain tissue integrity. In this line of thinking, inflammation evolved as an adaptive tool for restoring tissue homeostasis. A number of diseases are mediated by a maladaptation of the innate immune response, perpetuating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Here, we review recent evidence on the cross talk between innate immune sensors and development of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. In relation to the latter topic, there is a growing body of evidence that aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis results from long-term maladaptation of periprosthetic tissues to the presence of by-products continuously released from an artificial joint.

  8. Serum prolidase activity in benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate joint laxity is widespread in many joints of the body, and this condition is considered to be caused by an abnormality in the collagen structure. This study was carried out to determine the serum prolidase activity in female patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), and to evaluate its correlation with their clinical features. Methods A total of 45 patients with BJHS and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. All of the patients with BJHS met the Beighton diagnostic criteria. All the patients and the control group underwent a comprehensive examination of the locomotor system and took the New York Posture Rating Test. The examination and test results were recorded. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both the groups. Results Prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with BJHS (479.52 ± 126.50) compared to the healthy controls (555.97 ± 128.77) (p = 0.007). We found no correlation between serum prolidase activity and Beighton scores or New York rating test scores. On the other hand, mean prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with pes planus or hyperlordosis compared to those without (p = 0.05, p = 0.03, respectively). We did not find such a correlation with the other clinical features. Conclusions Significantly lower prolidase activity in patients with BJHS suggests that prolidase may affect the collagen metabolism and cause hyperlaxity. PMID:24612543

  9. Supramalleolar osteotomies for degenerative joint disease of the ankle joint: indication, technique and results.

    PubMed

    Barg, Alexej; Pagenstert, Geert I; Horisberger, Monika; Paul, Jochen; Gloyer, Marcel; Henninger, Heath B; Valderrabano, Victor

    2013-09-01

    Patients with varus or valgus hindfoot deformities usually present with asymmetric ankle osteoarthritis. In-vitro biomechanical studies have shown that varus or valgus hindfoot deformity may lead to altered load distribution in the tibiotalar joint which may result in medial (varus) or lateral (valgus) tibiotalar joint degeneration in the short or medium term. The treatment of asymmetric ankle osteoarthritis remains challenging, because more than half of the tibiotalar joint surface is usually preserved. Therefore, joint-sacrificing procedures like total ankle replacement or ankle arthrodesis may not be the most appropriate treatment options. The shortand midterm results following realignment surgery, are very promising with substantial pain relief and functional improvement observed post-operatively. In this review article we describe the indications, surgical techniques, and results from of realignment surgery of the ankle joint in the current literature.

  10. Functional implications of disease-specific variants in loci jointly associated with coeliac disease and rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zorro, Maria Magdalena; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Diogo, Dorothée; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Franke, Lude; Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genomic loci have been associated with a significant number of immune-mediated diseases, and a large proportion of these associated loci are shared among traits. Both the molecular mechanisms by which these loci confer disease susceptibility and the extent to which shared loci are implicated in a common pathogenesis are unknown. We therefore sought to dissect the functional components at loci shared between two autoimmune diseases: coeliac disease (CeD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used a cohort of 12 381 CeD cases and 7827 controls, and another cohort of 13 819 RA cases and 12 897 controls, all genotyped with the Immunochip platform. In the joint analysis, we replicated 19 previously identified loci shared by CeD and RA and discovered five new non-HLA loci shared by CeD and RA. Our fine-mapping results indicate that in nine of 24 shared loci the associated variants are distinct in the two diseases. Using cell-type-specific histone markers, we observed that loci which pointed to the same variants in both diseases were enriched for marks of promoters active in CD14+ and CD34+ immune cells (P < 0.001), while loci pointing to distinct variants in one of the two diseases showed enrichment for marks of more specialized cell types, like CD4+ regulatory T cells in CeD (P < 0.0001) compared with Th17 and CD15+ in RA (P = 0.0029). PMID:26546613

  11. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weishi; Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints. Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Methods Ten symptomatic patients of DDD at L4–S1 were studied. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–S1) and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension. In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right torsion, the ROMs were similar between the DDD patients and the healthy participants. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4–L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants. During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4–L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level (L3–L4), in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of degenerative joint disease in a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick

    2011-03-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD), also known as osteoarthritis, has been well documented in aging populations of captive and free-ranging macaques; however, successful treatments for DJD in nonhuman primates have not been published. Published data on chimpanzees show little to no DJD present in the wild, and there are no published reports of DJD in captive chimpanzees. We report here the first documented case of DJD of both the right and left femorotibial joints in a captive male chimpanzee. Progression from minimal to moderate to severe osteoarthritis occurred in this animal over the course of 1 y. Treatment with chondroprotective supplements (that is, glucosamine chondroitin, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan) and intraarticular corticosteroid injections (that is, methylprednisolone, ketorolac), together with pain management (that is, celecoxib, tramadol, carprofen), resulted in increased activity levels and decreased clinical signs of disease. DJD has a considerable negative effect on quality of life among the human geriatric population and therefore is likely to be one of the most significant diseases that will affect the increasingly aged captive chimpanzee population. As this case study demonstrates, appropriate treatment can improve and extend quality of life dramatically in these animals. However, in cases of severe osteoarthritis cases, medication alone may be insufficient to increase stability, and surgical options should be explored.

  13. [Restorative treatment of degenerative-dystrophic diseases of large joints].

    PubMed

    Neverov, V A; Kurbanov, S Kh

    2004-01-01

    The authors performed courses of treatment with Midocalm in 110 patients according to their original method. It reduced the pain syndrome, increased the volume of movements in the joint and shortened the time of treatment.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis-celiac disease relationship: joints get that gut feeling.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and celiac disease (CD) belong to the autoimmune disease family. Despite being separate entities they share multiple aspects. Epidemiologically they share comparable incidence environmental influences, associated antibodies and a recent incidental surge. They differ in their HLA pre-dispositions and specific predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. At the clinical level, celiac disease exhibits extra-intestinal rheumatic manifestations and RA gastrointestinal ones. Small bowel pathology exists in rheumatic patients. A trend towards responsiveness to a gluten free diet has been observed, ameliorating celiac rheumatic manifestations, whereas dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis remain controversial. Pathophysiologically, both diseases are mediated by endogenous enzymes in the target organs. The infectious, dysbiotic and increased intestinal permeability theories, as drivers of the autoimmune cascade, apply to both diseases. Contrary to their specific HLA pre-disposition, the diseases share multiple non-HLA loci. Those genes are crucial for activation and regulation of adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, light was shed on the interaction between host genetics and microbiota composition in relation to CD and RA susceptibility, connecting bugs and us and autoimmunity. A better understanding of the above mentioned similarities in the gut-joint inter-relationship, may elucidate additional facets in the mosaic of autoimmunity, relating CD to RA.

  15. Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease Past ... knees, pain plagued her every step. Living in New York City, Saisselin relied on walking and public ...

  16. Being active when you have heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - activity; CAD - activity; Coronary artery disease - activity; Angina - activity ... Getting regular exercise when you have heart disease is important. Exercise can make your heart muscle stronger. It may also help you be more active without chest pain or ...

  17. Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J L; Bertone, A L; McClain, H

    1995-01-01

    A modification of a colorimetric assay was used to determine synovial fluid total and individual sulphated-glycosaminoglycan concentration in various clinical presentations of joint disease in horses. Concentrations of synovial fluid and serum sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) were measured by the 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) dye assay in normal horses (n = 49), horses with acute (n = 26) or chronic (n = 27) joint disease (defined by clinical, radiographic, and clinicopathological parameters), and horses with cartilaginous lesions at diagnostic arthroscopy, but with normal radiographs and synovial fluid (n = 9). Horses with acute joint disease were subdivided into moderate acute (n = 21) and severe acute (n = 5) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis and clinical examination. Horses with chronic joint disease were subdivided into mild chronic (n = 9), moderate chronic (n = 10), and severe chronic (n = 8) joint disease on the basis of synovial fluid analysis, clinical examination, and radiographic findings. The concentrations of chondroitin sulphate (CS) and keratan sulphate (KS) were analyzed in each sample following sequential enzymatic digestion of the sample with chondroitinase or keratanase. In addition, the concentration of hyaluronate (HA) in each sample was determined by a colorimetric assay following digestion of the sample with microbial hyaluronidase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8521354

  18. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  19. Transgene persistence and cell turnover in the diarthrodial joint: implications for gene therapy of chronic joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Gouze, Elvire; Gouze, Jean-Noel; Palmer, Glyn D; Pilapil, Carmencita; Evans, Christopher H; Ghivizzani, Steven C

    2007-06-01

    Local gene therapy for chronic joint diseases requires prolonged transgenic expression, but this has not been reliably achieved in animal models. Using normal and immunocompromised animals, we examined the capacity of various cell types in joint tissues to maintain and express exogenous transgenes after direct intra-articular gene delivery. We found that transgenic expression could persist for the lifetime of the animal but required precise immunological compatibility between the vector, transgene product, and host. It was not dependent on vector integration or promoter origin. We identified two phenotypically distinct sub-populations of genetically modified cells within the joint: (i) transient cells, with a half-life of a few weeks, and (ii) stable cells that reside in the joint tissues indefinitely. Contrary to the prevailing assumption, the transient sub-population was composed almost exclusively of synovial fibroblasts, indicating that the synovium is not an appropriate tissue upon which to base a long-term therapy. Instead, fibroblasts in the ligaments, tendons, and capsule emerged as the primary cell types capable of sustained therapeutic transgene expression. This study sheds new light on the cellular dynamics of articular tissues and suggests that cell turnover and immune reactivity are the key determinants in achieving sustained transgenic expression intra-articularly.

  20. Discussion: DMARDs and biologic therapies in the management of inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Austin; Lisse, Jeffrey; Rizzo, Warren; Albani, Salvatore

    2009-05-01

    Therapy for inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, includes various conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These therapeutic agents are termed DMARDs because they have the potential to reduce or prevent joint damage and preserve joint integrity and function. Conventional DMARDs are used as monotherapy or in combination and include methotrexate, leflunomide, azathioprine, ciclosporin, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, gold and minocycline. Biologic response modifiers, which are based on proteins made by living cells, are newer agents available for the treatment of various inflammatory joint diseases. Biologic therapies now approved for use in inflammatory joint diseases are TNF inhibitors, T-cell modulators and B-cell depleters. They have all been shown to have clinical efficacy and are able to retard structural damage. However, all current immune-modulating therapies also have potential side effects, and the decision to use a particular agent for treatment should be based on a thorough discussion of the benefits and risks with the patient. Newer biologic response modifiers and other immunologic therapies are currently being developed for the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases and are discussed in this review.

  1. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Effects of sports on bone and joint disorders during childhood].

    PubMed

    Uchio, Yuji; Matsusaki, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, opposing trends have appeared to be either excessiveness or lack in the frequency of exercise or sports during childhood, both of which are believed to be associated with various sports-related injuries. In childhood, the bones, muscles, and ligaments are developing and not yet matured; though soft and flexible, their relative low strength is inadequate to tolerate abnormal external forces. Although a child's body normally has substantial self-healing ability, there is the risk of causing a lifelong deformity or growth disorder if not treated properly. A comprehensively organized system for the prevention, early detection, and treatment of bone and joint disorders in children should be developed in the future.

  2. Septic and crystalline joint disease. A simultaneous occurrence.

    PubMed

    McConville, J H; Pototsky, R S; Calia, F M; Pachas, W N

    1975-02-24

    Bacteria and crystals were simultaneously recovered from the synovial fluid of two patients with acutely inflamed joints. The bacteria were initially identified on Gram stain and subsequently grown on supplemented peptone broth, and the crystals were readily identified by polarizing microscopy. Although cause-and-effect relationship between these two types of arthritis cannot be established, the need for thorough examination of synovial fluid is evident.

  3. Caregiver placebo effect in analgesic clinical trials for painful cats with naturally occurring degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Gruen, M E; Dorman, D C; Lascelles, B D X

    2017-03-07

    A literature review identified six placebo-controlled studies of analgesics in client-owned cats with degenerative joint disease-associated pain. Five studies with 96 cats had available data. Caregiver responses on a clinical metrology instrument, Client-Specific Outcome Measure (CSOM), were compared to measured activity. Cats were categorised as 'successes' or 'failures' based on change in CSOM score and activity counts from baseline. Effect sizes based on CSOM score were calculated; factors that were associated with success/failure were analysed using logistic regression. Effect sizes ranged from 0.97 to 1.93. The caregiver placebo effect was high, with 54-74 per cent of placebo-treated cats classified as CSOM successes compared with 10-63 per cent of cats classified as successes based on objectively measured activity. 36 per cent of CSOM successes were also activity successes, while 19 per cent of CSOM failures were activity successes. No significant effects of cat age, weight, baseline activity, radiographic score, orthopaedic pain score or study type on CSOM success in the placebo groups were found. The caregiver placebo effect across these clinical trials was remarkably high, making demonstration of efficacy for an analgesic above a placebo difficult. Further work is needed to determine whether a potential placebo-by-proxy effect could benefit cats in clinical settings.

  4. [Genomic study of susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Shiro

    2009-06-01

    Common bone and joint diseases like osteoarthritis and lumbar disc disease are polygenic diseases caused by genetic and environment factors. We are challenging susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases using association study as a tool. By a combination of candidate-gene approach and whole-genome screen, we have succeeded in identification of five genes for osteoarthritis and for lumbar disc diseases, respectively. In the present paper, I mention the main genes among them, ASPN, GDF5 and DVWA for osteoarthritis, and TBSP2 and MMP9 for lumbar disc disease. Identification of the new genes will open a new window for the clarification of pathomechanism of the diseases and their treatment.

  5. Innate Immunity Sensors Participating in Pathophysiology of Joint Diseases: A Brief Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Nich, Christophe; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system consists of functionally specialized “modules” that are activated in response to a particular set of stimuli via sensors located on the surface or inside the tissue cells. These cells screen tissues for a wide range of exogenous and endogenous danger/damage-induced signals with the aim to reject or tolerate them and maintain tissue integrity. In this line of thinking, inflammation evolved as an adaptive tool for restoring tissue homeostasis. A number of diseases are mediated by a maladaptation of the innate immune response, perpetuating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Here, we review recent evidence on the cross talk between innate immune sensors and development of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. In relation to the latter topic, there is a growing body of evidence that aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis results from long-term maladaptation of periprosthetic tissues to the presence of by-products continuously released from an artificial joint. PMID:25747032

  6. The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G S

    1998-02-01

    Successful treatment of osteoarthritis must effectively control pain, and should slow down or reverse progression of the disease. Biochemical and pharmacological data combined with animal and human studies demonstrate glucosamine sulfate is capable of satisfying these criteria. Glucosamine sulfate's primary biological role in halting or reversing joint degeneration appears to be directly due to its ability to act as an essential substrate for, and to stimulate the biosynthesis of, the glycosaminoglycans and the hyaluronic acid backbone needed for the formation of proteoglycans found in the structural matrix of joints. Chondroitin sulfates, whether they are absorbed intact or broken into their constituent components, similarly provide additional substrates for the formation of a healthy joint matrix. Evidence also supports the oral administration of chondroitin sulfates for joint disease, both as an agent to slowly reduce symptoms and to reduce the need for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The combined use of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease has become an extremely popular supplementation protocol in arthritic conditions of the joints. Although glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates are often administered together, there is no information available to demonstrate the combination produces better results than glucosamine sulfate alone.

  7. The Joint-Gut Axis Exploring the Orthopaedic and Rheumatologic Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Michael P; Gaspar, Jonathan P; Kane, Patrick M

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immunemediated inflammatory conditions involving the gastrointestinal system with potential to adversely affect the musculoskeletal system as well. The numerous overlapping immunogenic and pathophysiologic disease mechanisms of the gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal systems have led to the concept of the "Joint-Gut Axis," illustrating an intimate link between the two organ systems. A solid understanding of the Joint-Gut Axis is necessary for the rheumatologist as well as the orthopaedic surgeon, as concomitant musculoskeletal disease may impart a profoundly negative impact on the quality of life of patients with IBD. Furthermore, a significant subset of patients initially present with secondary musculoskeletal symptoms resulting from an underlying, undiagnosed IBD. Additional non-inflammatory musculoskeletal sequelae of IBD that are not typically attributed to the Joint-Gut Axis should also be recognized by rheumatologists and orthopaedic surgeons in order that the proper preventative and supportive interdisciplinary management may be employed, maximizing patient outcomes and quality of life.

  8. Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells in bone and joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Jianmei; Zhu, Youming; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the non-hematopoietic progenitor cells, are multi-potent stem cells from a variety of tissues with the capability of self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation into multi-lineage cell types, as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. These properties make MSCs an ideal source of cell therapy in bone and joint diseases. This review describes the advances of animal study and preliminary clinical application in the past few years, related to MSC-based cell therapy in the common bone and joint diseases, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis of the femoral head and osteogenesis imperfecta. It highlights the promising prospect of MSC in clinical application of bone and joint diseases.

  9. [Bone and joint decade--"mile step" in diagnostics and treatment of movement system diseases?].

    PubMed

    Brongel, Leszek; Lorkowski, Jacek; Hładki, Waldemar; Trybus, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affect hundreds of millions of people across the world and are the most common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. The impact from such disorders on the individual and on society let to propose by WHO for the Decade of the Bone and Joint from 2000 to 2010. The goal of the Decade is to improve the health-related quality of life for people with musculoskeletal disorders throughout the world and this could be achieved by raising awareness of the growing burden of bone and joint diseases on society, promoting prevention and treatment and advancing understanding of musculoskeletal disorders through research. The main fields of interest during the Decade are joint diseases, spinal disorders and low back pain, osteoporosis and severe trauma of the extremities. In our Department we study problems concerning on traumatology of old patients, multitrauma injury, biomechanics in spinal disorders, in degenerative joint disease and foot diseases. Apart from contemporary imaging methods like US or CT we use pedobarographic diagnostics and fotogrammetric examination. In this study we present strategic goals and the summary of our ongoing projects in our Department related to the goals of the Bone and Joint Decade.

  10. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p <0.001) and low activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p <0.001; all-cause mortality: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.81, p <0.001) were linked to the highest risk, compared with moderate drinking and higher levels of physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM

  11. A new joint training programme in infectious diseases and medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Roberts, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing overlap between the disciplines of medical microbiology and infectious diseases prompted the Joint Royal Colleges Committee on Infection and Tropical Medicine to set up a working party to examine how trainees could obtain certification in both subjects. Following widespread consultations, a scheme was developed that entails six years of training and leads to the award of CCSTs in both microbiology and infectious diseases. Both Royal Colleges and the Specialist Training Authority have approved the scheme. Joint training will be demanding and will not be suitable for everyone; it represents an alternative approach to training in the infection disciplines that will run alongside the existing monospecialty training programmes.

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Joint Management in Gastroenterology and Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, M A; Garcia-Planella, E; Laiz, A; Puig, L

    2017-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex entity that includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by a chronic proinflammatory state of varying intensity that often leads to considerable morbidity. In the last decade, several therapeutic targets have been identified that are susceptible to the use of biological agents, including anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies, which are associated with paradoxical psoriasiform reactions in 5% of patients. Decision-making in the management of these cases requires close collaboration between the dermatologist and gastroenterologist. Inflammatory bowel disease is also associated with various other dermatologic and rheumatologic manifestations, and presents a genetic and pathogenic association with psoriasis that justifies both the interdisciplinary approach to these patients and the present review.

  13. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

  14. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints.

    PubMed

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision.

  15. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  16. Multiple ocular diseases detection based on joint sparse multi-task learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyu; Xu, Yanwu; Yin, Fengshou; Zhang, Zhuo; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a multiple ocular diseases detection scheme based on joint sparse multi-task learning. Glaucoma, Pathological Myopia (PM), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are three major causes of vision impairment and blindness worldwide. The proposed joint sparse multitask learning framework aims to reconstruct a test fundus image with multiple features from as few training subjects as possible. The linear version of this problem could be casted into a multi-task joint covariate selection model, which can be very efficiently optimized via kernelizable accelerated proximal gradient method. Extensive experiments are conducted in order to validate the proposed framework on the SiMES dataset. From the Area Under Curve (AUC) results in multiple ocular diseases classification, our method is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  17. [Pain control of bone and joint diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Soen, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The decline of multiple physiological processes, even in the absence of disease, combined should logically influence treatment options. Decreased gastric secretions, intestinal motility, and vitamin D receptors lead to loss of appetite, malnutrition. Increased arterial thickening and rigidity elevate cardiac risk, while decreased elasticity in the lungs potentially exacerbates breathing disorders. Memory impairment and cognitive decline progress as neurons become less resilient to stress over time. Reduced hepatic and renal blood flow limit metabolism and filtration, increasing the risk for accumulation of toxic substances. Physiologic changes, drug-drug interactions resulting from polypharmacy, and drug-disease interactions combine to make elderly patients more sensitive to the AEs of medications. Effective pain management in the elderly is challenging. The purpose of this review is to highlight the use of several treatment options for elderly patients.

  18. Neisseria meningitidis Infecting a Prosthetic Knee Joint: A New Case of an Unusual Disease

    PubMed Central

    Becerril Carral, Berta; López Cárdenas, Salvador; Canueto Quintero, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Primary meningococcal meningitis is an infrequent but known disease. However, the infection of a prosthetic joint with Neisseria meningitidis is rare. We hereby describe the second case of an arthroplasty infected with Neisseria meningitidis that responded favourably to prosthesis retention with surgical debridement, in combination with antibiotics treatment. PMID:28326209

  19. [Importance of rapid gradient echo sequences for nuclear magnetic tomographic diagnosis of joint diseases].

    PubMed

    König, H; Deimling, M

    1986-09-01

    The possibilities and limitations of rapid echo acquisition methods in various posttraumatic, degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the joints are demonstrated and discussed on the basis of a pilot study. It is evident that specific information important for clarifying effusions and meniscopathies is supplied especially by "water"-like images. Limitations of spatial resolution are at present still a limiting factor.

  20. Ollier's Disease of the Iliac Bone with Sacroiliac Joint Involvement in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Koutsouradis, Panagiotis; Skarpidi, Evangelia; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J.

    2016-01-01

    Ollier's disease of the hip bone involving the sacroiliac joint has not yet been reported in the English-language literature in both the mature and immature skeletons. The authors present such a unique case in an adolescent girl that posed a significant diagnostic challenge secondary to the rarity of the lesion and atypical clinical picture. PMID:27957379

  1. Similarity in Joint Function Limitation in Type 3 Von Willebrand Disease and Moderate Haemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Sood, S.L.; Cuker, A.; Wang, C.; Metjian, A.D.; Chiang, E.Y.; Soucie, J.M.; Konkle, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 3 von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a rare bleeding diathesis with complete or near complete deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and low factor VIII (FVIII) levels. In contrast, only FVIII is decreased in haemophilia A (HA). Both disorders are complicated by arthropathy. Aim The purpose of this study was to further clarify the roles of FVIII and VWF: Antigen (VWF:Ag) in joint range of motion (ROM) loss over time. Methods We compared joint ROM loss and other bleeding manifestations in 100 Type 3 VWD subjects (FVIII≤5%) and 1814 moderate HA subjects (FVIII 1–5%) within the U.S. Universal Data Collection (UDC) database. Results High rates of bleeding were reported at baseline. During follow up, moderate HA patients reported a joint (46% vs. 34%, p<0.0001) or muscle bleed (27% vs. 16%, p< 0.0001) in a higher proportion of visits than VWD patients. Other bleeds, including mucosal, were reported in a greater proportion of visits among patients with Type 3 VWD than among those with HA (49% vs. 32%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no difference in joint ROM loss over time in the Type 3 VWD versus moderate HA populations. A higher FVIII level was protective in both VWD and HA (p<0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis of primacy of the FVIII level in determining risk of joint hemorrhage, and may help target therapy in Type 3 VWD and moderate HA to prevent joint disability. PMID:23534856

  2. Properties of vacuum brazed Si3N4/steel joint using active brazing filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Fanghan; Ren, Jialie; Zhou, Yunhong; Yan, Ping

    The influence of active element Ti in Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal on wettability and joint strength is studied. Filler metal with 3 percent Ti achieves good results in direct brazing of silicon nitride to steel. For improving joint strength different interlayers are synthetically investigated. Experiments showed that an interlayer of low yield strength material can reduce the residual stress in the joint and increase joint strength more effectively than that of an interlayer of low coefficient of expansion material. Active element Ti in the brazing alloy diffused into Si3N4, and chemical reactions occurred in ceramic-metal interface producing certain chemical compounds consist of N and Ti.

  3. [Animal models for bone and joint disease. CIA, CAIA model].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Jun; Tanaka, Sakae

    2011-02-01

    The collagen-induced arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis, CIA) is an autoimmune arthritis that resembles rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in many ways, therefore it has been used most commonly as a model of RA. CIA is induced by immunization with an emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and type II collagen (C II ) . Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) is induced by the administration of a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies recognizing conserved epitopes located within the CB11 fragment. CAIA offers several advantages over CIA, including rapid disease onset, high uptake rate, and the capacity to use genetically modified mice, such as transgenics and knockouts.

  4. Serum levels of BMP-2, 4, 7 and AHSG in patients with degenerative joint disease requiring total arthroplasty of the hip and temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Albilia, Jonathan B; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Clokie, Cameron M L; Walt, David R; Baker, Gerald I; Psutka, David J; Backstein, David; Peel, Sean A F

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no objective or reliable means of assessing the severity of degenerative joint disease (DJD) and need for joint replacement surgery. Hence, it is difficult to know when an individual with DJD has reached a point where total arthroplasty is indicated. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether serum levels of Alpha-2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, 4, 7) can be used to predict the presence of severe DJD of the hip and/or temporomandibular joint (TMJ) (specifically: joints that require replacement). A total of 30 patients scheduled for arthroplasty (diseased) (15 HIP, 15 TMJ) and 120 age-matched controls (healthy/non-diseased) were included. Blood samples were collected from all patients ≥8 weeks after the last arthroplasty. Concentrations of serum analytes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and these were compared between the Diseased and Healthy groups, utilizing the Mann-Whitney U-test. Patients with disease had significantly higher levels of BMP-2 and BMP-4 and lower levels of AHSG in serum compared to non-diseased humans (p < 0.01). Higher levels of BMP-2, 4 and reduced levels of AHSG appear to characterize patients who have DJD that is severe enough to require total joint replacement. Perhaps measurements of these proteins can be used to make objective decisions regarding the need for total arthroplasty as opposed to the current subjective approaches.

  5. Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782

  6. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROGRAM General § 296.9 Activities not permitted for joint ventures. The following activities...

  7. Bilateral coxofemoral degenerative joint disease in a juvenile male yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Buckle, Kelly N; Alley, Maurice R

    2011-08-01

    A juvenile, male, yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) with abnormal stance and decreased mobility was captured, held in captivity for approximately 6 weeks, and euthanized due to continued clinical signs. Radiographically, there was bilateral degenerative joint disease with coxofemoral periarticular osteophyte formation. Grossly, the bird had bilaterally distended, thickened coxofemoral joints with increased laxity, and small, roughened and angular femoral heads. Histologically, the left femoral articular cartilage and subchondral bone were absent, and the remaining femoral head consisted of trabecular bone overlain by fibrin and granulation tissue. There was no gross or histological evidence of infection. The historic, gross, radiographic, and histopathologic findings were most consistent with bilateral aseptic femoral head degeneration resulting in degenerative joint disease. Although the chronicity of the lesions masked the initiating cause, the probable underlying causes of aseptic bilateral femoral head degeneration in a young animal are osteonecrosis and osteochondrosis of the femoral head. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral coxofemoral degenerative joint disease in a penguin.

  8. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  9. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Ameliorates Joint Disease in Murine Collagen- Induced Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard O.; Feldmann, Marc; Maini, Ravinder N.

    1992-10-01

    There is considerable evidence implicating tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This evidence is based not only on the universal presence of TNF-α in arthritic joints accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α receptors but also on the effects of neutralizing TNF-α in joint cell cultures. Thus, neutralization of TNF-α in vitro results in inhibition of the production of interleukin 1, which like TNF-α, is believed to contribute to joint inflammation and erosion. To determine the validity of this concept in vivo, the effect of administering TNF-neutralizing antibodies to mice with collagen-induced arthritis has been studied. This disease model was chosen because of its many immunological and pathological similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis. TN3-19.12, a hamster IgG1 monoclonal antibody to murine TNF-α/β, was injected i.p. into mice either before the onset of arthritis or after the establishment of clinical disease. Anti-TNF administered prior to disease onset significantly reduced paw swelling and histological severity of arthritis without reducing the incidence of arthritis or the level of circulating anti-type II collagen IgG. More relevant to human disease was the capacity of the antibody to reduce the clinical score, paw swelling, and the histological severity of disease even when injected after the onset of clinical arthritis. These results have implications for possible modes of therapy of human arthritis.

  10. Joint Base Contracting: A Comparative Analysis of Joint Base Contracting Activities between Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    AETC. Joint Base San Antonio also reached FOC October 1, 2010 ( Elliot , 2010). C. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND GAP IN LITERATURE No extensively researched...Publications. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. Elliot , S. (2010...Management Executive, 19(1), 46– 60. Sales, M.S. & Mirvis, P.H. (1984). When cultures collide: Issues of acquisitions. In J. R. Kimberly & E. R. Quinn

  11. Molecular serum and urine marker repertoire supporting clinical research on joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Qvist, Per; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Christiansen, Claus; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Karsdal, Morten A

    2011-12-01

    The need for improved analytical techniques in the study of slow, degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis has driven major efforts aimed at identifying biochemical markers of pathological processes in both diseases. A series of novel biochemical markers has surfaced and their careful validation has become a critical requirement for further use in clinical research. This report aims at providing a critical review of biochemical markers applied in clinical research of joint diseases, in particular those markers reflecting the turnover of cartilage tissue.

  12. Single-Joint Movements in Parkinson's Disease: A Pulse-Width and Pulse-Height Theory Review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael de Almeida; Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci

    2016-09-02

    The process by which the brain controls single-joint movements (SJM) is still not well understood. Some studies have defined rules describing the duration and magnitude of the agonist and antagonist muscles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze scientific publications about the electromyographic characteristics of SJM performed by patients with Parkinson's disease. A bibliographical review of the years 1989-2015 was performed using keywords such as electromyography, upper limb, and Parkinson's disease. After applying the inclusion criteria, 8 articles were included for analysis. The literature indicates that despite the lack of studies, it is possible to assume that considering the SJM, those with Parkinson's disease only control the magnitude of electromyography activation, being consistent only with the pulse-height theory control.

  13. Saposin C coupled lipid nanovesicles specifically target arthritic mouse joints for optical imaging of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoyang; Flick, Matthew J; Frederick, Malinda; Chu, Zhengtao; Mason, Rachel; DeLay, Monica; Thornton, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 1% of the population and is characterized by cartilage and bone destruction ultimately leading to loss of joint function. Early detection and intervention of disease provides the best hope for successful treatment and preservation of joint mobility and function. Reliable and non-invasive techniques that accurately measure arthritic disease onset and progression are lacking. We recently developed a novel agent, SapC-DOPS, which is composed of the membrane-associated lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC) incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS) lipid nanovesicles. SapC-DOPS has a high fusogenic affinity for phosphatidylserine-enriched microdomains on surfaces of target cell membranes. Incorporation of a far-red fluorophore, CellVue Maroon (CVM), into the nanovesicles allows for in vivo non-invasive visualization of the agent in targeted tissue. Given that phosphatidylserine is present only on the inner leaflet of healthy plasma membranes but is "flipped" to the outer leaflet upon cell damage, we hypothesized that SapC-DOPS would target tissue damage associated with inflammatory arthritis due to local surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine. Optical imaging with SapC-DOPS-CVM in two distinct models of arthritis, serum-transfer arthritis (e.g., K/BxN) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) revealed robust SapC-DOPS-CVM specific localization to arthritic paws and joints in live animals. Importantly, intensity of localized fluorescent signal correlated with macroscopic arthritic disease severity and increased with disease progression. Flow cytometry of cells extracted from arthritic joints demonstrated that SapC-DOPS-CVM localized to an average of 7-8% of total joint cells and primarily to CD11b+Gr-1+ cells. Results from the current studies strongly support the application of SapC-DOPS-CVM for advanced clinical and research applications including: detecting early arthritis

  14. [Impact of a magnetic field on blood separation kinetics in patients with joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Cherniakova, Iu M; Pinchuk, L S; Titov, L P

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives the results of experiments on phase separation of blood in the constant magnetic field that allows the structure of blood to be regulated, without changing its cellular and chemical composition. Blood deposition kinetic relationships were obtained for patients with joint diseases of various etiology (osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans, endoprosthesis instability, contusions, and joint wounds). They correlate with the severity of an inflammatory process in the joint and its adjacent tissues, with a patient's resistance to the development of pathology, and with red blood cell mobility in the biophysical field of a living organism. Analysis of relationships gives information on concentrations in plasma and hence synovial fluid (the basis of which is blood dialysate) in the liquid-crystalline phospholipid and cholesterol phase that determines the lubricity of synovial fluid and a low friction in the joints. The method may be used for the primary evaluation of efficacy of drugs for joint treatment, which is made in vitro on the blood taken from the patients rather than on the latter.

  15. The joint inhibitory effects of phenol, copper (II), oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfide on Anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-12-01

    A batch test was employed to analyze the joint toxicity of copper (II) and oxytetracycline (OTC), OTC and sulfide, phenol and sulfide (S(2-)), phenol and copper (II), and OTC, copper (II) and substrate on an Anammox mixed culture. The joint toxicity of OTC and copper (II) on the Anammox mixed culture was antagonistic, whereas the interaction between OTC and S(2-) and between phenol and S(2-) was generally synergistic. The joint toxicity of phenol and copper (II) was dependent on the level of phenol: the joint toxicity was antagonistic at a high phenol level of 300 mg L(-1), whereas the joint toxicity was synergistic at a low phenol level of 75 mg L(-1). The joint toxic effect of OTC, copper (II) and NO(2)(-)-N on the Anammox activity can be ranked in the following order: NO(2)(-)-N>copper (II)>OTC.

  16. The Joint Commission's disease-specific care certification for destination therapy ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Kathleen L; Weimer, Ashley; O'Shea, Genevieve; Driggers, Erin; Conroy, Linda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Winowich, Stephen; Lohmann, Douglas; Schaub, Richard D; Severyn, Donald A; Kormos, Robert L

    2010-06-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services announced that all hospitals implanting ventricular assist devices are required to have certification from the The Joint Commission for disease-specific care destination therapy with a ventricular assist device effective March 27, 2009, in order to receive Medicare reimbursement for services rendered to patients who have devices implanted for destination therapy. On February 23, 2007, The Joint Commission released the certification requirements for ventricular assist devices implanted for destination therapy in an 8-page document so that hospitals could prepare to meet the 2009 certification deadline. The Artificial Heart Program of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center undertook a multidisciplinary project, under the guidance of the nurse coordinator, to prepare the hospital and program for a precertification survey by The Joint Commission for disease-specific destination therapy ventricular assist device certification. The Presbyterian Hospital Artificial Heart Program was awarded The Joint Commission's device-specific certification for destination therapy with ventricular assist devices in June 2008.

  17. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid from spontaneously diseased dogs with joint diseases or other conditions.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle B; Lee, Marcel H; Jensen, Asger L; Jacobsen, Stine

    2007-06-15

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid in samples obtained from dogs (n=16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs with systemic inflammatory activity, and up to four major isoforms with apparent isoelectric points between 6.1 and 7.9 were identified. In synovial fluid from inflamed joints one or more highly alkaline SAA isoforms (with apparent isoelectric points above 9.3) were identified, with data suggesting local production of these isoforms in the canine inflamed joint.

  18. Dynamic Structure of Joint-Action Stimulus-Response Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malone, MaryLauren; Castillo, Ramon D.; Kloos, Heidi; Holden, John G.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mere presence of a co-actor can influence an individual’s response behavior. For instance, a social Simon effect has been observed when two individuals perform a Go/No-Go response to one of two stimuli in the presence of each other, but not when they perform the same task alone. Such effects are argued to provide evidence that individuals co-represent the task goals and the to-be-performed actions of a co-actor. Motivated by the complex-systems approach, the present study was designed to investigate an alternative hypothesis — that such joint-action effects are due to a dynamical (time-evolving) interpersonal coupling that operates to perturb the behavior of socially situated actors. To investigate this possibility, participants performed a standard Go/No-Go Simon task in joint and individual conditions. The dynamic structure of recorded reaction times was examined using fractal statistics and instantaneous cross-correlation. Consistent with our hypothesis that participants responding in a shared space would become behaviorally coupled, the analyses revealed that reaction times in the joint condition displayed decreased fractal structure (indicative of interpersonal perturbation processes modulating ongoing participant behavior) compared to the individual condition, and were more correlated across a range of time-scales compared to the reaction times of pseudo-pair controls. Collectively, the findings imply that dynamic processes might underlie social stimulus-response compatibility effects and shape joint cognitive processes in general. PMID:24558467

  19. Obesity effect on male active joint range of motion.

    PubMed

    Park, Woojin; Ramachandran, Jaiganesh; Weisman, Paul; Jung, Eui S

    2010-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity, how obesity affects human physical capabilities is not well documented. As an effort toward addressing this, the current study investigated the obesity effect on joint range of motion (RoM) based on data collected from 20 obese and 20 non-obese males. In total, 30 inter-segmental motions occurring at the shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle joints and lumbar and cervical spine areas were examined. The obesity effect was found to be non-uniform across the joint motions. Obesity significantly reduced RoM for nine of the 30 motions: shoulder extensions and adductions, lumbar spine extension and lateral flexions and knee flexions. The largest significant RoM reduction was 38.9% for the left shoulder adduction. The smallest was 11.1% for the right knee flexion. The obesity-associated RoM reductions appear to be mainly due to the mechanical interposition and obstruction of inter-segmental motions caused by excess fat in the obese body. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Currently, obesity is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is expected to increase continually in the near future. This study empirically characterised the obesity effects on joint RoM to provide better understanding of the physical capabilities of the obese. The study findings will facilitate designing man-artefact systems that accommodate obese individuals.

  20. Recommendations of the ESSR Arthritis Subcommittee on Ultrasonography in Inflammatory Joint Disease.

    PubMed

    Plagou, Athena; Teh, James; Grainger, Andrew J; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Rennie, Winston; Åström, Gunnar; Feydy, Antoine; Giraudo, Chiara; Guerini, Henri; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Isaac, Amanda; Jans, Lennart; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Kainberger, Franz; Maas, Mario; Martinoli, Carlo; Mascarenhas, Vasco V; Miese, Falk; O'Connor, Philip; Oei, Edwin H; Østergaard, Mikkel; Peetrons, Philippe; Platzgummer, Hannes; Reijnierse, Monique; Robinson, Philip; Rupreht, Mitja; Simoni, Paolo; Wick, Marius C; Zejden, Anna; Klauser, Andrea S

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the recommendations of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology Arthritis Subcommittee on the use of ultrasonography (US) in rheumatic disease, focused on the examination of joints in the adult population. The recommended examination technique and protocols used in a radiologic work-up are discussed. The main US features that can lead to a final diagnosis in the most common rheumatic diseases are addressed. The differential diagnosis that should be considered at image interpretation is presented. The role of US in interventional procedures and clinically important recent developments is also discussed.

  1. Metastatic breast cancer in the mandibular condyle mimicking temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease

    PubMed Central

    Della Chiesa, Andrea; Scherrer, Beat; Kuttenberger, Johannes J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases or tumour to the jaws are rare and those to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are even rarer. The symptoms like preauricular pain, swelling and clicking are generally associated with TMJ disease. But the same symptoms are also found in tumours of the jaws or other diseases. We report on the case of a 48-year-old woman with a 12-year history of breast cancer who was referred to our department for clarification of preauricular swelling and pain. The possible aetiology of TMJ disorders and the frequency and localization of metastases to the jaws are discussed. PMID:24876331

  2. Textured bearing surface in artificial joints to reduce macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Nishi, Naoki; Chikaura, Hiroto; Nakashima, Yuta; Miura, Hiromasa; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Micro slurry-jet erosion has been proposed as a precision machining technique for the bearing surfaces of artificial joints in order to reduce the total amount of polyethylene wear and to enlarge the size of the wear debris. The micro slurry-jet erosion method is a wet blasting technique which uses alumina particles as the abrasive medium along with compressed air and water to create an ideal surface. Pin-on-disc wear tests with multidirectional sliding motion on the textured surface of a \\text{Co}-\\text{Cr}-\\text{Mo} alloy counterface for polyethylene resulted in both a reduction of wear as well as enlargement of the polyethylene debris size. In this study, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes were incubated with the debris, and it was elucidated that the wear debris generated on the textured surface regulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating a reduction in the induced tissue reaction and joint loosening.

  3. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ∼40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

  4. No further gain can be achieved by calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 joints with high-sensitivity assay of C-reactive protein because of high intraindividual variability of C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional study and theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Inger M J; Emamifar, Amir; Andreasen, Rikke A; Antonsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) is commonly used to evaluate disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is a guide to treatment decision.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lower reporting limit for C-reactive protein (CRP), with respect to intraindividual biological variability, on the calculation of DAS28 and subsequent patient classification.This study consists of 2 sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 taking intraindividual biological variation and lower reporting limit for CRP into account and a cross-sectional study of RA patients applying our theoretical results. Therefore, we calculated DAS28 twice, with the actual CRP values and CRP = 9 mg/L, the latter to elucidate the positive effects of reducing the lower reporting limit of CRP from <10 to <3 mg/L.Lower-reporting limit of <10 mg/L leads to overestimate DAS28. However, reducing lower reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L results in optimizing DAS28 calculation. Further lowering of reporting limit for CRP to <3 mg/L does not increase the precision of DAS28 owing to the relatively large intraindividual biological variation.Five hundred twelve patients were included. There was a significant difference between recalculated and patients DAS28 (P < 0.001). One hundred nine patients had DAS28 deviation (compatible to remission to low: 66, low to moderate: 39. and moderate to high: 4).Owing to significant impact of intraindividual biologic variation on DAS28 and patient classification, special attention should be paid to calculate DAS28 when CRP values are within normal range. Furthermore, we conclude that results of different studies evaluating DAS28 and treatment response are not comparable if the reporting limits of CRP are unknown.

  5. The effect of an active vibration stimulus according to different shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an active vibration stimulus exercise according to shoulder joint angles on functional reach and stability of the shoulder joint. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male students participated in this study. Upper limb length of each subject was measured to obtain normalized measurement values. The exercise groups were as follows: group I (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 90°), group II (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 130°), and group III (n=10, shoulder joint angle of 180°). After warm-up, an active vibration stimulus was applied to the subjects with a Flexi-Bar. The Functional Reach Test and Y-balance test were conducted for measurement of shoulder stability. [Results] Analysis of covariance was conducted with values before the intervention as covariates to analyze the differences among the groups in the two tests. There were significant differences among the groups. According to Bonferroni post hoc comparison, group I showed greater improvement than group III in the Functional Reach Test, and group II showed greater improvement than group I and group III in the Y-balance test. [Conclusion] The effect of the exercise with different shoulder joint angles revealed that the shoulder joint has a certain effective joint angle for its functionality and stability. In addition, application of an active vibration stimulus with a Flexi-Bar can be a very effective tool for improvement of functionality and stability of the shoulder joint. PMID:27134352

  6. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  7. Photoacoustic tomography of the human finger: towards the assessment of inflammatory joint diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Es, P.; Biswas, S. K.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory arthritis is often manifested in finger joints. The growth of new or withdrawal of old blood vessels can be a sensitive marker for these diseases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has great potential in this respect since it allows the sensitive and highly resolved visualization of blood. We systematically investigated PA imaging of finger vasculature in healthy volunteers using a newly developed PA tomographic system. We present the PA results which show excellent detail of the vasculature. Vessels with diameters ranging between 100 μm and 1.5 mm are visible along with details of the skin, including the epidermis and the subpapillary plexus. The focus of all the studies is at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, and in the context of ultimately visualizing the inflamed synovial membrane in patients. This work is important in laying the foundation for detailed research into PA imaging of the phalangeal vasculature in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Joint Effects of Smoking and Silicosis on Diseases to the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Qiu, Hong; Leung, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Smokers are subject to being more susceptible to the long-term effects of silica dust, whilst it remains unclear whether the joint effect of smoking and silicosis differs amongst diseases to the lungs; this study aims to address this knowledge gap. This was a historical cohort study comprised of 3202 silicotics in Hong Kong during 1981–2005 who were followed up till 31/12/2006. We estimated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the smoking and never smoking silicotics using the mortality rates of male general population indiscriminately by smoking status, but these SMRs were regarded as biased. We adjusted these biased SMRs using “smoking adjustment factors (SAF)”. We assessed the multiplicative interaction between smoking and silicosis using ‘relative silicosis effect (RSE)’ that was the ratio of SAF-corrected SMR of smoking silicotics to the never smokers. A RSE differs significantly from one implies the presence of multiplicative interaction. A significant excess SMR was observed for respiratory diseases (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [COPD], silicosis) and other diseases to the lungs (pulmonary heart disease, tuberculosis). All the ‘biased-SMRs’ in smokers were higher than those in never smokers, but the SAF-corrected SMRs became higher in never smokers. The RSE was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.37–3.55), 0.94 (95%CI: 0.42–2.60), and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.60–1.19) for lung cancer, COPD, and silicosis; whilst it was 1.21 (95%CI: 0.32–10.26) for tuberculosis and 1.02 (95%CI: 0.16–42.90) for pulmonary heart disease. This study firstly demonstrated the joint effect of smoking and silicosis may differ amongst diseases to the lungs, but power is limited. PMID:25105409

  9. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  10. Exploring the Neural Basis of Real-Life Joint Action: Measuring Brain Activation during Joint Table Setting with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egetemeir, Johanna; Stenneken, Prisca; Koehler, Saskia; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Many every-day life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table setting tasks, either alone (solo action) or in cooperation with a partner (joint action), or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation). Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration) during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner. PMID:21927603

  11. Abdominal muscle activity according to knee joint angle during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Juri; Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the activity of the abdominal muscles according to the angle of the knee joints during sit-to-stand. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult males participated in this study. Subjects initiated sit-to-stand at knee joint angles of 60°, 90°, or 120°. An electromyography system was used to measure the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Results] Percent contraction differed significantly among the three knee joint angles, most notably for the internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles. [Conclusion] Wider knee joint angles more effectively activate the abdominal muscles, especially those in the deep abdomen, than do narrower angles. PMID:27390431

  12. Chronic joint disease caused by persistent Chikungunya virus infection is controlled by the adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    Hawman, David W; Stoermer, Kristina A; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Pal, Pankaj; Oko, Lauren; Diamond, Michael S; Morrison, Thomas E

    2013-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes incapacitating disease in humans characterized by intense joint pain that can persist for weeks, months, or even years. Although there is some evidence of persistent CHIKV infection in humans suffering from chronic rheumatologic disease symptoms, little is known about chronic disease pathogenesis, and no specific therapies exist for acute or chronic CHIKV disease. To investigate mechanisms of chronic CHIKV-induced disease, we utilized a mouse model and defined the duration of CHIKV infection in tissues and the associated histopathological changes. Although CHIKV RNA was readily detectable in a variety of tissues very early after infection, CHIKV RNA persisted specifically in joint-associated tissues for at least 16 weeks. Inoculation of Rag1(-/-) mice, which lack T and B cells, resulted in higher viral levels in a variety of tissues, suggesting that adaptive immunity controls the tissue specificity and persistence of CHIKV infection. The presence of CHIKV RNA in tissues of wild-type and Rag1(-/-) mice was associated with histopathological evidence of synovitis, arthritis, and tendonitis; thus, CHIKV-induced persistent arthritis is not mediated primarily by adaptive immune responses. Finally, we show that prophylactic administration of CHIKV-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented the establishment of CHIKV persistence, whereas therapeutic administration had tissue-specific efficacy. These findings suggest that chronic musculoskeletal tissue pathology is caused by persistent CHIKV infection and controlled by adaptive immune responses. Our results have significant implications for the development of strategies to mitigate the disease burden associated with CHIKV infection in humans.

  13. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  14. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  15. Adaptive tracking of weld joints using active contour model in arc-welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeseon; Koh, Kyoungchul; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper presents a vision processing scheme to automatic weld joint tracking in robotic arc welding process. Particular attention is concentrated on its robustness against various optical disturbances, such as arc glares and weld spatters radiating from the melted weld pool. Underlying the developed vision processing is a kind of model-based pattern searching, which is necessarily accompanied by two separate stages of modeling and tracking. In the modeling stage, a syntactic approach is adopted to identify unknown weld joint structure. The joint profile identified in the modeling stage is used as a starting point for successive tracking of variations in the geometry of weld joint during welding, which is automatically achieved by an active contour model technology following feature- based template matching. The performance of the developed scheme is investigated through a series of practical welding experiments.

  16. [Etiological and pathogenetic aspects of joint diseases in Abu Ali Ibn Sina's papers and their modern significance].

    PubMed

    Abduvaliev, A A

    2006-01-01

    It is established that the basis of theoretical background on etiological and pathogenetic aspects of joint diseases have been made in connection with an ancient doctrine of elements, basic qualities, joint fluid and mizadj. Pathological process in a joint is associated with quantitative-qualitative changes of structure of joint fluid and its penetration into the joint with subsequent change of mizadj. The doctrine about mizadj is the main idea of Avicenna on health and illness and also the basis of signs of all system of human being, which are significant during diagnostics. The study of reasons and mechanisms of illnesses of the locomotor system against Avicenna's positions will throw light, for sure, on many unresolved problems of modern arthroloogy.

  17. Joint disease mapping using six cancers in the Yorkshire region of England

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Amy; Forman, David; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Edwards, Kimberley L; Manda, Samuel OM

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to model jointly the incidence rates of six smoking related cancers in the Yorkshire region of England, to explore the patterns of spatial correlation amongst them, and to estimate the relative weight of smoking and other shared risk factors for the relevant disease sites, both before and after adjustment for socioeconomic background (SEB). Methods Data on the incidence of oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers between 1983 and 2003 were extracted from the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry database for the 532 electoral wards in the Yorkshire region. Using postcode of residence, each case was assigned an area-based measure of SEB using the Townsend index. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer site and their correlations investigated. The joint analysis of the spatial variation in incidence used a Bayesian shared-component model. Three components were included to represent differences in smoking (for all six sites), bodyweight/obesity (for oesophagus, pancreas and kidney cancers) and diet/alcohol consumption (for oesophagus and stomach cancers). Results The incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, and bladder was relatively evenly distributed across the region. The incidence of stomach and lung cancers was more clustered around the urban areas in the south of the region, and these two cancers were significantly associated with higher levels of area deprivation. The incidence of lung cancer was most impacted by adjustment for SEB, with the rural/urban split becoming less apparent. The component representing smoking had a larger effect on cancer incidence in the eastern part of the region. The effects of the other two components were small and disappeared after adjustment for SEB. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of joint disease modelling using data from six cancer sites. Incidence estimates are more precise than those obtained without

  18. Perspectives on the Use of Gene Therapy for Chronic Joint Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghivizzani, Steven C.; Gouze, Elvire; Gouze, Jean-Noel; Kay, Jesse D.; Bush, Marsha L.; Watson, Rachael S.; Levings, Padraic P.; Nickerson, David M.; Colahan, Patrick T.; Robbins, Paul D.; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular and cellular biology have identified a wide variety of proteins including targeted cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulatory proteins, cytotoxic mediators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and intracellular signalling molecules that could be of great benefit in the treatment of chronic joint diseases, such as osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. Unfortunately, protein-based drugs are difficult to administer effectively. They have a high rate of turnover, requiring frequent readministration, and exposure in non-diseased tissue can lead to serious side effects. Gene transfer technologies offer methods to enhance the efficacy of protein-based therapies, enabling the body to produce these molecules locally at elevated levels for extended periods. The proof of concept of gene therapies for arthritis has been exhaustively demonstrated in multiple laboratories and in numerous animal models. This review attempts to condense these studies and to discuss the relative benefits and limitations of the methods proposed and to discuss the challenges toward translating these technologies into clinical realities. PMID:18691023

  19. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD)/Pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint - FNA findings and microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Asghar H; Abraham, Jerrold L; Kellman, Robert M; Khurana, Kamal K

    2008-04-21

    We report a case of a Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) presenting as a mass in the parotid and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that simulated a parotid tumor. A 35 year-old man presented with pain in the left ear area. A CT Scan of the area showed a large, calcified mass surrounding the left condylar head, and extending into the infratemporal fossa. FNA of the mass showed birefringent crystals, most of which were rhomboid with occasional ones being needle shaped, embedded in an amorphous pink substance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of these crystals showed peaks corresponding to calcium and phosphorus. SEM/EDS is a rapid method of diagnosing calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) and an alternative to more commonly used method of special staining of cell block sections coupled with polarizing microscopy.

  20. Perspectives on the use of gene therapy for chronic joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghivizzani, Steven C; Gouze, Elvire; Gouze, Jean-Noel; Kay, Jesse D; Bush, Marsha L; Watson, Rachael S; Levings, Padraic P; Nickerson, David M; Colahan, Patrick T; Robbins, Paul D; Evans, Christopher H

    2008-08-01

    Advances in molecular and cellular biology have identified a wide variety of proteins including targeted cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulatory proteins, cytotoxic mediators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and intracellular signalling molecules that could be of great benefit in the treatment of chronic joint diseases, such as osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. Unfortunately, protein-based drugs are difficult to administer effectively. They have a high rate of turnover, requiring frequent readministration, and exposure in non-diseased tissue can lead to serious side effects. Gene transfer technologies offer methods to enhance the efficacy of protein-based therapies, enabling the body to produce these molecules locally at elevated levels for extended periods. The proof of concept of gene therapies for arthritis has been exhaustively demonstrated in multiple laboratories and in numerous animal models. This review attempts to condense these studies and to discuss the relative benefits and limitations of the methods proposed and to discuss the challenges toward translating these technologies into clinical realities.

  1. Three-dimensional osteogenic and chondrogenic systems to model osteochondral physiology and degenerative joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter G; Gottardi, Riccardo; Lin, Hang; Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-09-01

    Tissue engineered constructs have the potential to function as in vitro pre-clinical models of normal tissue function and disease pathogenesis for drug screening and toxicity assessment. Effective high throughput assays demand minimal systems with clearly defined performance parameters. These systems must accurately model the structure and function of the human organs and their physiological response to different stimuli. Musculoskeletal tissues present unique challenges in this respect, as they are load-bearing, matrix-rich tissues whose functionality is intimately connected to the extracellular matrix and its organization. Of particular clinical importance is the osteochondral junction, the target tissue affected in degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA), which consists of hyaline articular cartilage in close interaction with subchondral bone. In this review, we present an overview of currently available in vitro three-dimensional systems for bone and cartilage tissue engineering that mimic native physiology, and the utility and limitations of these systems. Specifically, we address the need to combine bone, cartilage and other tissues to form an interactive microphysiological system (MPS) to fully capture the biological complexity and mechanical functions of the osteochondral junction of the articular joint. The potential applications of three-dimensional MPSs for musculoskeletal biology and medicine are highlighted.

  2. Bone marrow derived stem cells in joint and bone diseases: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Marmotti, Antonio; de Girolamo, Laura; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Bruzzone, Matteo; Mattia, Silvia; Rossi, Roberto; Montaruli, Angela; Dettoni, Federico; Castoldi, Filippo; Peretti, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Stem cells have huge applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their use is currently not restricted to the life-threatening diseases but also extended to disorders involving the structural tissues, which may not jeopardize the patients' life, but certainly influence their quality of life. In fact, a particularly popular line of research is represented by the regeneration of bone and cartilage tissues to treat various orthopaedic disorders. Most of these pioneering research lines that aim to create new treatments for diseases that currently have limited therapies are still in the bench of the researchers. However, in recent years, several clinical trials have been started with satisfactory and encouraging results. This article aims to review the concept of stem cells and their characterization in terms of site of residence, differentiation potential and therapeutic prospective. In fact, while only the bone marrow was initially considered as a "reservoir" of this cell population, later, adipose tissue and muscle tissue have provided a considerable amount of cells available for multiple differentiation. In reality, recently, the so-called "stem cell niche" was identified as the perivascular space, recognizing these cells as almost ubiquitous. In the field of bone and joint diseases, their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lines makes their application ideally immediate through three main modalities: (1) cells selected by withdrawal from bone marrow, subsequent culture in the laboratory, and ultimately transplant at the site of injury; (2) bone marrow aspirate, concentrated and directly implanted into the injury site; (3) systemic mobilization of stem cells and other bone marrow precursors by the use of growth factors. The use of this cell population in joint and bone disease will be addressed and discussed, analysing both the clinical outcomes but also the basic research background, which has justified their use for the

  3. Recreational Sports Activities After Calcaneal Fractures and Subsequent Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Giovanni; Martinelli, Nicolò; Bonifacini, Carlo; Bianchi, Alberto; Sartorelli, Elena; Malerba, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a common treatment for the management of hindfoot pathologic entities. Despite pain reduction, hindfoot stiffness is a common concern of active patients, who wish to continue or start exercising for fitness. The purpose of the present retrospective observational clinical study was to assess the rate and type of recreational sports activities in patients before and after subtalar joint arthrodesis and to correlate the clinical outcome and the level of sports activities. In 33 patients (22 males, 11 females) treated with subtalar joint arthrodesis, the pre- and postoperative participation in sports and recreational activities was evaluated. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scale score, 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and a visual analog scale for pain were used as clinical outcome measures. The weekly session number, session time, and interval to activity recovery after surgery were registered. Patients with a subtalar joint arthrodesis returned to a satisfactory level of activity postoperatively. The sports participation almost reached levels similar to those preoperatively but with a shift from high- to low-impact activities.

  4. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  5. Recreational sport activity after total replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daniilidis, Kiriakos; Marinozzi, Andrea; Denaro, Vincenzo; Gosheger, Georg; Pejman, Ziai; Buchhorn, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint replacement is an alternative surgical procedure to arthrodesis in the treatment of moderate-to-severe hallux rigidus. However, few studies have been published about functional outcome after joint reconstructive procedures for hallux rigidus. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical, radiological and functional outcome, with special regard to recreational and sports activity, after first metatarsophalangeal joint replacement in patients affected by hallux rigidus grade III. Twenty-three patients who had undergone total joint replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were examined preoperatively and three, six, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. All patients (mean age of 57.0 ± 3.7 years) received a non-cemented TOEFIT-PLUS™ implant by one surgeon. Clinical scores (AOFAS score and VAS), radiological examination, patient satisfaction and sport participation were used to evaluate treatment outcome and radiolucent lines. The mean AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 44.6 ± 7.2 points preoperatively to an average of 82.5 ± 14.4 points at last follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean total ROM of the first MTP joint increased from 28.1 ± 4.9 degrees preoperatively to 52.7 ± 15.7 degrees postoperatively (p < 0.001). After surgery, 91.3% of the patients were able to resume at least one recreational activity. Total arthroplasty for the treatment of hallux rigidus in an active patient population revealed good clinical and functional results. However, postoperative recreational sport activity showed a decrease in comparison to the pre-arthritic state. Further follow-up is necessary to quantify loosening risk in active patients after total hallux arthroplasty. PMID:20069300

  6. Recreational sport activity after total replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, Kiriakos; Martinelli, Nicolò; Marinozzi, Andrea; Denaro, Vincenzo; Gosheger, Georg; Pejman, Ziai; Buchhorn, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint replacement is an alternative surgical procedure to arthrodesis in the treatment of moderate-to-severe hallux rigidus. However, few studies have been published about functional outcome after joint reconstructive procedures for hallux rigidus. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical, radiological and functional outcome, with special regard to recreational and sports activity, after first metatarsophalangeal joint replacement in patients affected by hallux rigidus grade III. Twenty-three patients who had undergone total joint replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were examined preoperatively and three, six, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. All patients (mean age of 57.0 ± 3.7 years) received a non-cemented TOEFIT-PLUS™ implant by one surgeon. Clinical scores (AOFAS score and VAS), radiological examination, patient satisfaction and sport participation were used to evaluate treatment outcome and radiolucent lines. The mean AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 44.6 ± 7.2 points preoperatively to an average of 82.5 ± 14.4 points at last follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean total ROM of the first MTP joint increased from 28.1 ± 4.9 degrees preoperatively to 52.7 ± 15.7 degrees postoperatively (p < 0.001). After surgery, 91.3% of the patients were able to resume at least one recreational activity. Total arthroplasty for the treatment of hallux rigidus in an active patient population revealed good clinical and functional results. However, postoperative recreational sport activity showed a decrease in comparison to the pre-arthritic state. Further follow-up is necessary to quantify loosening risk in active patients after total hallux arthroplasty.

  7. The role of sensory signals from the insect coxa-trochanteral joint in controlling motor activity of the femur-tibia joint.

    PubMed

    Akay, T; Bässler, U; Gerharz, P; Büschges, A

    2001-02-01

    Interjoint coordination in multi-jointed limbs is essential for the generation of functional locomotor patterns. Here we have focused on the role that sensory signals from the coxa-trochanteral (CT) joint play in patterning motoneuronal activity of the femur-tibia (FT) joint in the stick insect middle leg. This question is of interest because when the locomotor system is active, movement signals from the FT joint are known to contribute to patterning of activity of the central rhythm-generating networks governing the CT joint. We investigated the influence of femoral levation and depression on the activity of tibial motoneurons. When the locomotor system was active, levation of the femur often induced a decrease or inactivation of tibial extensor activity while flexor motoneurons were activated. Depression of the femur had no systematic influence on tibial motoneurons. Ablation experiments revealed that this interjoint influence was not mediated by signals from movement and/or position sensitive receptors at the CT joint, i.e., trochanteral hairplate, rhombal hairplate, or internal levator receptor organ. Instead the influence was initiated by sensory signals from a field of campaniform sensillae, situated on the proximal femur (fCS). Selective stimulation of these fCS produced barrages of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in tibial extensor motoneurons and activated tibial flexor motoneurons. During pharmacologically activated rhythmic activity of the otherwise isolated mesothoracic ganglion (pilocarpine, 5 x 10(-4) M), deafferented except for the CT joint, levation of the femur as well had an inhibitory influence on tibial extensor motoneurons. However, the influence of femoral levation on the rhythm generated was rather labile and only sometimes a reset of the rhythm was induced. In none of the preparations could entrainment of rhythmicity by femoral movement be achieved, suggesting that sensory signals from the CT joint only weakly affect central

  8. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-C, task 3: Identification of joint activities and estimation of resources in preparation for joint flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Payload mission control concepts are developed for real time flight operations of STS. Flight planning, training, simulations, and other flight preparations are included. Payload activities for the preflight phase, activity sequences and organizational allocations, and traffic and experience factors to establish composite man-loading for joint STS payload activities are identified for flight operations from 1980 to 1985.

  9. [The effects of exercise and sports activities on bone and joint morbidities.

    PubMed

    Yoshiya, Shinichi

    Exercise and sports activities can afford mechanical stimuli to the bone and joint tissues which are required to maintain the tissue properties. Moreover, physical exercise is an important part of the management of bone and joint morbidities such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. On the other hand, excessive mechanical load involved in exercise and sports activities can be harmful potentially causing overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal tissues. Especially, safety margin for the amount of acceptable mechanical stress is narrow in the elderly due to preexisting musculoskeletal problems. Preparticipation medical checkup and construction of appropriate exercise program based on the physical assessment are mandatory to prevent overload applied to the bone and joint tissues.

  10. Automated assessment of joint synovitis activity from medical ultrasound and power doppler examinations using image processing and machine learning methods

    PubMed Central

    Ziębiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease with arthritis, and causes substantial functional disability in approximately 50% patients after 10 years. Accurate measurement of the disease activity is crucial to provide an adequate treatment and care to the patients. The aim of this study is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity. Material and methods This paper focus on a computer aided diagnostic system that was developed within joint Polish–Norwegian research project related to the automated assessment of the severity of synovitis. Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Synovitis is estimated by ultrasound examiner using the scoring system graded from 0 to 3. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience or standardized ultrasound atlases. The method needs trained medical personnel and the result can be affected by a human error. Results The porotype of a computer-aided diagnostic system and algorithms essential for an analysis of ultrasonic images of finger joints are main scientific output of the MEDUSA project. Medusa Evaluation System prototype uses bone, skin, joint and synovitis area detectors for mutual structural model based evaluation of synovitis. Finally, several algorithms that support the semi-automatic or automatic detection of the bone region were prepared as well as a system that uses the statistical data processing approach in order to automatically localize the regions of interest. Conclusions Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience and the result can be affected by a human error. In this paper we presented the MEDUSA project which is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity

  11. Effects of submaximal eccentric exercise on muscle activity at different elbow joint angles.

    PubMed

    Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Jaskólska, Anna; Janecki, Damian; Andrzejewska, Renata; Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólski, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to determine whether electrical and mechanical factors contributing to acute or long-term maximal torque reduction and muscle soreness due to submaximal eccentric exercise (ECC) are elbow-joint-angle specific and to what extent the joint angle affects the contribution of antagonist coactivation to this torque reduction. Maximal isometric torque (MIT), muscle soreness assessment, agonist electromechanical activities, and antagonist coactivation during the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured at elbow joint angles of 60°, 90°, and 150° before ECC, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr after exercise. ECC causes an immediate decrease in MIT as well as increased antagonist coactivation at three angles. Antagonist coactivation returned to its baseline level at 24 hr regardless of joint angle. The most rapid torque recovery and the highest force level at which pain occurred were found after ECC at a joint angle of 60°. During the recovery period, no mechanomyographical changes were observed when measuring surface mechanomyography changes at three angles, while the electrical activity differed between angles.

  12. Joint contrast optimization and object segmentation in active polarimetric images.

    PubMed

    Anna, Guillaume; Bertaux, Nicolas; Galland, Frédéric; Goudail, François; Dolfi, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    We present a method for automatic target detection based on the iterative interplay between an active polarimetric imager with adaptive capabilities and a snake-based image segmentation algorithm. It successfully addresses the difficult situations where the target and the background differ only by their polarimetric properties. This method illustrates the benefits of integrating digital processing algorithms at the heart of the image acquisition process rather than using them only for postprocessing.

  13. Processes and Outcomes of Joint Activity with E-Books for Promoting Kindergarteners' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Adina

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of an educational electronic book (e-book) on low socioeconomic status (SES) kindergarteners' emergent literacy while focusing on the relationship between process and outcomes during joint learning. The sample (96 kindergarteners, aged five to six) was randomly assigned to experimental (e-book activation) and…

  14. Flight controllers from Soviet Union in joint simulation activity at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A group of flight controllers from the Soviet Union take part in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint simulation activity at JSC. They are in one of the support rooms in the Mission Control Center. The simulations are part of the preparations for the U.S.-U.S.S.R. ASTP docking in Earth orbit mission.

  15. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  16. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  17. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  18. 15 CFR 296.9 - Activities not permitted for joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities not permitted for joint ventures. 296.9 Section 296.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS...

  19. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  20. [The Dead Sea--a unique resort for patients suffering from joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Sukenik, Shaul; Flusser, Daniel; Codish, Shlomi; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud

    2010-03-01

    The Dead Sea area is an excellent and unique resort for patients suffering from a wide range of inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases. Factors contributing to the beneficial effect are the high concentration of salts and minerals in the Dead Sea water and in the water from springs in the area, medical mud, and the unique climatic conditions including high barometric pressure, relative low humidity and high temperatures. This review describes the various balneotherapy modalities and the existing body of research describing their utility. Balneotherapy significantly improves most patients' conditions and in some cases leads to complete remission of several months duration. Although of importance, balneotherapy is not curative. An important advantage of balneotherapy is the lack of serious adverse effects, and, in contrast to some physicians' beliefs, the scarcity of contraindications for therapy at the Dead Sea area.

  1. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  2. Ultrasound-detected activity in rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate therapy: Which joints and tendons should be assessed to predict unstable remission?

    PubMed

    Janta, Iustina; Valor, Lara; De la Torre, Inmaculada; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Bello, Natalia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Montoro, María; González, Carlos Manuel; López-Longo, Javier; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Carreño, Luis; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of different reduced joint ultrasound (US) assessments of synovitis and tenosynovitis in relation to unstable remission in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on methotrexate therapy. Forty-seven RA patients (38 women, 9 men), being treated with methotrexate (MTX), in clinical remission as judged by their consultant rheumatologist were evaluated for disease activity according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 at baseline and 6 months. Sustained remission and unstable remission were defined according to the baseline and 6-month DAS28 and changes in RA therapy during the follow-up. Each patient underwent at baseline a B-mode and power Doppler (PD) assessment of 44 joints and 20 tendons/tendon compartments by a rheumatologist blinded to the clinical and laboratory data. B-mode synovial hypertrophy (SH), synovial PD signal, B-mode tenosynovitis, and Doppler tenosynovitis were scored 0-3. The presence and index of synovial PD signal in 44 joints [odds ratio (OR) 8.21 (p = 0.016) and OR 2.20 (p = 0.049), respectively] and in 12 joints [OR 5.82 (p = 0.041) and OR 4.19 (p = 0.020), respectively], the presence of SH in wrist and MCP joints [OR 4.79 (p = 0.045)], and the presence of synovial PD signal in wrist-MCP-ankle-MTP joints [OR 4.62 (p = 0.046)] were predictors of unstable remission. The 12-joint or wrist-hand-ankle-MTP US assessments can predict unstable remission in RA patients in apparent clinical remission being treated with MTX.

  3. Graph-guided joint prediction of class label and clinical scores for the Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guan; Liu, Yufeng; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, is very important for early treatment. Over the last decade, various machine learning methods have been proposed to predict disease status and clinical scores from brain images. It is worth noting that many features extracted from brain images are correlated significantly. In this case, feature selection combined with the additional correlation information among features can effectively improve classification/regression performance. Typically, the correlation information among features can be modeled by the connectivity of an undirected graph, where each node represents one feature and each edge indicates that the two involved features are correlated significantly. In this paper, we propose a new graph-guided multi-task learning method incorporating this undirected graph information to predict multiple response variables (i.e., class label and clinical scores) jointly. Specifically, based on the sparse undirected feature graph, we utilize a new latent group Lasso penalty to encourage the correlated features to be selected together. Furthermore, this new penalty also encourages the intrinsic correlated tasks to share a common feature subset. To validate our method, we have performed many numerical studies using simulated datasets and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. Compared with the other methods, our proposed method has very promising performance.

  4. Adipokines in the skeleton: influence on cartilage function and joint degenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rodolfo; Lago, Francisca; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Dieguez, Carlos; Gualillo, Oreste

    2009-07-01

    The discovery of leptin in 1994 marked the beginning of a new understanding about white adipose tissue (WAT) and modified a static vision of this tissue which was viewed up to the end of the 20th century as an inert tissue, devoted to body protection from heat loss and to passively storing energy. The identification of the product of the gene obese accentuated the role of adipose tissue in the physiopathology of obesity-linked diseases, and led to the discovery of various adipokines, many of a pro-inflammatory nature. It has become progressively manifest that WAT-derived adipokines can now be considered as the fulcrum between obesity-related environmental causes, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the biochemical shifts that lead to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions, and rheumatic diseases. Herein, we review recent adipokine research, with particular emphasis to the role of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in chondrocyte function and skeleton, as well as in inflammatory and degenerative cartilage joint diseases.

  5. Do patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in remission exhibit active synovitis on joint ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Bugni Miotto e Silva, Vanessa; de Freitas Tavares da Silva, Carolina; de Aguiar Vilela Mitraud, Sônia; Nely Vilar Furtado, Rita; Esteves Hilário, Maria Odete; Natour, Jamil; Terreri, Maria Teresa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence and characteristics of subclinical synovitis using power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography on patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in clinical remission and compare the findings with those of healthy children. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving the clinical (physical exam, functional capacity and laboratory tests) and ultrasonography evaluation of 34 joints (synovial fluid/hypertrophy, PD signal and bone erosion). Subclinical synovitis was defined as the presence of synovial hypertrophy/joint effusion with or without any PD signal. Thirty-six patients (11.5 ± 3.74 years) and 36 controls (sex and age matched) were evaluated (2,448 joints). Twenty-seven patients were in remission on medication (mean duration: 1.8 ± 2.2 years). Subclinical synovitis was detected in 41.7% patients and 11.1% controls (p = 0.003). Erosion was detected in three patients (8.3%). Subclinical synovitis was found in 38/1,224 (3.1%) joints in the patients (most affected: radiocarpal wrist, anterior elbow and tibiotalar ankle) and 8/1,224 (0.6%) joints in the controls (most affected: radiocarpal wrist). Differences in subclinical synovitis between patients and controls were found in the elbows (p = 0.033) and ankles (p = 0.006). A greater frequency of subclinical synovitis was found in patients with the extended oligoarticular or polyarticular subtypes (p = 0.013), those at an older age at disease onset (p = 0.007) and using methotrexate (p = 0.049). Patients with JIA in remission exhibit subclinical synovitis more frequently than controls. Subclinical synovitis was more frequent in patients with the polyarticular involvement and those at an older age at disease onset.

  6. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  7. Modelling and predicting hidden solder joint shape using active thermography and parametric numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron Palomares, Jose Benjamin; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2014-05-01

    A methodology based on active infrared thermography to study and characterize hidden solder joint shapes on a multi cover PCB assembly was investigated. A numerical model was developed to simulate the active thermography methodology and was proven to determine the grand average cooling rates with maximum errors of 8.85% (one cover) and 13.36% (two covers). A parametric analysis was performed by varying the number of covers, heat flux provided, and the amount of heating time. Grand average cooling rate distances among contiguous solder joint shapes, as well as solder joints discriminability, were determined to be directly proportional to heat flux, and inversely proportional to the number of covers and heating time. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to determine the appropriate total amount of energy needed to discriminate among hidden solder joints with a "good" discriminability for one and two covers, and a "regular" discriminability for up to five covers. The mathematical model was proven to predict the total amount of energy to achieve a "good" discriminability for one cover within a 10% of error with respect to the experimental active thermography model.

  8. Activity vs. rest in the treatment of bone, soft tissue and joint injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important advances in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries has come from understanding that controlled early resumption of activity can promote restoration of function, and that treatment of injuries with prolonged rest may delay recovery and adversely affect normal tissues. In the last decade of the nineteenth century two widely respected orthopaedists with extensive clinical experience strongly advocated opposing treatments of musculoskeletal injuries. Hugh Owen Thomas in Liverpool believed that enforced, uninterrupted prolonged rest produced the best results. He noted that movement of injured tissues increased inflammation, and that, "It would indeed be as reasonable to attempt to cure a fever patient by kicking him out of bed, as to benefit joint disease by a wriggling at the articulation." Just Lucas-Championnier in Paris took the opposite position. He argued that early controlled active motion accelerated restoration of function, although he noted that mobility had to be given in limited doses. In general, Thomas' views met with greater acceptance in the early part of this century, but experimental studies of the last several decades generally support Lucas-Championneir. They confirm and help explain the deleterious effects of prolonged rest and the beneficial effects of activity on the musculoskeletal tissues. They have shown that maintenance of normal bone, tendon and ligament, articular cartilage and muscle structure and composition require repetitive use, and that changes in the patterns of tissue loading can strengthen or weaken normal tissues. Although all the musculoskeletal tissues can respond to repetitive loading, they vary in the magnitude and type of response to specific patterns of activity. Furthermore, their responsiveness may decline with increasing age. Skeletal muscle and bone demonstrate the most apparent response to changes in activity in individuals of any age. Cartilage and dense fibrous tissues also can respond to

  9. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the period 1 Oct. 1995 - 30 Sept. 1996. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics and high lift modeling studies. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the high lift activities.

  10. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  11. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    joint diseases, especially effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the proximal interphalangeal finger joints. Using a dual-wavelength tomographic imaging system and previously implemented reconstruction scheme, I have performed initial dynamic imaging case studies on healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed with RA. These studies support our hypothesis that differences in the vascular and metabolic reactivity exist between affected and unaffected joints and can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  12. The value of synovial fluid assays in the diagnosis of joint disease: a literature survey

    PubMed Central

    Swan, A; Amer, H; Dieppe, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a critical appraisal of the literature in an attempt to assess the current value of synovial fluid (SF) analysis in the diagnosis of joint disease. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using the Medline, Biomed, Bids, Pubmed, and Embase electronic databases using the keywords: synovial fluid (SF) analysis, SF crystals, joint sepsis, acute arthritis, and SF cell counts, cytology, biomarkers, and microbiology. Results: Publications fell into three main categories. Firstly, reports assessing the value of the three traditional assays (microbiology, white blood cell counts, and microscopy for pathogenic crystals). For these quality control evidence was found to be sparse, and tests for sensitivity, specificity, and reliability showed worrying variations. These poor standards in SF analysis may be due to lack of inclusion of some tests within routine pathology services. Secondly, claims for the usefulness of "new" assays (cytology and biochemical markers). For cytology, the supporting evidence was mainly anecdotal and there were no reports on specificity, sensitivity, and reliability. Interpretation difficulties are a major hindrance to the clinical use of biochemical assays, which remain primarily research tools. Finally, work on the diagnostic value of SF analysis in general. The appraisal confirmed that SF analysis remains of major diagnostic value in acute arthritis, where septic arthritis or crystal arthropathy is suspected, and in intercritical gout. Conclusions: Given the importance of SF tests, rationalisation of their use, together with improved quality control, should be immediate priorities. Further investigation is recommended into the contribution of SF inspection and white cell counts to diagnosis, as well as of the specificity and sensitivity of SF microbiological assays, crystal identification, and cytology. PMID:12006320

  13. Complement activation in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, L E; De Villiers, D; Markham, D; Whaley, K; Thomas, H C

    1982-01-01

    Patients with HBsAg positive chronic active liver disease (CALD) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) exhibit increased C3d concentrations and changes in the serum concentrations of the complement components consistent with activation of the classical and alternative pathways. In these patients the concentrations of the regulatory proteins, C3b inactivator (C3bINA) and beta IH globulin, are normal. Patients with HBsAg negative CALD and alcohol induced liver disease (ALD) exhibit no evidence of an increased level of complement system activation. In these patients diminished serum concentrations of complement components appear to be related to diminished hepatic synthetic function. C4 synthesis may be specifically reduced in autoimmune chronic active liver disease. PMID:7083631

  14. Inflammation and Bone Destruction in Arthritis: Synergistic Activity of Immune and Mesenchymal Cells in Joints

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Noriko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated disease of the joints that is characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia that eventually lead to cartilage and bone destruction. Synovial fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells recognized as a key cell population in RA due to their hyperproliferative and hypersensitive properties in the inflammatory milieu and hyperproduction of both inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading enzymes. On the immune cell side, a wealth of evidence has shown that CD4+T-cells, especially IL-17 producing helper T (Th17) cells, play a prominent role, particularly in the initiation of systemic immune response in RA. However, it is still unclear how the local chronic inflammation in the joint is elicited by a systemic immune response. Recent studies have shed light on the importance of the interaction between immune and mesenchymal cells in joints including synovial fibroblasts. In particular, mesenchymal cells contribute to the Th17-mediated chronic inflammation in RA by promoting the migration of Th17 cells to the inflamed site and then the homeostatic proliferation and concomitant increase in IL-17 production. In addition, recent progress in osteoimmunology has provided new insight into the pathogenesis of the bone destruction which takes place in RA. Th17-related cytokines have been shown to enhance osteoclastogenesis, mainly via synovial fibroblasts. Thus, mesenchymal cells are a determinant of the development of RA that links the systemic immune response and the local disorder in the joints. In addition, the interaction of immune and mesenchymal cells plays a key role in both the chronic inflammation and bone destruction seen in RA. Elucidation of the precise events involved in this interaction will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation and bone destruction in joint results from a systemic immune response, and also will help provide a molecular basis for novel therapeutic

  15. Targeted mutation of NOV/CCN3 in mice disrupts joint homeostasis and causes osteoarthritis-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, K.A.; Boulter, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The matricellular protein NOV/CCN3, is implicated in osteoarthritis (OA) and targeted mutation of NOV in mice (Novdel3) leads to joint abnormalities. This investigation tested whether NOV is required for joint homeostasis and if its disruption causes joint degeneration. Method NOV expression in the adult mouse joint was characterized by immunohistochemistry. A detailed comparison of the joints of Novdel3−/− and Novdel3+/+ (wild-type) males and females at 2, 6 and 12 months of age was determined by X-ray, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results NOV protein was found in specific cells in articular cartilage, meniscus, synovium and ligament attachment sites in adult knees. Novdel3−/− males exhibited severe OA-like pathology at 12 months (OARSI score 5.0 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), affecting all tissues of the joint: erosion of the articular cartilage, meniscal enlargement, osteophytic outgrowths, ligament degeneration and expansion of fibrocartilage. Subchondral sclerosis and changes in extracellular matrix composition consistent with OA, were also seen. The density of articular cartilage cells in Novdel3+/+ knee joints is maintained at a constant level from 2 to 12 months of age whereas this is not the case in Novdel3−/− mice. Compared with age and sex-matched Novdel3+/+ mice, a significant increase in articular cartilage density was seen in Novdel3−/− males at 2 months, whereas a significant decrease was seen at 6 and 12 months in both Novdel3−/− males and females. Conclusion NOV is required for the maintenance of articular cartilage and for joint homeostasis, with disruption of NOV in ageing Novdel3−/− male mice causing OA-like disease. PMID:25541297

  16. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohei; Maeda, Shingo; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes.

  17. Flexible Coordination of Stationary and Mobile Conversations with Gaze: Resource Allocation among Multiple Joint Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Eric; Bangerter, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task). Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities. PMID:27822189

  18. An activated energy approach for accelerated testing of the deformation of UHMWPE in artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Glatzel, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    The deformation behavior of ultrahigh molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE) is studied in the temperature range of 23-80 degrees C. Samples are examined in quasi-static compression, tensile and creep tests to determine the accelerated deformation of UHMWPE at elevated temperatures. The deformation mechanisms under compression load can be described by one strain rate and temperature dependent Eyring process. The activation energy and volume of that process do not change between 23 degrees C and 50 degrees C. This suggests that the deformation mechanism under compression remains stable within this temperature range. Tribological tests are conducted to transfer this activated energy approach to the deformation behavior under loading typical for artificial knee joints. While this approach does not cover the wear mechanisms close to the surface, testing at higher temperatures is shown to have a significant potential to reduce the testing time for lifetime predictions in terms of the macroscopic creep and deformation behavior of artificial joints.

  19. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  20. Serum calreticulin as a novel biomarker of juvenile idiopathic arthritis disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Hashaad, Nashwa Ismail; Fawzy, Rasha Mohamed; Elazem, Abeer Ahmed Abo; Youssef, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relations between calreticulin (CRT) serum level and both disease activity and severity parameters in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Material and Methods In this study, 60 children with JIA and 50 age-and-sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. The assessment of the disease activity was done using juvenile arthritis disease activity score 27 (JADAS-27). The assessment of disease severity was done via gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler US (PDUS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay the serum level of human CRT. Results The mean serum CRT levels in JIA patients was 8.6±1.2 ng/mL and showed a highly significant increase (p=0.001) as compared to the mean serum levels in the controls (5.02±0.77 ng/mL). There were statistically significant positive correlations between the serum CRT levels and disease duration, tender joint count, swollen joint count, visual analog scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, JADAS-27, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor titer, and ultrasonographic grading for synovitis and neovascularization. Conclusion Elevated serum CRT levels in JIA patients and its correlations with JIA disease activity and severity parameters signified that CRT might be used as a novel biomarker for disease activity and severity in JIA. PMID:28293448

  1. Role of gastrocnemius activation in knee joint biomechanics: gastrocnemius acts as an ACL antagonist.

    PubMed

    Adouni, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Marouane, H

    2016-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is a premier muscle crossing the knee, but its role in knee biomechanics and on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains less clear when compared to hamstrings and quadriceps. The effect of changes in gastrocnemius force at late stance when it peaks on the knee joint response and ACL force was initially investigated using a lower extremity musculoskeletal model driven by gait kinematics-kinetics. The tibiofemoral joint under isolated isometric contraction of gastrocnemius was subsequently analyzed at different force levels and flexion angles (0°-90°). Changes in gastrocnemius force at late stance markedly influenced hamstrings forces. Gastrocnemius acted as ACL antagonist by substantially increasing its force. Simulations under isolated contraction of gastrocnemius confirmed this role at all flexion angles, in particular, at extreme knee flexion angles (0° and 90°). Constraint on varus/valgus rotations substantially decreased this effect. Although hamstrings and gastrocnemius are both knee joint flexors, they play opposite roles in respectively protecting or loading ACL. Although the quadriceps is also recognized as antagonist of ACL, at larger joint flexion and in contrast to quadriceps, activity in gastrocnemius substantially increased ACL forces (anteromedial bundle). The fact that gastrocnemius is an antagonist of ACL should help in effective prevention and management of ACL injuries.

  2. [Effects of exercise on joints.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hideki

    Joints are composed of several different tissues(cartilage, capsule, meniscus, and ligament), and articular cartilage plays an important role in maintaining mechanical competence during exercise. Weight-bearing exercise has several benefit, including improved blood and synovial fluid circulation in a given joint. Consistent moderate activities facilitate cycles of anabolism and catabolism. Mechanical stresses are crucial for the maintenance of the morphologic and functional integrity of articular cartilage. Healthy cartilage is exposed by hydrostatic pressure and tensile strain, when cartilage degeneration develops, abnormal cartilage is exposed by shear stress. Moderate(physiological)exercise is characterized by a range of equilibrium between matrix anabolic and catabolic processes, or anabolism beyond catabolism. Joints are susceptible to insufficient or excessive activities, leading to joint degeneration. Lack of exercise is known to induce joint contracture seen clinically as a consequence of disuse changes, and excess mechanical stresses induce joint destruction such as osteoarthritis. Joint diseases resulting from insufficient or excessive activities are new and major challenging issues with our aging population. Thus, it is highly desirable to have an effective and efficient treatment to improve and protect against these joint diseases, and thereby to solve these clearly unanswered issues.

  3. Modeling and Implementation of Solder-activated Joints for Single Actuator, Centimeter-Scale Robotic Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    mechanisms may be built and actuated to perform a multiplicity of tasks using PCM-activated joints. The robot was developed under the Chemical Robots DARPA ...components. 4.1.1 Chemical Robots Program The Chemical Robots (ChemBots) program is funded by the DARPA Defense Sciences Office. The goal of the program...perform tasks in these hostile and hard to reach spaces safely, covertly, and efficiently [26]. To develop this new class of robots, DARPA asked for

  4. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Misdiagnosed as Relapse of the Infection after Treatment of Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Keun; Min, Byung-Woo; Choi, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip can be difficult to treat and can lead to a number of problems including: i) severe functional decline of the hip joint and ii) increasing financial burden for patients due to long treatment periods and the need for repeated surgical interventions. Because there is risk of inadequate control of infection or relapse of a preexisting infection following the treatment of PJI through surgery, it is important to closely observe clinical symptoms such as systemic fever. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is usually a self-limiting disease characterized by fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. We report one case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, with literatures review, that was mistaken for an infection relapse after surgical treatment of the PJI due to sustained fever postoperatively. PMID:28097116

  5. [Application of bioregulating therapy in complex treatment of temporomandibular joint diseases in people of elderly and senile age].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Samsonov, V V; Soldatova, L N; Polens, A A; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    The results of dynamic supervision over application a peptide bioregulator of "Sigumir" in complex treatment of 62 patients of the senior age groups with various diseases of a temporomandibular joint are presented. It is shown that application of a complex of treatment-and-prophylactic actions, including rational tooth prosthetics, functional and pharmacotherapy (including accompanying diseases), and also use a peptide bioregulator of cartilaginous and bone tissues "Sigumir" in complex therapy of patients with diseases of a temporomandibular joint of a various etiology, enables to stop in short-terms a painful syndrome in such patients, to increase amplitude of opening of a mouth, to improve chewing function, to reduce terms of treatment and to provide preventive maintenance of relapses of TMJ's pathology during all period of supervision.

  6. The "bone morphogenic proteins" pathways in bone and joint diseases: translational perspectives from physiopathology to therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Biver, Emmanuel; Hardouin, Pierre; Caverzasio, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    A large body of evidence supports an important role of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) pathways in skeletal development in the embryo. BMPs are also involved in skeletal homeostasis and diseases in the adult. They were first identified as major bone anabolic agents and recent advances indicate that they also regulate osteoclastogenesis and joint components via multiple cross-talks with other signaling pathways. This review attempts to integrate these data in the pathogenesis of bone and joints diseases, such as osteoporosis, fracture healing, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, or bone metastasis. The use of recombinant BMPs in bone tissue engineering and in the treatment of skeletal diseases, or future therapeutic strategies targeting BMPs signal and its regulators, will be discussed based on these considerations.

  7. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints ...

  8. Investigating activity of masticatory muscles in patients with hypermobile temporomandibular joints by using EMG

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Amin; Rybalov, Oleg; Shadmehr, Elham; Hatami, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular joint hypermobility (TMJH) can manifest higher range of motions in mandible. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the activity of masticatory muscle of TMJs in healthy individuals and patients with mild, moderate and severe TMJH. Material and Methods In this clinical study, 69 patients (between the ages of 22 to 42) with manifestation of TMJH were included. The patients were divided into three groups based on their maximum mouth opening (MMO): (light) with MMO of 50-55 mm; (moderate) with MMO between 55 to 65 mm; and (severe) with MMO >65 mm. Also, 20 healthy people with profiled tomography in the last 6 months were invited as control group (healthy) with normal MMO (<50 mm). All the groups subjected to electromyogram (EMG) in 2 steps: maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) of the jaws; and during chewing of bread by using one side of the jaws voluntary. The collected data were analyzed by Student T-test and Chi-Square tests using SPSS software version 15 at significant level of 0.05. Results Both TMJs of light, moderate and severe groups showed significant differences in frequency, time of activity and rest in comparison with healthy group during chewing and MVC (all p values < 0.01). Conclusions Masticatory muscles activity reduced in relation with the severity of TMJH and higher excessive mouth opening. Key words:Electromyography, joint hypermobility, mouth opening, tempormandibular joint. PMID:26155352

  9. [Pharmacologic evaluation of the feasibility of cartilage therapy in degenerative joint diseases (arthroses)].

    PubMed

    Kalbhen, D A

    1983-01-01

    Due to their pharmacological properties most antiphlogistic/antirheumatic drugs are successfully used for treatment of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but they are not able to counteract cartilage degeneration in osteoarthrosis. For specific therapy of osteoarthrosis only those drugs are suitable, which are able to inhibit enzymatic breakdown of articular cartilage, stimulate anabolic processes in cartilage, and to enhance the supply of nutritional and energy substrates for the cartilage cells. In this respect drugs such as Arteparon, Rumalon, Dona 200-S, Glyvenol or Pentosan polysulfate are of interest. A great number of pharmacological experiments have shown, that certain chondroprotective agents exert pronounced anti-degenerative effects, which can be quantitatively demonstrated in laboratory animals within 3 to 4 months by macroscopical, radiological and histological methods. Additional biochemical and in-vitro studies have elucidated some interesting chondro-protective, chondro-stimulatory or chondro-nutritive properties of certain drugs. In agreement with our experimental results clinical experiences have proved the efficacy of chondro-protective agents. Due to the bradytrophia of human articular cartilage a chondro-protective therapy may be only effective in long-term applications, resulting in a significant reduction of the intensity and progression of the degenerative joint destruction.

  10. Toward a joint health and disease management program. Toronto hospitals partner to provide system leadership.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Anne Marie; Gollish, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Deborah; McGlasson, Rhona; Waddell, James

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Health and Disease Management Program in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network (TC LHIN) is envisioned as a comprehensive model of care for patients with hip and knee arthritis. It includes access to assessment services, education, self-management programs and other treatment programs, including specialist care as needed. As the first phase of this program, the hospitals in TC LHIN implemented a Hip and Knee Replacement Program to focus on improving access and quality of care, coordinating services and measuring wait times for patients waiting for hip or knee replacement surgery. The program involves healthcare providers, consumers and constituent hospitals within TC LHIN. The approach used for this program involved a definition of governance structure, broad stakeholder engagement to design program elements and plans for implementation and communication to ensure sustainability. The program and approach were designed to provide a model that is transferrable in its elements or its entirety to other patient populations and programs. Success has been achieved in creating a single wait list, developing technology to support referral management and wait time reporting, contributing to significant reductions in waits for timely assessment and treatment, building human resource capacity and improving patient and referring physician satisfaction with coordination of care.

  11. Improved Flow Cytometric Assessment Reveals Distinct Microvesicle (Cell-Derived Microparticle) Signatures in Joint Diseases

    PubMed Central

    György, Bence; Szabó, Tamás G.; Turiák, Lilla; Wright, Matthew; Herczeg, Petra; Lédeczi, Zsigmond; Kittel, Ágnes; Polgár, Anna; Tóth, Kálmán; Dérfalvi, Beáta; Zelenák, Gergő; Böröcz, István; Carr, Bob; Nagy, György; Vékey, Károly; Gay, Steffen; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Microvesicles (MVs), earlier referred to as microparticles, represent a major type of extracellular vesicles currently considered as novel biomarkers in various clinical settings such as autoimmune disorders. However, the analysis of MVs in body fluids has not been fully standardized yet, and there are numerous pitfalls that hinder the correct assessment of these structures. Methods In this study, we analyzed synovial fluid (SF) samples of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess factors that may confound MV detection in joint diseases, we used electron microscopy (EM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and mass spectrometry (MS). For flow cytometry, a method commonly used for phenotyping and enumeration of MVs, we combined recent advances in the field, and used a novel approach of differential detergent lysis for the exclusion of MV-mimicking non-vesicular signals. Results EM and NTA showed that substantial amounts of particles other than MVs were present in SF samples. Beyond known MV-associated proteins, MS analysis also revealed abundant plasma- and immune complex-related proteins in MV preparations. Applying improved flow cytometric analysis, we demonstrate for the first time that CD3+ and CD8+ T-cell derived SF MVs are highly elevated in patients with RA compared to OA patients (p = 0.027 and p = 0.009, respectively, after Bonferroni corrections). In JIA, we identified reduced numbers of B cell-derived MVs (p = 0.009, after Bonferroni correction). Conclusions Our results suggest that improved flow cytometric assessment of MVs facilitates the detection of previously unrecognized disease-associated vesicular signatures. PMID:23185418

  12. Joint feature-sample selection and robust diagnosis of Parkinson's disease from MRI data.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ehsan; Shi, Feng; An, Le; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disorder caused by deterioration of a neurotransmitter, known as dopamine. Lack of this chemical messenger impairs several brain regions and yields various motor and non-motor symptoms. Incidence of PD is predicted to double in the next two decades, which urges more research to focus on its early diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we propose an approach to diagnose PD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Specifically, we first introduce a joint feature-sample selection (JFSS) method for selecting an optimal subset of samples and features, to learn a reliable diagnosis model. The proposed JFSS model effectively discards poor samples and irrelevant features. As a result, the selected features play an important role in PD characterization, which will help identify the most relevant and critical imaging biomarkers for PD. Then, a robust classification framework is proposed to simultaneously de-noise the selected subset of features and samples, and learn a classification model. Our model can also de-noise testing samples based on the cleaned training data. Unlike many previous works that perform de-noising in an unsupervised manner, we perform supervised de-noising for both training and testing data, thus boosting the diagnostic accuracy. Experimental results on both synthetic and publicly available PD datasets show promising results. To evaluate the proposed method, we use the popular Parkinson's progression markers initiative (PPMI) database. Our results indicate that the proposed method can differentiate between PD and normal control (NC), and outperforms the competing methods by a relatively large margin. It is noteworthy to mention that our proposed framework can also be used for diagnosis of other brain disorders. To show this, we have also conducted experiments on the widely-used ADNI database. The obtained results indicate that our proposed method can identify the imaging biomarkers and

  13. Comparing brain activation associated with isolated upper and lower limb movement across corresponding joints.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Smith, Gerald V; Forrester, Larry; Whitall, Jill; Macko, Richard F; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hanley, Daniel F

    2002-10-01

    It was shown recently that functional activation across brain motor areas during locomotion and foot movements are similar but differ substantially from activation related to upper extremity movement (Miyai [2001]: Neuroimage 14:1186-1192). The activation pattern may be a function of the behavioral context of the movement rather than of its mechanical properties. We compare motor system activation patterns associated with isolated single-joint movement of corresponding joints in arm and leg carried out in equal frequency and range. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent BOLD-weighted fMRI while performing repetitive elbow or knee extension/flexion. To relate elbow and knee activation to the well-described patterns of finger movement, serial finger-to-thumb opposition was assessed in addition. After identifying task-related voxels using statistical parametric mapping, activation was measured in five regions of interest (ROI; primary motor [M1] and somatosensory cortex [S1], premotor cortex, supplementary motor area [SMA] divided into preSMA and SMA-proper, and cerebellum). Differences in the degree of activation across ROIs were found between elbow and knee movement. SMA-proper activation was prominent for knee, but almost absent for elbow movement (P < 0.05); finger movement produced small but constant SMA-proper activation. Ipsilateral M1 activation was detected during knee and finger movement, but was absent for the elbow task (P < 0.05). Knee movement showed less lateralization in M1 and S1 than other tasks (P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that central motor structures contribute differently to isolated elbow and knee movement. Activation during knee movement shows similarities to gait-related activation patterns.

  14. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H N; Haudenschild, Dominik R

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically.

  15. Glia, sympathetic activity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Teschemacher, Anja G.; Kasparov, Sergey; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    New Findings What is the topic of this review? In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide a novel insight into the mechanisms that link glial cell function with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, including systemic arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure. What advances does it highlight? We discuss how glial cells may influence central presympathetic circuits, leading to maladaptive and detrimental increases in sympathetic activity and contributing to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and may contribute to its progression. Vasomotor and cardiac sympathetic activities are generated by the neuronal circuits located in the hypothalamus and the brainstem. These neuronal networks receive multiple inputs from the periphery and other parts of the CNS and, at a local level, may be influenced by their non‐neuronal neighbours, in particular glial cells. In this review, we discuss recent experimental evidence suggesting that astrocytes and microglial cells are able to modulate the activity of sympathoexcitatory neural networks in disparate physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We focus on the chemosensory properties of astrocytes residing in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata and discuss signalling mechanisms leading to glial activation during brain hypoxia and inflammation. Alterations in these mechanisms may lead to heightened activity of sympathoexcitatory CNS circuits and contribute to maladaptive and detrimental increases in sympathetic tone associated with systemic arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure. PMID:26988631

  16. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  17. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8-89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata.

  18. Influence of electrical stimulation on hip joint adductor muscle activity during maximum effort

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Sota; Wada, Chikamune

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether hip adductor activity was influenced by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 nondisabled males. Each subject was asked to adduct the hip joint with maximum effort. The electromyogram of the adductor longus was recorded under two experimental conditions, with and without electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. [Results] In the presence of electrical stimulation, muscle activity decreased to 72.9% (57.8–89.3%) of that without stimulation. [Conclusion] These results suggested that inactivation of the adductor group was promoted by electrical stimulation of the tensor fascia lata. PMID:27313387

  19. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-08-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

  20. Noninvasive Markers of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Sunanda

    2014-01-01

    It is often difficult to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Noninvasive biomarkers are a means of quantifying often nebulous symptoms without subjecting patients to endoscopy or radiation. This paper highlights markers present in feces, serum, or urine that have all been compared with the gold standard, histologic analysis of endoscopically collected specimens. Two categories of markers are featured: well-researched markers of mucosal inflammation with high sensitivity and specificity (calprotectin, lactoferrin, and S100A12) and novel promising markers, some of which are already clinically employed for reasons unrelated to IBD (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-33/ST2, adenosine deaminase, polymorphonuclear elastase, matrix metalloproteinase-9, neopterin, serum M30, and fecal immunohistochemistry). The data pertaining to the more-established markers are intended to highlight recent clinical applications for these markers (ie, assessing disease outside of the colon or in the pediatric population as well as being a cost-saving alternative to colonoscopy to screen for IBD). As there is no evidence to date that a specific marker will accurately be able to represent the entire IBD patient population, it is likely that a combination of the existing markers will be most clinically relevant to the practicing gastroenterologist attempting to evaluate disease severity in a specific patient. Familiarity with the most promising emerging markers will allow a better understanding of new studies and their impact on patient care. PMID:27551251

  1. Circulating immune complexes and disease activity in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fiasse, R; Lurhuma, A Z; Cambiaso, C L; Masson, P L; Dive, C

    1978-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes were determined in 59 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 100 blood donors by a double method based on the inhibition of the agglutinating activity of CIq and/or rheumatoid factor on the IgG-coated polystyrene particles. In patients, the incidence of positive immune complexes was 63% and 61% at first testing, 85% and 78% at subsequent determinations; there was a good correlation between the inhibition titres of CIq and those of rheumatoid factor (p less than 0.001). In blood donors, the incidence was 22% and 14% at low titre. The incidence of immune complexes was the lowest (36%) in the group of resected patients without signs of relapse; repeat determinations showed absence of immune complexes three months postoperatively. In patients medically treated for primary disease or relapse, rheumatoid factor titre higher than 1/1 was less frequent than in medically untreated patients with active disease (p less than 0.01). A significantly higher concentration of serum alpha-1-antitrypsin and orosomucoid, and a significantly lower level of serum iron were found in patients with an IC titre exceeding 1/1; longitudinal studies showed in most cases a concordance between the evolution of immune complex titres, inflammatory parameters and clinical status. PMID:308030

  2. In-vitro and in-vivo imaging of MMP activity in cartilage and joint injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Tomoaki; Tenborg, Elizabeth; Yik, Jasper H.N.; Haudenschild, Dominik R.

    2015-05-08

    Non-destructive detection of cartilage-degrading activities represents an advance in osteoarthritis (OA) research, with implications in studies of OA pathogenesis, progression, and intervention strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are principal cartilage degrading enzymes that contribute to OA pathogenesis. MMPSense750 is an in-vivo fluorimetric imaging probe with the potential to continuously and non-invasively trace real-time MMP activities, but its use in OA-related research has not been reported. Our objective is to detect and characterize the early degradation activities shortly after cartilage or joint injury with MMPSense750. We determined the appropriate concentration, assay time, and linear range using various concentrations of recombinant MMPs as standards. We then quantified MMP activity from cartilage explants subjected to either mechanical injury or inflammatory cytokine treatment in-vitro. Finally, we performed in-vivo MMP imaging of a mouse model of post-traumatic OA. Our in-vitro results showed that the optimal assay time was highly dependent on the MMP enzyme. In cartilage explant culture media, mechanical impact or cytokine treatment increased MMP activity. Injured knees of mice showed significantly higher fluorescent signal than uninjured knees. We conclude that MMPSense750 detects human MMP activities and can be used for in-vitro study with cartilage, as well as in-vivo studies of knee injury, and can offering real-time insight into the degradative processes that occurring within the joint before structural changes become evident radiographically. - Highlights: • MMPSense750 is near-infrared fluorescent probe which can detect MMP activity. • MMPSense750 can detect human MMP-3, -9, and -13. • The reaction kinetics with MMPSense750 were different for the three MMPs. • MMPSense750 can visualized real time MMP activity in mouse injured knees. • MMPSense750 is convenient tool to evaluate real-time MMP activity non-invasively.

  3. Failed Radiation Synovectomy in Diseased Knee Joint with Missed Tuberculous Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Ashwani; Sharma, Aman; Chouhan, Devendra Kumar; Gupta, Kirti; Parghane, Rahul; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    The authors in this case report highlight the poor outcome of radiation synovectomy (RSV) for repeated knee joint effusion in a patient with histopathologically proven nonspecific arthritis. There was partial response initially following RSV but later follow-up showed recurrence in joint effusion with limited and painful mobility of the knee joint. Subsequent surgical synovectomy and histopathological examination showed it to be tubercular in origin. Thus in a country endemic for tuberculosis, an alternative infective etiology should also be kept in mind before subjecting the patient to RSV. PMID:27651744

  4. Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Winocur, E; Reiter, S; Krichmer, M; Kaffe, I

    2010-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to evaluate the utility of diagnosing degenerative joint disease (DJD) by the clinical finding of coarse crepitus alone, without supporting imaging studies, as defined by the RDC/TMD, and to evaluate the contribution of panoramic radiography as an aid in the diagnosis of DJD. A retrospective analysis of 372 consecutive patients with TMD was conducted. Their panoramic radiographs were evaluated for the extent of their contribution to the final diagnosis. Panoramic radiography was of no diagnostic value in 94.4% of the cases when the group was considered as a whole. When patients diagnosed with DJD were considered separately, panoramic radiography was completely sufficient for reaching the final diagnosis in 20.0% of the cases. In almost 90% of these patients, however, the clinical examination did not support the diagnosis of DJD (no coarse crepitus was found). This raises some doubts about the effectiveness of the clinical examination according to the RDC/TMD and about the utility of panoramic radiography in the definitive diagnosis of DJD, because both techniques have low accuracy (11.1% and 20%, respectively). The present study supports the current recommendations that panoramic radiography should not be ordered routinely to assess DJD, but still it is first choice when any dental problem is suspected. Further additional imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) should be considered only if there is reason to expect that the findings might affect diagnosis and management. This study adds to recent criticisms of the clinical validity of the RDC/TMD, with regard to DJD.

  5. Elbow clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic study in patients with inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Uson, Jacqueline; Miguélez-Sánchez, Roberto; de Los Riscos, Marina; Martínez-Blasco, María Jesús; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Villaverde-García, Virginia; Garrido, Jesús; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to investigate the relationship between clinical, ultrasonographic (US) and radiographic elbow features in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD). The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between regional clinical elbow diagnoses and imaging findings. Consecutive patients with IJD attending follow-up visits were assessed for elbow pain and standardized elbow examination. Seven regional clinical diagnoses were defined. Digital elbow radiographs were read for 9 abnormalities. A standardized elbow grayscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) scan recorded 13 defined abnormalities. Analysis encompassed 361 clinical, 361 US and 340 radiographic elbow assessments from 181 patients. US and clinical assessments showed an overall higher agreement than radiographic and clinical assessments (68.8 vs 59.1%, p = 0.001). When structural US abnormalities were compared with radiographic findings, agreement was slightly higher than when comparing all US abnormalities with radiographic findings (77.3%, k 0.533 and 73.5%, k 0.492). Enthesophytes, the most common abnormalities, were not associated with clinical findings. Subclinical US-synovitis and US-enthesopathy were found, respectively, in 17.3 and 14.1% of the clinically normal elbows. Clinical elbow arthritis prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) agreement was good for radiographic fat pad sign, PD-synovitis and GS-synovitis. Clinical elbow enthesopathy PABAK agreement was moderate for GS-enthesopathy and radiographic calcifications. US showed acceptable agreement with clinical and radiographic assessments for detecting elbow inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with IJD. Because US detected more abnormalities than radiography and has the capability to detect more subclinical abnormalities, US may be potentially used as a first-line elbow diagnostic tool in this clinical setting.

  6. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the Institute include the following: (1) To conduct basic and applied research; (2) to promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community; (3) to provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute; (4) to provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute; and (5) to disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  7. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the institute include the following: To conduct basic and applied research. To promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community To provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute. To provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute. To disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  8. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45°, 60°, and 90°, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90°, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles.

  9. The relation of hand functions with radiological damage and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Birtane, Murat; Kabayel, Derya Demirbag; Uzunca, Kaan; Unlu, Ercument; Tastekin, Nurettin

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specifically the correlation of hand functions determined by Duruoz hand index (DHI) with radiological findings and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Forty-eight RA patients were evaluated with DHI questionnaire, disease activity score (DAS) 28 and modified Larsen scoring method. Correlation between DAS-28 and DHI was assessed in all the patients. Mean DHI scores were compared between patients in remission (DAS-28 < 2.6) and patients who have more or less disease activity (DAS-28 >or= 2.6). To exclude the probable conflicting effect of disease activity on hand functions, the correlation between radiological scores and DHI was investigated only in patients with remission. There was a positive correlation between DAS-28 and DHI in all patients group (r = 0.434, P < 0.002). No correlation between the radiological scores of any joint groups and DHI could be found in patients with remission. Hand functions seemed to be affected prominently from disease activity. Radiological scores demonstrating joint damage were not in relation with hand functions.

  10. Development and First Validation of a Disease Activity Score for Gout

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Greta; Viroli, Cinzia; Cimmino, Marco A.; Taylor, William J.; Manara, Maria; Govoni, Marcello; Salaffi, Fausto; Punzi, Leonardo; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Matucci‐Cerinic, Marco; Minisola, Giovanni; Ariani, Alarico; Galossi, Alessandra; Lauriti, Ciro; Fracassi, Elena; Idolazzi, Luca; Bardelli, Marco; Selvi, Enrico; Tirri, Enrico; Furini, Federica; Inverardi, Flora; Calabrò, Andrea; Porta, Francesco; Bittelli, Raffaele; Venturino, Francesco; Capsoni, Franco; Prevete, Immacolata; Sebastiani, Giandomenico; Selmi, Carlo; Fabbriciani, Gianluigi; D'Avola, Giovanni; Botticella, Giulia; Serale, Francesca; Seminara, Giulia; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Santo, Leonardo; Longato, Lorena; Zaccara, Eleonora; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Atteritano, Marco; Broggini, Marco; Caprioli, Marta; Favero, Marta; Sallì, Salvatore; Scarati, Marco; Parisi, Simone; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Corvaglia, Stefania; Scarpato, Salvatore; Veneto, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a new composite disease activity score for gout and provide its first validation. Methods Disease activity has been defined as the ongoing presence of urate deposits that lead to acute arthritis and joint damage. Every measure for each Outcome Measures in Rheumatology core domain was considered. A 3‐step approach (factor analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and linear regression) was applied to derive the Gout Activity Score (GAS). Decision to change treatment or 6‐month flare count were used as the surrogate criteria of high disease activity. Baseline and 12‐month followup data of 446 patients included in the Kick‐Off of the Italian Network for Gout cohort were used. Construct‐ and criterion‐related validity were tested. External validation on an independent sample is reported. Results Factor analysis identified 5 factors: patient‐reported outcomes, joint examination, flares, tophi, and serum uric acid (sUA). Discriminant function analysis resulted in a correct classification of 79%. Linear regression analysis identified a first candidate GAS including 12‐month flare count, sUA, visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, VAS global activity assessment, swollen and tender joint counts, and a cumulative measure of tophi. Alternative scores were also developed. The developed GAS demonstrated a good correlation with functional disability (criterion validity) and discrimination between patient‐ and physician‐reported measures of active disease (construct validity). The results were reproduced in the external sample. Conclusion This study developed and validated a composite measure of disease activity in gout. Further testing is required to confirm its generalizability, responsiveness, and usefulness in assisting with clinical decisions. PMID:26815286

  11. A Study on Association between Common Haematological Parameters and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barui, Gopinath; Adhikari, Anjan; Karmakar, Rupam; Ghosh, Udas Chandra; Das, Tushar Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease where assessment of disease activity is essential for management of patient. Currently, many composite scoring systems are used for evaluation of disease activity but they are mainly clinical-based. As several haematological parameters are altered due to systemic inflammatory process in RA, this study was intended to evaluate role of common haematological parameters to assess disease activity in RA. Aim To find out the association of disease activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) with platelet count, Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) level so that these cost-effective haematological parameters can be used as additional factors to assess disease activity. Materials and Methods This hospital based cross-sectional study was done on newly diagnosed patients of RA along with age and sex matched healthy control population. Patients suffering from malignancies, renal failure, diabetes mellitus or RA patients on drug therapy were excluded. Clinically, disease activity of RA was measured using DAS 28-3 Score (Modified Disease Activity Score using three variables- tender joint count, swollen joint count and ESR). Haematological parameters were measured by automated cell counter. Results Total 80 cases were selected (60 female and 20 male). 48 patients with high disease activity (DAS 28-3>5.1) were labelled as Group-A and 32 with low to moderate disease activity (DAS 28-3 ≤5.1) as Group- B. Mean platelet count of patients of group A and group B were 4.53 lac/cmm and 2.17 lac/cmm respectively (p <0.001). MPV mean in group A and B were 11.86 fl and 10.19 fl respectively (p <0.001). Mean Hb (g/dl) was 10.05 and 12.25 for group A and B respectively (p=0.001) for male patients while in females it was 10.12 and 11.91 for group A and B, respectively (p=0.003). Mean platelet count and MPV in control population were 2.07 lac/cmm and 9.4 fl, respectively while mean Hb (g/dl) was 13.31 (male

  12. Optimizing Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy: Using Objective Measures of Disease Activity to Guide Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects approximately 1.5 million individuals in the United States, or approximately 1% of the US adult population. In women, RA most often begins between age 30 and 60 years; in men, it often starts later in life. Patients with RA may have rapid declines in physical function that can begin early in the disease course. Disability increases most rapidly during the early years of the disease course, and if patients are not accurately diagnosed and do not receive appropriate care early, substantial functional declines may result. Objective To review strategies and clinical assessment tools that may optimize patient outcomes by using objective measures of disease activity. Discussion The goal of treatment for patients newly diagnosed with RA should be preventing joint damage from developing by employing early and aggressive approaches to therapy that minimize disease activity. Likewise, for established disease, treatment should be aimed at limiting the progression of existing joint damage. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of RA over the past 2 decades, in large part as a result of better understanding of the biology of RA and the resultant introduction of biologic therapies. In 2010, an international task force published recommendations for a treat-to-target management approach to RA, much of which was based on the use of biologic drugs. This treatment strategy emphasized that the primary target in the treatment of patients with RA should be clinical remission or low disease activity. The tools necessary to measure RA disease activity are often incomplete, imprecise, or rely on a combination of physician and patient subjective evaluations. There is no one symptom, laboratory measure, or clinical tool that provides a truly accurate assessment of disease activity in patients with RA. Conclusion Thus, there is a large gap between what is recommended in clinical guidelines and the actual practice of rheumatologists

  13. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  14. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  15. Physical Activity and Associations With Computed Tomography-Detected Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joint Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Hunter, David J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Rainville, James; Guermazi, Ali; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Context There are no prior epidemiologic studies examining associations between physical activity and imaging-detected lumbar zygapophyseal joint osteoarthritis (ZJO) in a community-based sample. Purpose To determine whether physical activity is associated with prevalent lumbar ZJO on computed tomography (CT). Study Design/Setting Community-based cross-sectional study. Patient Sample 424 older adults from the Framingham Heart Study. Outcome Measures Participants received standardized CT assessments of lumbar ZJO at the L2-S1 levels. Severe lumbar ZJO was defined according to the presence and/or degree of joint space narrowing, osteophytosis, articular process hypertrophy, articular erosions, subchondral cysts, and intraarticular vacuum phenomenon. This definition of lumbar ZJO was based entirely on CT imaging findings, and did not include any clinical criteria such as low back pain. Methods Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Index, which estimates hours per day typically spent in these activity categories: sleeping, sitting, slight activity, moderate activity, or heavy activity. Participants reported on usual frequency of walking, running, swimming, and weightlifting. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported activity and severe lumbar ZJO, while adjusting for key covariates including age, sex, height, and weight. Study funding was from NIH-K12HD01097. There were no study-specific conflicts of interest-associated biases. Results In multivariable analyses, ordinal categories of heavy physical activity duration per day were significantly associated with severe lumbar ZJO (p for trend=0.04), with the greatest risk observed for the category ≥ 3 hours/day (odds ratio [OR] 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.97–4.67). When heavy activity was modeled as a continuous independent variable, each hour was independently associated with 1.19 times the odds of severe lumbar ZJO (95% CI 1.03

  16. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    PubMed

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.

  17. Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Zilkens, Christoph; Tiderius, Carl Johann; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms "cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC", considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment.

  18. TNF Accelerates Death of Mandibular Condyle Chondrocytes in Rats with Biomechanical Stimulation-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Jing; Jing, Lei; Liao, Lifan; Wang, Meiqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if temporomandibular joint chondrocyte apoptosis is induced in rats with dental biomechanical stimulation and what a role TNF takes. Methods Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group) and exposed to incisor mal-occlusion induced by unilateral anterior crossbite biomechanical stimulation. Two groups were sampled at 2 or 4 weeks. The other two groups were treated with local injections of a TNF inhibitor or PBS into the temporomandibular joints area at 2 weeks and then sampled at 4 weeks. Twenty-four rats either served as unilateral anterior crossbite mock operation controls (n = 8/group) with sampling at 2 or 4 weeks or received a local injection of the TNF inhibitor at 2 weeks with sampling at 4 weeks. Chondrocytes were isolated from the temporomandibular joints of 6 additional rats and treated with TNF in vitro. Joint samples were assessed using Hematoxylin&eosin, Safranin O, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, fluorogenic activity assays and Western blot analyses. The isolated chondrocytes were also analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Unilateral anterior crossbite stimulation led to temporomandibular joint cartilage degradation, associated with an increase in TUNEL-positive chondrocytes number, caspase-9 expression levels, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria at 2 weeks without changes in TNF and caspase-8 levels until after 4 weeks. TNF stimulated apoptosis of the isolated chondrocytes and up-regulated caspase-8 expression, but did not change caspase-9 expression levels. Local injection of TNF inhibitor down-regulated caspase-8 expression and reduced TUNEL-positive cell number, but did not reverse cartilage thickness reduction, caspase-9 up-regulation or cytochrome c release. Conclusions Unilateral anterior crossbite stimulation induces mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. TNF accelerated the unilateral anterior crossbite induced chondrocytes apoptosis via death

  19. Joint associations of smoking and television viewing time on cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Grace, Megan S; Lynch, Brigid M; Dillon, Francis; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2017-04-01

    Excessive sitting time and smoking are pro-inflammatory lifestyle factors that are associated with both cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, their joint associations have not been investigated. We examined the associations of television (TV) viewing time with cancer and CVD mortality, according to smoking status, among 7,498 non-smokers (34% ex-smokers) and 1,409 current-smokers in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. During 117,506 person-years (median 13.6 years) of follow-up, there were 346 cancer and 209 CVD-related deaths. Including an interaction between TV time and smoking status in the model significantly improved the goodness of fit for cancer (p = 0.01) but not CVD mortality (p = 0.053). In the multivariate-adjusted model, every additional hr/d of TV time was associated with increased risk of cancer-related (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40), but not CVD-related mortality (HR 1.16; 95% CI 0.97-1.38) in current-smokers. Elevated multivariate-adjusted cancer mortality HRs were observed for current-smokers watching 2 to <4 hr/d (HR 1.45; 95% CI 0.78-2.71) and ≥4 hr/d (HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.10-4.64), compared to those watching <2 hr/d. Current-smokers watching 2 to <4 hr/d (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.45-2.53) and ≥4 hr/d (HR 1.92; 95% CI 0.76-4.84) did not have a significantly higher risk of CVD mortality, compared to <2 hr/d. No associations were observed for non-smokers. These findings show an association of TV, a common sedentary behavior, with cancer mortality in current-smokers. The association with CVD mortality was less clear. Further exploration in larger data sets is warranted. Limiting TV viewing time may be of benefit in reducing cancer mortality risk in current-smokers.

  20. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  1. Effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on strength, bradykinesia, and electromyographic patterns of the ankle joint in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, David E; Prodoehl, Janey; Sturman, Molly M; Bakay, Roy A E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the control of movement in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after they received surgically implanted high-frequency stimulating electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The experiment studied ankle strength, movement velocity, and the associated electromyographic patterns in PD patients, six of whom had tremor at the ankle. The patients were studied off treatment, ON STN deep brain stimulation (DBS), on medication, and on medication plus STN DBS. Twelve matched control subjects were also examined. Medication alone and STN DBS alone increased patients' ankle strength, ankle velocity, agonist muscle burst amplitude, and agonist burst duration, while reducing the number of agonist bursts during movement. These findings were similar for PD patients with and without tremor. The combination of medication plus STN DBS normalized maximal strength at the ankle joint, but ankle movement velocity and electromyographic patterns were not normalized. The findings are the first to demonstrate that STN DBS and medication increase strength and movement velocity at the ankle joint.

  2. [The effect of magnetotherapy on the immunobiochemical indices of subjects with diseases of the periodontal tissues and joints].

    PubMed

    Samoĭlovich, V A

    1999-01-01

    Kept under medical surveillance in a health resort setting were 52 patients with disorders of the parodontium and large joints. All patients were given a complex therapy involving dietotherapy, therapeutic exercise, hydrotherapy, mud-treatment. Those patients having parodontium diseases were also prescribed topical treatment (chloride-sodium mouth baths and mud applications to the gingiva area). The main group subjects were also exposed to VMF using the unit for low-frequency therapy "Gradient-1". Laboratory means were also made use of, as a complex of biochemical tests characterizing changes in lipid metabolism. The level of the natural bodily resistance was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT-test). The condition of the parodontium was evaluated by the Loë-Silness index. Adaptive reactions were studied by the lymphocytes-to-segmented neutrophils ratio. Adoption of therapy involving physiobalneofactors in patients with afflictions of the parodontium tissues and large joints makes for development of favourable in prognostic respect adaptive reactions.

  3. Tuberculosis of the manubriosternal joint and concurrent asymptomatic active pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient presenting with a chest wall mass.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Luis; Ayala-Carbonero, Ana María; Rodríguez-Díaz, Ricardo; García Latorre, Raquel; Muñoz-Molina, Gemma María; Cabañero-Sánchez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented to our hospital with an anterior chest wall swelling. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings consistent with an infectious arthritis of the manubriosternal joint, and CT images also demonstrated multiple centrilobular nodules in both lungs, suggesting an infectious bronchiolitis. A CT-guided fine needle aspiration of a presternal mass yielded growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed an active pulmonary tuberculosis. Septic arthritis of the manubriosternal joint is exceedingly rare.

  4. Shoulder muscle activity in Parkinson's disease during multijoint arm movements across a range of speeds.

    PubMed

    Farley, Becky G; Sherman, Scott; Koshland, Gail F

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease and leads to significant functional limitations for patients. Single joint movement studies, that have investigated the mechanism of bradykinesia, suggest that several features of muscle activity are disrupted, including modulation of burst amplitude and duration, and the number of bursts. It has been proposed that it is the blending of these different burst deficits that collectively defines bradykinesia. This study adds two new approaches to the study of bradykinesia. First, we examined the features of shoulder muscle activities during multijoint arm movement in bradykinetic and control subjects, such that previously reported single joint hypotheses could be tested for generalized arm movement. Second, we directly manipulated speed while keeping distance constant for a large range of speeds. In this manner, we could compare individual trials of muscle activity between controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) for movements matched for both speed and movement duration. Our results showed that while a multiple burst pattern of shoulder muscles was a common strategy for all subjects (young, elderly controls and PD), subjects with PD showed several burst abnormalities, including deficits in initial agonist burst amplitude and duration at both fast and slow speeds. Subjects with PD also (1) failed to produce a one-burst pattern at fast speeds and, instead, produced a predominance of multiple burst patterns and (2) showed a relationship between the number of burst deficits and the severity of disease. These results extend the findings of single joint studies to multi-joint and similarly indicate that a combination of burst modulation abnormalities correlate with bradykinesia and disease severity.

  5. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD.

  6. Functional anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is critical to the function of the forearm as a mechanical unit. This paper is concerned with the concepts and observations that have changed understanding of the function of the DRUJ, notably with respect to the biomechanics of this joint. The DRUJ has been shown to be important in acting to distribute load and removal of the ulna head leads to the biomechanical equivalent of a one-bone forearm. The soft tissues with topographical relations to the distal forearm and DRUJ have also been investigated in our experimental series with findings including the description of a clinical disorder termed subluxation-related ulna neuropathy syndrome. PMID:23827285

  7. Functional anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, V C

    2013-04-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is critical to the function of the forearm as a mechanical unit. This paper is concerned with the concepts and observations that have changed understanding of the function of the DRUJ, notably with respect to the biomechanics of this joint. The DRUJ has been shown to be important in acting to distribute load and removal of the ulna head leads to the biomechanical equivalent of a one-bone forearm. The soft tissues with topographical relations to the distal forearm and DRUJ have also been investigated in our experimental series with findings including the description of a clinical disorder termed subluxation-related ulna neuropathy syndrome.

  8. Catecholamine secretion and adrenal nerve activity in response to movements of normal and inflamed knee joints in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, A; Sato, Y; Schmidt, R F

    1986-01-01

    The effects of articular stimulation on adrenal catecholamine secretion and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity were studied using halothane anaesthetized cats. Various natural passive movements were applied to the normal and inflamed knee joints. Rhythmic flexions and extensions as well as rhythmic inward and outward rotation of normal knee joints within their physiological range of motion did not change nerve activity or the secretion of adrenal catecholamines. Static outward rotation in the normal working range was also ineffective. However, as soon as this static rotation was extended into the noxious range, significant increases in both of these variables were elicited. In the acutely inflamed knee joint, various passive movements produced increases in both adrenal sympathetic and catecholamine secretion. Especially noteworthy was the finding that movements of the inflamed knee joint that were within the normal range of motion produced increases in all variables. Articularly induced increases in adrenal sympathetic nerve activity were diminished by severing various hind-limb somatic afferent nerves and abolished by complete denervation of the knee joint. Additionally, section of the adrenal sympathetic nerves eliminated the catecholamine secretion response. From these data it was concluded that the responses observed in these experiments were reflexes having an afferent limb in hind-limb nerves and an efferent limb in the adrenal sympathetic nerves. A contribution of supraspinal structures was suggested for the reflex responses of sympatho-adrenal medullary function evoked by knee joint stimulations, since spinal transection at the C2 level completely abolished the responses. PMID:3795070

  9. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  10. Peripheral and spinal activation of cannabinoid receptors by joint mobilization alleviates postoperative pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, D F; Mazzardo-Martins, L; Cidral-Filho, F J; Gadotti, V M; Santos, A R S

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relative contribution of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) subtypes and to analyze cannabimimetic mechanisms involved in the inhibition of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol degradation on the antihyperalgesic effect of ankle joint mobilization (AJM). Mice (25-35g) were subjected to plantar incision (PI) and 24h after surgery animals received the following treatments, AJM for 9min, AEA (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), WIN 55,212-2 (1.5mg/kg, i.p.), URB937 (0.01-1mg/kg, i.p.; a fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH] inhibitor) or JZL184 (0.016-16mg/kg, i.p.; a monoacylglycerol lipase [MAGL] inhibitor). Withdrawal frequency to mechanical stimuli was assessed 24h after PI and at different time intervals after treatments. Receptor specificity was investigated using selective CB1R (AM281) and CB2R (AM630) antagonists. In addition, the effect of the FAAH and MAGL inhibitors on the antihyperalgesic action of AJM was investigated. AJM, AEA, WIN 55,212-2, URB937 and JZL184 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia induced by PI. The antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was reversed by pretreatment with AM281 given by intraperitoneal and intrathecal routes, but not intraplantarly. Additionally, intraperitoneal and intraplantar, but not intrathecal administration of AM630 blocked AJM-induced antihyperalgesia. Interestingly, in mice pretreated with FAAH or the MAGL inhibitor the antihyperalgesic effect of AJM was significantly longer. This article presents data addressing the CBR mechanisms underlying the antihyperalgesic activity of joint mobilization as well as of the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in the mouse postoperative pain model. Joint mobilization and these enzymes offer potential targets to treat postoperative pain.

  11. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements.

  12. Measurement and meaning of markers of reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur in healthy human subjects and patients with inflammatory joint disease.

    PubMed

    Winyard, Paul G; Ryan, Brent; Eggleton, Paul; Nissim, Ahuva; Taylor, Emma; Lo Faro, Maria Letizia; Burkholz, Torsten; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin E; Fox, Bridget; Viner, Nick; Haigh, Richard C; Benjamin, Nigel; Jones, Andrew M; Whiteman, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur play cell signalling roles in human health, e.g. recent studies have shown that increased dietary nitrate, which is a source of RNS (reactive nitrogen species), lowers resting blood pressure and the oxygen cost of exercise. In such studies, plasma nitrite and nitrate are readily determined by chemiluminescence. At sites of inflammation, such as the joints of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients, the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS overwhelms antioxidant defences and one consequence is oxidative/nitrative damage to proteins. For example, in the inflamed joint, increased RNS-mediated protein damage has been detected in the form of a biomarker, 3-nitrotyrosine, by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISAs and MS. In addition to NO•, another cell-signalling gas produced in the inflamed joint is H2S (hydrogen sulfide), an RSS (reactive sulfur species). This gas is generated by inflammatory induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes. Using zinc-trap spectrophotometry, we detected high (micromolar) concentrations of H2S in RA synovial fluid and levels correlated with clinical scores of inflammation and disease activity. What might be the consequences of the inflammatory generation of reactive species? Effects on inflammatory cell-signalling pathways certainly appear to be crucial, but in the current review we highlight the concept that ROS/RNS-mediated protein damage creates neoepitopes, resulting in autoantibody formation against proteins, e.g. type-II collagen and the complement component, C1q. These autoantibodies have been detected in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

  13. Active Joint Mechanism Driven by Multiple Actuators Made of Flexible Bags: A Proposal of Dual Structural Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input. PMID:24385868

  14. Active joint mechanism driven by multiple actuators made of flexible bags: a proposal of dual structural actuator.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kataoka, Mokutaro; Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input.

  15. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  16. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group performed 3 sets of 60°/sec. Muscle activity was measured by EMG and balance was measured by one-leg standing test. [Results] For muscle activity, a main effect of group was found in the non-dominant TA, and the dominant TA, GCM and PL. For balance, a main effect of time was found in both groups for the sway area measured support was provided by the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] In terms of muscle activity, the two groups showed a significant difference, and the isokinetic group showed higher muscle activities. In terms of balance, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test. The results of this study may help in the selection of exercises for physical therapy, because they show that muscle activity and balance vary according to the type of exercise. PMID:25729181

  17. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  18. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Temporal expectation and attention jointly modulate auditory oscillatory activity in the beta band.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing.

  20. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  1. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  2. High Spatial Resolution MRI of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Iliofemoral Vein Communicating with the Hip Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Michael; Pantziara, Maria Ioannidis, Kleanthis

    2013-05-14

    Venous cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an extremely rare entity, and so far less than 20 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe the imaging findings of CAD of iliofemoral vein in a 51-year-old woman who presented with leg swelling with special emphasis on high spatial resolution MRI, which demonstrated communication of the cyst with the hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of high spatial resolution MRI findings in venous CAD supporting a new theory about the pathogenesis of venous CAD.

  3. Joint maximum likelihood estimation of activation and Hemodynamic Response Function for fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Negar; Nosratinia, Aria

    2014-07-01

    Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the brain activity by measuring blood oxygenation level, which is related to brain activity via a temporal impulse response function known as the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF). The HRF varies from subject to subject and within areas of the brain, therefore a knowledge of HRF is necessary for accurately computing voxel activations. Conversely a knowledge of active voxels is highly beneficial for estimating the HRF. This work presents a joint maximum likelihood estimation of HRF and activation based on low-rank matrix approximations operating on regions of interest (ROI). Since each ROI has limited data, a smoothing constraint on the HRF is employed via Tikhonov regularization. The method is analyzed under both white noise and colored noise. Experiments with synthetic data show that accurate estimation of the HRF is possible with this method without prior assumptions on the exact shape of the HRF. Further experiments involving real fMRI experiments with auditory stimuli are used to validate the proposed method.

  4. Activation of PAR2 receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Russell, FA; Schuelert, N; Veldhoen, VE; Hollenberg, MD; McDougall, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The PAR2 receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR2 activation in the rat knee joint. Experimental Approach PAR2 in rat knee joint dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells at L3-L5, retrogradely labelled with Fluoro-gold (FG) were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Electrophysiological recordings from knee joint nerve fibres in urethane anaesthetized Wistar rats assessed the effects of stimulating joint PAR2 with its activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (1–100 nmol·100 μL−1, via close intra-arterial injection). Fibre firing rate was recorded during joint rotations before and 15 min after administration of PAR2 activating peptide or control peptide. Leukocyte kinetics in the synovial vasculature upon PAR2 activation were followed by intravital microscopy for 60 min after perfusion of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or control peptide. Roles for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors in the PAR2 responses were assessed using the selective antagonists, SB366791 and RP67580 respectively. Key Results PAR2 were expressed in 59 ± 5% of FG-positive DRG cells; 100 nmol 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 increased joint fibre firing rate during normal and noxious rotation, maximal at 3 min (normal; 110 ± 43%, noxious; 90 ± 31%). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 also significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion over 60 min. All these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with SB366791 and RP67580 (P < 0.05 compared with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 alone). Conclusions and Implications PAR2 receptors play an acute inflammatory role in the knee joint via TRPV1- and NK1-dependent mechanisms involving both PAR2-mediated neuronal sensitization and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:22849826

  5. Assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using optical spectral transmission measurements, a non-invasive imaging technique

    PubMed Central

    van Onna, M; Ten Cate, D F; Tsoi, K L; Meier, A J L; Jacobs, J W G; Westgeest, A A A; Meijer, P B L; van Beek, M C; Rensen, W H J; Bijlsma, J W J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treat-to-target strategies require instruments for valid detection of joint inflammation. Therefore, imaging modalities are increasingly used in clinical practice. Optical spectral transmission (OST) measurements are non-invasive and fast and may therefore have benefits over existing imaging modalities. We tested whether OST could measure disease activity validly in patients with RA. Methods In 59 patients with RA and 10 patients with arthralgia, OST, joint counts, Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 and ultrasonography (US) were performed. Additionally, MRI was performed in patients with DAS28<2.6. We developed and validated within the same cohort an algorithm for detection of joint inflammation by OST with US as reference. Results At the joint level, OST and US performed similarly inproximal interphalangeal-joints (area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.79, p<0.0001) andmetacarpophalangeal joints (AUC 0.78, p<0.0001). Performance was less similar in wrists (AUC 0.62, p=0.006). On the patient level, OST correlated moderately with clinical examination (DAS28 r=0.42, p=0.001), and US scores (r=0.64, p<0.0001). Furthermore, in patients with subclinical and low disease activity, there was a correlation between OST and MRI synovitis score (RAMRIS (Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring) synovitis), r=0.52, p=0.005. Conclusions In this pilot study, OST performed moderately in the detection of joint inflammation in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to determine the diagnostic performance in a new cohort of patients with RA. PMID:26452538

  6. [Analysis of Musculoskeletal Systems and Their Diseases. Genomic medicine of bone and joint diseases : present and future].

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility genes for various kinds of common diseases have been identified by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) and the outcome is changing the clinical medicine significantly. Musculoskeletal disease is no exception. In this paper, I review the current status and prospect of GWAS in musculoskeletal diseases in Japan by focusing on representative common musculoskeletal diseases : disc herniation, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine.

  7. Fracture toughness of low activation ferritic steel (JLF-1) weld joint at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, A.; Inoue, N.; Muroga, T.

    1998-10-01

    A low activation ferritic steel has been developed for a candidate of a structural material of nuclear fusion reactors. Since welding must be performed when the support structures are constructed, fracture toughness of the weld joint has to be characterized as well as the base metal in an engineering sense. In this report, 25 mm thick plates of JLF-1, which contains 9% Cr and 2% W, are butt-welded by a tungsten inert gas (TIG) procedure, and the fracture toughness of the base plate and the weld metal is investigated at room temperature using 1T and 0.5T CT specimens. The base metal reveals high fracture toughness of about 430 kJ/m 2. However, the weld metal showed unstable big pop-ins. One sample fractured in a nearly elastic condition and another sample showed a toughness of over 400 kJ/m 2.

  8. [Role of computeric tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of sacro-ileal joint].

    PubMed

    Baĭramov, R B

    2012-05-01

    Sensitivity of computeric tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for sacroileitis diagnosis was studied, optimal for MRI investigation was established. In 31 patients, owing obvious clinical signs of inflammatory sacroileitis (at average more than 5 mo duration of a low back pain) MRI of sacroiliac joint was conducted in a T1, T2 FS, 2D T2 FLASH regimes and after intravenous infusion of a contrast substance (gadolinium) - in a T1 FS regime, using system, owing a 1,5 T magnetic field intensity. The data obtained were compared with results of CT. Sacroileitis signs were revealed in 27 patients - according to CT data, and in 22 - MRI. CT have demonstrated as a more sensitive method of the bone erosion and sclerosis diagnosis, than MRI. MRI is more sensitive while revealing an active inflammatory process in the bone and joint space. While T1 FS application no additional information for sacroileitis diagnosis was obtained.

  9. Complement activation in very early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, H; Finch, C E; Kemper, C; Atkinson, J; McKeel, D; Morris, J C; Price, J L

    2005-01-01

    The activation of the classical complement (C)-system in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) and nondemented aging was examined with immunohistochemistry in subjects assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Activation (staining for C3 and C4 fragments) was found in all brains with amyloid deposits, including all nondemented (CDR 0) cases, with either small numbers of diffuse plaques or with sufficient plaques and tangles to indicate preclinical AD. Staining for C3 and C4 increased in parallel with plaque density in very mild to severe clinical AD. A subset of very mild AD (CDR 0.5) cases also showed C1q (on plaques) and C5b-9 (on neuritic plaques and tangles), whereas these C-fragments were consistently found in severe AD (CDR 3). Mirror section (split-face) analysis showed that C1q, C3, and apoJ (clusterin) occurred on the same plaques. However, C-system regulators CD59, CR1, DAF, and MCP were not detected on plaques or tangles at any stage, indicating that C-activation related to AD is incompletely controlled.

  10. Biological activity and migration of wear particles in the knee joint: an in vivo comparison of six different polyethylene materials.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, S; Lorber, V; Dedic, M; Paulus, A C; Schröder, C; Gottschalk, O; Schmitt-Sody, M; Jansson, V

    2014-06-01

    Wear of polyethylene causes loosening of joint prostheses because of the particle mediated activity of the host tissue. It was hypothesized that conventional and crosslinked polyethylene particles lead to similar biological effects around the knee joint in vivo as well as to a similar particle distribution in the surrounding tissues. To verify these hypotheses, particle suspensions of six different polyethylene materials were injected into knee joints of Balb/C mice and intravital microscopic, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were done after 1 week. Whereas the biological effects on the synovial layer and the subchondral bone of femur and tibia were similar for all the polyethylenes, two crosslinked materials showed an elevated cytokine expression in the articular cartilage. Furthermore, the distribution of particles around the joint was dependent on the injected polyethylene material. Those crosslinked particles, which remained mainly in the joint space, showed an increased expression of TNF-alpha in articular cartilage. The data of this study support the use of crosslinked polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty. In contrast, the presence of certain crosslinked wear particles in the joint space can lead to an elevated inflammatory reaction in the remaining cartilage, which challenges the potential use of those crosslinked polyethylenes for unicondylar knee prostheses.

  11. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD)/Pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint – FNA findings and microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Asghar H; Abraham, Jerrold L; Kellman, Robert M; Khurana, Kamal K

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) presenting as a mass in the parotid and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that simulated a parotid tumor. A 35 year-old man presented with pain in the left ear area. A CT Scan of the area showed a large, calcified mass surrounding the left condylar head, and extending into the infratemporal fossa. FNA of the mass showed birefringent crystals, most of which were rhomboid with occasional ones being needle shaped, embedded in an amorphous pink substance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of these crystals showed peaks corresponding to calcium and phosphorus. SEM/EDS is a rapid method of diagnosing calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) and an alternative to more commonly used method of special staining of cell block sections coupled with polarizing microscopy. PMID:18426573

  12. Long-term follow-up of mobile-bearing total ankle replacement in patients with inflammatory joint disease.

    PubMed

    Kraal, T; van der Heide, H J L; van Poppel, B J; Fiocco, M; Nelissen, R G H H; Doets, H C

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the long-term outcome of mobile-bearing total ankle replacement (TAR) in the treatment of end-stage arthritis of the ankle, and in particular for patients with inflammatory joint disease. The aim of this study was to assess the minimum ten-year outcome of TAR in this group of patients. We prospectively followed 76 patients (93 TARs) who underwent surgery between 1988 and 1999. No patients were lost to follow-up. At latest follow-up at a mean of 14.8 years (10.7 to 22.8), 30 patients (39 TARs) had died and the original TAR remained in situ in 28 patients (31 TARs). The cumulative incidence of failure at 15 years was 20% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 28). The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score of the surviving patients at latest follow-up was 80.4 (95% CI 72 to 88). In total, 21 patients (23 TARs) underwent subsequent surgery: three implant exchanges, three bearing exchanges and 17 arthrodeses. Neither design of TAR described in this study, the LCS and the Buechel-Pappas, remains currently available. However, based both on this study and on other reports, we believe that TAR using current mobile-bearing designs for patients with end-stage arthritis of the ankle due to inflammatory joint disease remains justified.

  13. Disease Combinations Associated with Physical Activity Identified: The SMILE Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dörenkamp, Sarah; Mesters, Ilse; Schepers, Jan; Vos, Rein; van den Akker, Marjan; Teijink, Joep; de Bie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In the search of predictors of inadequate physical activity, an investigation was conducted into the association between multimorbidity and physical activity (PA). So far the sum of diseases used as a measure of multimorbidity reveals an inverse association. How specific combinations of chronic diseases are associated with PA remains unclear. The objective of this study is to identify clusters of multimorbidity that are associated with PA. Cross-sectional data of 3,386 patients from the 2003 wave of the Dutch cohort study SMILE were used. Ward's agglomerative hierarchical clustering was executed to establish multimorbidity clusters. Chi-square statistics were used to assess the association between clusters of chronic diseases and PA, measured in compliance with the Dutch PA guideline. The highest rate of PA guideline compliance was found in patients the majority of whom suffer from liver disease, back problems, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory joint disease (62.4%). The lowest rate of PA guideline compliance was reported in patients with heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus (55.8%). Within the group of people with multimorbidity, those suffering from heart disease, respiratory disease, and/or diabetes mellitus may constitute a priority population as PA has proven to be effective in the prevention and cure of all three disorders. PMID:26881231

  14. Canonical feature selection for joint regression and multi-class identification in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Fusing information from different imaging modalities is crucial for more accurate identification of the brain state because imaging data of different modalities can provide complementary perspectives on the complex nature of brain disorders. However, most existing fusion methods often extract features independently from each modality, and then simply concatenate them into a long vector for classification, without appropriate consideration of the correlation among modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel method to transform the original features from different modalities to a common space, where the transformed features become comparable and easy to find their relation, by canonical correlation analysis. We then perform the sparse multi-task learning for discriminative feature selection by using the canonical features as regressors and penalizing a loss function with a canonical regularizer. In our experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images to jointly predict clinical scores of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and also identify multi-class disease status for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. The experimental results showed that the proposed canonical feature selection method helped enhance the performance of both clinical score prediction and disease status identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26254746

  15. Paroxetine alleviates T lymphocyte activation and infiltration to joints of collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingtong; Wang, Longsheng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Shanshan; Wang, Rui; Han, Yongsheng; Wu, Yujing; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Xinming; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    T cell infiltration to synovial tissue is an early pathogenic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present work, we reveal that G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is abundantly expressed in T cells of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). A GRK2 inhibitor, paroxetine protects the joints from inflammation and destruction, primarily through inhibition of both CD4+ helper T (Th) cell and CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cell migration to synovial tissue. Meanwhile, paroxetine restores the balance of Th/Tc, effector Th (Theff)/ naïve Th (Thnaive) and effector Tc (Tceff)/ naïve Tc (Tcnaive) to equilibrium by elevating the frequency of Thnaive, Tcnaive and regulatory Th cells; reducing the increased Theff, activated Th and Tceff, having a similar effect as methotrexate (MTX). In addition, both serum and synovial IL-1β, TNF-α and CX3CL1 expression was effectively inhibited in treated rats. In vitro assay confirmed that paroxetine inhibits CX3CL1-induced T cell migration through blocking the activity of GRK2. Among three MAPK families, paroxetine was found to be able to decrease the phosphorylation of ERK. This study elucidates that paroxetine attenuates the symptoms of CIA rats due to its inhibitory effect on T cell activation and infiltration to synovial tissue via suppression of ERK pathway. PMID:28349925

  16. A painless and constraint-free method to estimate viscoelastic passive dynamics of limbs' joints to support diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Venture, Gentiane; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yamane, Katsu; Hirashima, Masaya

    2007-01-01

    Though seldom identified, the human joints dynamics is important in the fields of medical robotics and medical research. We present a general solution to estimate in-vivo and simultaneously the passive dynamics of the human limbs' joints. It is based on the use of the multi-body description of the human body and its kinematics and dynamics computations. The linear passive joint dynamics of the shoulders and the elbows: stiffness, viscosity and friction, is estimated simultaneously using the linear least squares method. Acquisition of movements is achieved with an optical motion capture studio on one examinee during the clinical diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. Experimental results are given and discussed.

  17. The effects of elbow joint angle change on the elbow flexor muscle activation in pulley with weight exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position.

  18. The Effects of Elbow Joint Angle Change on the Elbow Flexor Muscle Activation in Pulley with Weight Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position. PMID:24259930

  19. Ankle Instability Effects on Joint Position Sense When Stepping Across the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Witchalls, Jeremy; Waddington, Gordon; Blanch, Peter; Adams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Context Individuals with and without functional ankle instability have been tested for deficits in lower limb proprioception with varied results. Objective To determine whether a new protocol for testing participants' joint position sense during stepping is reliable and can detect differences between participants with unstable and stable ankles. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting University clinical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Sample of convenience involving 21 young adult university students and staff. Ankle stability was categorized by score on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool; 13 had functional ankle instability, 8 had healthy ankles. Intervention(s) Test-retest of ankle joint position sense when stepping onto and across the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus twice, separated by an interim test, standing still on the apparatus and moving only 1 ankle into inversion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Difference in scores between groups with stable and unstable ankles and between test repeats. Results Participants with unstable ankles were worse at differentiating between inversion angles underfoot in both testing protocols. On repeated testing with the stepping protocol, performance of the group with unstable ankles was improved (Cohen d = 1.06, P = .006), whereas scores in the stable ankle group did not change in the second test (Cohen d = 0.04, P = .899). Despite this improvement, the unstable group remained worse at differentiating inversion angles on the stepping retest (Cohen d = 0.99, P = .020). Conclusions The deficits on proprioceptive tests shown by individuals with functional ankle instability improved with repeated exposure to the test situation. The learning effect may be the result of systematic exposure to ankle-angle variation that led to movement-specific learning or increased confidence when stepping across the apparatus. PMID:23182010

  20. In an interconnected world: joint research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Butler, Colin D; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-28

    In 2008 the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) commissioned ten think-tanks to work on disease-specific and thematic reference groups to identify top research priorities that would advance the research agenda on infectious diseases of poverty, thus contributing to improvements in human health. The first of the thematic reference group reports - on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty - was recently released. In this article we review, from an insider perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of this thematic reference group report and highlight key messages for policy-makers, funders and researchers.

  1. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  2. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  3. Association of joint occurrence of warm and dry conditions over Greece with anticyclonic activity during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Nastos, Panagiotis; Polychroni, Iliana; Flocas, Helena A.; Kouroutzoglou, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.

    2016-04-01

    Anticyclones are often associated with extreme phenomena, like prolonged droughts or heatwaves and, thus, they can significantly impact fauna and flora, water resources and public health. In this study, the association of the summer anticyclonic activity with the joint occurrence of extreme warm and dry conditions over Greece is explored. The warm and dry extreme conditions are defined by utilizing the Warm/Dry (WD) index for representative meteorological stations from sub-regions of Greece with different climatic features. The WD index is the number of days over a period (here summer) having at the same time mean air temperature > 75th percentile of daily mean temperature and precipitation < 25th percentile of daily precipitation amounts. The anticyclonic activity is determined by the density of the anticyclonic systems over the greater Mediterranean region, which, during summer, is maximized over the Balkans and the northern African coast. The anticyclonic system density has resulted from the comprehensive climatology of Mediterranean anticyclones that was assembled with the aid of the finding and tracking scheme of the University of Melbourne (MS scheme), using the ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure fields for 1979-2012. The examination of inter-annual and spatial variations of the WD index in association with shifts of the anticyclonic maxima shows that the different sub-regions of Greece are not affected evenly, stressing the role of the complex topography of the region and the variations in the subtropical jet position.

  4. [Jointed estrogenic activities of bisphenol A and three of its analogs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-chang; Chen, Liang-yan; Liu, Shu-shen; Yin, Da-qiang

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) is one of the hottest topics. The estrogenic activities of BPA, BPAF, BPAP, BPF were tested based on recombinant gene yeast assay. Six mixtures were designed based on the result of the test,each of which had an equitoxic ratio ray (EC10 or EC50). The EC50 values are 6.81 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1), 7.44 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1), 1.43 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), 7.52 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) for BPA, BPAF, BPAP and BPF respectively,which reveals that the estrogenic activities order among the four bisphenols was BPAF> BPA> BPF> BPAP. The experiment shows that when BPA mixes with BPAF, BPAP and BPF in different ratios individually, different combination effects are produced. It reveals that the combined ratios of the components may affect the combined effect. The dose addition model and the independent action model are used to identify the combined effect. They are testified to be more intuitionistic and more comprehensive than other joint effect indices.

  5. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G. N.; Asthana, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSiI. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading. A tube-on-plate tensile test was used to evaluate joint strength of Ti-tube/ C-C composite joints. The load-carrying ability was greatest for the Cu-ABA braze joint structures. This system appeared to have the best braze spreading which resulted in a larger braze/C-C composite bonded area compared to the other two braze materials. Also, joint loadcarrying ability was found to be higher for joint structures where the fiber tows in the outer ply of the C-C composite were aligned perpendicular to the tube axis when compared to the case where fiber tows were aligned parallel to the tube axis.

  6. Joint Coordination and Muscle Activities of Ballet Dancers During Tiptoe Standing.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate joint coordination of lower limbs in dancers during tiptoe standing and the relationship between joint coordination and muscle coactivation. Seven female ballet dancers performed tiptoe standing with six leg positions (fi e classical dance positions and one modern dance position) for 10 s. The kinematic data of the metatarsophalangeal (MP), ankle, knee, and hip joints was collected, and surface electromyography (EMG) of over 13 lower limb muscles was conducted. Principal component analysis was performed to determine joint coordination. MP-ankle and ankle-knee had in-phase coordination, whereas knee-hip showed anti-phase coordination in the sagittal plane. In addition, most EMG-EMG coherence around the MP and ankle joints was significant up to 50 Hz when these two joints swayed with in-phase. This suggests that different joint coordination patterns are associated with neural processing related to different muscle coactivation patterns. In conclusion, ballet dancers showed in-phase coordination from the MP to knee joints, which was associated with muscle coactivation to a higher frequency domain (up to 50 Hz) in comparison with anti-phase coordination.

  7. Lamb wave based active damage identification in adhesively bonded composite lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Prateek

    Bonding composite structures using adhesives offers several advantages over mechanical fastening such as better flow stress, weight saving, improved fatigue resistance and the ability to join dissimilar structures. The hesitation to adopt adhesively bonded composite joints stems from the lack of knowledge regarding damage initiation and propagation mechanisms within the joint. A means of overcoming this hesitation is to continuously monitor damage in the joint. This study proposes a methodology to conduct structural health monitoring (SHM) of an adhesively bonded composite lap joint using acoustic, guided Lamb waves by detecting, locating and predicting the size of damage. Finite element modeling of a joint in both 2D and 3D is used to test the feasibility of the proposed damage triangulation technique. Experimental validation of the methodology is conducted by detecting the presence, location and size of inflicted damage with the use of tuned guided Lamb waves.

  8. Sexual function in Moroccan women with rheumatoid arthritis and its relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Lahlou, Racha; Bahiri, Rachid; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual function in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using an auto-questionnaire Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and study its correlation with disease activity. Sixty patients with RA and 40 healthy controls were included in this exploratory study. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics were assessed. The disease activity was assessed by auto-questionnaires Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index 5 (RADAI5) judged by 28 DAS ESR. Sexual function was assessed by an auto-questionnaire specific for female sexuality: FSFI during the last 4 weeks. The definition of sexual dysfunction was considered by FSFI score less than or equal to 26.5. The mean age of RA patients and controls was 45.95 ± 9.3 and 45.01 ± 9.2, respectively. According to FSFI, the percentage of FSD in women with RA was significantly higher than that in the control group. All dimensions of sexuality were affected (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction) except pain. The multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that the swollen joints and the RADAI5 were the independent variables of disease activity associated with sexual dysfunction in women with RA. This study suggests that sexual dysfunction among women suffering from rheumatoid arthritis is found when a targeted questionnaire is used to identify it and that the increased disease activity has a negative effect of sexual function.

  9. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

    2013-09-01

    Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p < 0.0002). Four hundred eighty-nine patients had knee films. Six of these patients had AC joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p = 0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p = 0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition.

  10. P2X(7) receptor-mediated release of cathepsins from macrophages is a cytokine-independent mechanism potentially involved in joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castejon, Gloria; Theaker, Jill; Pelegrin, Pablo; Clifton, Andrew D; Braddock, Martin; Surprenant, Annmarie

    2010-08-15

    The ATP-gated P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is a promising therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory diseases with highly specific antagonists currently under clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-inflammatory actions of P2X(7)R antagonists are considered to result from inhibition of P2X(7)R-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages. However, P2X(7)Rs are also expressed in resting macrophages, suggesting that P2X(7)R may also signal via cytokine-independent mechanisms involved in joint disease. In this study, we examined P2X(7)R function in resting human lung macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and found that ATP induced rapid release of the lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B, K, L, and S and that was independent of the presence of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. Cathepsins released into the medium were effective to degrade collagen extracellular matrix. ATP-induced cathepsin release was abolished by P2X(7)R antagonists, absent from P2X(7)R(-/-) mouse macrophages, and not associated with cell death. Our results suggest P2X(7)R activation may play a novel and direct role in tissue damage through release of cathepsins independently of its proinflammatory actions via IL-1 cytokines.

  11. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  12. Microscopic features for initial diagnosis and disease activity evaluation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, Aude; Geboes, Karel; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2013-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by 2 major entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In clinical practice, separation of UC and CD has been based on a variety of clinical features, symptoms, endoscopic and radiological, gross and microscopic characteristics. The microscopic diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is based on a combination of 2 types of lesions: architectural abnormalities and inflammatory features. However, microscopic distinction between these 2 entities can be difficult and often results in an interim diagnosis of "indeterminate colitis." Recommendations are made to encourage pathologists to give an indication of the activity of the disease: in UC, biopsies are used to discriminate between quiescent disease, inactive disease, and different grades of activity; in CD, evaluation of disease activity is limited and inactivity in the biopsy may not reflect inactivity in the patient. The aim of this review was to summarize microscopic features of inflammatory bowel disease for initial diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity in both CD and UC.

  13. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  14. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Akif; Ozkul, Baris; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Atici, Yunus; Gultekin, Muhammet Zeki; Albayrak, Merih Dilan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men). For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years) and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years). Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005) compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective. PMID:27041884

  15. Toward a systemic research agenda for addressing the joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Geneau, Robert; Hallen, Greg

    2012-07-31

    A growing proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS also struggle to cope with one or several noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), particularly as they age. The two epidemics being intertwined, there is increasing recognition that that there should be closer advocacy, policy and programmatic links between HIV and NCDs. The objective of this paper is to discuss the development of a research agenda geared towards informing the design and implementation of programs and policies truly grounded in a co-benefits approach. Tackling the joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and NCDs in Africa will require for research funders and private and foreign aid donors to be bold, visionary and to commit to long-term research investments in order to evaluate the effects of natural policy experiments and complex interventions.

  16. Novel Lesions of Bones and Joints Associated with Chikungunya Virus Infection in Two Mouse Models of Disease: New Insights into Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goupil, Brad A.; McNulty, Margaret A.; Martin, Matthew J.; McCracken, Michael K.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice) to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91%) and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI). Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and μCT, respectively. μCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%), periosteal necrosis (66%), and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%). Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of μCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains. PMID:27182740

  17. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    PubMed Central

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  18. Vaccinations in adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease: Immunization schedule and recommendations for patients taking synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jacques; Czitrom, Séverine Guillaume; Mallick, Auriane; Sellam, Jérémie; Sibilia, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The risk of infection associated with autoimmune diseases is further increased by the use of biotherapies. Recommendations to minimize this risk include administering the full complement of vaccines on the standard immunization schedule, as well as the pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease (IJD) may receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, as well as a live attenuated vaccine against recurrent herpes zoster, recently licensed by European regulatory authorities. Live attenuated vaccines can be given only after an interval without immunosuppressant and/or glucocorticoid therapy. The effectiveness of vaccines, as assessed based on titers of protective antibodies, varies across vaccine types and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Thus, methotrexate and rituximab are usually associated with decreased vaccine responses. The risks associated with vaccines are often considerably exaggerated by the media, which serve lobbies opposed to immunizations and make some patients reluctant to accept immunizations. Increasing immunization coverage may diminish the risk of treatment-related infections. A physician visit dedicated specifically to detecting comorbidities in patients with chronic IJD may result in improved immunization coverage. In this review, we discuss immunizations for adults with chronic IJD based on the treatments used, as well as immunization coverage. Many questions remain unanswered and warrant investigation by studies coordinated by the French networks IREIVAC (Innovative clinical research network in vaccinology) and IMIDIATE (Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease Alliance for Translational and Clinical Research).

  19. Report of activities of the IAU/IAG Joint Working Group on Theory of Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrandiz, Jose M.; Gross, Richard S.; Getino, Juan; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Heinkelmann, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Earth rotation has been considered as one of the three pillars of geodesy. In April 2013 the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) set up a Joint WG on Theory of the Earth Rotation to promote the development of improved theories of Earth rotation meeting the needs of accuracy of the near future as recommended by, e.g. GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. That JWG is chaired by the first two authors. Its structure comprises three Sub-WGs addressing Precession/Nutation, Polar Motion and UT1 and Numerical Solutions and Validation, which are chaired by the last three authors, respectively. Those SWG should work in parallel, for the sake of efficiency, but keeping consistency as an overall issue. This presentation intends to report about the initial activities carried out by the JWG and the work under development. A main task is to catalogue and to go in depth into the potential sources of inconsistency, at the level of precision given by the measurements of the space geodetic techniques.

  20. Effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists on prostaglandins cascade in joint cells.

    PubMed

    Moulin, David; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Koufany, Meriem; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard; Bianchi, Arnaud; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In response to inflammatory cytokines, chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts produce high amounts of prostaglandins (PG) which self-perpetuate locally the inflammatory reaction. Prostaglandins act primarily through membrane receptors coupled to G proteins but also bind to nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). Amongst fatty acids, the cyclopentenone metabolite of PGD2, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), was shown to be a potent ligand of the PPARgamma isotype prone to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators. As the stimulated synthesis of PGE2 originates from the preferential coupling of inducible enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and membrane PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), we investigated the potency of 15d-PGJ2 to regulate prostaglandins synthesis in rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2, but not the high-affinity PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone, decreased almost completely PGE2 synthesis and mPGES-1 expression. The inhibitory potency of 15d-PGJ2 was unaffected by changes in PPARgamma expression and resulted from inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear binding and IkappaBalpha sparing, secondary to reduced phosphorylation of IKKbeta. Consistently with 15d-PGJ2 being a putative endogenous regulator of the inflammatory reaction if synthesized in sufficient amounts, the present data confirm the variable PPARgamma-dependency of its effects in joint cells while underlining possible species and cell types specificities.

  1. Evidence from Raman Spectroscopy of a Putative Link Between Inherent Bone Matrix Chemistry and Degenerative Joint Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jemma G; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Buckley, Kevin; Shepperd, Adam; Birch, Helen L; McCarthy, Ian; Miles, Jonathan; Briggs, Timothy W R; Keen, Richard; Parker, Anthony W; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease that results in degeneration of cartilage and bone in the synovial joints. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of the subchondral bone matrix occur and may be associated with cartilage changes. The aim of this study was to explore whether the abnormal molecular changes observed in the matrix of OA subchondral bone can be identified with Raman spectroscopy. Methods Tibial plateaus from patients undergoing total knee replacement for OA (n = 10) were compared with healthy joints from patients undergoing leg amputation (n = 5; sex- and laterality-matched) and with non-OA cadaveric knee specimens (n = 5; age-matched). The samples were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and chemical analysis to compare changes in defined load-bearing sites in both the medial and lateral compartments. Results OA subchondral bone matrix changes were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Within each cohort, there was no spectral difference in bone matrix chemistry between the medial and lateral compartments, whereas a significant spectral difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the non-OA and OA specimens. Type I collagen chain ratios were normal in the non-OA specimens but were significantly elevated in the OA specimens. Conclusion In comparing the results of Raman spectroscopy with those obtained by other standard techniques, these findings show, for the first time, that subchondral bone changes, or inherent differences, exist in both the medial and lateral (beneath intact cartilage) compartments of OA knees. The development of Raman spectroscopy as a screening tool, based on molecular-specific modifications in bone, would facilitate the identification of clinical disease, including early molecular changes. PMID:24470432

  2. Joint mimicking mechanical load activates TGFβ1 in fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Oliver F W; Fahy, Niamh; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2016-07-22

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is widely used in an active recombinant form to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, it has been shown that the application of multiaxial load, that mimics the loading within diarthrodial joints, to MSCs seeded in to fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds leads to the endogenous production and secretion of TGF-β1 by the mechanically stimulated cells, which in turn drives the chondrogenic differentiation of the cells within the scaffold. The work presented in this short communication provides further evidence that the application of joint mimicking multiaxial load induces the secretion of TGF-β1 by mechanically stimulated MSCs. The results of this work also show that joint-like multiaxial mechanical load activates latent TGF-β1 in response to loading in the presence or absence of cells; this activation was not seen in non-loaded control scaffolds. Despite the application of mechanical load to scaffolds with different distributions/numbers of cells no significant differences were seen in the percentage of active TGF-β1 quantified in the culture medium of scaffolds from different groups. The similar level of activation in scaffolds containing different numbers of cells, cells at different stages of differentiation or with different distributions of cells suggests that this activation results from the mechanical forces applied to the culture system rather than differences in cellular behaviour. These results are relevant when considering rehabilitation protocols after cell therapy or microfracture, for articular cartilage repair, where increased TGF-β1 activation in response to joint mobilization may improve the quality of developing cartilaginous repair material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dysbiosis in Crohn's disease - Joint action of stochastic injuries and focal inflammation in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Buttó, Ludovica F.; Haller, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets. For the first time, our laboratory demonstrated a causal role of the microbiota for the development of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis, supporting the hypothesis that a non-infectious, dysbiotic microbial ecosystem harbors aggressive traits relevant for the induction of chronic inflammation in the disease-susceptible host (i.e. TNFΔARE mouse model). Despite a growing body of evidence claiming a primary role for Paneth cells in the pathogenesis of ileal CD, we showed in the TNFΔARE mouse model that Paneth cell failure or exhaustion is a secondary event to inflammation. Therefore, additional mechanisms may act synergistically to initialize the development of CD-like pathology. Hereby, we propose a novel hypothesis suggesting that individual development of dysbiotic communities is based on stochastic injury and focal inflammation of the epithelial lining that propagate radially, finally leading to an aggressive microbial milieu. PMID:28102757

  4. Changes in foot function, disease activity, and disability after forefoot resection arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sawachika, Fusakazu; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Bahari, Tirani; Miki, Keisuke; Todo, Satoshi; Inoo, Masayuki; Onishi, Ikuko; Kurata, Noriyuki; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in foot function, disease activity, and disability in patients with RA after resection arthroplasty of the forefoot (arthroplasty). Arthroplasty was performed on 11 patients with RA. All study patients underwent clinical assessment to measure disease activity (Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints-C-reactive protein, DAS28-CRP), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, HAQ-DI) and foot function (Foot Function Index, FFI) at the following stages: preoperatively and 1, 3, and 12 months after surgery. Following arthroplasty, foot function improved significantly, as assessed by FFI total and subscales (pain, disability, and limitation of activity) (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.002, respectively). Disease activity was significantly improved in relation to DAS28-CRP and its subscales of number of swollen joints and patient global assessment (PtGA) (P=0.033, P=0.008, and P=0.038, respectively). There was no significant difference in disability, as assessed by the HAQ-DI and its subscale, HAQ-walking (P=0.150 and P=0.597, respectively). Foot function improved significantly after arthroplasty, and was maintained at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, our study showed that disease activity and its subscale PtGA improved after arthroplasty.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Six Chronic Disease Pairs on Decreased Physical Activity: The SMILE Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dörenkamp, Sarah; Mesters, Ilse; Vos, Rein; Schepers, Jan; van den Akker, Marjan; Teijink, Joep; de Bie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about whether and how two chronic diseases interact with each other in modifying the risk of physical inactivity. The aim of the present study is to identify chronic disease pairs that are associated with compliance or noncompliance with the Dutch PA guideline recommendation and to study whether specific chronic disease pairs indicate an extra effect on top of the effects of the diseases individually. Cross-sectional data from 3,386 participants of cohort study SMILE were used and logistic regression analysis was performed to study the joint effect of the two diseases of each chronic disease pair for compliance with the Dutch PA guideline. For six chronic disease pairs, patients suffering from both diseases belonging to these disease pairs in question show a higher probability of noncompliance to the Dutch PA guideline, compared to what one would expect based on the effects of each of the two diseases alone. These six chronic disease pairs were chronic respiratory disease and severe back problems; migraine and inflammatory joint disease; chronic respiratory disease and severe kidney disease; chronic respiratory disease and inflammatory joint disease; inflammatory joint disease and rheumatoid arthritis; and rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis of the knees, hips, and hands. PMID:27274994

  6. The Interface of Mechanics and Nociception in Joint Pathophysiology: Insights From the Facet and Temporomandibular Joints.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Megan M; Ita, Meagan E; Kartha, Sonia; Zhang, Sijia; Yu, Ya-Hsin; Winkelstein, Beth

    2017-02-01

    Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus. Trauma and repeated loading can induce structural and biochemical changes in joints, altering their microenvironment and modifying the biomechanics of their constitutive tissues, which themselves are innervated. Peripheral pain sensors can become activated in response to changes in the joint microenvironment and relay pain signals to the spinal cord and brain where pain is processed and perceived. In some cases, pain circuitry is permanently changed, which may be a potential mechanism for sustained joint pain. However, it is most likely that alterations in both the joint microenvironment and the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to chronic pain. As such, the challenge of treating joint pain and degeneration is temporally and spatially complicated. This review summarizes anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of these joints and the sensory pain relays. Pain pathways are postulated to be sensitized by many factors, including degeneration and biochemical priming, with effects on thresholds for mechanical injury and/or dysfunction. Initiators of joint pain are discussed in the context of clinical challenges including the diagnosis and treatment of pain.

  7. 77 FR 74279 - Agency Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim): Activity under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... President Bush's Interagency Task Force on Returning Global War on Terror Heroes, VA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have agreed to develop a joint process in which Global War on Terror (GWOT) service...

  8. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (VA/DOD Joint Disability Evaluation Board Claim) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Interagency Task Force on Returning Global War on Terror Heroes, VA and the Department of Defense (DOD) have agreed to develop a joint process in which Global War on Terror (GWOT) service members are evaluated...

  9. Strategies for novel therapeutic approaches targeting cytokines and signaling pathways of osteoclasto- and osteoblastogenesis in the fight against immune-mediated bone and joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Pietschmann, P; Rauner, M

    2008-01-01

    For many bone and joint diseases in humans, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, an immune-mediated etiology has either been proven or is considered as a co-factor in pathogenesis. The identification of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG)-interplay and the in-depth characterization of the signaling pathways induced upon RANK activation, including molecules such as TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and signal transducer and activator of T cells (STAT)-3, now promise to give the opportunity to target osteoclastogenesis specifically. Additionally, many byways influencing osteoclastogenesis have been elucidated, thus giving rise to additional therapeutic approaches. These are based mainly upon the effects of diverse cytokines on osteoclast differentiation with interleukin (IL)-17 and interferone (IFN)-gamma being most prominent at the moment. The same applies for the recently established signaling pathways in osteoblastogenesis, which have attracted much attention in the recent years. In this respect, much attention has been attributed towards bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the Wnt signaling cascade. In this review, an overview on the key molecules, which (could) serve as promising targets for novel therapeutic interventions with the aim of enhancing osteoblast formation or suppressing osteoclast development, is given. Further on, antibody-based therapeutical schemes as well as methodologically novel, albeit predominantly theoretical at the moment, strategies in the fight against immune-mediated osteopathologies are discussed.

  10. Joint Health Status of Hemophilia Patients in Jodhpur Region.

    PubMed

    Payal, Vikas; Sharma, Pramod; Chhangani, N P; Janu, Yojana; Singh, Yudhavir; Sharma, Akash

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which there is a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of the blood. Susceptibility to joint hemorrhage in persons with Hemophilia suggests that the routine assessment of joint health is an important aspect of clinical management and outcome studies assessing the efficacy of treatment. This prospective study was conducted to study joint health status in Hemophilia patients and draw their joint disability score by using Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Out of total 56 cases 51 (91.07 %) cases were diagnosed as hemophilia A while 5 cases (8.92 %) were diagnosed as hemophilia B. According to their factor level 44 % cases had severe 36 % had moderate and 20 % had mild disease. Knee joint was the predominant joint affected by hemarthrosis in 67.85 % cases followed by ankle joint (51.7 %) elbow joint (35.7 %), hip joint (12.5 %), shoulder joint (5.3 %) and proximal metacarpophalangeal joint (1.78 %).Out of total 37.5 % patients of hemophilia had developed target joint. Knee joint was the predominant target joint in 28.57 % cases and ankle joint was the target joint in 8.92 % cases. Maximum number of patients (40.47 %) had HJHS score of zero. The mean HJHS score was 6.78 ± 9.04. HJHS score showing significant positive correlation with age of patient (p < 0.0001). Most risky period and most aggravating development of hemophilic joint damage starts from 7 years of age. Therefore, treatment decisions, such as starting prophylaxis, should be tailored according to bleeding pattern and age of patients rather than based on the clotting factor activity levels.

  11. Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, L E; Grey, T

    1995-04-01

    Mid-laser and microcurrent stimulation (MENS) have been found to be effective in the reduction of painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with internal derangement. There was significant improvement in mobility with the reduction of pain. Mid-laser was superior to MENS in its application and effect, and both were significantly better than the placebo treatment.

  12. Active compound of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. down-regulates the expression of genes involved in joint erosion in a human synovial fibroblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Boonsing, Phorani; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Panthong, Ampai; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovium. It is involved in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), resulting in joint inflammation and erosion. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has long been used to reduce joint pain and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activities of an active compound of Z. cassumunar, (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D), against cytokine-induced up-regulation of catabolic genes involved in cartilage degradation in RA. Synovial fibroblast cell line, SW982, was cultured in media containing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in the presence or absence of compound D at the concentration range of 1 to 100 µM. After 24 hours, the cells were analyzed for the expressions of MMPs, IL-1β and interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (ICE) by RT-PCR. MMPs activities in the culture media were analyzed by zymographic techniques. Dexamethasone was used as the positive control. It was found that compound D at the concentration of 10 - 100 µM significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 which was induced by IL-1β (P<0.05) concomitantly with a decrease in activities of these MMPs in the culture media. An increase in the mRNA expression of IL-1β and ICE was also suppressed by compound D. The results suggest that the potent activities of this compound may be involved in the reduction of IL-1β protein synthesis in both pro-form and active form which played an important role in up-regulation of MMPs. This study first revealed the chondroprotective activity of Z. cassumunar in the transcriptional level by suppressing cytokine-induced catabolic genes which caused cartilage erosion in RA.

  13. Effects of activating fluxes on the weld penetration and corrosion resistant property of laser welded joint of ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonghui; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi

    2015-10-01

    This study was based on the ferritic stainless steel SUS430. Under the parallel welding conditions, the critical penetration power values (CPPV) of 3mm steel plates with different surface-coating activating fluxes were tested. Results showed that, after coating with activating fluxes, such as ZrO2, CaCO3, CaF2 and CaO, the CPPV could reduce 100~250 W, which indicating the increases of the weld penetrations (WP). Nevertheless, the variation range of WP with or without activating fluxes was less than 16.7%. Compared with single-component ones, a multi-component activating flux composed of 50% ZrO2, 12.09% CaCO3, 10.43% CaO, and 27.49% MgO was testified to be much more efficient, the WP of which was about 2.3-fold of that without any activating fluxes. Furthermore, a FeCl3 spot corrosion experiment was carried out with samples cut from weld zone to test the effects of different activating fluxes on the corrosion resistant (CR) property of the laser welded joints. It was found that all kinds of activating fluxes could improve the CR of the welded joints. And, it was interesting to find that the effect of the mixed activating fluxes was inferior to those single-component ones. Among all the activating fluxes, the single-component of CaCO3 seemed to be the best in resisting corrosion. By means of Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) testing, it was found that the use of activating fluxes could effectively restrain the loss of Cr element of weld zone in the process of laser welding, thus greatly improving the CR of welded joints.

  14. The bHLH-PAS Transcription Factor Dysfusion Regulates Tarsal Joint Formation in Response to Notch Activity during Drosophila Leg Development

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Sergio; Estella, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic of all arthropods is the presence of flexible structures called joints that connect all leg segments. Drosophila legs include two types of joints: the proximal or “true” joints that are motile due to the presence of muscle attachment and the distal joints that lack musculature. These joints are not only morphologically, functionally and evolutionarily different, but also the morphogenetic program that forms them is distinct. Development of both proximal and distal joints requires Notch activity; however, it is still unknown how this pathway can control the development of such homologous although distinct structures. Here we show that the bHLH-PAS transcription factor encoded by the gene dysfusion (dys), is expressed and absolutely required for tarsal joint development while it is dispensable for proximal joints. In the presumptive tarsal joints, Dys regulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper and head involution defective and the expression of the RhoGTPases modulators, RhoGEf2 and RhoGap71E, thus directing key morphogenetic events required for tarsal joint development. When ectopically expressed, dys is able to induce some aspects of the morphogenetic program necessary for distal joint development such as fold formation and programmed cell death. This novel Dys function depends on its obligated partner Tango to activate the transcription of target genes. We also identified a dedicated dys cis-regulatory module that regulates dys expression in the tarsal presumptive leg joints through direct Su(H) binding. All these data place dys as a key player downstream of Notch, directing distal versus proximal joint morphogenesis. PMID:25329825

  15. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  16. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Joint ICS/NCCP (I) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Maturu, V N; Dhooria, Sahajal; Prasad, K T; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Yenge, Lakshmikant B; Jindal, Aditya; Singh, Navneet; Ghoshal, A G; Khilnani, G C; Samaria, J K; Gaur, S N; Behera, D

    2013-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem in India. Although several International guidelines for diagnosis and management of COPD are available, yet there are lot of gaps in recognition and management of COPD in India due to vast differences in availability and affordability of healthcare facilities across the country. The Indian Chest Society (ICS) and the National College of Chest Physicians (NCCP) of India have joined hands to come out with these evidence-based guidelines to help the physicians at all levels of healthcare to diagnose and manage COPD in a scientific manner. Besides the International literature, the Indian studies were specifically analyzed to arrive at simple and practical recommendations. The evidence is presented under these five headings: (a) definitions, epidemiology, and disease burden; (b) disease assessment and diagnosis; (c) pharmacologic management of stable COPD; (d) management of acute exacerbations; and (e) nonpharmacologic and preventive measures. The modified grade system was used for classifying the quality of evidence as 1, 2, 3, or usual practice point (UPP). The strength of recommendation was graded as A or B depending upon the level of evidence.

  17. Kernel-based Joint Feature Selection and Max-Margin Classification for Early Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Ehsan; Wu, Guorong; Saghafi, Behrouz; An, Le; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection methods usually select the most compact and relevant set of features based on their contribution to a linear regression model. Thus, these features might not be the best for a non-linear classifier. This is especially crucial for the tasks, in which the performance is heavily dependent on the feature selection techniques, like the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which progresses slowly while affects the quality of life dramatically. In this paper, we use the data acquired from multi-modal neuroimaging data to diagnose PD by investigating the brain regions, known to be affected at the early stages. We propose a joint kernel-based feature selection and classification framework. Unlike conventional feature selection techniques that select features based on their performance in the original input feature space, we select features that best benefit the classification scheme in the kernel space. We further propose kernel functions, specifically designed for our non-negative feature types. We use MRI and SPECT data of 538 subjects from the PPMI database, and obtain a diagnosis accuracy of 97.5%, which outperforms all baseline and state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28120883

  18. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  19. Inferring haplotype/disease association by joint use of case-parents trios and case-parent pairs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2010-05-01

    Recently interest has been increasing in genetic association studies using several closely linked loci. The HAP-TDT method, which uses case-parents trios is powerful for such a task. However, it is not uncommon in practice that one parent is missing for some reason, such as late onset. The case-parents trios are thus reduced to case-parent pairs. Discarding such data could lead to a severe loss of power. In this paper, we propose the HAP-1-TDT method based on case-parent pairs to detect haplotype/disease association. A permutation-based randomisation technique is devised to assess the significance of the test statistic. Furthermore, the combined statistic HAP-C-TDT is developed to use jointly case-parents trios and case-parent pairs. These test statistics can be applied to either phase-known or phase-unknown data. A number of simulation studies are conducted to investigate the validity of the proposed tests; these studies show that the statistics are robust to population structure. Using several disease genes from the literature, we illustrate that incorporating case-parent pairs into an association study leads to noticeable power gain. Moreover, our simulation results suggest that our method has better size and power than UNPHASED. Finally, in simulated scenarios where there are only a few SNPs and risk is determined by two haplotypes that are complementary or near-complementary, our method has better power than TRIMM.

  20. Kernel-based Joint Feature Selection and Max-Margin Classification for Early Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Ehsan; Wu, Guorong; Saghafi, Behrouz; An, Le; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection methods usually select the most compact and relevant set of features based on their contribution to a linear regression model. Thus, these features might not be the best for a non-linear classifier. This is especially crucial for the tasks, in which the performance is heavily dependent on the feature selection techniques, like the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which progresses slowly while affects the quality of life dramatically. In this paper, we use the data acquired from multi-modal neuroimaging data to diagnose PD by investigating the brain regions, known to be affected at the early stages. We propose a joint kernel-based feature selection and classification framework. Unlike conventional feature selection techniques that select features based on their performance in the original input feature space, we select features that best benefit the classification scheme in the kernel space. We further propose kernel functions, specifically designed for our non-negative feature types. We use MRI and SPECT data of 538 subjects from the PPMI database, and obtain a diagnosis accuracy of 97.5%, which outperforms all baseline and state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Simultaneous changes in gray matter volume and white matter fractional anisotropy in Alzheimer's disease revealed by multimodal CCA and joint ICA.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, X; Chen, K; Yao, L; Hu, B; Wu, X; Ye, Q; Guo, X

    2015-08-20

    The prominent morphometric alterations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur both in gray matter and in white matter. Multimodal fusion can examine joint information by combining multiple neuroimaging datasets to identify the covariant morphometric alterations in AD in greater detail. In the current study, we conducted a multimodal canonical correlation analysis and joint independent component analysis to identify the covariance patterns of the gray and white matter by fusing structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data of 39 AD patients (23 males and 16 females, mean age: 74.91±8.13years) and 41 normal controls (NCs) (20 males and 21 females, mean age: 73.97±6.34years) derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The results revealed 25 joint independent components (ICs), of which three joint ICs exhibited strong links between the gray matter volume and the white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and significant differences between the AD and NC group. The joint IC maps revealed that the simultaneous changes in the gray matter and FA values primarily involved the following areas: (1) the temporal lobe/hippocampus-cingulum, (2) the frontal/cingulate gyrus-corpus callosum, and (3) the temporal/occipital/parietal lobe-corpus callosum/corona radiata. Our findings suggest that gray matter atrophy is associated with reduced white matter fiber integrity in AD and possibly expand the understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms in AD.

  2. A combination of biochemical markers of cartilage and bone turnover, radiographic damage and body mass index to predict the progression of joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Jun; Garnero, Patrick; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nishimoto, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of biological, radiological and clinical parameters for the progression of radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). We analyzed the 145 patients with active RA for less than 5 years who were participating in the prospective 1-year randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab (SAMURAI trial) as a control arm treated with conventional DMARDs. Progression of joint damage was assessed by sequential radiographs read by two independent blinded X-ray readers and scored for bone erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN) using the van der Heijde-modified Sharp method. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased urinary levels of C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type II collagen (U-CTX-II), an increased urinary total pyridinoline/total deoxypyridinoline (U-PYD/DPD) ratio and low body mass index (BMI) at baseline were independently associated with a higher risk for progression of bone erosion. In addition to these three variables, the JSN score at baseline was also significantly associated with an increased risk of progression of the JSN score and total Sharp score. High baseline U-CTX-II levels, U-PYD/DPD ratio and JSN score and a low BMI are independent predictive markers for the radiographically evident joint damage in patients with RA treated with conventional DMARDs.

  3. The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor‐γ Pioglitazone Improves Vascular Function and Decreases Disease Activity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Wendy; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; Myles, James D.; Hench, Rita; Lustig, Susan; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Parameswaran, Aishwarya; Brook, Robert D.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with heightened mortality due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammatory pathways in RA negatively affect vascular physiology and promote metabolic disturbances that contribute to CVD. We hypothesized that the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor‐γ (PPAR‐γ) pioglitazone could promote potent vasculoprotective and anti‐inflammatory effects in RA. Methods and Results One hundred forty‐three non‐diabetic adult RA patients (76.2% female, age 55.2±12.1 [mean±SD]) on stable RA standard of care treatment were enrolled in a randomized, double‐blind placebo controlled crossover trial of 45 mg daily pioglitazone versus placebo, with a 3‐month duration/arm and a 2‐month washout period. Pulse wave velocity of the aorta (PWV), brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), nitroglycerin mediated dilatation (NMD), microvascular endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis risk all were quantified. RA disease activity was assessed with the 28‐Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS‐28) C‐reactive protein (CRP) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey quality of life questionnaire. When added to standard of care RA treatment, pioglitazone significantly decreased pulse wave velocity (ie, aortic stiffness) (P=0.01), while FMD and RHI remained unchanged when compared to treatment with placebo. Further, pioglitazone significantly reduced RA disease activity (P=0.02) and CRP levels (P=0.001), while improving lipid profiles. The drug was well tolerated. Conclusions Addition of pioglitazone to RA standard of care significantly improves aortic elasticity and decreases inflammation and disease activity with minimal safety issues. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be established. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00554853. PMID:24252844

  4. Microstructure and Performance of Kovar/Alumina Joints Made with Silver-Copper Base Active Metal Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, JOHN J.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HLAVA,PAUL F.; WALKER,CHARLES A.

    1999-12-15

    Poor hermeticity performance was observed for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic-ceramic joints having a Kovar{trademark} alloy interlayer. The active Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal was used to braze the substrates together. The Ti active element was scavenged from the filler metal by the formation of a (Fe, Ni, Co){sub x}Ti phase (x= 2-3) that prevented development of a continuous Ti{sub x}O{sub y} layer at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. Altering the process parameters did not circumvent the scavenging of Ti. Molybdenum barrier layers 1000, 2500, or 5000 {angstrom} thick on the Kovar{trademark} surfaces successfully allowed Ti{sub x}O{sub y} formation at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and hermetic joints. The problems with the Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal for Kovar{trademark}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} braze joints led to the evaluation of a Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal. The Zr (active element) in Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal was not susceptible to the scavenging problem.

  5. Visual Feedback of the Non-Moving Limb Improves Active Joint-Position Sense of the Impaired Limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task…

  6. Can generic knee joint models improve the measurement of osteoarthritic knee kinematics during squatting activity?

    PubMed

    Clément, Julien; Dumas, Raphaël; Hagemeister, Nicola; de Guise, Jaques A

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint kinematics derived from multi-body optimisation (MBO) still requires evaluation. The objective of this study was to corroborate model-derived kinematics of osteoarthritic knees obtained using four generic knee joint models used in musculoskeletal modelling - spherical, hinge, degree-of-freedom coupling curves and parallel mechanism - against reference knee kinematics measured by stereo-radiography. Root mean square errors ranged from 0.7° to 23.4° for knee rotations and from 0.6 to 9.0 mm for knee displacements. Model-derived knee kinematics computed from generic knee joint models was inaccurate. Future developments and experiments should improve the reliability of osteoarthritic knee models in MBO and musculoskeletal modelling.

  7. ACTIVATION OF B-CATENIN SIGNALLING LEADS TO TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DEFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M.; Li, S.; Xie, W.; Shen, J.; Im, H-J.; Holz, J.D.; Wang, M.; Diekwisch, T.G.H.; Chen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanism of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the constitutive activation of β-catenin in the middle and deep layers of the articular cartilage can compromise the homeostasis of this tissue in the TMJ. Co12CreERT2 transgenic mice were bred with RosamT/mG reporter mice to determine Cre recombination efficiency. Co12CreERT2 mice were then crossed with β-cateninflox (ex3)/+ mice to generate β-catenin conditional activation mice, β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER. TMJ samples were harvested when the mice were 1-, 3- or 6-month-old and evaluated using histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were further crossed with Mmp13flox/flox and Adamts5−/− mice to generate β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)Co12ER and β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER)/Adamts5−/− double mutant mice to investigate the role of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in the development of TMJ disorder. High levels of Cre-recombination were seen in Co12CreERT2;RosamT/mG mice. Progressive TMJ defects developed in 1-, 3- and 6-month-old β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice, as revealed by histology and histomorphometry. Results further demonstrated that the defects observed in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice were significantly decelerated after deletion of the Mmp13 or Adamts5 gene in (β-catenin(ex3)/Mmp13)co12ER or β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER/ Adamts5−/− double mutant mice. In summary, we found that β-catenin is a critical gene in the induction of TMJ cartilage degeneration, and over-expressing β-catenin in TMJ cartilage leads to defects assembling an OA-like phenotype. Deletion of Mmp13 and Adamts5 in β-catenin(ex3)Co12ER mice ameliorates the development of TMJ defects. This study suggests that Mmp13 and Adamts5 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TMJ disorders. PMID:25340802

  8. Effect of Multipass TIG and Activated TIG Welding Process on the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, K. C.; Balasubramanian, K. R.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.; Chandrasekhar, N.

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a finite element model to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of an activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated using 10 mm thickness of 316LN stainless steel plates in a single pass. To distinguish the merits of ATIG welding process, it was compared with manual multipass tungsten inert gas (MPTIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated with square butt edge configuration using an activating flux developed in-house. The MPTIG-welded joint was fabricated in thirteen passes with V-groove edge configuration. The finite element model was developed to predict the transient temperature, residual stress, and distortion of the welded joints. Also, microhardness, impact toughness, tensile strength, ferrite measurement, and microstructure were characterized. Since most of the recent publications of ATIG-welded joint was focused on the molten weld pool dynamics, this research work gives an insight on the thermo-mechanical behavior of ATIG-welded joint over MPTIG-welded joint.

  9. How does joint remodeling work?: new insights in the molecular regulation of the architecture of joints.

    PubMed

    Schett, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Remodeling of joints is a key feature of inflammatory and degenerative joint disease. Bone erosion, cartilage degeneration and growth of bony spurs termed osteophytes are key features of structural joint pathology in the course of arthritis, which lead to impairment of joint function. Understanding their molecular mechanisms is essential to tailor targeted therapeutic approaches to protect joint architecture from inflammatory and mechanical stress. This addendum summarizes the new insights in the molecular regulation of bone formation in the joint and its relation to bone resorption. It describes how inflammatory cytokines impair bone formation and block the repair response of joints towards inflammatory stimuli. It particularly points out the key role of Dickkopf-1 protein, a regulator of the Wingless signaling and inhibitor of bone formation. This new link between inflammation and bone formation is also crucial for explaining the generation of osteophytes, bony spurs along joints, which are characterized by new bone and cartilage formation. This mechanism is largely dependent on an activation of wingless protein signaling and can lead to complete joint fusion. This addendum summarized the current concepts of joint remodeling in the limelight of these new findings.

  10. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Morphometric Analysis (QMA) for In Situ Joint and Tissue Assessment of Osteoarthritis in a Preclinical Rabbit Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Stok, Kathryn S.; Besler, Bryce A.; Steiner, Thomas H.; Villarreal Escudero, Ana V.; Zulliger, Martin A.; Wilke, Markus; Atal, Kailash; Quintin, Aurelie; Koller, Bruno; Müller, Ralph; Nesic, Dobrila

    2016-01-01

    (m, Χ) of joint contact to demonstrate altered loading with disease progression, as well as traditional bone and cartilage and histo-morphometry measures. We demonstrate correlation of microCT and histology, sensitive discrimination of OA change and robust reproducibility. PMID:26808542

  11. Joint recognition-expression impairment of facial emotions in Huntington's disease despite intact understanding of feelings.

    PubMed

    Trinkler, Iris; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder that causes major motor impairments, also show cognitive and emotional deficits. While their deficit in recognising emotions has been explored in depth, little is known about their ability to express emotions and understand their feelings. If these faculties were impaired, patients might not only mis-read emotion expressions in others but their own emotions might be mis-interpreted by others as well, or thirdly, they might have difficulties understanding and describing their feelings. We compared the performance of recognition and expression of facial emotions in 13 HD patients with mild motor impairments but without significant bucco-facial abnormalities, and 13 controls matched for age and education. Emotion recognition was investigated in a forced-choice recognition test (FCR), and emotion expression by filming participants while they mimed the six basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and joy) to the experimenter. The films were then segmented into 60 stimuli per participant and four external raters performed a FCR on this material. Further, we tested understanding of feelings in self (alexithymia) and others (empathy) using questionnaires. Both recognition and expression were impaired across different emotions in HD compared to controls and recognition and expression scores were correlated. By contrast, alexithymia and empathy scores were very similar in HD and controls. This might suggest that emotion deficits in HD might be tied to the expression itself. Because similar emotion recognition-expression deficits are also found in Parkinson's Disease and vascular lesions of the striatum, our results further confirm the importance of the striatum for emotion recognition and expression, while access to the meaning of feelings relies on a different brain network, and is spared in HD.

  12. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  13. Germ Smart: Children's Activities in Disease Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…

  14. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  15. Hamlet without the Prince: Shortcomings of an Activity-Based Account of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, I consider several strengths of the position adopted by Racine and Carpendale (2007), but suggest that the authors are in danger of overstating their case. In doing so, they appear to sideline an issue that should be pivotal for accounts of joint attention: how does a child come to arrive at an understanding that people, both…

  16. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:27799688

  17. Detection and classification of interstitial lung diseases and emphysema using a joint morphological-fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Kuang-Che; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Prêteux, Françoise; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has high accuracy and specificity on volumetrically capturing serial images of the lung. It increases the capability of computerized classification for lung tissue in medical research. This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) automated approach based on mathematical morphology and fuzzy logic for quantifying and classifying interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and emphysema. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages: (1) an image multi-resolution decomposition scheme based on a 3D morphological filter is used to detect and analyze the different density patterns of the lung texture. Then, (2) for each pattern in the multi-resolution decomposition, six features are computed, for which fuzzy membership functions define a probability of association with a pathology class. Finally, (3) for each pathology class, the probabilities are combined up according to the weight assigned to each membership function and two threshold values are used to decide the final class of the pattern. The proposed approach was tested on 10 MDCT cases and the classification accuracy was: emphysema: 95%, fibrosis/honeycombing: 84% and ground glass: 97%.

  18. Hospital for joint diseases participates in international spine registry Spine Tango after successful pilot study.

    PubMed

    Röder, Christoph; Errico, Thomas J; Spivak, Jeffrey M; Murray, M; Protopsaltis, T; Lis, A; Nordin, Margareta; Bendo, John

    2012-01-01

    Spine Tango is currently the only international spine registry in existence. It was developed under the auspices of Eurospine, the Spine Society of Europe, and is hosted at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The HJD Spine Center successfully tested Spine Tango during a 3-month pilot study and has since expanded documentation activities to more surgeons. Workflow integration and dedicated research staff are key factors for such an endeavor. Participation enables benchmarking against national and international peers and outcome research and quality assurance of surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  19. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A.; Owens, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviewed the complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The concluding part of the review culminates in a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuromusculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention.

  20. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A; Owens, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviews complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The review culminates in Part II with a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuro-musculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention. Imagesp179-a

  1. Determining the shear fracture properties of HIP joints of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel by a torsion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Noh, Sanghoon; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2012-08-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a key technology used to fabricate a first wall with cooling channels for the fusion blanket system utilizing a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel. To qualify the HIPped components, small specimen test techniques are beneficial not only to evaluate the thin-wall cooling channels containing the HIP joint but also to use in neutron irradiation studies. This study aims to develop the torsion test method with special emphasis on providing a reasonable and comprehensive method to determine interfacial shear properties of HIP joints during the torsional fracture process. Torsion test results identified that the torsion process shows yield of the base metal followed by non-elastic deformation due to work hardening of the base metal. By considering this work hardening issue, we propose a reasonable and realistic solution to determine the torsional yield shear stress and the ultimate torsional shear strength of the HIPped interface. Finally, a representative torsion fracture process was identified.

  2. Epileptic activity in Alzheimer's disease: causes and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Keith A; Tartaglia, Maria C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Zeman, Adam Z; Miller, Bruce L

    2017-04-01

    Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment. Some evidence indicates that subclinical epileptiform activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease, detected by extended neurophysiological monitoring, can also lead to accelerated cognitive decline. Treatment of clinical seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease with select antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in low doses, is usually well tolerated and efficacious. Moreover, studies in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease suggest that certain classes of AEDs that reduce network hyperexcitability have disease-modifying properties. These AEDs target mechanisms of epileptogenesis involving amyloid β and tau. Clinical trials targeting network hyperexcitability in patients with Alzheimer's disease will identify whether AEDs or related strategies could improve their cognitive symptoms or slow decline.

  3. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd

    2014-11-14

    Context :  Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective :  To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design :  Cross-sectional study. Setting :  Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants :  A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) :  Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results :  Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions :  Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  4. Arthrocentesis with or without additional drugs in temporomandibular joint inflammatory-degenerative disease: comparison of six treatment protocols*.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, D; Rancitelli, D; Ferronato, G; Guarda-Nardini, L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present pilot investigation was to compare the effectiveness of six treatment protocols providing temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthrocentesis with or without additional drugs to manage symptoms in patients with inflammatory-degenerative TMJ disease. A consecutive series of 72 patients with TMJ osteoarthritis (axis group IIIb) with pain lasting from more than 6 months were randomly assigned to one of the groups receiving the following treatment protocols: single-session two-needle arthrocentesis (A), single-session two-needle arthrocentesis plus corticosteroid (B), single-session two-needle arthrocentesis plus low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) (C), single-session two-needle arthrocentesis plus high molecular weight HA (D), 5 weekly two-needle arthrocenteses plus low molecular weight HA (E) and 5 weekly single-needle arthrocenteses plus low molecular weight HA (F). At the 3-month follow-up, improvement with respect to mean baseline values was recorded in all the five treatment groups completing the protocol. No significant differences emerged between groups in any outcome variable. The protocol providing five sessions of two-needle arthrocenteses plus low molecular weight HA allowed achieving the highest improvement in almost all the outcome variables. Findings suggested that no statistically significant differences existed between the treatment groups. The clinical significance of these findings needs to be tested with future studies on larger samples with longer follow-up periods.

  5. Effect of Activated Flux on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Residual Stresses of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduraimuthu, V.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthupandi, V.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2012-02-01

    A novel variant of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding called activated-TIG (A-TIG) welding, which uses a thin layer of activated flux coating applied on the joint area prior to welding, is known to enhance the depth of penetration during autogenous TIG welding and overcomes the limitation associated with TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steels. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a specific activated flux for enhancing the depth of penetration during autogeneous TIG welding of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. In the current work, activated flux composition is optimized to achieve 6 mm depth of penetration in single-pass TIG welding at minimum heat input possible. Then square butt weld joints are made for 6-mm-thick and 10-mm-thick plates using the optimized flux. The effect of flux on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses of the A-TIG weld joint is studied by comparing it with that of the weld joints made by conventional multipass TIG welding process using matching filler wire. Welded microstructure in the A-TIG weld joint is coarser because of the higher peak temperature in A-TIG welding process compared with that of multipass TIG weld joint made by a conventional TIG welding process. Transverse strength properties of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel weld produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base materials. The average toughness values of A-TIG weld joints are lower compared with that of the base metal and multipass weld joints due to the presence of δ-ferrite and inclusions in the weld metal caused by the flux. Compressive residual stresses are observed in the fusion zone of A-TIG weld joint, whereas tensile residual stresses are observed in the multipass TIG weld joint.

  6. Effects of Nordic walking on pelvis motion and muscle activities around the hip joints of adults with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Daisuke; Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Naritoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased compensatory pelvic movement is remarkable in limping patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, a method of improving limping has not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of two types of Nordic walking by analyzing the pelvic movement and muscle activities of adults with hip OA. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with OA of the hip performed Japanese-style Nordic walking (JS NW), European-style Nordic walking (ES NW), and Ordinary walking (OW), and the muscle activities around the hip joint and pelvic movements were analyzed. [Results] The pelvic rotation angle was significantly larger in ES NW than in JS NW. In the stance phase, hip abductor muscle activity was significantly decreased in JS NW compared to both OW and ES NW. In the swing phase, rectus abdominis muscle activity was significantly increased in both JS NW and ES NW compared to OW and lumbar erector spinae activity was significantly lower in JS NW than in OW. [Conclusion] JS NW style may reduce the compensatory pelvic rotation in patients with hip OA. JS NW might be better for joint protection and prevention of secondary disorders of the hip in OA patients. PMID:27190455

  7. Plasma concentrations of amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis--potential biomarkers of disease activity and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Smolenska, Zaneta; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in plasma amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a search for potential biomarkers of the disease activity and the effect treatment. Analysis of plasma metabolite patterns with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed specific changes in RA as well as correlations with clinical parameters. Combined concentration parameter calculated as [aspartic acid] + [threonine] + [tryptophan] - [histidine] - [phenylalanine] offered the strongest correlation (p < 0.001) with pain joint count, swollen joint count and DAS 28. Such analysis of amino acid and related metabolite pattern offers potential for diagnosis as well as for monitoring disease progression and therapy in RA.

  8. Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging of Disease Activity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, Marc R; Aikawa, Elena; Newby, David E; Tarkin, Jason; Rudd, James; Narula, Jagat; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Major focus has been placed on the identification of vulnerable plaques as a means of improving the prediction of myocardial infarction. However, this strategy has recently been questioned on the basis that the majority of these individual coronary lesions do not in fact go on to cause clinical events. Attention is therefore shifting to alternative imaging modalities that might provide a more complete pan-coronary assessment of the atherosclerotic disease process. These include markers of disease activity with the potential to discriminate between patients with stable burnt-out disease that is no longer metabolically active and those with active atheroma, faster disease progression and increased risk of infarction. This review will examine how novel molecular imaging approaches can provide such assessments, focusing on inflammation and microcalcification activity, the importance of these processes to coronary atherosclerosis and the advantages and challenges posed by these techniques. PMID:27390335

  9. Keishibukuryogan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan), a Kampo Formula, Decreases Disease Activity and Soluble Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Kazuya; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Nakagawa, Takako; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Shimada, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    An increasing death rate due to cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been reported. Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese (Kampo) formula that has been administered to patients with blood stagnation, e.g. thrombotic disease and atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of KBG on disease activity and endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. Sixteen RA patients were enrolled and administered KBG (12 g per day) for 12 weeks in addition to continuing other drugs. The disease activity of RA was assessed by modified disease activity scores for 28 joints (DAS28). Plasma levels of adhesion molecules, soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were evaluated. C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were also evaluated. Fourteen patients completed the study. The disease activity of RA, tender joint count, swollen joint count and DAS28 decreased significantly. Among adhesion molecules, only sVCAM-1 decreased significantly. LPO also decreased significantly, whereas CRP and inflammatory cytokines remained unchanged. These results suggest that KBG has insufficient anti-inflammatory or immunomodulating effect but does have a beneficial effect on articular symptoms and a protective effect against endothelial dysfunction in RA patients. PMID:16951720

  10. Evaluating quality of adhesive joints in glass-fiber plastic piping by using active thermal NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, M.; Marinho, C. A.; Nesteruk, D. A.; Rebello, J. M.; Soares, S. D.; Vavilov, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    GRP-type composites (Glass-fibre Reinforced Plastics) have been continuously employed in the oil industry in recent years, often on platforms, especially in pipes for water or oil under moderate temperatures. In this case, the pipes are usually connected through adhesive joints and, consequently, the detection of defects in these joints, as areas without adhesive or adhesive failure (disbonding), gains great importance. One-sided inspection on the joint surface (front side) is a challenging task because the material thickness easily exceeds 10 mm that is far beyond the limits of the capacity of thermography applied to GRP inspection, as confirmed by the experience. Detection limits have been evaluated both theoretically and experimentally as a function of outer wall thickness and defect lateral size. The 3D modeling was accomplished by using the ThermoCalc-6L software. The experimental unit consisted of a FLIR SC640 and NEC TH- 9100 IR imagers and some home-made heaters with the power from 1,5 to 30 kW. The results obtained by applying pulsed heating have demonstrated that the inspection efficiency is strongly dependent on the outer wall thickness with a value of about 8 mm being a detection limit.

  11. Physical activity and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Froelicher, V; Battler, A; McKirnan, M D

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with more recent investigations of the health benefit of regular aerobic exercise including studies in: epidemiology, echocardiography, animal research, and cardiac rehabilitation. Recent epidemiological studies support the preventative aspects of exercise in apparently healthy individuals. Echocardiographic studies suggest morphologic changes in young individuals. Recent animal research confirms previous results as well as documenting improvment in cardiac function even under hypoxic and ischemic conditions. Studies of cardiac rehabilitation suggest that medically supervised programs do not improve or worsen morbidity and mortality. The question of whether exercise training can cause cardiac effects in patients with coronary disease rather than just improve the response of the peripheral circulation to exercise may be answered using newer radionuclide techniques.

  12. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease

    PubMed Central

    Inamo, Yasuji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Various laboratory findings are helpful in making a diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD); however, they are not specific. We found decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) activity in children with KFD. The levels of SAP fell in the acute phase and recovered during convalescence. We conclude that low SAP activity is a characteristic of KFD and may be an auxiliary diagnostic marker for the disease. PMID:28248884

  13. Effect of 2 Psychotherapies on Depression and Disease Activity in Pediatric Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Youk, Ada O.; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Bujoreanu, Simona I.; Weisz, John; Fairclough, Diane; Ducharme, Peter; Jones, Neil; Lotrich, Francis; Keljo, David; Srinath, Arvind; Bousvaros, Athos; Kupfer, David; DeMaso, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with depression. It is unclear if psychosocial interventions offer benefit for depressive symptoms during active CD. In this secondary analysis of a larger study of treating depression in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) would differentiate from supportive nondirective therapy in treating depression and disease activity in youth with CD. We also explored whether somatic depressive symptoms showed a different pattern of response in the overall sample and the subset with active inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Youth with depression and CD (n = 161) were randomized to 3 months of CBT (teaching coping skills) or supportive nondirective therapy (supportive listening). Depressive severity was measured using the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) with the somatic depressive subtype consisting of those CDRS-R items, which significantly correlated with CD activity. Disease activity was measured by the Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index. Given the potential confound of higher dose steroids, subanalyses excluded subjects on >20 mg/d prednisone equivalent (n = 34). Results: Total CDRS-R scores in the overall sample significantly decreased over time after both treatments (P < 0.0001). Treatment with CBT was associated with a significantly greater improvement in the Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index (P = 0.05) and somatic depressive subtype (P = 0.03) in those with active inflammatory bowel disease (n = 95) compared with supportive nondirective therapy. After excluding those on steroids (n = 34), there was a significant improvement in total CDRS-R (P = 0.03) and in Pediatric Crohn's disease Activity Index (P = 0.03) after CBT. Conclusions: Psychotherapy may be a useful adjunct to treat depression in the context of CD-related inflammation in youth who are not concurrently on higher dose steroids. PMID:25822010

  14. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID

  15. Application of computational lower extremity model to investigate different muscle activities and joint force patterns in knee osteoarthritis patients during walking.

    PubMed

    Nha, Kyung Wook; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Feng, Jun; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.

  16. Assessment of anti-CarP antibodies, disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients on conventional and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Pangtey, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Rachna; Rehan, Harmeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Objective Good biomarkers are important to guide decisions in the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients harbor antibodies directed against carbamylated proteins which may predict joint damage. This study investigated whether antibodies against carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) may serve as surrogate prognostic markers. Material and methods Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis according to ACR 1987 criteria were included. Blood samples were analyzed for CarP antibody levels using the ELISA method. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the WHO SF-36 questionnaire, and disease activity was assessed using the DAS28 calculator. Newly diagnosed patients were assessed at the first visit and at 12 weeks of treatment, while a single assessment was made for patients already on maintenance therapy. Results Out of 53 patients, 22 had titers of anti-CarP above the cut-off range and considered as positive for anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-CarP antibody serum level was significantly higher in patients with deformity of joints and with erosions in comparison to those without any destructive changes (p < 0.05). There was a weak positive correlation between anti-CarP and DAS 28 (p > 0.05). Also there was a weak negative correlation in all domains of quality of life with anti-CarP antibody titers (p > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between titers of anti-CarP antibodies and presence or absence of rheumatoid factor. Conclusions Serum levels of anti-CarP antibodies in RA patients with joint erosions/deformities were much higher than in those without any joint damage. Anti-CarP antibodies may have good prognostic value in RA patients with erosions. Disease activity and QoL of RA patients improved during treatment, but no correlation was found between DAS 28/QoL and anti-CarP antibody serum levels. PMID:28386136

  17. Estradiol promotes M1-like macrophage activation through cadherin-11 to aggravate temporomandibular joint inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiao-Xing; Li, Chen-Shuang; He, Dan-Qing; Wang, Xue-Dong; Hao, Ting; Meng, Zhen; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-03-15

    Macrophages play a major role in joint inflammation. Estrogen is involved in rheumatoid arthritis and temporomandibular disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was done to verify and test how estrogen affects M1/M2-like macrophage polarization and then contributes to joint inflammation. Female rats were ovariectomized and treated with increasing doses of 17β-estradiol for 10 d and then intra-articularly injected with CFA to induce temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. The polarization of macrophages and expression of cadherin-11 was evaluated at 24 h after the induction of TMJ inflammation and after blocking cadherin-11 or estrogen receptors. NR8383 macrophages were treated with estradiol and TNF-α, with or without blocking cadherin-11 or estrogen receptors, to evaluate the expression of the M1/M2-like macrophage-associated genes. We found that estradiol increased the infiltration of macrophages with a proinflammatory M1-like predominant profile in the synovium of inflamed TMJ. In addition, estradiol dose-dependently upregulated the expressions of the M1-associated proinflammatory factor inducible NO synthase (iNOS) but repressed the expressions of the M2-associated genes IL-10 and arginase in NR8383 macrophages. Furthermore, estradiol mainly promoted cadherin-11 expression in M1-like macrophages of inflamed TMJ. By contrast, blockage of cadherin-11 concurrently reversed estradiol-potentiated M1-like macrophage activation and TMJ inflammation, as well as reversed TNF-α-induced induction of inducible NO synthase and NO in NR8383 macrophages. The blocking of estrogen receptors reversed estradiol-potentiated M1-like macrophage activation and cadherin-11 expression. These results suggested that estradiol could promote M1-like macrophage activation through cadherin-11 to aggravate the acute inflammation of TMJs.

  18. Biomarkers of endothelial activation/dysfunction in infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrea V; Liles, W Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of potentially serious infectious diseases and syndromes, including sepsis and septic shock, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, severe malaria, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Because endothelial activation often precedes overt endothelial dysfunction, biomarkers of the activated endothelium in serum and/or plasma may be detectable before classically recognized markers of disease, and therefore, may be clinically useful as biomarkers of disease severity or prognosis in systemic infectious diseases. In this review, the current status of mediators of endothelial cell function (angiopoietins-1 and -2), components of the coagulation pathway (von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13, and thrombomodulin), soluble cell-surface adhesion molecules (soluble E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1), and regulators of vascular tone and permeability (VEGF and sFlt-1) as biomarkers in severe infectious diseases is discussed in the context of sepsis, E. coli O157:H7 infection, malaria, and dengue virus infection. PMID:23669075

  19. Data mining for correlations between diet and Crohn's disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason G; Purcell, Gretchen P

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating condition that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and often requires aggressive and invasive therapies. Several studies have suggested dietary triggers for disease activity. We have created a web-based tool to allow participants to record both daily food intake and wellness (i.e., disease-specific quality of life). We seek to determine if measurable correlations exist between these events in patients with Crohn's disease. Advanced data mining techniques are employed to find such correlations and the efficacies of chosen techniques are assessed. We tested our web-based system in a pilot study involving 7 participants, and we found that traditional statistical techniques identified diet and disease activity correlations in short-term data sets.

  20. Test and Evaluation of Field-Deployable Infectious Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System (JBAIDS): Malaria (Plasmodium/JBAIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-31

    Disease Diagnostic Assays in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnosis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER (JBAIDS): Malaria (Plasmodium...JBAIDS) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER James C. McAvin (Designated PI July 2011), Clinical Research Division/59th...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ESI 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Clinical Research Division, CSPG/SGVUL, 59th MDW, 2200 Bergquist Drive, REPORT NUMBER

  1. Enhancement of antidepressant-like activity by joint administration of imipramine and magnesium in the forced swim test: Behavioral and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kedzierska, Ewa; Wyska, Elzbieta; Librowski, Tadeusz; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    The effect of joint administration of imipramine (IMI) and magnesium (Mg) on antidepressant-like activity was studied in mice using forced swim test (FST). Mg doses ineffective per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) given jointly with IMI also at ineffective doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) resulted in a potent reduction in the immobility time. Since these combined treatments did not influence locomotor activity, the antidepressant-like activity was not due to non-specific behavioral activation. Moreover, we estimated the effect of joint administration of magnesium and IMI in FST on serum and brain magnesium, IMI and its active metabolite desipramine (DMI) concentrations in mice. Swim stress (mice subjected to FST) increased the magnesium concentration in serum and decreased it in the brain compared to naive animals. Moreover administration of IMI increased (normalized) magnesium brain concentration, without influence on the serum level. Joint administration of IMI and magnesium did not influence magnesium (compared with FST) or IMI and DMI (compared with IMI treatment alone) concentrations in both examined tissues. The present data demonstrated an enhancement of the antidepressant-like effect by joint administration of IMI and magnesium in the FST, and further indicate the particular role of magnesium in the antidepressant action. Since there was no increase in IMI, DMI or magnesium concentration after joint administration of magnesium and IMI, the data suggest that pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interaction between magnesium and IMI is accountable for behavioral effect in the FST.

  2. Antibacterial activity of joint fluid in cemented total-knee arthroplasty: an in vivo comparative study of polymethylmethacrylate with and without antibiotic loading.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Steve W N; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Chan, Yi-Shan; Lee, Mel S; Chang, Yuhan

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of joint fluids of patients undergoing total-knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty patients who were scheduled for primary cemented TKA were enrolled in the study. The patients were grouped on the basis of whether the cement was without antibiotic loading (control group) or loaded with oxacillin (oxacillin group) or vancomycin (vancomycin group). Cefazolin was administered to every patient as the perioperative prophylactic antibiotic. Samples of joint fluids were collected from the knee joints at 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 h after prosthesis implantation. We assessed the bioactivities of the joint fluids against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The antibiotic contents of the joint fluid samples were further evaluated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Against MSSA, all joint fluid samples exhibited at least 24 h of bacterial inhibition activity. The oxacillin (43.2 h ± 2 h) and vancomycin (40.8 h ± 1.8 h) groups exhibited significantly longer durations of antibacterial activities than the control group (28 h ± 1.3 h; P < 0.05). However, antibacterial activity against MRSA was observed only in the vancomycin group. In conclusion, cefazolin, which was administered as a prophylactic antibiotic in TKA, exhibited good ability for knee joint penetration and was sufficient to inhibit MSSA during its administration. The use of antibiotic-loaded cement can prolong the antibacterial activity of joint fluid in TKA. Further, vancomycin-loaded cement had antibacterial activity against MRSA superior to that of cement loaded with oxacillin or without antibiotic loading.

  3. Similarity in joint and mucous bleeding syndromes in type 2N von Willebrand disease and severe hemophilia A coexisting with type 1 von Willebrand disease in two Chinese pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Qin, H H; Xing, Z F; Wang, X F; Ding, Q L; Xi, X D; Wang, H L

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of two unrelated Chinese patients with hemostatic disorders. The proband of the first family had severe hemophilia A (HA) coexisting with type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) and the proband of the second family had type 2N VWD. Both probands had similar phenotypes, which included joint and mucosal bleeding, very low factor VIII (FVIII) activity (FVIII:C), and moderate reductions in VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rco), as well as a normal multimeric pattern. One FVIII mutation and three VWF mutations were identified: FVIII p.R446* and VWF heterozygous p.E216K mutations were detected in proband 1 and compound heterozygosity of VWF mutations (p.R816W and c.1911delC) in proband 2. Transient expression studies in HEK293T cells proved that R816W mutation abolished the binding of FVIII to VWF and slightly impaired protein synthesis and secretion; 1911delC mutation mainly impaired VWF protein synthesis and secretion. These results provided insight into the possible pathogenic mechanism of type 2N VWD in Chinese patients carrying these mutations.

  4. Responsiveness of Keitel functional index compared with laboratory measures of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kalla, A A; Smith, P R; Brown, G M; Meyers, O L; Chalton, D

    1995-02-01

    This study compares functional changes to change in measures of disease activity following the introduction of slow-acting anti-rheumatic drugs (SAARD) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical and laboratory variables were simultaneously monitored at 6-monthly intervals, over approximately 18 months. Function was measured by a performance testing, the Keitel function index (KFI), which was divided into sections representing small and large joints [hand (HFI); wrist (WFI) and limb function index (LFI)]. One-hundred-and-fifteen patients were studied, of whom 21 were male. The mean age of the subjects was 49 yr (S.D. +/- 12) and mean duration of disease 7 yr (S.D. +/- 7). The mean KFI at entry was 38 (S.D. +/- 18) while at the end of the study it was 31 (S.D. +/- 17) (P < 0.0001). The change in KFI following therapy correlated with the change in Ritchie articular index (RAI) (r = 0.4; P < 0.0001), early morning stiffness (EMS) (r = 0.3; P = 0.004), swollen joint count (JC) (r = 0.4; P = 0.0005), C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.2; P < 0.05) and Lansbury systemic index (LSI) (r = 0.35; P = 0.002), but not with change in Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or change in time to onset of fatigue. Multiple regression analysis showed that 32% of the variation in KFI at the end of the study could be predicted by a combination of ESR, sulphasalazine therapy, RAI, disease duration and chloroquine treatment at onset (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Reductions in disease activity in the AMPLE trial: clinical response by baseline disease duration

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Michael; Weinblatt, Michael E; Valente, Robert; Citera, Gustavo; Maldonado, Michael; Massarotti, Elena; Yazici, Yusuf; Fleischmann, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinical response by baseline disease duration using 2-year data from the AMPLE trial. Methods Patients were randomised to subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg weekly or adalimumab 40 mg bi-weekly, with background methotrexate. As part of a post hoc analysis, the achievement of validated definitions of remission (Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤2.8, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) ≤3.3, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) ≤3.0, Boolean score ≤1), low disease activity (CDAI <10, SDAI <11, RAPID3 ≤6.0), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index response and American College of Rheumatology responses were evaluated by baseline disease duration (≤6 vs >6 months). Disease Activity Score 28 (C-reactive protein) <2.6 or ≤3.2 and radiographic non-progression in patients achieving remission were also evaluated. Results A total of 646 patients were randomised and treated (abatacept, n=318; adalimumab, n=328). In both treatment groups, comparable responses were achieved in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (≤6 months) and in those with later disease (>6 months) across multiple clinical measures. Conclusions Abatacept or adalimumab with background methotrexate were associated with similar onset and sustainability of response over 2 years. Patients treated early or later in the disease course achieved comparable clinical responses. Trial registration number NCT00929864, Post-results. PMID:27110385

  6. Estimating genetic effect sizes under joint disease-endophenotype models in presence of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, Alexandre; Croteau, Jordie; Couture, Christian; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Effects of genetic variants on the risk of complex diseases estimated from association studies are typically small. Nonetheless, variants may have important effects in presence of specific levels of environmental exposures, and when a trait related to the disease (endophenotype) is either normal or impaired. We propose polytomous and transition models to represent the relationship between disease, endophenotype, genotype and environmental exposure in family studies. Model coefficients were estimated using generalized estimating equations and were used to derive gene-environment interaction effects and genotype effects at specific levels of exposure. In a simulation study, estimates of the effect of a genetic variant were substantially higher when both an endophenotype and an environmental exposure modifying the variant effect were taken into account, particularly under transition models, compared to the alternative of ignoring the endophenotype. Illustration of the proposed modeling with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, physical activity and polymorphisms in the NOX3 gene in the Quebec Family Study revealed that the positive association of the A allele of rs1375713 with the metabolic syndrome at high levels of physical activity was only detectable in subjects without abdominal obesity, illustrating the importance of taking into account the abdominal obesity endophenotype in this analysis. PMID:26284107

  7. [Surgical reconstruction of joint function].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime

    2013-07-01

    In recent years a concept of "treat to target" is introduced into a medical treatment of RA, and tight control is recommended from the early stage of the disease. However, it is difficult to relieve all patients in a true remission. Nowadays, disease activity is controlled well and a reconstructive surgery is performed at a limited number of the damaged joints in a state of good remaining of bone and soft tissue structures. The patients are highly motivated, and a newly developed disorder at the non-surgically treated joints is uncommon. Therefore, an aggressive rehabilitation is possible. Combined with a medical treatment of RA, a surgical intervention enables to acquire a higher level of ADL and an improved QOL (Japanese T2T).

  8. [Problems connected with sexual activity in patients with heart disease].

    PubMed

    Rembek, Magdalena; Tylkowski, Michał; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents some basic data on sexual activity in patients with heart disease. The most typical problems of people with stable angina or after myocardial infarction connected with sexual intercourse have been presented. Modulation of risk of heart attack during sexual activity and main problems of sexual dysfunction after acute coronary syndromes have been described.

  9. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  10. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: elongation into the media of the popliteal artery and communication with the knee joint capsule: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Unno, N; Kaneko, H; Uchiyama, T; Yamamoto, N; Nakamura, S

    2000-01-01

    Cystic disease of the popliteal artery is a rare disorder in which most cases involve the formation of an adventitial cyst that disturbs the popliteal artery blood flow. We present herein the case of a patient presenting with popliteal artery occlusion due to compression by a cyst which formed at the media of the popliteal artery. The onset occurred during a baseball game in which he played catcher. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a communication of the cyst with the adjacent knee joint. This unusual case could provide important clues to help identify the pathogenesis of this disease.

  11. Investigation of the association between metabolic syndrome and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, Maryam; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Hatef, Mohammad R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Ferns, Gordon A

    2011-06-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of autoimmune arthritis. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in RA may occur secondary to specific drug treatment and reduced physical activity associated with this condition. However, some recent studies suggest contradictory theories about the association of RA with MetS. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of MetS in RA patients and the relationship between MetS with RA disease activity and body mass index (BMI). The study was conducted on 120 RA patients and 431 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls. A considerable proportion of patients were being treated with prednisolone and/or methotrexate and/or hydroxychloroquine. Disease activity was measured by the 28 joint count of disease activity score-Cerythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28ESR). MetS was evaluated according to International Diabetic Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.005). We did not find any difference in the prevalence of MetS between the patients with DAS < 3.2 and DAS ≥ 3.2. There was no association between the DAS28 score and the presence of MetS components by either definition. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of a DAS > 3.2 in patients with BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.1, p = 0.01) and BMI > 30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.3, p = 0.1), in comparison to BMI < 25 kg/m2, was 1/5 and 1/3, respectively. RA was not found to increase the risk of MetS. In addition, disease activity in RA patients was not influenced by the presence of MetS.

  12. Proprioceptive deficit in individuals with unilateral tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament after active evaluation of the sense of joint position☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Cossich, Victor; Mallrich, Frédéric; Titonelli, Victor; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Velasques, Bruna; Salles, José Inácio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether the proprioceptive deficit in the sense of joint position continues to be present when patients with a limb presenting a deficient anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are assessed by testing their active reproduction of joint position, in comparison with the contralateral limb. Methods Twenty patients with unilateral ACL tearing participated in the study. Their active reproduction of joint position in the limb with the deficient ACL and in the healthy contralateral limb was tested. Meta-positions of 20% and 50% of the maximum joint range of motion were used. Proprioceptive performance was determined through the values of the absolute error, variable error and constant error. Results Significant differences in absolute error were found at both of the positions evaluated, and in constant error at 50% of the maximum joint range of motion. Conclusion When evaluated in terms of absolute error, the proprioceptive deficit continues to be present even when an active evaluation of the sense of joint position is made. Consequently, this sense involves activity of both intramuscular and tendon receptors. PMID:26229869

  13. Active ultrasonic joint integrity adjudication for real-time structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Erik H.; Kennel, Matthew B.; Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Stabb, Mark C.; Arritt, Brandon J.

    2008-03-01

    The Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) strategy hinges, in part, on realizing technologies which can facilitate the rapid deployment of satellites. Presently, preflight qualification testing and vehicle integration processes are time consumptive and pose as two significant hurdles which must be overcome to effectively enhance US space asset deployment responsiveness. There is a growing demand for innovative embedded Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies which can be seamlessly incorporated onto payload hardware and function in parallel with satellite construction to mitigate lengthy preflight checkout procedures. In this effort our work is focused on the development of a joint connectivity monitoring algorithm which can detect, locate, and assess preload in bolted joint assemblies. Our technology leverages inexpensive, lightweight, flexible thin-film macro-fiber composite (MFC) sensor/actuators with a novel online, data-driven signal processing algorithm. This algorithm inherently relies upon Chaotic Guided Ultrasonic Waves (CGUW) and a novel cross-prediction error classification technique. The efficacy of the monitoring algorithm is evaluated through a series of numerical simulations and experimentally in two test configurations. We conclude with a discussion surrounding further development of this approach into a commercial product as a real-time flight readiness indicator.

  14. The relationship between disease activity, sleep, psychiatric distress and pain sensitivity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite recent advances in anti-inflammatory therapy, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients continue to rate pain as a priority. The etiology of RA pain is likely multifactorial, including both inflammatory and non-inflammatory components. In this study, we examine the association between disease activity, sleep, psychiatric distress and pain sensitivity in RA. Methods Fifty-nine female RA patients completed questionnaires and underwent pressure pain threshold testing to assess hyperalgesia/allodynia at joint and non-joint sites. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between disease activity, sleep problems, psychiatric distress and pain threshold was assessed using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multivariable linear regression. Disease activity levels, sleep problems and psychiatric distress were compared between RA patients with fibromyalgia and RA patients without fibromyalgia. Results In unadjusted analyses, CRP was not correlated with pain threshold, but tender joint count was inversely correlated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.004). Sleep problems were associated with low pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.0008). Psychiatric distress was associated with low pain threshold at the wrist and thumbnail (P ≤ 0.006). In multivariable linear regression models, CRP was inversely associated with wrist pain threshold (P = 0.003). Sleep problems were inversely associated with pain threshold at all sites (P ≤ 0.01), but psychiatric distress was not. Despite differences in pain threshold, CRP levels and sleep problems between RA patients with fibromyalgia and those without fibromyalgia, associations between these variables did not change when patients with fibromyalgia were excluded. Conclusions Multivariable models are essential in analyses of pain. Among RA patients, inflammation is associated with heightened pain sensitivity at joints. In contrast, poor sleep is associated with diffuse pain

  15. Glucocerebrosidase activity in Parkinson's disease with and without GBA mutations.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Roy N; Levy, Oren A; Waters, Cheryl C; Fahn, Stanley; Ford, Blair; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Mazzoni, Pietro; Pauciulo, Michael W; Nichols, William C; Gan-Or, Ziv; Rouleau, Guy A; Chung, Wendy K; Wolf, Pavlina; Oliva, Petra; Keutzer, Joan; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Xiaokui

    2015-09-01

    Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutations have been associated with Parkinson's disease in numerous studies. However, it is unknown whether the increased risk of Parkinson's disease in GBA carriers is due to a loss of glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity. We measured glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 517) and controls (n = 252) with and without GBA mutations. Participants were recruited from Columbia University, New York, and fully sequenced for GBA mutations and genotyped for the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, the most common autosomal dominant mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots was measured by a mass spectrometry-based assay and compared among participants categorized by GBA mutation status and Parkinson's disease diagnosis. Parkinson's disease patients were more likely than controls to carry the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (n = 39, 7.5% versus n = 2, 0.8%, P < 0.001) and GBA mutations or variants (seven homozygotes and compound heterozygotes and 81 heterozygotes, 17.0% versus 17 heterozygotes, 6.7%, P < 0.001). GBA homozygotes/compound heterozygotes had lower enzymatic activity than GBA heterozygotes (0.85 µmol/l/h versus 7.88 µmol/l/h, P < 0.001), and GBA heterozygotes had lower enzymatic activity than GBA and LRRK2 non-carriers (7.88 µmol/l/h versus 11.93 µmol/l/h, P < 0.001). Glucocerebrosidase activity was reduced in heterozygotes compared to non-carriers when each mutation was compared independently (N370S, P < 0.001; L444P, P < 0.001; 84GG, P = 0.003; R496H, P = 0.018) and also reduced in GBA variants associated with Parkinson's risk but not with Gaucher disease (E326K, P = 0.009; T369M, P < 0.001). When all patients with Parkinson's disease were considered, they had lower mean glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity than controls (11.14 µmol/l/h versus 11.85 µmol/l/h, P = 0.011). Difference compared to controls persisted in patients with

  16. Neuropathologic correlates of activities of daily living in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gad A; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Tekin, Sibel; Vinters, Harry V; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Functional status, reflected by measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), deteriorates as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses. Decline in activities of daily living may be mediated by executive and frontal lobe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activities of daily living and pathologic burden in Alzheimer disease. Twenty two subjects with definite Alzheimer disease were selected from the UCLA ADRC neuropathology database. A total activities of daily living score was derived from the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview-Revised (RCDI-R) questionnaire, which was administered to caregivers of autopsied subjects included in the study. Neuritic plaque (NP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) counts were performed for 8 brain regions. There was a significant positive correlation between total activities of daily living score (higher scores indicate more disability) and mean neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts (r = 0.671, P = 0.001, and r = 0.542, P = 0.009, resp), as well as CA1 and prosubiculum neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts, right and left orbital frontal neuritic plaques counts, and occipital neuritic plaques count. Total activities of daily living score did not correlate with age at death, age at symptom onset, dementia duration, gender, or education. Deteriorating activities of daily living in Alzheimer Disease subjects correlate with greater overall pathologic burden and possibly selectively with involvement of the medial temporal, occipital, and orbital frontal regions.

  17. Fast joint detection-estimation of evoked brain activity in event-related FMRI using a variational approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaari, Lotfi; Vincent, Thomas; Forbes, Florence; Dojat, Michel; Ciuciu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In standard within-subject analyses of event-related fMRI data, two steps are usually performed separately: detection of brain activity and estimation of the hemodynamic response. Because these two steps are inherently linked, we adopt the so-called region-based Joint Detection-Estimation (JDE) framework that addresses this joint issue using a multivariate inference for detection and estimation. JDE is built by making use of a regional bilinear generative model of the BOLD response and constraining the parameter estimation by physiological priors using temporal and spatial information in a Markovian model. In contrast to previous works that use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to sample the resulting intractable posterior distribution, we recast the JDE into a missing data framework and derive a Variational Expectation-Maximization (VEM) algorithm for its inference. A variational approximation is used to approximate the Markovian model in the unsupervised spatially adaptive JDE inference, which allows automatic fine-tuning of spatial regularization parameters. It provides a new algorithm that exhibits interesting properties in terms of estimation error and computational cost compared to the previously used MCMC-based approach. Experiments on artificial and real data show that VEM-JDE is robust to model mis-specification and provides computational gain while maintaining good performance in terms of activation detection and hemodynamic shape recovery. PMID:23096056

  18. The fecal microbiota as a biomarker for disease activity in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Tedjo, Danyta. I.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Masclee, Ad A.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Pierik, Marieke J.; Penders, John; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring mucosal inflammation is crucial to prevent complications and disease progression in Crohn’s disease (CD). Endoscopy is the current standard, but is invasive. Clinical activity scores and non-invasive biochemical markers do not correlate well with mucosal inflammation. Microbial perturbations have been associated with disease activity in CD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its potential use to differentiate CD patients in remission from those with an exacerbation. From 71 CD patients repeated fecal samples were collected, resulting in 97 active disease and 97 remission samples based on a combination of biochemical and clinical parameters. The microbiota composition was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 region. Random Forest analysis was used to find the most discriminatory panel of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between active and remission samples. An independent internal validation set was used to validate the model. A combination of 50 OTUs was able to correctly predict 73% of remission and 79% of active samples with an AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity: 0.79, specificity: 0.73). This study demonstrates that fecal microbial profiles can be used to differentiate between active and remission CD and underline the potential of the fecal microbiota as a non-invasive tool to monitor disease activity in CD. PMID:27734914

  19. Modulation of the Relationship Between External Knee Adduction Moments and Medial Joint Contact Forces Across Subjects and Activities

    PubMed Central

    Trepczynski, Adam; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Taylor, William R; Heller, Markus O

    2014-01-01

    Objective The external knee adduction moment (EAM) is often considered a surrogate measure of the distribution of loads across the tibiofemoral joint during walking. This study was undertaken to quantify the relationship between the EAM and directly measured medial tibiofemoral contact forces (Fmed) in a sample of subjects across a spectrum of activities. Methods The EAM for 9 patients who underwent total knee replacement was calculated using inverse dynamics analysis, while telemetric implants provided Fmed for multiple repetitions of 10 activities, including walking, stair negotiation, sit-to-stand activities, and squatting. The effects of the factors “subject” and “activity” on the relationships between Fmed and EAM were quantified using mixed-effects regression analyses in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the slope of the regression. Results Across subjects and activities a good correlation between peak EAM and Fmed values was observed, with an overall R2 value of 0.88. However, the slope of the linear regressions varied between subjects by up to a factor of 2. At peak EAM and Fmed, the RMSE of the regression across all subjects was 35% body weight (%BW), while the maximum error was 127 %BW. Conclusion The relationship between EAM and Fmed is generally good but varies considerably across subjects and activities. These findings emphasize the limitation of relying solely on the EAM to infer medial joint loading when excessive directed cocontraction of muscles exists and call for further investigations into the soft tissue–related mechanisms that modulate the internal forces at the knee. PMID:24470261

  20. Early detection of thrombin activity in neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Davalos, Dimitrios; Baeten, Kim M; Whitney, Michael A; Mullins, Eric S; Friedman, Beth; Olson, Emilia S; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Smirnoff, Dimitri S; Petersen, Mark A; Bedard, Catherine; Degen, Jay L; Tsien, Roger Y; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with the coagulation system, the temporal and spatial regulation of coagulation activity in neuroinflammatory lesions is unknown. Using a novel molecular probe, we characterized the activity pattern of thrombin, the central protease of the coagulation cascade, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thrombin activity preceded onset of neurological signs, increased at disease peak, and correlated with fibrin deposition, microglial activation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical severity. Mice with a genetic deficit in prothrombin confirmed the specificity of the thrombin probe. Thrombin activity might be exploited for developing sensitive probes for preclinical detection and monitoring of neuroinflammation and MS progression. PMID:24740641

  1. EULAR Sjogren's syndrome disease activity index: development of a consensus systemic disease activity index for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Raphaèle; Ravaud, Philippe; Bowman, Simon; Baron, Gabriel; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Theander, Elke; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Bootsma, Hendrika; Mariette, Xavier; Vitali, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a disease activity index for patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS): the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI). Methods Thirty-nine SS experts participated in an international collaboration, promoted by EULAR, to develop the ESSDAI. Experts identified 12 organ-specific “domains” contributing to disease activity. For each domain, features of disease activity were classified in 3 or 4 levels according to their severity. Data abstracted from 96 patients with systemic complications of primary SS were used to generate 702 realistic vignettes for which all possible systemic complications were represented. Using the 0–10 physician global assessment (PhGA) scale, each expert scored the disease activity of 5 patient profiles and 20 realistic vignettes. Multiple regression modelling, with PhGA used as the dependent variable, was used to estimate the weight of each domain. Results All 12 domains were significantly associated with disease activity in the multivariate model, domain weights ranged from 1 to 6. The ESSDAI scores varied from 2 to 47 and were significantly correlated with PhGA for both real patient profiles and realistic vignettes (r=0.61 and r=0.58, respectively, p<0.0001). Compared to 57 (59.4%) of the real patient profiles, 468 (66.7%) of the realistic vignettes were considered likely or very likely to be true. Conclusion The ESSDAI is a clinical index designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. Once validated, such a standardized evaluation of primary SS should facilitate clinical research and should be helpful as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:19561361

  2. Joint analysis of infrasound and seismic signals by cross wavelet transform: detection of Mt. Etna explosive activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.; Patanè, D.

    2013-06-01

    The prompt detection of explosive volcanic activity is crucial since this kind of activity can release copious amounts of volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere, causing severe dangers to aviation. In this work, we show how the joint analysis of seismic and infrasonic data by wavelet transform coherence (WTC) can be useful to detect explosive activity, significantly enhancing its recognition that is normally done by video cameras and thermal sensors. Indeed, the efficiency of these sensors can be reduced (or inhibited) in the case of poor visibility due to clouds or gas plumes. In particular, we calculated the root mean square (RMS) of seismic and infrasonic signals recorded at Mt. Etna during 2011. This interval was characterised by several episodes of lava fountains, accompanied by lava effusion, and minor strombolian activities. WTC analysis showed significantly high values of coherence between seismic and infrasonic RMS during explosive activity, with infrasonic and seismic series in phase with each other, hence proving to be sensitive to both weak and strong explosive activity. The WTC capability of automatically detecting explosive activity was compared with the potential of detection methods based on fixed thresholds of seismic and infrasonic RMS. Finally, we also calculated the cross correlation function between seismic and infrasonic signals, which showed that the wave types causing such seismo-acoustic relationship are mainly incident seismic and infrasonic waves, likely with a common source.

  3. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    PubMed

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  4. Inflammation, immune activation, and cardiovascular disease in HIV.

    PubMed

    Nou, Eric; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K

    2016-06-19

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to uninfected controls. Although traditional risk factors contribute to this increased risk of cardiovascular disease, HIV-specific mechanisms likely also play a role. Systemic inflammation has been linked to cardiovascular disease in several populations suffering from chronic inflammation, including people living with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy reduces immune activation, levels of inflammatory markers remain elevated compared to uninfected controls. The causes of this sustained immune response are likely multifactorial and incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the evidence describing the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease and discuss potential anti-inflammatory treatment options for cardiometabolic disease in people living with HIV.

  5. Proliferating activity in paget disease of the nipple.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jean-Christophe; Fayt, Isabelle; Buxant, Frederic

    2010-03-01

    Paget disease of the nipple is a rare disease characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells within the squamous epithelium of the nipple. The most common hypothesis to explain the development of Paget disease is an intraepithelial epidermotropic migration of malignant epithelial cells originating from an underlying intraductal carcinoma. If the immunohistochemical properties of the Paget cells in the nipple have been extensively studied, their proliferating characteristics remain paradoxically poorly studied. In the present study we have investigated the proliferating activity of Paget cells in the nipple by using double stain immunohistochemistry with both Ki67 (a protein which is expressed in all active parts of the cell cycle) and cytokeratin 7 (a highly sensitive marker of Paget cells). Ten cases of Paget disease and in their associated intraductal carcinomas (n = 10) and/or invasive carcinomas (n = 4) were tested. The mean Ki67 index was in Paget disease (26% +/- 10), in intraductal carcinomas (23% +/- 8) and/or in invasive carcinomas (20% +/- 8) (p > 0,05). This is the first report to convincingly demonstrate by specific double stain immunohistochemistry that Paget disease and underlying intraductal carcinomas share a close proliferating activity.

  6. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  7. Inflammation activation and resolution in human tendon disease

    PubMed Central

    Dakin, Stephanie G; Martinez, Fernando O; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Graham; Oppermann, Udo; Dean, Benjamin JF; Smith, Richard DJ; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Roche, Lucy; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of the role of inflammation in tendon disease is required to facilitate therapeutic target discovery. We studied supraspinatus tendons from patients experiencing pain before and after surgical subacromial decompression treatment. Tendons were classified as having early, intermediate or advanced disease and inflammation was characterized through activation of pathways mediated by Interferon, NF-κB, glucocorticoid receptor and STAT-6. Inflammation signatures revealed expression of genes and proteins induced by Interferon and NF-κB in early stage disease and genes and proteins induced by STAT-6 and glucocorticoid receptor activation in advanced stage disease. The pro-resolving proteins FPR2/ALX and ChemR23 were increased in early stage disease compared to intermediate-advanced stage disease. Patients who were pain-free post-treatment had tendons with increased expression of CD206 and ALOX15 mRNA compared to tendons from patients who continued to experience pain post-treatment, suggesting that these genes and their pathways may moderate tendon pain. Stromal cells from diseased tendons cultured in vitro showed increased expression of NF-κB and Interferon target genes after treatment with lipopolysaccharide or IFNγ compared to stromal cells derived from healthy tendons. We identified 15-epi Lipoxin A4, a stable lipoxin metabolite derived from aspirin treatment, as potentially beneficial in the resolution of tendon inflammation. PMID:26511510

  8. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  9. Trunk muscle activation and associated lumbar spine joint shear forces under different levels of external forward force applied to the trunk.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; Staudenmann, Didier; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2007-02-01

    High anterior intervertebral shear loads could cause low back injuries and therefore the neuromuscular system may actively counteract these forces. This study investigated whether, under constant moment loading relative to L3L4, an increased externally applied forward force on the trunk results in a shift in muscle activation towards the use of muscles with more backward directed lines of action, thereby reducing the increase in total joint shear force. Twelve participants isometrically resisted forward forces, applied at several locations on the trunk, while moments were held constant relative to L3L4. Surface EMG and lumbar curvature were measured, and an EMG-driven muscle model was used to calculate compression and shear forces at all lumbar intervertebral joints. Larger externally applied forward forces resulted in a flattening of the lumbar lordosis and a slightly more backward directed muscle force. Furthermore, the overall muscle activation increased. At the T12L1 to L3L4 joint, resulting joint shear forces remained small (less than 200N) because the average muscle force pulled backward relative to those joints. However, at the L5S1 joint the average muscle force pulled the trunk forward so that the increase in muscle force with increasing externally applied forward force caused a further rise in shear force (by 102.1N, SD=104.0N), resulting in a joint shear force of 1080.1N (SD=150.4N) at 50Nm moment loading. It is concluded that the response of the neuromuscular system to shear force challenges tends to increase rather than reduce the shear loading at the lumbar joint that is subjected to the highest shear forces.

  10. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Iván; González de San Román, Estíbaliz; Giralt, M Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The activity of CB1 cannabinoid receptors was studied in postmortem brain samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during clinical deterioration. CB1 activity was higher at earlier AD stages in limited hippocampal areas and internal layers of frontal cortex, but a decrease was observed at the advanced stages. The pattern of modification appears to indicate initial hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in brain areas that lack classical histopathological markers at earlier stages of AD, indicating an attempt to compensate for the initial synaptic impairment, which is then surpassed by disease progression. These results suggest that initial CB1 stimulation might have therapeutic relevance.

  11. Impaired suppressor activity in children affected by coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pignata, C; Troncone, R; Monaco, G; Ciriaco, M; Farris, E; Carminati, G; Auricchio, S

    1985-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cells were enumerated in 19 coeliac disease children on a gluten free diet by means of monoclonal antibodies that define total T lymphocytes (T3), helper/inducer T cells (T4), suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (T8) and monocytes (M1), as well as by means of surface receptors for Fc fragments of IgM and IgG (T mu and T gamma, respectively). In addition, suppressor cell function was assessed in 17 coeliac disease patients by examining the ability of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-activated suppressor cells to inhibit autologous cell response to mitogenic stimulus as compared with age-matched controls. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies between coeliac disease patients and age-matched controls, whereas coeliac disease patients had a significant decrease of the subpopulation bearing membrane receptor for Fc fragment of IgG. Mean value was 8.5% in coeliac patients versus 13.4% in age-matched controls. In the functional assay, mononuclear cells from 10 out of 17 coeliac disease patients either totally or partially failed to suppress responder cells after Con-A-activation. This defect is not related to HLA-DR status, because no difference was found between patients-HLA-matched and unmatched normal individuals. In this assay, mononuclear cells of three coeliac disease patients with low suppressor activity were able to inhibit responder cells to the same extent as controls, when indomethacin was used to block prostaglandin production in the induction phase of Con-A-activated suppressor cells. Our results suggest that an abnormality in immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. PMID:3156076

  12. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Newman, L S; Orton, R; Kreiss, K

    1992-07-01

    Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity is used as a marker of sarcoidosis activity and severity, but in chronic beryllium disease (CBD) the studies of SACE give conflicting results. We examined SACE activity in 23 CBD patients, five patients with beryllium sensitization, and 25 beryllium-exposed control subjects. CBD patients underwent complete clinical evaluation, including physical examination, pulmonary function testing, exercise physiology testing, chest radiography, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy. CBD SACE activity was systematically compared with these clinical markers of disease severity. Of CBD patients, 22% had elevated SACE activity. The test did not discriminate CBD patients from those in the beryllium-sensitized or beryllium-exposed groups. However, SACE activity in CBD correlated with the extent of pulmonary granulomatous inflammation as reflected by the symptom of breathlessness, the number of white cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (r = 0.44), the number of lavage lymphocytes (r = 0.58), the lavage lymphocyte percentage (r = 0.55), and the profusion of small opacities on chest radiograph (r = 0.41). The test-retest reliability of the assay was high (r = 0.84), as was the agreement between fresh and -70 degrees C frozen sera (r = 0.93). We conclude that SACE activity levels may reflect the extent of pulmonary granulomatous inflammation in CBD but that the test does not help discriminate disease from nondisease.

  13. LOW ACTIVATION JOINING OF SIC/SIC COMPOSITES FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS: MODELING DUAL-PHASE MICROSTRUCTURES AND DISSIMILAR MATERIAL JOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-03-31

    Finite element continuum damage models (FE-CDM) have been developed to simulate and model dual-phase joints and cracked joints for improved analysis of SiC materials in nuclear environments. This report extends the analysis from the last reporting cycle by including results from dual-phase models and from cracked joint models.

  14. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  15. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  16. Activation of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Bone and Joint Infection due to Staphylococci Expressing or Not the Small Colony Variant Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Viel, Sébastien; Rouzaire, Paul; Laurent, Frédéric; Walzer, Thierry; Bienvenu, Jacques; Valour, Florent; Chidiac, Christian; Ferry, Tristan; Group, The Lyon BJI Study

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bone and joint infections (BJI) are devastating diseases. Relapses are frequently observed, as some pathogens, especially staphylococci, can persist intracellularly by expressing a particular phenotype called small colony variant (SCV). As natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes specialized in the killing of host cells infected by intracellular pathogens, we studied NK cells of patients with chronic BJI due to staphylococci expressing or not SCVs (10 patients in both groups). Controls were patients infected with other bacteria without detectable expression of SCVs, and healthy volunteers. NK cell phenotype was evaluated from PBMCs by flow cytometry. Degranulation capacity was evaluated after stimulation with K562 cells in vitro. We found that NK cells were activated in terms of CD69 expression, loss of CD16 and perforin, in all infected patients in comparison with healthy volunteers, independently of the SCV phenotype. Peripheral NK cells in patients with chronic BJI display signs of recent activation and degranulation in vivo in response to CD16-mediated signals, regardless of the type of bacteria involved. This could involve a universal capacity of isolates responsible for chronic BJI to produce undetectable SCVs in vivo, which might be a target of future intervention. PMID:26464851

  17. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  18. Joint FAO/WHO/IOC activities to provide scientific advice on marine biotoxins (research report).

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Hajime

    2006-12-01

    The Joint FAO/WHO/IOC ad hoc Expert Consultation on Biotoxins in Molluscan Bivalves performed risk assessments for a number of biotoxins present in bivalve molluscs. For performing risk assessments, the Expert Consultation categorized the biotoxins into eight distinct groups based on chemical structure. The Expert Consultation established LOAELs for the azaspiracid (AZA), okadaic acid (OA), saxitoxin (STX), and domoic acid (DA) toxin groups. The derived provisional acute RfDs for the AZA, OA, STX, and DA toxin groups were 0.04 microg/kg bw, 0.33 microg/kg bw, 0.7 microg/kg bw, and 100 microg/kg bw, respectively. For the yessotoxin (YTX) group, a NOAEL was established, based on animal studies. Applying a safety factor of 100, a provisional acute RfD of 50 microg/kg bw was suggested for the YTX group. The Expert Consultation considered that the database for cyclic imines, brevetoxins, and pectenotoxins was insufficient to establish provisional acute RfDs for these three toxin groups.

  19. [Educational activities for people with chronic disease: grants for nursing].

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Elis Martins; Maftum, Mariluci Alves; Labronici, Liliana Maria; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2012-06-01

    This is an intervention study conducted in a Unidade Básica de Saúde (Basic Health Unit) in Colombo, Parana, Brazil from March to November 2009, with 35 carriers of chronic diseases aged between 18 and 60 years, and enrolled in the Hypertension and Diabetes Program. The objectives were to identify their knowledge about arterial hypertension and act through educational group activities. Data were collected though semistructured interviews and four group meetings, and the following categories emerged from the analysis: "Understanding of the disease" and "Ways of caring". It was found that users knew the disease, its risk factors and possible complications, and that educational activities favored the sharing of experiences,provided reflection and the possibility of treatment management. This is a strategy that should be used and promoted by nurses.

  20. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Claudia P.; de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically. Many dietary approaches such as Mediterranean and DASH diet are used for treatment of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but on the basis of its components their role in NAFLD has been discussed. In this review, the implications of current dietary and exercise approaches, including Brazilian and other guidelines, are discussed, with a focus on determining the optimal nonpharmacological treatment to prescribe for NAFLD. PMID:26770987

  1. Apps for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis to Monitor Their Disease Activity: A Review of Apps for Best Practice and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Hermaleigh; White, Bonnie; Langlotz, Tobias; Taylor, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis requiring long-term treatment with regular monitoring by a rheumatologist to achieve good health outcomes. Since people with RA may wish to monitor their own disease activity with a smartphone app, it is important to understand the functions and quality of apps for this purpose. Objective The aim of our study was to assess the features and quality of apps to assist people to monitor their RA disease activity by (1) summarizing the available apps, particularly the instruments used for measurement of RA disease activity; (2) comparing the app features with American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatism (ACR and EULAR) guidelines for monitoring of RA disease activity; and (3) rating app quality with the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods Systematic searches of the New Zealand iTunes and Google Play app stores were used to identify all apps for monitoring of RA disease activity that could be used by people with RA. The apps were described by both key metadata and app functionality. App adherence with recommendations for monitoring of RA disease activity in clinical practice was evaluated by identifying whether apps included calculation of a validated composite disease activity measure and recorded results for future retrieval. App quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the MARS. Results The search identified 721 apps in the Google Play store and 216 in the iTunes store, of which 19 unique apps met criteria for inclusion (8 from both app stores, 8 iTunes, and 3 Google Play). In total, 14 apps included at least one validated instrument measuring RA disease activity; 7 of 11 apps that allowed users to enter a joint count used the standard 28 swollen and tender joint count; 8 apps included at least one ACR and EULAR-recommended RA composite disease activity (CDA) measure; and 10 apps included data storage and retrieval. Only 1 app, Arthritis Power, included

  2. Measuring disease activity in Crohn’s disease: what is currently available to the clinician

    PubMed Central

    D’Incà, Renata; Caccaro, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical behavior and dominated by intestinal inflammation. Being a chronic disorder that with time develops into a disabling disease, it is important to monitor the severity of inflammation to assess the efficacy of medication, rule out complications, and prevent progression. This is particularly true now that the goals of treatment are mucosal healing and deep remission. Endoscopy has always been the gold standard for assessing mucosal activity in CD, but its use is limited by its invasiveness and its inability to examine the small intestine, proximal to the terminal ileum. Enteroscopy and the less invasive small bowel capsule endoscopy enable the small bowel to be thoroughly explored and scores are emerging for classifying small bowel disease activity. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography) are emerging as valid tools for monitoring CD patients, assessing inflammatory activity in the mucosa and the transmucosal extent of the disease, and for excluding extra-intestinal complications. Neither endoscopy nor imaging are suitable for assessing patients frequently, however. Noninvasive markers such as C-reactive protein, and fecal biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin, are therefore useful to confirm the inflammatory burden of the disease and to identify patients requiring further investigations. PMID:24876789

  3. Measuring disease activity in Crohn's disease: what is currently available to the clinician.

    PubMed

    D'Incà, Renata; Caccaro, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical behavior and dominated by intestinal inflammation. Being a chronic disorder that with time develops into a disabling disease, it is important to monitor the severity of inflammation to assess the efficacy of medication, rule out complications, and prevent progression. This is particularly true now that the goals of treatment are mucosal healing and deep remission. Endoscopy has always been the gold standard for assessing mucosal activity in CD, but its use is limited by its invasiveness and its inability to examine the small intestine, proximal to the terminal ileum. Enteroscopy and the less invasive small bowel capsule endoscopy enable the small bowel to be thoroughly explored and scores are emerging for classifying small bowel disease activity. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography) are emerging as valid tools for monitoring CD patients, assessing inflammatory activity in the mucosa and the transmucosal extent of the disease, and for excluding extra-intestinal complications. Neither endoscopy nor imaging are suitable for assessing patients frequently, however. Noninvasive markers such as C-reactive protein, and fecal biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin, are therefore useful to confirm the inflammatory burden of the disease and to identify patients requiring further investigations.

  4. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Marcin; Karczewski, Jacek; Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, Dorota; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Rzymski, Piotr; Grzymisławski, Marian; Linke, Krzysztof; Dobrowolska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn's disease (CD) is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). PMID:26997952

  5. Hyperosmotic activation of CNS sympathetic drive: implications for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Glenn M; Stocker, Sean D

    2010-01-01

    Evidence now indicates that exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) significantly contributes to salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. Although CNS mechanisms that support the elevation of SNA in various cardiovascular disease models have been intensively studied, many mechanistic details remain unknown. In recent years, studies have shown that SNA can rise as a result of both acute and chronic increases of body fluid osmolality. These findings have raised the possibility that salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases could result, at least in part, from direct osmosensory activation of CNS sympathetic drive. In this brief review we emphasize recent findings from several laboratories, including our own, which demonstrate that neurons of the forebrain organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) play a pivotal role in triggering hyperosmotic activation of SNA by recruiting neurons in specific regions of the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. Although OVLT neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive and shrink when exposed to extracellular hypertonicity, it is not yet clear if these processes are functionally linked. Whereas acute hypertonic activation of OVLT neurons critically depends on TRPV1 channels, studies in TRPV1−/− mice suggest that acute and long-term osmoregulatory responses remain largely intact. Therefore, acute and chronic osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons may be mediated by distinct mechanisms. We speculate that organic osmolytes such as taurine and possibly novel processes such as extracellular acidification could contribute to long-term osmosensory transduction by OVLT neurons and might therefore participate in the elevation of SNA in salt-sensitive cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20603334

  6. Association Between Genetic Variation in FOXO3 and Reductions in Inflammation and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Polyarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Viatte, Sebastien; Lee, James C.; Fu, Bo; Espéli, Marion; Lunt, Mark; De Wolf, Jack N. E.; Wheeler, Lily; Reynolds, John A.; Castelino, Madhura; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; Lyons, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genetic variation in FOXO3 (tagged by rs12212067) has been associated with a milder course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and shown to limit monocyte‐driven inflammation through a transforming growth factor β1–dependent pathway. This genetic association, however, has not been consistently observed in other RA cohorts. We sought to clarify the contribution of FOXO3 to prognosis in RA by combining detailed analysis of nonradiographic disease severity measures with an in vivo model of arthritis. Methods Collagen‐induced arthritis, the most commonly used mouse model of RA, was used to assess how Foxo3 contributes to arthritis severity. Using clinical, serologic, and biochemical methods, the arthritis that developed in mice carrying a loss‐of‐function mutation in Foxo3 was compared with that which occurred in littermate controls. The association of rs12212067 with nonradiographic measures of RA severity, including the C‐reactive protein level, the swollen joint count, the tender joint count, the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire score, were modeled longitudinally in a large prospective cohort of patients with early RA. Results Loss of Foxo3 function resulted in more severe arthritis in vivo (both clinically and histologically) and was associated with higher titers of anticollagen antibodies and interleukin‐6 in the blood. Similarly, rs12212067 (a single‐nucleotide polymorphism that increases FOXO3 transcription) was associated with reduced inflammation, both biochemically and clinically, and with lower RA activity scores. Conclusion Consistent with its known role in restraining inflammatory responses, FOXO3 limits the severity of in vivo arthritis and, through genetic variation that increases its transcription, is associated with reduced inflammation and disease activity in RA patients, effects that result in less radiographic damage. PMID:27214848

  7. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    PubMed

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  8. BACE1 and BACE2 enzymatic activities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rachel R; Holler, Christopher J; Webb, Robin L; Li, Feng; Beckett, Tina L; Murphy, M Paul

    2010-02-01

    beta-Secretase is the rate limiting enzymatic activity in the production of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) and is thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Although BACE1 (beta-site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1, EC 3.4.23.46) has received significant attention, the related BACE2 (EC 3.4.23.45) has not. Though BACE2 is also expressed in the brain, its potential role in AD has not been resolved. In this study, we compared the activities of both BACE1 and BACE2, which were isolated from the same samples of frontal cortex from both AD-affected individuals and age-matched controls. BACE1 activity showed a significant positive correlation with the amount of extractable Abeta, and BACE1 protein and activity were significantly increased in AD cases. Unexpectedly, there were substantial total amounts of BACE2 protein and enzymatic activity in the human brain. BACE2 activity did not change significantly in the AD brain, and was not related to Abeta concentration. These data indicate that BACE1 likely accounts for most of the Abeta produced in the human brain, and that BACE2 activity is not a likely contributor. However, as both forms of BACE compete for the same substrate pool, even small changes in BACE2 activity could have consequences for human disease.

  9. Active Region Loops: Temperature Measurements as a Function of Time from Joint TRACE and SOHO CDS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Del Zanna, G.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mason, H. E.; Martens, P. C. H.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to quantitatively investigate the structure and time variation of quiescent active region loop structures. We coordinated a joint program of observations (JOP 146) using TRACE, to obtain high-cadence EUV images, and SOHO CDS, to obtain spectroscopic data. Loop intensities are used to determine temperature as a function of time for a single loop, taking full account of the background emission. In many locations, the emission measure loci are consistent with an isothermal structure. However, the results indicate significant changes in the loop temperature (between 1 and 2 MK) over the 6 hr observing period. It is possible that the loop structures are composed of multiple, independently heated strands with sizes less than the resolution of the imager and spectrometer.

  10. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  11. Plasminogen activation in synovial tissues: differences between normal, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis joints

    PubMed Central

    Busso, N.; Peclat, V.; So, A.; Sappino, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the functional activity of the plasminogen activators urokinase (uPA) and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) in human synovial membrane, and to compare the pattern of expression between normal, osteoarthritic, and rheumatoid synovium. The molecular mechanisms underlying differences in PA activities between normal and pathological synovial tissues have been further examined.
METHODS—Synovial membranes from seven normal (N) subjects, 14 osteoarthritis (OA), and 10 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analysed for plasminogen activator activity by conventional zymography and in situ zymography on tissue sections. The tissue distribution of uPA, tPA, uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) was studied by immunohistochemistry. uPA, tPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 mRNA values and mRNA distribution were assessed by northern blot and in situ hybridisations respectively.
RESULTS—All normal and most OA synovial tissues expressed predominantly tPA catalysed proteolytic activity mainly associated to the synovial vasculature. In some OA, tPA activity was expressed together with variable amounts of uPA mediated activity. By contrast, most RA synovial tissues exhibited considerably increased uPA activity over the proliferative lining areas, while tPA activity was reduced when compared with N and OA synovial tissues. This increase in uPA activity was associated with increased levels of uPA antigen and its corresponding mRNA, which were localised over the synovial proliferative lining areas. In addition, in RA tissues, expression of the specific uPA receptor (uPAR) and of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) were also increased.
CONCLUSION—Taken together, these results show an alteration of the PA/plasmin system in RA synovial tissues, resulting in increased uPA catalytic activity that may play a part in tissue destruction in RA.

 PMID:9370880

  12. Analysis of CXCR5(+)Th17 cells in relation to disease activity and TNF inhibitor therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepika; Henkel, Matthew; Sendon, Bernadette; Feng, June; Fabio, Anthony; Metes, Diana; Moreland, Larry W; McGeachy, Mandy J

    2016-12-22

    Th17 and TfH cells are thought to promote tissue inflammation and autoantibody production, respectively, in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TfH cells that co-express Th17 markers (CXCR5(+)Th17) encompass both of these pathogenic functions, and are increased in some human autoimmune settings including juvenile dermatomyositis. We investigated CXCR5(+)Th17 cells in RA subjects with stable or active disease and before and after TNF inhibitor therapy. CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequency was increased in RA compared to healthy controls, but other helper T cell subsets were not different. CXCR5(+)Th17 cells correlated with disease activity in subjects with active RA prior to initiation of TNF inhibitor therapy. Baseline CXCR5(+)Th17 cells also correlated with numbers of swollen joints as late as one year post-therapy. CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequencies were unaltered by TNF blockade and in fact remained remarkably stable within individuals. We conclude that CXCR5(+)Th17 cells are not a direct target of TNF blockade and therefore cannot serve as a biomarker of current disease activity. However, basal CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequency may indicate underlying differences in disease phenotype between patients and predict ultimate success of TNF inhibitor therapy.

  13. Analysis of CXCR5+Th17 cells in relation to disease activity and TNF inhibitor therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepika; Henkel, Matthew; Sendon, Bernadette; Feng, June; Fabio, Anthony; Metes, Diana; Moreland, Larry W.; McGeachy, Mandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Th17 and TfH cells are thought to promote tissue inflammation and autoantibody production, respectively, in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TfH cells that co-express Th17 markers (CXCR5+Th17) encompass both of these pathogenic functions, and are increased in some human autoimmune settings including juvenile dermatomyositis. We investigated CXCR5+Th17 cells in RA subjects with stable or active disease and before and after TNF inhibitor therapy. CXCR5+Th17 cell frequency was increased in RA compared to healthy controls, but other helper T cell subsets were not different. CXCR5+Th17 cells correlated with disease activity in subjects with active RA prior to initiation of TNF inhibitor therapy. Baseline CXCR5+Th17 cells also correlated with numbers of swollen joints as late as one year post-therapy. CXCR5+Th17 cell frequencies were unaltered by TNF blockade and in fact remained remarkably stable within individuals. We conclude that CXCR5+Th17 cells are not a direct target of TNF blockade and therefore cannot serve as a biomarker of current disease activity. However, basal CXCR5+Th17 cell frequency may indicate underlying differences in disease phenotype between patients and predict ultimate success of TNF inhibitor therapy. PMID:28004828

  14. Evaluation of Anatomical and Functional Hip Joint Center Methods: The Effects of Activity Type, Gender, and Proximal Reference Segment.

    PubMed

    McGibbon, C A; Fowler, J; Chase, S; Steeves, K; Landry, J; Mohamed, A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate hip joint center (HJC) location is critical when studying hip joint biomechanics. The HJC is often determined from anatomical methods, but functional methods are becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have examined these methods using simulations and in vivo gait data, but none has studied high-range of motion activities, such a chair rise, nor has HJC prediction been compared between males and females. Furthermore, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) marker visibility during chair rise can be problematic, requiring a sacral cluster as an alternative proximal segment; but functional HJC has not been explored using this approach. For this study, the quality of HJC measurement was based on the joint gap error (JGE), which is the difference in global HJC between proximal and distal reference segments. The aims of the present study were to: (1) determine if JGE varies between pelvic and sacral referenced HJC for functional and anatomical methods, (2) investigate which functional calibration motion results in the lowest JGE and if the JGE varies depending on movement type (gait versus chair rise) and gender, and (3) assess whether the functional HJC calibration results in lower JGE than commonly used anatomical approaches and if it varies with movement type and gender. Data were collected on 39 healthy adults (19 males and 20 females) aged 14-50 yr old. Participants performed four hip "calibration" tests (arc, cross, star, and star-arc), as well as gait and chair rise (activities of daily living (ADL)). Two common anatomical methods were used to estimate HJC and were compared to HJC computed using a published functional method with the calibration motions above, when using pelvis or sacral cluster as the proximal reference. For ADL trials, functional methods resulted in lower JGE (12-19 mm) compared to anatomical methods (13-34 mm). It was also found that women had significantly higher JGE compared to men and JGE was significantly higher for

  15. Activation of α2A-adrenergic signal transduction in chondrocytes promotes degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kai; Zeng, Guang; Niu, Li-Na; Yang, Hong-xu; Ren, Gao-tong; Xu, Xin-yue; Li, Fei-fei; Tay, Franklin R.; Wang, Mei-qing

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, α2- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased α2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an α2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of α2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of α2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of α2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities. PMID:27452863

  16. Effect of stretching on agonist-antagonist muscle activity and muscle force output during single and multiple joint isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    McBride, J M; Deane, R; Nimphius, S

    2007-02-01

    Eight moderately active male subjects where tested for peak force in an isometric knee extension test and peak force and rate of force development in an isometric squat test. Both tests where performed at a 100 degrees knee angle and average integrated electromyography (IEMG) was measured from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Subjects performed the two conditions, stretching (S) or control (C) in a randomized order. Subjects where tested for baseline strength measures in both the isometric knee extension and isometric squat and then either stretched or sat quietly for 10 min. Following S or C subjects where then tested at six time points. Following S peak force in the isometric knee extension was significantly (P < or = 0.05) less than C at 1, 2, 8 and 16 min post. No significant difference in peak force was found between S and C in the isometric squat. However, following S the rate of force development in the isometric squat was significantly less than C at immediately post. No significant differences where observed in IEMG of the VM or VL between S and C in either the isometric knee extension or isometric squat. However, IEMG significantly decreased in the BF at 1 min post after S in comparison with C in both the isometric knee extension and isometric squat. Stretching appears to decrease muscle force output in a single joint isometric contraction and rate of force development in a multiple joint isometric contraction. Possible changes in agonist-antagonist muscle activity patterns need to be further examined.

  17. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  18. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas.

    PubMed

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair; Bruun, Eywin; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity was significantly higher (about 3.5-times) in Crohn's fistulas (471 FU/μg protein, range 49-2661) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas [134 FU/μg protein, range 0-495, (p < 0.05)] and normal colon [153 FU/μg protein, range 77-243, (p < 0.01)]. MMP-3 activity was increased in Crohn's fistulas (1.4 ng/ml, range 0-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p < 0.02)]. The same applied to MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p < 0.04)]. Ramiprilate significantly decreased the average total MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3 activity by 72%, which is comparable to the effect of GM6001 (87%). Moreover, MMP-9 activity was completely blunted by ramiprilate. Doxycycline had no

  19. Cortical cathepsin D activity and immunolocalization in Alzheimer disease, critical coronary artery disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Haas, U; Sparks, D L

    1996-09-01

    The activity and immunocytochemical localization of cathepsin D in the frontal cortex were investigated in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and two groups of nondemented subjects; individuals with critical coronary artery disease (cCAD; > 75% stenosis) and non-heart disease controls (non-HD). The cathepsin D activity significantly increased with age in the non-HD population. No such age-related increase was observed in either AD or cCAD. Enzymatic activity was significantly increased in only the midaged, but not the older AD and cCAD subjects compared to controls. Immunocytochemical reactivity paralleled cathepsin D enzymatic activity. Frontal cortex neurons displayed an increased accumulation of cathepsin D immunoreactivity in aging (non-HD controls) with a further increase in cCAD, especially in the midaged group. Such immunoreactivity was markedly increased in AD. There was also an apparent age-related increase in the number of cathepsin D immunoreactive neurons in the non-HD population and a disease-related increase in only the mid-aged AD and cCAD subjects compared to controls. Senile plaques (SP) occurred in all AD patients, many cCAD, and a few of the oldest non-HD subjects, and they were immunoreactive to cathepsin D in each group. The data suggest a possible relationship between activation of cathepsin D and SP formation in AD, cCAD, and aging.

  20. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done include: CBC or blood differential C-reactive protein Joint x-ray Sedimentation rate ... chap 256. Schaible H-G. Joint pain: basic mechanisms. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk ...

  1. Nociceptive nerve activity in an experimental model of knee joint osteoarthritis of the guinea pig: effect of intra-articular hyaluronan application.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Ana; Miralles, Ana; Schmidt, Robert F; Belmonte, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Nociceptive impulse activity was recorded extracellularly from single A delta and C primary afferents of the guinea pig's medial articular nerve after induction of an experimental osteoarthritis in the knee joint by partial medial menisectomy and transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (PMM+TACL). Also, the analgesic effects of intra-articular hyaluronan solutions were evaluated. Healthy, PMM+TACL operated, sham-operated (opening of the joint capsule without PMM and TACL surgery) and acutely inflamed (intra-articular kaolin-carrageenan, K-C) animals were used. The stimulus protocol consisted of torque meter-controlled, standardized innocuous and noxious inward and outward rotations of the joint. This stimulus protocol of 50 s duration was repeated every 5 min for 70 min. One day, one week and three weeks after PMM+TACL, the movement-evoked discharges of A delta articular afferents were increased significantly over values found in sham-operated animals. The discharges of C fibers were significantly augmented only one week after PMM+TACL surgery. Filling of the joint cavity with a high viscosity hyaluronan solution (hylan G-F 20, Synvisc) immediately and three days after surgery reduced significantly the enhanced nerve activity observed in joint afferent fibers one day and one week after surgery. Augmentation of movement-evoked discharges in K-C acutely inflamed knee joints was similar to that observed one week after PMM+TACL. Our results indicate that in the PMM+TACL model of osteoarthritis in guinea pigs, enhancement of nociceptive responses to joint movement was primarily associated to post-surgical inflammation. Intra-articular injection of an elastoviscous hyaluronan solution reduced the augmented nerve activity.

  2. Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease.

    PubMed

    Kolck, Ulrich W; Haenisch, Britta; Molderings, Gerhard J

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, mast cell activation disease (MCAD) has been considered as just one rare (neoplastic) disease, mastocytosis, focused on the mast cell (MC) mediators tryptase and histamine and the suggestive, blatant symptoms of flushing and anaphylaxis. Recently another form of MCAD, the MC activation syndrome, has been recognized featuring inappropriate MC activation with little to no neoplasia and likely much more heterogeneously clonal and far more prevalent than mastocytosis. Increasing expertise and appreciation has been established for the truly very large menagerie of MC mediators and their complex patterns of release, engendering complex, nebulous presentations of chronic and acute illness best characterized as multisystem polymorbidity of generally inflammatory ± allergic theme. We describe the pathogenesis of MCAD with a particular focus on clinical cardiovascular symptoms and the therapeutic options for MC mediator-induced cardiovascular symptoms.

  3. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  4. Combined use of platelet rich plasma & micro-fat in sport and race horses with degenerative joint disease: preliminary clinical study in eight horses

    PubMed Central

    Bembo, Fabrizio; Eraud, Julia; Philandrianos, Cecile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Silvestre, Alain; Veran, Julie; Sabatier, Florence; Magalon, Guy; Magalon, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To assess the safety and potential efficacy of a standardized technique consisting of intra-articular injection of 10 cc of a homogeneous mixed product using autologous micro-fat and platelet rich plasma (PRP) (ratio 1:1) in the carpus or the fetlock joint of sport horses presenting degenerative joint disease (DJD). Methods Eight sport horses with DJD confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography and causing lameness and the impossibility to compete were treated. PRP was prepared after a double centrifugation whereas micro-fat was harvested and purified using a closed system. The two products were connected and mixed by gentle back and forth shaking of the syringes to finally obtain 10 ml of an homogeneous mixed product. Follow up was performed from 5 to 10 months with assessment of AAEP lameness score and return to training and competition. Results Nine joints were treated with significant improvement of the AAEP lameness score three months after the procedure (p = 0.021). Four horses returned to official competition between 5 to 10 months after the procedure (7.0±2.5) and three of them resumed intensive training between 5 to 9 months (6.3±2.3). No adverse event occurred. Conclusion This study is a first step in the development of innovative therapy for DJD which combines the potential chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs inside equine adipose tissue with the proliferative effect of growth factors present in PRP. PMID:27900293

  5. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'–based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils. PMID:26635735

  6. Joint Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-09

    Purpose This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the...governmental and nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the...exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs), and prescribes joint doctrine for operations and training. It

  7. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on

  8. A Joint Gaussian Process Model for Active Visual Recognition with Expertise Estimation in Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chengjiang; Hua, Gang; Kapoor, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    We present a noise resilient probabilistic model for active learning of a Gaussian process classifier from crowds, i.e., a set of noisy labelers. It explicitly models both the overall label noise and the expertise level of each individual labeler with two levels of flip models. Expectation propagation is adopted for efficient approximate Bayesian inference of our probabilistic model for classification, based on which, a generalized EM algorithm is derived to estimate both the global label noise and the expertise of each individual labeler. The probabilistic nature of our model immediately allows the adoption of the prediction entropy for active selection of data samples to be labeled, and active selection of high quality labelers based on their estimated expertise to label the data. We apply the proposed model for four visual recognition tasks, i.e., object category recognition, multi-modal activity recognition, gender recognition, and fine-grained classification, on four datasets with real crowd-sourced labels from the Amazon Mechanical Turk. The experiments clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. In addition, we extend the proposed model with the Predictive Active Set Selection Method to speed up the active learning system, whose efficacy is verified by conducting experiments on the first three datasets. The results show our extended model can not only preserve a higher accuracy, but also achieve a higher efficiency. PMID:26924892

  9. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants.

  10. Disease modifying and antiangiogenic activity of 2-Methoxyestradiol in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Plum, Stacy M; Park, Eun J; Strawn, Steve J; Moore, Elizabeth G; Sidor, Carolyn F; Fogler, William E

    2009-01-01

    Background A critical component of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves neovascularization associated with pannus formation. 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a naturally occurring molecule with no known physiologic function, although at pharmacologic concentrations it has antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. We investigated the impact of orally administered 2ME2 on the initiation and development of proliferative synovitis using the anti-collagen monoclonal antibodies (CAIA) model. Methods Severe polyarticular arthritis was induced in Balb/c female mice by administration of 2 mg of a monoclonal antibody cocktail intravenously into the tail vein of mice. Twenty-four hours following monoclonal antibody administration, mice were injected with 25 μg of LPS (E. coli strain 0111:B4) via the intraperitoneal route. Treatment with 2ME2 (100, 75, 50, 25, 10, 1 mg/kg, p.o., daily), or vehicle control began 24 hrs following LPS challenge and continued to day 21. Hind limbs were harvested, sectioned and evaluated for DMARD activity and general histopathology by histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry (vWF staining). In a separate study, different dosing regimens of 2ME2 (100 mg/kg; q.d. vs q.w. vs q.w. × 2) were evaluated. The effect of treatment with 2ME2 on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors in the joint space was evaluated 5 and 14 days after the induction of arthritis. Results Mice treated with 2ME2 beginning 24 hours post anti-collagen monoclonal antibody injection, showed a dose-dependent inhibition in mean arthritic scores. At study termination (day 21), blinded histomorphometric assessments of sectioned hind limbs demonstrated decreases in synovial inflammation, articular cartilage degradation, pannus formation, osteoclast activity and bone resorption. At the maximal efficacious dosing regimen (100 mg/kg/day), administration of 2ME2 resulted in total inhibition of the study parameters and

  11. Physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Friedman, Joseph H; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Desaulniers, Julie; Ing, Eileen; Saritelli, Jennifer; Riebe, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) such as fatigue, depression, and apathy are common and detract from quality of life. There is little published on the impact of physical activity on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD. A convenience sample of 45 patients with PD (mean age = 66.1 years; 33% female) completed questionnaires on physical activity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and specific exercise preferences. Covarying for age and gender, higher levels of physical activity were associated with significantly less fatigue, as well as a trend for less apathy and depression and greater positive affect. Exercise preferences included moderate intensity (73%), at home (56%), in the morning (73%), scheduled (69%), options for varied activities (73%), and preference for both structured/supervised (50%), and unsupervised/self-paced (50%) programs. Preferred activities included the use of aerobic exercise equipment, resistance training, and yoga. Developing and tailoring exercise programs that incorporate specific preferences may result in more effective interventions for patients with PD.

  12. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  13. Independent and joint associations of physical activity and fitness with fibromyalgia symptoms and severity: The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-09-12

    We examined independent and joint associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in 386 fibromyalgia women aged 51.2 ± 7.6 years. Levels of PA (light, moderate and vigorous) and PF were measured with triaxial accelerometry and the Senior Fitness Test, respectively. We used the Short-Form health survey-36 pain sub-scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory to assess pain and multiple dimensions of fatigue, respectively. The impact of fibromyalgia was studied with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Both, total PA and global PF were independently associated with pain pressure threshold, SF-36 pain, reduced activity, reduced motivation and FIQR total score (all, P ≤ 0.027). The associations between total PA and symptoms were weaker than those observed between global PF and symptoms. Overall, unfit patients with low PA showed a worse profile that fit patients with high PA (all, P ≤ 0.001). In summary, PA and PF are independently associated with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in women. Although PF presented greater associations with symptoms, the results suggest that both being physically active and keep adequate fitness levels might be convenient for fibromyalgia women.

  14. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A; Pacheco-Tena, C; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study of 95 non-selected patients with SpA (62 men; mean age 26.4 years), who were examined for signs and symptoms of infection and their association with disease activity. 52 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 32 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA), 6 chronic reactive arthritis (ReA), and 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Categorical data were analysed by χ2 or Fisher's tests. Results: 53 (56%) patients had infections: 41 (43%) upper respiratory tract (URT), 34 (36%) enteric, and 20 (21%) genitourinary infections. More infections occurred in HLA-B27 positive patients as a whole (39 v 5; p = 0.003) and in uSpA (12 v 2; p = 0.005). In AS and uSpA, infections occurred in ∼50%. 30/39 (77%) patients with active disease (group A) and 23/56 (41%) (group B) (p = 0.001) had infection. There were more enteric infections in group A (47%; p<0.001) and more URT infections in group B (52%; p = NS). 22/30 (73%) patients attributed disease activity to infection. Conclusion: Enteric, and less commonly, URT infections in Mexican patients with SpA, particularly those who were HLA-B27 positive, seem to have a role in the active phase of AS and uSpA. PMID:15361397

  15. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  16. [HYALURONIC ACID: STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS, THE POSSIBILITES OF APPLYING IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISEASES. A REWIEW].

    PubMed

    Volovar, O S; Malanchuk, V A; Kryzhanivska, O A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the use of hyaluronic acid has become increasingly important in treatment of degenerative disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Urgency is caused by numerous studies in biology and pharmacology on structure and function of hyaluronic acid and its influence on the processes of repair damaged bone and articular cartilage restoration, as well as the positive long-term results of treatment in this group of patients.

  17. [Relationships between occlusal anomalies and caries, periodontal diseases, oral hygiene and temporomandibular joint disorders in 401 dental students (Berlin 1974)].

    PubMed

    Richter, W

    1978-04-01

    In 1974, 401 dental students of the Humboldt University in Berlin were examined for caries incidence, periodontal condition, oral hygiene and temporamandibular joint pain. The findings were brought in relation to the extent of extant tooth malalignment and malocclusion (model analysis according to Eismann). Statistical methods were employed to test existing relationship for significance, allowing for age, sex and former orthodontic treatment. The results were evaluated in view of the need for orthodontic treatment.

  18. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR.

  19. Synaptic activity and Alzheimer's disease: a critical update

    PubMed Central

    Tampellini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Synapses have been known for many years to be the crucial target of pathology in different forms of dementia, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synapses and their appropriate activation or inhibition are fundamental for the proper brain function. Alterations in synaptic/neuronal activity and brain metabolism are considered among the earliest symptoms linked to the progression of AD, and lead to a central question in AD research: what is the role played by synaptic activity in AD pathogenesis? Intriguingly, in the last decade, important studies demonstrated that the state of activation of synapses affects the homeostasis of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau, both of which aggregate and accumulate during AD, and are involved in neuronal dysfunction. In this review we aim to summarize the up-to-date data linking synaptic/neuronal activity with Aβ and tau; moreover, we also intend to provide a critical overview on brain activity alterations in AD, and their role in the disease's pathophysiology. PMID:26582973

  20. An analysis of the inpatient charge and length of stay for patients with joint diseases in Korea: specialty versus small general hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Sung In; Lee, Minjee; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-11-01

    In 2011, the Korean government designated hospitals with certain structural characteristics as specialty hospitals. This study compared the inpatient charges and length of stay of patients with joint diseases treated at these specialty hospitals with those of patients treated at small general hospitals. In addition, the study investigated whether the designation of certain hospitals as specialty hospitals had an effect on inpatient charges and length of stay. Multi-level models were used to perform regression analyses on inpatient claims data (N=268,809) for 2010-2012 because of the hierarchical structure of the data. The inpatient charge at specialty hospitals was 19% greater than that at small general hospitals, but the length of stay was 21% shorter. After adjusting for patient and hospital level confounders, specialty hospitals had a higher inpatient charge (34.6%) and a reduced length of stay (31.7%). However, the effect of specialty hospital designation on inpatient charge (2.7% higher) and length of stay (2.3% longer) was relatively smaller. Among the patient characteristics, female gender, age, and severity of illness were positively associated with inpatient charge and length of stay. In terms of location, hospitals in metropolitan area had higher inpatient charges (5.5%), but much shorter length of stay (-14%). Several structural factors, such as occupancy rate, bed size, number of outpatients and nurses were positively associated with both inpatient charges and length of stay. However, number of specialists was positively associated with inpatient charges, but negatively associated with length of stay. In sum, this study found that specialty hospitals treating joint diseases tend to incur higher charges but produce shorter length of stay, compared to their counterparts. Specialty hospitals' overcharging behaviors, although shorter length of stay, suggest that policy makers could introduce bundled payments for the joint procedures. To promote a successful

  1. 76 FR 51123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review and Approval; Joint Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). As part of the comprehensive package of financial regulatory... Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235... Officers, (202) 874-5090 or (202) 874-6055, Legislative and Regulatory Activities Division, Office of...

  2. Guided Participation in Three Youth Activism Organizations: Facilitation, Apprenticeship, and Joint Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Multiracial youth activism groups, based in working class and poor neighborhoods, seek to improve social conditions by organizing grassroots campaigns. Campaigns such as these, which require sophisticated planning, organizing, and advocacy skills, are noteworthy not just for their political impact, but also because of the insights they provide…

  3. 78 FR 30922 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Joint Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., identifying areas of focus for on-site and off-site examinations, and monetary and other public policy... distribution of institutions, types of activities in which they are engaged, and existence of foreign offices.... Type of Review: Revision and extension of currently approved collections. General Description...

  4. 76 FR 77315 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Joint Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... off-site examinations, and monetary and other public policy purposes. The agencies use Call Report... credit, loan, and deposit information needed for monetary policy and other public policy purposes. The..., types of activities in which they are engaged, and existence of foreign offices). These...

  5. Situated Uses of ICT and Mediation of Joint Activity in a Primary Education Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cesar; Rochera, Maria J.; Colomina, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: From a socioconstructivist and situated perspective of teaching and learning processes, the authors analyze how one teacher and her group of 19 sixth-grade pupils use ICT. The study focuses on the way these tools mediate their activity, and evaluates the tools' potential for teaching and learning innovation. Method: A case study…

  6. Research and training activities of the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, L.

    1993-12-01

    During the period October 1992 to September 1993 progress was made on each of the following tasks: (1) experimental studies of free shear flows; (2) analysis of conical flow; (3) experimental and theoretical studies of vortex flows; and (4) aircraft attitude control using active flow control devices. The details of this work was discussed with the technical and management staff at Ames Research Center.

  7. The senses of active and passive forces at the human ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Savage, G; Allen, T J; Proske, U

    2015-07-01

    The traditional view of the neural basis for the sense of muscle force is that it is generated at least in part within the brain. Recently it has been proposed that force sensations do not arise entirely centrally and that there is a contribution from peripheral receptors within the contracting muscle. Evidence comes from experiments on thumb flexor and elbow flexor muscles. Here we have studied the sense of force in plantar flexor muscles of the human ankle, looking for further evidence for such a mechanism. The active angle-torque curve was measured for muscles of both legs, and for each muscle, ankle angles were identified on the ascending and descending limbs of the curve where active forces were similar. In a plantar flexion force matching task, subjects were asked to match the force in one foot, generated on the ascending limb of the curve, with force in the other foot, generated on the descending limb. It was hypothesised that despite active forces being similar, the sensation generated in the more stretched muscle should be greater because of the contribution from its peripheral stretch receptors, leading to an overestimation of the force in the stretched muscle. It was found that provided that the comparison was between active forces, there was no difference in the forces generated by the two legs, supporting the central hypothesis for the sense of force. When total forces were matched, including a component of passive force due to muscle stretch, subjects seemed to ignore the passive component. Yet subjects had an acute sense of passive force, provided that the muscles remained relaxed. It was concluded that subjects had two senses, a sense of active force, generated centrally, and a sense of passive force, or perhaps muscle stretch, generated within the muscle itself.

  8. [Changes of endogenous hormone contents and antioxidative enzyme activities in wheat leaves under low temperature stress at jointing stage].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-yan; Xu, Wen; Liu, Li-wei; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Xin-kai; Guo, Wen-shan

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature stresses (-3 and -5 °C) were simulated using artificial temperature-controlled phytotrons to study the freezing rate, the contents of endogenous hormones, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the leaves of wheat plants of Yangmai 16 (YM 16) and Xumai 30 (XM 30) at jointing stage. The grade and index of freezing injury increased with lower temperature and longer stress. The freezing rate was at the 5th level and the main stems and tillers of both cultivars were finally dead under -5 °C lasting for 72 h. On the last day of stress initiation, the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in leaves increased at the beginning and then declined as low temperature progressed. On the 3rd day after stress, the contents of ABA and ZR and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were higher than those on the last day of cold stress, and then reduced to the level of the control on the 6th day after stress. The content of gibberellins (GA3) was lowered by cold stress. For YM 16, GA3 content increased from the 3rd day to the 6th day after cold stress, whereas, for XM 30, it increased first and then decreased. For the treatment of -5 °C lasting for 72 h, the contents of hormones and the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly lower than those of the other treatments. Correlation analyses showed that higher ABA and ZR contents, and higher SOD, POD and CAT activities as well as lower GA3 content could alleviate the low-temperature injury in wheat plants under low temperature stress.

  9. An exploratory study of activity in veterans with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Trail, Marilyn; Petersen, Nancy J; Nelson, Naomi; Lai, Eugene C

    2012-08-01

    Movement disorder specialists have limited information on the specifics of how patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) spend their time. We deemed it important to examine the relationships among activity and daily energy expenditure (DEE), non-motor symptoms, and body mass index in veterans with PD who were outpatients at a Veterans Affairs medical center. In this exploratory study, we mailed demographic and activity questionnaires and gathered data on 100 patients. Activity was categorized into five domains and three intensity levels, and DEE was measured in kilocalories. Light activities accounted for 64.9% of DEE (9.1 h), moderate activities for 32.9% (2.1 h), and vigorous activities for 2.2% (0.1 h) of DEE. Television viewing comprised 10.6% (2.5 h) of the day. The effects of non-motor symptoms were significantly associated with more time spent on activities of daily life (ADL). Patients rated fatigue and pain as having the greatest impact on their daily activities. The overweight/obese group of PD patients expended more overall DEE (p = 0.044) and more DEE on social activities (p = 0.024) and light intensity activities (p = 0.021) than did the underweight/normal group. Leisure activities for both groups changed from active to passive. Veterans with PD primarily expended DEE on ADL, TV viewing, and light intensity activities. Television viewing time may have been under reported. Movement disorder specialists can be more proactive in referring patients to physical therapy and encouraging their participation in community exercise and support groups.

  10. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G

    1986-12-01

    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease.

  11. Determinants of Discordance in Patients’ and Physicians’ Rating of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, NASIM A.; SPENCER, HORACE J.; ABDA, ESAM; AGGARWAL, AMITA; ALTEN, RIEKE; ANCUTA, CODRINA; ANDERSONE, DAINA; BERGMAN, MARTIN; CRAIG-MULLER, JURGEN; DETERT, JACQUELINE; GEORGESCU, LIA; GOSSEC, LAURE; HAMOUD, HISHAM; JACOBS, JOHANNES W. G.; LAURINDO, IEDA MARIA MAGALHAES; MAJDAN, MARIA; NARANJO, ANTONIO; PANDYA, SAPAN; POHL, CHRISTOF; SCHETT, GEORG; SELIM, ZAHRAA I.; TOLOZA, SERGIO; YAMANAKA, HISAHI; SOKKA, TUULIKKI

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the determinants of patients’ (PTGL) and physicians’ (MDGL) global assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity and factors associated with discordance among them. Methods A total of 7,028 patients in the Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA study had PTGL and MDGL assessed at the same clinic visit on a 0–10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Three patient groups were defined: concordant rating group (PTGL and MDGL within ±2 cm), higher patient rating group (PTGL exceeding MDGL by >2 cm), and lower patient rating group (PTGL less than MDGL by >2 cm). Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify determinants of PTGL and MDGL and their discordance. Results The mean ± SD VAS scores for PTGL and MDGL were 4.01 ± 2.70 and 2.91 ± 2.37, respectively. Pain was overwhelmingly the single most important determinant of PTGL, followed by fatigue. In contrast, MDGL was most influenced by swollen joint count (SJC), followed by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tender joint count (TJC). A total of 4,454 (63.4%), 2,106 (30%), and 468 (6.6%) patients were in the concordant, higher, and lower patient rating groups, respectively. Odds of higher patient rating increased with higher pain, fatigue, psychological distress, age, and morning stiffness, and decreased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR. Lower patient rating odds increased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR, and decreased with lower fatigue levels. Conclusion Nearly 36% of patients had discordance in RA activity assessment from their physicians. Sensitivity to the “disease experience” of patients, particularly pain and fatigue, is warranted for effective care of RA. PMID:22052672

  12. Kashin Beck Disease: more than just osteoarthrosis: a cross-sectional study regarding the influence of body function-structures and activities on level of participation.

    PubMed

    Schepman, Karin; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Visser, Milanka M; Yu, Changlong; de Vos, Rien

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body function, activities and pain on the level of activity in adults with Kashin Beck Disease (KBD). Seventy-five KBD patients with a mean age of 54.8 years (SD 11.3) participated. Anthropometrics, range of joint motion (ROM) and muscle strength were measured as well as the time-up-and-go test and functional tests for the lower and upper extremities. Activity was assessed with the participation scale and the WHO DAS II. In the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints, a severe decrease in ROM and bilateral pain was noted. A decrease in muscle strength was observed in almost all muscles. The timed-up-and-go test scores decreased. No or mild restriction in activity was found in 35%, and 33% experienced a moderate restriction whereas 32% had severe to extreme restriction. Activities in the lower extremities were mildly to moderately correlated to ROM and muscle strength, whereas in the upper extremities activities were correlated to range of joint motion. Activity was significantly associated with ROM after correction for muscle strength, gender and age. Participation was borderline significantly associated with ROM after correction for muscle strength, gender, age and the activity time-up-and-go. In KBD adults, a severe decrease in activity is primarily caused by decrease in ROM. These findings have strong influence on rehabilitation and surgical intervention.

  13. Subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity in Parkinson's disease and epilepsy subjects.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Erwin B

    2008-01-01

    Activity from 113 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons from two epilepsy patients and 103 neurons from 9 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS surgery showed no significant differences in frequencies (PD, mean 7.5+/-7.0 spikes/s (sps), epilepsy mean 7.8+/-8.5 sps) or in the coefficients of variation of mean discharge frequencies per 1s epochs. A striking relationship between mean discharge frequencies per 1 s epochs and the standard deviations for both groups were consistent with a random Poisson processes. These and similar findings call into question theories that posit increased STN activity is causal to parkinsonism.

  14. Novel cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) neoepitopes identified in synovial fluids from patients with joint diseases using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Åhrman, Emma; Lorenzo, Pilar; Holmgren, Kristin; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Dahlberg, Leif E; Saxne, Tore; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik

    2014-07-25

    To identify patients at risk for progressive joint damage, there is a need for early diagnostic tools to detect molecular events leading to cartilage destruction. Isolation and characterization of distinct cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) fragments derived from cartilage and released into synovial fluid will allow discrimination between different pathological conditions and monitoring of disease progression. Early detection of disease and processes in the tissue as well as an understanding of the pathologic mechanisms will also open the way for novel treatment strategies. Disease-specific COMP fragments were isolated by affinity chromatography of synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or acute trauma. Enriched COMP fragments were separated by SDSPAGE followed by in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric identification and characterization.Using the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Asp-N for the digestions, an extensive analysis of the enriched fragments could be accomplished. Twelve different neoepitopes were identified and characterized within the enriched COMP fragments. For one of the neoepitopes, Ser77, an inhibition ELISA was developed. This ELISA quantifies COMP fragments clearly distinguishable from total COMP. Furthermore, fragments containing the neoepitope Ser77 were released into the culture medium of cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor)-stimulated human cartilage explants. The identified neoepitopes provide a complement to the currently available commercial assays for cartilage markers. Through neoepitope assays, tools to pinpoint disease progression, evaluation methods for therapy, and means to elucidate disease mechanisms will be provided.

  15. Novel Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) Neoepitopes Identified in Synovial Fluids from Patients with Joint Diseases Using Affinity Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Åhrman, Emma; Lorenzo, Pilar; Holmgren, Kristin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Dahlberg, Leif E.; Saxne, Tore; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    To identify patients at risk for progressive joint damage, there is a need for early diagnostic tools to detect molecular events leading to cartilage destruction. Isolation and characterization of distinct cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) fragments derived from cartilage and released into synovial fluid will allow discrimination between different pathological conditions and monitoring of disease progression. Early detection of disease and processes in the tissue as well as an understanding of the pathologic mechanisms will also open the way for novel treatment strategies. Disease-specific COMP fragments were isolated by affinity chromatography of synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or acute trauma. Enriched COMP fragments were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric identification and characterization. Using the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Asp-N for the digestions, an extensive analysis of the enriched fragments could be accomplished. Twelve different neoepitopes were identified and characterized within the enriched COMP fragments. For one of the neoepitopes, Ser77, an inhibition ELISA was developed. This ELISA quantifies COMP fragments clearly distinguishable from total COMP. Furthermore, fragments containing the neoepitope Ser77 were released into the culture medium of cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor)-stimulated human cartilage explants. The identified neoepitopes provide a complement to the currently available commercial assays for cartilage markers. Through neoepitope assays, tools to pinpoint disease progression, evaluation methods for therapy, and means to elucidate disease mechanisms will be provided. PMID:24917676

  16. Microglia-inhibiting activity of Parkinson's disease drug amantadine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Ho-Won; Hwang, Jaegyu; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Min-Jeong; Han, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2012-09-01

    Amantadine is currently used as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian drug. Although the drug is known to bind a viral proton channel protein, the mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains to be determined. This study investigated whether the drug has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation, which have been implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. Using cultured microglial cells, it was demonstrated that the drug inhibited inflammatory activation of microglia and a signaling pathway that governs the microglial activation. The drug reduced the expression and production of proinflammatory mediators in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells. The microglia-inhibiting activity of amantadine was also demonstrated in a microglia/neuron coculture and animal models of neuroinflammation and Parkinson's disease. Collectively, our results suggest that amantadine may act on microglia in the central nervous system to inhibit their inflammatory activation, thereby attenuating neuroinflammation. These results provide a molecular basis of the glia-targeted mechanism of action for amantadine.

  17. Modeling Joint Effects of Mixtures of Chemicals on Microorganisms Using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-22

    toxicity results from the 40 chemicals placed in the testing set were used to develop QSAR models. Molecular connectivity indexes were calculated for...Toxic Unit, Additivity Index , and Mixture Toxicity Index . The validity of these concepts was further verified using the results of the 8-component testing...standard deviation of 22.6. These variations are comparable to those reported by Blum (1989) for activated sludge cultures and Microtox , and may be

  18. Biochemical markers of ongoing joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis - current and future applications, limitations and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease associated with potentially debilitating joint inflammation, as well as altered skeletal bone metabolism and co-morbid conditions. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to control disease activity offers the highest likelihood of preserving function and preventing disability. Joint inflammation is characterized by synovitis, osteitis, and/or peri-articular osteopenia, often accompanied by development of subchondral bone erosions, as well as progressive joint space narrowing. Biochemical markers of joint cartilage and bone degradation may enable timely detection and assessment of ongoing joint damage, and their use in facilitating treatment strategies is under investigation. Early detection of joint damage may be assisted by the characterization of biochemical markers that identify patients whose joint damage is progressing rapidly and who are thus most in need of aggressive treatment, and that, alone or in combination, identify those individuals who are likely to respond best to a potential treatment, both in terms of limiting joint damage and relieving symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe currently available biochemical markers of joint metabolism in relation to the pathobiology of joint damage and systemic bone loss in RA; to assess the limitations of, and need for additional, novel biochemical markers in RA and other rheumatic diseases, and the strategies used for assay development; and to examine the feasibility of advancement of personalized health care using biochemical markers to select therapeutic agents to which a patient is most likely to respond. PMID:21539724

  19. Recreational physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Evan L; Chen, Honglei; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. We prospectively followed 143,325 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2001 (mean age at baseline = 63). Recreational physical activity was estimated at baseline from the reported number of hours per week on average spent performing light intensity activities (walking, dancing) and moderate to vigorous intensity activities (jogging/running, lap swimming, tennis/racquetball, bicycling/stationary bike, aerobics/calisthenics). Incident cases of PD (n = 413) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Risk of PD declined in the highest categories of baseline recreational activity. The RR comparing the highest category of total recreational activity (men > or = 23 metabolic equivalent task-hours/week [MET-h/wk], women > or = 18.5 MET-h/wk) to no activity was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.2; P trend = 0.07). When light activity and moderate to vigorous activity were examined separately, only the latter was found to be associated with PD risk. The RR comparing the highest category of moderate to vigorous activity (men > or = 16 MET-h/wk, women > or = 11.5 MET-h/wk) to the lowest (0 MET-h/wk) was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.0; P trend = 0.02). These results did not differ significantly by gender. The results were similar when we excluded cases with symptom onset in the first 4 years of follow-up. Our results may be explained either by a reduction in PD risk through moderate to vigorous activity, or by decreased baseline recreational activity due to preclinical PD.

  20. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  1. Acceleration control system for semi-active in-car crib with joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, T.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce the risk of injury to an infant in an in-car crib (or in a child safety bed) collision shock during a car crash, it is necessary to maintain a constant force acting on the crib below a certain allowable value. To realize this objective, we propose a semi-active in-car crib system with the joint application of regular and inverted pendulum mechanisms. The arms of the proposed crib system support the crib like a pendulum while the pendulum system itself is supported like an inverted pendulum by the arms. In addition, the friction torque of each arm is controlled using a brake mechanism that enables the proposed in-car crib to decrease the acceleration of the crib gradually and maintain it around the target value. This system not only reduces the impulsive force but also transfers the force to the infant's back using a spin control system, i.e., the impulse force acts is made to act perpendicularly on the crib. The spin control system was developed in our previous work. This work focuses on the acceleration control system. A semi-active control law with acceleration feedback is introduced, and the effectiveness of the system is demonstrated using numerical simulation and model experiment.

  2. Arthrosonography of hip and knee joints in the follow up of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, M; Foell, D; Ganser, G; Roth, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twenty eight patients with JRA with active disease at entry in 15 hips and 38 knee joints were followed up three times in intervals of 4–6 weeks. Sonographic, clinical, and laboratory findings were documented at the same time in clinically active and inactive disease. As controls of the sonographic variables 10 children without a history of arthritis were examined by ultrasound. Results: In active arthritis of the hip joint 19/31 (61%) examinations showed a pathological widening of the synovial joint space. There was no significant correlation between sonographic and clinical measures of disease activity in coxitis. Marked effusion within the suprapatellar pouch was seen in 87% and thickening of the synovial membrane in 92% of cases of active gonarthritis in patients with JRA. There was a significant difference in the number of patients with joint effusion and in the mean joint effusion between patients with clinically active gonarthritis at entry and inactive arthritis at follow up (p<0.001). In contrast, synovial thickening persisted in about 80% after induction of clinical remission. Conclusion: The data confirm the high sensitivity of arthrosonography in imaging changes in hip and knee joints of patients with JRA. Sonographic effusion of the knee provided the highest correlation with measures of clinical disease activity. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether persistent thickening of the synovial membrane detected by ultrasound in clinically inactive arthritis indicates residual inflammatory activity and an increased risk of relapse. PMID:12594110

  3. Current Status of Joint AFRL/NASA Microgravity Spray Cooling Research Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalak, Travis; Yerkes,Kirk; McQuillen, John; Golliher, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Research Lab and the NASA Glenn Research Center are cooperatively examining spray cooling in a low and a variable gravity environment by conducting experiments principally aboard the NASA Reduced Gravity Aircraft. The objective of these research activities is to examine an effective high-heat flux, high-power thermal management technology using spray cooling for both aircraft and space-based platforms. Previous studies have demonstrated that two phase heat transfer and fluid management are issues that need to be examined. This effort has obtained preliminary results which confirm these concerns. More research is planned.

  4. A Hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation for Real-Time Estimation of Joint Torque and Closed-Loop Control of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Fattal, Charles; Gelis, Anthony; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    As a neuroprosthetic technique, functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore lost motor performance of impaired patients. Through delivering electrical pulses to target muscles, the joint movement can be eventually elicited. This work presents a real-time FES system which is able to deal with two neuroprosthetic missions: one is estimating FES-induced joint torque with evoked electromyograph (eEMG), and the other is artificially controlling muscle activation with such eEMG feedback. The clinical experiment results on spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects show promising performance of the proposed FES system. PMID:27990235

  5. BOUSSOLE: A Joint CNRS-INSU, ESA, CNES, and NASA Ocean Color Calibration and Validation Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, David; Chami, Malik; Claustre, Herve; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Morel, Andre; Becu, Guislain; Gentili, Bernard; Louis, Francis; Ras, Josephine; Roussier, Emmanuel; Scott, Alec J.; Tailliez, Dominique; Hooker, Stanford B.; Guevel, Pierre; Deste, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril; Adams, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the Bouee pour l'acquisition de Series Optiques a Long Terme (BOUSSOLE) project, the primary objectives of which are to provide a long-term time series of optical properties in support of a) calibration and validation activities associated with satellite ocean color missions, and b) bio-optical research in oceanic waters. The following are included in the report: 1) an introduction to the rationale for establishing the project; 2) a definition of vicarious calibration and the specific requirements attached to it; 3) the organization of the project and the characteristics of the measurement site--in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 4) a qualitative overview of the collected data; 5) details about the buoy that was specifically designed and built for this project; 6) data collection protocols and data processing techniques; 7) a quantitative summary of the collected data, and a discussion of some sample results, including match-up analyses for the currently operational ocean color sensors, namely MERIS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS; and 8) preliminary results of the vicarious radiometric calibration of MERIS, including a tentative uncertainty budget. The results of this match-up analysis allow performance comparisons of various ocean color sensors to be performed, demonstrating the ability of the BOUSSOLE activity, i.e., combining a dedicated platform and commercial-off-the-shelf instrumentation, to provide data qualified to monitor the quality of ocean color products on the long term.

  6. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  7. Creation of the CCIVA ERA via a Networks of research funders and managers and joint transnational activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Capela Lourenço, T.

    2010-09-01

    As a precursor, CIRCLE ERA-Net (Climate Impact Research Coordination for a Larger Europe) was a European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 6 (FP6) funded project under the European Research Area (ERA) Networks scheme. Its success is now being followed by CIRCLE-2 (Climate Impact Research and Response Coordination for a Larger Europe) a European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project. CIRCLE initiated in 2005 as a Coordination Action (CA) until 2009 and its second phase CIRCLE-2 (2010-2014) currently involves 20 partner and 15 associated partner institutions from 24 different European countries. Key national research funding and managing institutions across Europe are represented in the CIRCLE-2 consortium either directly or through their national/regional research programmes on Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation (CCIVA). The main objective of CIRCLE-2 is to step up coordination of research activities carried out at national/regional level in the EU Member and Associated States by supporting and enhancing collaboration efforts between national research programmes on CCIVA. By the setting up of different sub-groups based on their geo-climatic or socio-economic circumstances (e.g. Mediterranean, Nordic, Central and Eastern European States, Mountainous areas) CIRCLE establish a strong and close network that enables the alignment of national CCIVA research agendas and their funding budgets. Through a multi-level assessment of CCIVA research needs, CIRCLE provided the framework for the programme, design and launch of joint calls for research projects. Three of such transnational joint calls where issued for the Mediterranean (2007-2010), the Nordic (2007-2009) and Mountainous areas (2009 - 2010). Alongside with its focus on the research management of transnational CCIVA science, CIRCLE has developed efforts to support the European adaptation and response processes by aggregating and making available national/regional information on

  8. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules.

  9. Three groups in the 28 joints for rheumatoid arthritis synovitis--analysis using more than 17,000 assessments in the KURAMA database.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Murakami, Kosaku; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Yamakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Usui, Takashi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Furu, Moritoshi; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a joint-destructive autoimmune disease. Three composite indices evaluating the same 28 joints are commonly used for the evaluation of RA activity. However, the relationship between, and the frequency of, the joint involvements are still not fully understood. Here, we obtained and analyzed 17,311 assessments for 28 joints in 1,314 patients with RA from 2005 to 2011 from electronic clinical chart templates stored in the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Affected rates for swelling and tenderness were assessed for each of the 28 joints and compared between two different sets of RA patients. Correlations of joint symptoms were analyzed for swellings and tenderness using kappa coefficient and eigen vectors by principal component analysis. As a result, we found that joint affected rates greatly varied from joint to joint both for tenderness and swelling for the two sets. Right wrist joint is the most affected joint of the 28 joints. Tenderness and swellings are well correlated in the same joints except for the shoulder joints. Patients with RA tended to demonstrate right-dominant joint involvement and joint destruction. We also found that RA synovitis could be classified into three categories of joints in the correlation analyses: large joints with wrist joints, PIP joints, and MCP joints. Clustering analysis based on distribution of synovitis revealed that patients with RA could be classified into six subgroups. We confirmed the symmetric joint involvement in RA. Our results suggested that RA synovitis can be classified into subgroups and that several different mechanisms may underlie the pathophysiology in RA synovitis.

  10. Three Groups in the 28 Joints for Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis – Analysis Using More than 17,000 Assessments in the KURAMA Database

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Chikashi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Murakami, Kosaku; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Yamakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Usui, Takashi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Furu, Moritoshi; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a joint-destructive autoimmune disease. Three composite indices evaluating the same 28 joints are commonly used for the evaluation of RA activity. However, the relationship between, and the frequency of, the joint involvements are still not fully understood. Here, we obtained and analyzed 17,311 assessments for 28 joints in 1,314 patients with RA from 2005 to 2011 from electronic clinical chart templates stored in the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Affected rates for swelling and tenderness were assessed for each of the 28 joints and compared between two different sets of RA patients. Correlations of joint symptoms were analyzed for swellings and tenderness using kappa coefficient and eigen vectors by principal component analysis. As a result, we found that joint affected rates greatly varied from joint to joint both for tenderness and swelling for the two sets. Right wrist joint is the most affected joint of the 28 joints. Tenderness and swellings are well correlated in the same joints except for the shoulder joints. Patients with RA tended to demonstrate right-dominant joint involvement and joint destruction. We also found that RA synovitis could be classified into three categories of joints in the correlation analyses: large joints with wrist joints, PIP joints, and MCP joints. Clustering analysis based on distribution of synovitis revealed that patients with RA could be classified into six subgroups. We confirmed the symmetric joint involvement in RA. Our results suggested that RA synovitis can be classified into subgroups and that several different mechanisms may underlie the pathophysiology in RA synovitis. PMID:23555018

  11. Mechanisms of Physical Activity Limitation in Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, George; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i) the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii) the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii) the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients' quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. PMID:23365738

  12. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus - a key component of the reticular activating system - provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an 'energizing' influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  13. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  14. NOX Activation by Subunit Interaction and Underlying Mechanisms in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Radhika; Geng, Xiaokun; Li, Fengwu; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme complex with the sole function of producing superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NADPH. Vital to the immune system as well as cellular signaling, NOX is also involved in the pathologies of a wide variety of disease states. Particularly, it is an integral player in many neurological diseases, including stroke, TBI, and neurodegenerative diseases. Pathologically, NOX produces an excessive amount of ROS that exceed the body’s antioxidant ability to neutralize them, leading to oxidative stress and aberrant signaling. This prevalence makes it an attractive therapeutic target and as such, NOX inhibitors have been studied and developed to counter NOX’s deleterious effects. However, recent studies of NOX have created a better understanding of the NOX complex. Comprised of independent cytosolic subunits, p47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and Rac, and membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, the NOX complex requires a unique activation process through subunit interaction. Of these subunits, p47-phox plays the most important role in activation, binding and translocating the cytosolic subunits to the membrane and anchoring to p22-phox to organize the complex for NOX activation and function. Moreover, these interactions, particularly that between p47-phox and p22-phox, are dependent on phosphorylation initiated by upstream processes involving protein kinase C (PKC). This review will look at these interactions between subunits and with PKC. It will focus on the interaction involving p47-phox with p22-phox, key in bringing the cytosolic subunits to the membrane. Furthermore, the implication of these interactions as a target for NOX inhibitors such as apocynin will be discussed as a potential avenue for further investigation, in order to develop more specific NOX inhibitors based on the inhibition of NOX assembly and activation. PMID:28119569

  15. Variations in human liver fucosyltransferase activities in hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Jezequel-Cuer, M; Dalix, A M; Flejou, J F; Durand, G

    1992-06-01

    The hyperfucosylation of a number of glycoconjugates observed in liver diseases involves the action of several specific fucosyltransferases (F.T.) notably responsible for synthesizing histo-blood group antigens. We determined the activities of alpha 3, alpha 2 and alpha 3/4 F.T. in 35 liver biopsy samples from patients with fatty liver, alcoholic or post-hepatic liver cirrhosis, primary or secondary biliary cirrhosis, acute hepatitis or a normal liver. F.T. activities were measured by transfer of GDP [14C] fucose to asialotransferrin for alpha 3 F.T., to phenyl beta-D-galactoside for alpha 2 F.T. and to 2' fucosyllactose for alpha 3/4 F.T. The diseased liver extracts showed an early increase in non-Le gene-associated alpha 3 F.T. activity (p = 0.001), which was related to the number of steatosic hepatocytes and the degree of intralobular inflammatory infiltration. Overexpression of this alpha 3 F.T. provides an explanation for the strong expression of 3-fucosyl lactosamine structures described in several hepatobiliary diseases. alpha 2 F.T. levels were significantly elevated in the two groups of liver cirrhosis and acute hepatitis (p = 0.05), but not enough to consider alpha 2 F.T. as a sensitive feature of mesenchymal cell injury. All Lewis-positive biopsies displaying biliary alterations showed increased Le gene-encoded alpha 3/4 F.T. activity (p = 0.001), which was related to the intensity of neoductular proliferation. Elevated levels of alpha 3/4 F.T. may be a very early sign of biliary regeneration.

  16. IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND PAEDIATRIC HIV-1 DISEASE OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Roider, J; Muenchhoff, M; Goulder, PJR

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The paediatric HIV epidemic is changing. Over the past decade, new infections have substantially reduced whilst access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased. Overall this success means that numbers of children living with HIV are climbing. In addition, the problems in adults of chronic inflammation resulting from persistent immune activation even following ART-mediated suppression of viral replication are magnified in children infected from birth. Recent findings Features of immune ontogeny favor low immune activation in early life, whilst specific aspects of paediatric HIV infection tend to increase it. A subset of ART-naïve non-progressing children exists in whom normal CD4 counts are maintained in the setting of persistent high viremia and yet in the context of low immune activation. This sooty mangabey-like phenotype contrasts with non-progressing adult infection characterized by the expression of protective HLA class I molecules and low viral load. The particular factors contributing to raised or lowered immune activation in paediatric infection, and that ultimately influence disease outcome, are discussed. Summary Novel strategies to circumvent the unwanted long-term consequences of HIV infection may be possible in children in whom natural immune ontogeny in early life militates against immune activation. Defining the mechanisms underlying low immune activation in natural HIV infection would have applications beyond paediatric HIV. PMID:26679413

  17. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  18. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  19. Immortalized Parkinson's disease lymphocytes have enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity

    PubMed Central

    Annesley, Sarah J.; Lay, Sui T.; De Piazza, Shawn W.; Sanislav, Oana; Hammersley, Eleanor; Allan, Claire Y.; Francione, Lisa M.; Bui, Minh Q.; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Ngoei, Kevin R. W.; Tassone, Flora; Kemp, Bruce E.; Storey, Elsdon; Evans, Andrew; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In combination with studies of post-mortem Parkinson's disease (PD) brains, pharmacological and genetic models of PD have suggested that two fundamental interacting cellular processes are impaired – proteostasis and mitochondrial respiration. We have re-examined the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts isolated from individuals with idiopathic PD and an age-matched control group. As previously reported for various PD cell types, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PD lymphoblasts was significantly elevated. However, this was not due to an impairment of mitochondrial respiration, as is often assumed. Instead, basal mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis are dramatically elevated in PD lymphoblasts. The mitochondrial mass, genome copy number and membrane potential were unaltered, but the expression of indicative respiratory complex proteins was also elevated. This explains the increased oxygen consumption rates by each of the respiratory complexes in experimentally uncoupled mitochondria of iPD cells. However, it was not attributable to increased activity of the stress- and energy-sensing protein kinase AMPK, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and activity. The respiratory differences between iPD and control cells were sufficiently dramatic as to provide a potentially sensitive and reliable biomarker of the disease state, unaffected by disease duration (time since diagnosis) or clinical severity. Lymphoblasts from control and PD individuals thus occupy two distinct, quasi-stable steady states; a ‘normal’ and a ‘hyperactive’ state characterized by two different metabolic rates. The apparent stability of the ‘hyperactive’ state in patient-derived lymphoblasts in the face of patient ageing, ongoing disease and mounting disease severity suggests an early, permanent switch to an alternative metabolic steady state. With its associated, elevated ROS production, the ‘hyperactive’ state might not cause pathology

  20. EFFECT OF PREGNANE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION ON INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE TREATED WITH RIFAXIMIN.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y C; Li, T; Han, Y-D; Zhang, H-Y; Lin, H; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The causes and pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are still not clearly understood. This study aims to prove the important role of rifaximin played in inflammatory reaction caused by abnormity of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Intestinal microflora can greatly promote and maintain the inflammatory reaction of IBD, therefore, antibiotics can be used to treat IBD. Rifaximin is a medicine usually used for local intestinal infection. Many clinical and basic studies have shown that both a single application of rifaximin and the joint application with other medicines could achieve a good efficacy. This paper studied the activation of Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) in treating IBD with rifaximin and analyzed its efficacy in IBD when PXR was involved in the transport of medicine and metabolism. The results prove that rifaximin can not only serve as an anti-microbial drug, but can activate PXR and actually weaken the reaction of IBD. Thus it is safe to say that rifaximin has great potential in treating IBD.

  1. Scintigraphic assessment of bowel involvement and disease activity in Crohn's disease using technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine as leukocyte label

    SciTech Connect

    Schoelmerich, J.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schuemichen, C.B.; Billmann, P.; Schmidt, H.; Gerok, W.

    1988-11-01

    Using a novel labeling technique with technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine, we studied 29 patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine leukocyte scanning (99mTc scan) was prospectively compared with the results of independently performed radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic examinations, and with findings at surgery, to assess the clinical usefulness of this technique to localize inflammatory lesions. In addition, uptake of technetium 99m-hexamethyl propylene amine oxine in the bowel was graded by comparing it with the uptake in liver and bone marrow and correlating this with established parameters of disease activity. The viability of homologous labeled leukocytes was greater than 95%. Less than 5% of lymphocytes were found in the final preparation. It was found that 45% +/- 12% of the label was bound to granulocytes, and 98% of the unbound label was washed off before reinjection. The results of 99mTc scan revealed a good correlation with those of barium enema (r = 0.880, p less than 0.001), of endoscopy/surgery (r = 0.983, p less than 0.001), and of all combined reference methods (r = 0.981, p less than 0.001). Activity as determined by 99mTc scan was weakly correlated with the results of Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.559, p less than 0.01), van Hees index (r = 0.606, p less than 0.01), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.456, p less than 0.05) in 24 patients with proven Crohn's disease. The correlation was improved when the 99mTc scan was compared with a combination of these activity parameters and C-reactive protein (r = 0.781, p less than 0.001). Extraintestinal manifestations (joints) and complications (cholecystitis) were also identified correctly by the 99mTc scan.

  2. Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Regen, Francesca; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Costantini, Erica; Reale, Marcella

    2017-02-03