Science.gov

Sample records for active laser ranging

  1. Ranging performance of active laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huayan; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Suolin

    2006-06-01

    Ranging performance is described for photoelectric equipment reconnaissance using an active laser detection system that is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect of optical windows. Active laser detection systems have an advantage over passive systems because they can measure target velocity and spatial coordinates. However, there are several challenging problems here because of the great distances involved, the low returned power of the uncooperative target, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. In the design of this system, the principle of detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the optical windows of photoelectric equipments have a strong reflect character towards incident laser beam. With 'cat's eyes' effect, the detection of uncooperative target can be translated into one of a cooperative target, so the ratio of returned laser can be increased. In this paper, the ranging performance presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission, target, atmospheric propagation to the detector. The characteristics of back-reflected laser and an estimate of the laser Cross Section (LCS) from 'cat's eyes target' are investigated in theory and simulation. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is calculated by combining the probability of detection of the system for given electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. On the basis of analysis of SNR, minimum detectable signal power, operating distance of the system and factors affecting the ranging performance is analyzed. Results indicate that system has characters of long range, and high sensitivity. It can be used to detect the aerial targets such as reconnaissance drone, navigate missile, reconnaissance satellite etc.

  2. Active Laser Ranging Along with Lasercom: Field Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Birnbaum, K.; Hemmati, H.

    2011-01-01

    In summary, this work has: (1) Demonstrated the real-time active laser ranging using a method applicable to interplanetary distances (2) Sub-millimeter ranging accuracy has been achieved with the systems built from off-the-shelf commercial components, demonstrating the robustness of the scheme (3) The experimental results indicate that active laser ranging can be implemented for interplanetary distances to meet the goal of 1mm ranging accuracy, including the effects of the Earth's atmosphere (4) Paves the way for advances in the study of fundamental physics and solar system dynamics.

  3. Research on range-gated laser active imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Mu; Wang, PengHui; Tan, DongJie

    2013-09-01

    Compared with other imaging methods such as millimeter wave imaging, infrared imaging and visible light imaging, laser imaging provides both a 2-D array of reflected intensity data as well as 2-D array of range data, which is the most important data for use in autonomous target acquisition .In terms of application, it can be widely used in military fields such as radar, guidance and fuse. In this paper, we present a laser active imaging seeker system based on range-gated laser transmitter and sensor technology .The seeker system presented here consist of two important part, one is laser image system, which uses a negative lens to diverge the light from a pulse laser to flood illuminate a target, return light is collected by a camera lens, each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. The other is stabilization gimbals, which is designed to be a rotatable structure both in azimuth and elevation angles. The laser image system consists of transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is based on diode pumped solid-state lasers that are passively Q-switched at 532nm wavelength. A visible wavelength was chosen because the receiver uses a Gen III image intensifier tube with a spectral sensitivity limited to wavelengths less than 900nm.The receiver is image intensifier tube's micro channel plate coupled into high sensitivity charge coupled device camera. The image has been taken at range over one kilometer and can be taken at much longer range in better weather. Image frame frequency can be changed according to requirement of guidance with modifiable range gate, The instantaneous field of views of the system was found to be 2×2 deg. Since completion of system integration, the seeker system has gone through a series of tests both in the lab and in the outdoor field. Two different kinds of buildings have been chosen as target, which is located at range from 200m up to 1000m.To simulate dynamic process of range change between missile and target, the seeker system has

  4. Active laser ranging with frequency transfer using frequency comb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan

    2016-05-02

    A comb-based active laser ranging scheme is proposed for enhanced distance resolution and a common time standard for the entire system. Three frequency combs with different repetition rates are used as light sources at the two ends where the distance is measured. Pulse positions are determined through asynchronous optical sampling and type II second harmonic generation. Results show that the system achieves a maximum residual of 379.6 nm and a standard deviation of 92.9 nm with 2000 averages over 23.6 m. Moreover, as for the frequency transfer, an atom clock and an adjustable signal generator, synchronized to the atom clock, are used as time standards for the two ends to appraise the frequency deviation introduced by the proposed system. The system achieves a residual fractional deviation of 1.3 × 10{sup −16} for 1 s, allowing precise frequency transfer between the two clocks at the two ends.

  5. Field Demonstrations of Active Laser Ranging with Sub-mm Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yijiang; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Hemmati, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Precision ranging between planets will provide valuable information for scientific studies of the solar system and fundamental physics. Current passive ranging techniques using retro-reflectors are limited to the Earth-Moon distance due to the 1/R? losses. We report on a laboratory realization and field implementation of active laser ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distance. Sub-millimeter accuracy is demonstrated.

  6. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  7. Near infrared laser illuminator for very long-range flash active imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Yves; Metzger, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    For very long-range flash active imaging applications, a powerful and narrow beam divergence pulsed laser illuminator is needed. Conventional high fill factor 1-centimeter diode bars are not well suited to produce a homogeneous and narrow beam divergence in an easy way. In the present paper, a concept based on a QCW mini-bars laser diode stack, focusing lenses and beam homogenisation is presented. With fifteen 1.5 mm conductively cooled fast axis collimated mini-bars, a peak power of 803 Watt at a wavelength of 810 nm is achieved with a maximum duty cycle of 2 percent. After collimation, the laser beam on the scene shows very homogeneous rectangular illumination geometry with a ratio of 4:3 well adapted for active imaging purposes. The beam divergence is reduced to 3.35 × 2.53 mrd with a two lenses objective of focal length f = 573 mm and f-number f# = 4.8.

  8. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  9. Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Laser system points and focuses TV camera. Ranger is modified stock distance-measuring unit mounted on and electrically connected to television camera. Effective over target range of 3 to 500 ft. (approximately 1 to 150m). Developed for television monitoring of nearby objects from Space Shuttle. Super-imposes range and range-rate (speed of approach or recession) data on television image of target. Principle adaptable to applications such as proximity warning and robot control.

  10. Compressive laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  11. Small high-speed dynamic target at close range laser active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Du-yue; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Dai, Qin

    2016-11-01

    In the shooting range measuring, all-weather, high speed, unattended, the new concepts such as the remote control is gradually applied. In this paper, a new type of low cost range measurement system, using FPGA + MCU as electronic control system of laser active illumination and high-speed CMOS camera, data to the rear zone by using optical fiber communications, transmission and realizes the remote control of unmanned, due to the low cost of front-end equipment, can be used as consumables replacement at any time, combined with distributed layout principle, can maximum limit close to the measured with mutilate ability goal, thus to achieve the goal of small high-speed dynamic imaging from close range.

  12. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  13. Laser range profile of cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhen; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    technology. Laser one-dimensional range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser about cone is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser one-dimensional range profile of cone based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cones are given. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of different pulse width of cone is given in this paper. The influences of surface material, pulse width, attitude on the one-dimensional range are analyzed. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. The two-dimensional range profile of roughness target can provide range resolved information. An analytical model of two-dimensional laser range profile of cone is proposed. The simulations of two-dimensional laser range profiles of some cones are given. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. The influence of pulse width, surface material on laser two-dimensional range profile is analyzed. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called as laser

  14. Laser Range Camera Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Storjohann, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an imaging model that was derived for use with a laser range camera (LRC) developed by the Advanced Intelligent Machines Division of Odetics. However, this model could be applied to any comparable imaging system. Both the derivation of the model and the determination of the LRC's intrinsic parameters are explained. For the purpose of evaluating the LRC's extrinsic parameters, i.e., its external orientation, a transformation of the LRC's imaging model into a standard camera's (SC) pinhole model is derived. By virtue of this transformation, the evaluation of the LRC's external orientation can be found by applying any SC calibration technique.

  15. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  16. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  17. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  18. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  19. Laser range profile of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Profile information about a three-dimensional target can be obtained by laser range profile (LRP). A mathematical LRP model from rough sphere is presented. LRP includes laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile. A target coordinate system and an imaging coordinate system are established, the mathematical model of the range profile is derived in the imaging coordinate system. The mathematical model obtained has nothing to do with the incidence direction of laser. It is shown that the laser range profile of the sphere is independent of the incidence direction of laser. This is determined by the symmetry of the sphere. The laser range profile can reflect the shape and material properties of the target. Simulations results of LRP about some spheres are given. Laser range profile of sphere, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profile of sphere, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retro-reflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser range profiles of different pulse width of sphere are given in this paper. The influences of geometric parameters, pulse width on the range profiles are analyzed.

  20. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  1. Laser system of extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed laser system was developed for range measurements from the earth to retroreflecting satellites at distances up to that of the moon. The system has a transportable transmitter unit that can be moved from one location to another. This unit consists of a 0.2 m coude refractor and a high radiance, neodymium-glass, frequency doubled laser that operates in a single transverse mode. It can be used for lunar or distant satellite ranging at any observatory that has a telescope with an aperture diameter of about 1.5 m for the detection of the laser return pulses. This telescope is utilized in the same manner customarily employed for the observation of celestial objects. A special photometric package and the associated electronics are provided for laser ranging.

  2. Cassidy uses Laser Ranging Device in the aft FD during docking activities of Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    S127-E-006645 (17 July 2009) --- Astronaut Christopher Cassidy, STS-127 mission specialist, on Endeavour's flight deck, uses a range finding device to determine distance between the shuttle and the International Space Station during rendezvous and docking activities on flight day 3.

  3. High Precision Laser Range Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge (Inventor); Lay, Oliver P. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is an improved distance measuring interferometer that includes high speed phase modulators and additional phase meters to generate and analyze multiple heterodyne signal pairs with distinct frequencies. Modulation sidebands with large frequency separation are generated by the high speed electro-optic phase modulators, requiring only a single frequency stable laser source and eliminating the need for a fist laser to be tuned or stabilized relative to a second laser. The combination of signals produced by the modulated sidebands is separated and processed to give the target distance. The resulting metrology apparatus enables a sensor with submicron accuracy or better over a multi- kilometer ambiguity range.

  4. NASA Satellite Laser Ranging Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David L.

    2004-01-01

    I will be participating in the International Workshop on Laser Ranging. I will be presenting to the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) general body meeting on the recent accomplishments and status of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Network. The recent accomplishments and NASA's future plans will be outlined and the benefits to the scientific community will be addressed. I am member of the ILRS governing board, the Missions working group, and the Networks & Engineering working group. I am the chairman of the Missions Working and will be hosting a meeting during the week of the workshop. I will also represent the NASA SLR program at the ILRS governing board and other working group meetings.

  5. Laser range profiling for small target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Tulldahl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The detection and classification of small surface and airborne targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. Long range ID or ID at closer range of small targets has its limitations in imaging due to the demand on very high transverse sensor resolution. It is therefore motivated to look for 1D laser techniques for target ID. These include vibrometry, and laser range profiling. Vibrometry can give good results but is also sensitive to certain vibrating parts on the target being in the field of view. Laser range profiling is attractive because the maximum range can be substantial, especially for a small laser beam width. A range profiler can also be used in a scanning mode to detect targets within a certain sector. The same laser can also be used for active imaging when the target comes closer and is angular resolved. The present paper will show both experimental and simulated results for laser range profiling of small boats out to 6-7 km range and a UAV mockup at close range (1.3 km). We obtained good results with the profiling system both for target detection and recognition. Comparison of experimental and simulated range waveforms based on CAD models of the target support the idea of having a profiling system as a first recognition sensor and thus narrowing the search space for the automatic target recognition based on imaging at close ranges. The naval experiments took place in the Baltic Sea with many other active and passive EO sensors beside the profiling system. Discussion of data fusion between laser profiling and imaging systems will be given. The UAV experiments were made from the rooftop laboratory at FOI.

  6. Laser range profiling for small target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Tulldahl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Long range identification (ID) or ID at closer range of small targets has its limitations in imaging due to the demand for very high-transverse sensor resolution. This is, therefore, a motivation to look for one-dimensional laser techniques for target ID. These include laser vibrometry and laser range profiling. Laser vibrometry can give good results, but is not always robust as it is sensitive to certain vibrating parts on the target being in the field of view. Laser range profiling is attractive because the maximum range can be substantial, especially for a small laser beam width. A range profiler can also be used in a scanning mode to detect targets within a certain sector. The same laser can also be used for active imaging when the target comes closer and is angularly resolved. Our laser range profiler is based on a laser with a pulse width of 6 ns (full width half maximum). This paper will show both experimental and simulated results for laser range profiling of small boats out to a 6 to 7-km range and a unmanned arrial vehicle (UAV) mockup at close range (1.3 km). The naval experiments took place in the Baltic Sea using many other active and passive electro-optical sensors in addition to the profiling system. The UAV experiments showed the need for a high-range resolution, thus we used a photon counting system in addition to the more conventional profiler used in the naval experiments. This paper shows the influence of target pose and range resolution on the capability of classification. The typical resolution (in our case 0.7 m) obtainable with a conventional range finder type of sensor can be used for large target classification with a depth structure over 5 to 10 m or more, but for smaller targets such as a UAV a high resolution (in our case 7.5 mm) is needed to reveal depth structures and surface shapes. This paper also shows the need for 3-D target information to build libraries for comparison of measured and simulated range profiles. At closer ranges

  7. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  8. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  9. ACTIVE MEDIA: Photoprocesses in laser-active media operating in the 400 nm range. II. Photochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Rimma T.; Kopylova, T. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Sergeev, A. K.; Nesterenko, S. N.; Mayer, G. V.; Afanas'ev, N. B.; Vereskun, V. N.

    1996-09-01

    The quantum yield of phototransformations, the relative yields of photoproducts, and the half-life of active media based on 2-4(pyridyl)-5-(4-methophenyl) oxazole (4PyPO) and of the substituted derivatives of dipyrazolinylbenzene (PDPDP) were investigated as a function of the concentration of the solution, the length of the active medium, and the parameters of the pump pulses generated by an XeCl laser. The results obtained are interpreted with the help of the data on the lasing efficiency and on the induced-absorption spectra.

  10. Combining very-long-range terrestrial laser scanner data and thermal imagery for analysis of active lava flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mike; Pinkerton, Harry; Applegarth, Jane

    2010-05-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the processes involved in the evolution of lava flow fields, detailed and frequent assessments of the activity and the topographic change involved are required. Although topographic data of sufficient accuracy and resolution can be acquired by airborne lidar, the cost and logistics generally prohibit repeats at the daily (or more frequent) intervals necessary to assess flow processes. More frequent surveys can be carried out using ground-based terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) but on volcanic terrain such instruments generally have ranges of only several hundreds of metres, with long range variants extending to ~1100 m. Here, we report preliminary results from the use of a new, ground-based Riegl LPM-321 instrument with a quoted maximum range of 6000 m. The LPM-321 was deployed at Mount Etna, Sicily during July 2009. At this time, active lava flows from the waning 2008-9 eruption were restricted to the upper region of a lava delta that had accumulated over the course of the eruption. Relatively small (a few hundreds of metres in length) and short lived (of order a few days) flows were being effused from a region of tumuli at the head of the delta. The instrument was used from three locations, Schiena dell' Àsino, the head of the Valle del Bove and Pizzi Deneri. From Schiena dell' Àsino, most of the 2008-9 lava flows could be observed, but, due to low reflectivities and viewing distances of ~4500 m, the active regions of the flows were out of range. The longest return was acquired from a range of 3978 m, but successful returns at this range were sparse; for dense topographic data, data were best acquired over distances of less than ~3500 m. The active flows were successfully imaged from the head of the Valle del Bove (9 and 12 July, 2009) and Pizzi Deneri (6 July, 2009). Despite low effusion rates (~1 m3s-1), topographic change associated with the emplacement and inflation of new flows and the inflation of a tumulus was

  11. Digital laser range finder emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Vaughn P.; Holland, Orgal T.; Wilkerson, Christina G.

    1993-05-01

    A digital laser range finder emulator receives N-bits of range-to-target data in a parallel format and generates N-bits of serial data representative of the range-to-target data and an external synchronization pulse whose presence is indicative of valid serial data. First and second clock pulses are generated such that the second clock pulse is delayed with respect to the first clock pulse. Control logic, responsive to the first clock pulse, generates validity logic while control logic, responsive to the second clock pulse, generates transmit logic. The parallel format range-to-target data is converted into the serial data in response to the first clock pulse. The serial data is then output in response to the transmit logic. A gate, responsive to the second clock pulse and the validity logic, generates the synchronization pulse when the second clock pulse and validity logic occupy a common logic state.

  12. Lunar laser ranging data identification and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Activity under the subject grant during the first half of fiscal year 1979 at the University of Texas at Austin is reported. Raw lunar laser ranging data submitted by McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas and by the Australian Division of National Mapping at Orroral Valley, Australia were processed. This processing includes the filtering of signal events from noise photons, normal point formation, data archive management, and data distribution. System-wide program maintenance and up-grade carried out wherever and whenever necessary. Lunar laser ranging data is being transmitted from Austin to Paris for the extraction of earth rotation information during the EROLD campaign.

  13. Laser one-dimensional range profile and the laser two-dimensional range profile of cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Laser one-dimensional range profile, that is scattering power from pulse laser scattering of target, is a radar imaging technology. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called laser range profile(LRP). The laser range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser range profile of cylinder based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cylinders are given. Laser range profiles of cylinder, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser range profiles of different pulse width of cylinder are given in this paper. The influences of geometric parameters, pulse width, attitude on the range profiles are analyzed.

  14. Long range laser traversing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudill, L. O. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The relative azimuth bearing between first and second spaced terrestrial points which may be obscured from each other by intervening terrain is measured by placing at one of the points a laser source for projecting a collimated beam upwardly in the vertical plane. The collimated laser beam is detected at the second point by positioning the optical axis of a receiving instrument for the laser beam in such a manner that the beam intercepts the optical axis. In response to the optical axis intercepting the beam, the beam is deflected into two different ray paths by a beam splitter having an apex located on the optical axis. The energy in the ray paths is detected by separate photoresponsive elements that drive logic networks for proving indications of: (1) the optical axis intercepting the beam; (2) the beam being on the left of the optical axis and (3) the beam being on the right side of the optical axis.

  15. Lunar laser ranging: 40 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Kokurin, Yu L

    2003-01-31

    The history of the origin and development of the lunar laser ranging is described. The main results of lunar laser ranging are presented and fundamental problems solved by this technique are listed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  16. High performance military laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorgno, M.

    A high-power and high-repetition-frequency military laser range finder based on a Nd:YAG Q-switched laser pumped by a Xenon flash lamp is presented. The laser range finder has an emitted power of 20-30 MW (with a pulselength of 8-10 ns), a beam divergence of 2.2-2.5 mrad, a repetition rate of 15 Hz, and a minimum detectable power of 20 nW. Although the range finder is designed for anti-aircraft fire control systems, its possible applications can include air-ground attack range finding with some modifications and various civilian applications requiring high power infrared laser pulses.

  17. Poisson filtering of laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Shelus, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The filtering of data in a high noise, low signal strength environment is a situation encountered routinely in lunar laser ranging (LLR) and, to a lesser extent, in artificial satellite laser ranging (SLR). The use of Poisson statistics as one of the tools for filtering LLR data is described first in a historical context. The more recent application of this statistical technique to noisy SLR data is also described.

  18. Laser ranging and communications for LISA.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew; McKenzie, Kirk; Ware, Brent; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2010-09-27

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will use Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) to suppress the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise. The technique uses sub-sample interpolation of the recorded optical phase measurements to form a family of interferometric combinations immune to frequency noise. This paper reports on the development of a Pseudo-Random Noise laser ranging system used to measure the sub-sample interpolation time shifts required for TDI operation. The system also includes an optical communication capability that meets the 20 kbps LISA requirement. An experimental demonstration of an integrated LISA phase measurement and ranging system achieved a ≈ 0.19 m rms absolute range error with a 0.5Hz signal bandwidth, surpassing the 1 m rms LISA specification. The range measurement is limited by mutual interference between the ranging signals exchanged between spacecraft and the interaction of the ranging code with the phase measurement.

  19. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  20. Laser System for Precise, Unambiguous Range Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Range (MSTAR) architecture is the basis of design of a proposed laser-based heterodyne interferometer that could measure a range (distance) as great as 100 km with a precision and resolution of the order of 1 nm. Simple optical interferometers can measure changes in range with nanometer resolution, but cannot measure range itself because interference is subject to the well-known integer-multiple-of-2 -radians phase ambiguity, which amounts to a range ambiguity of the order of 1 m at typical laser wavelengths. Existing rangefinders have a resolution of the order of 10 m and are therefore unable to resolve the ambiguity. The proposed MSTAR architecture bridges the gap, enabling nanometer resolution with an ambiguity range that can be extended to arbitrarily large distances. The MSTAR architecture combines the principle of the heterodyne interferometer with the principle of extending the ambiguity range of an interferometer by using light of two wavelengths. The use of two wavelengths for this purpose is well established in optical metrology, radar, and sonar. However, unlike in traditional two-color laser interferometry, light of two wavelengths would not be generated by two lasers. Instead, multiple wavelengths would be generated as sidebands of phase modulation of the light from a single frequency- stabilized laser. The phase modulation would be effected by applying sinusoidal signals of suitable frequencies (typically tens of gigahertz) to high-speed electro-optical phase modulators. Intensity modulation can also be used

  1. Eighth International Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The Eighth International Workshop for Laser Ranging Instrumentation was held in Annapolis, Maryland in May 1992, and was sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The workshop is held once every 2 to 3 years under differing institutional sponsorship and provides a forum for participants to exchange information on the latest developments in satellite and lunar laser ranging hardware, software, science applications, and data analysis techniques. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique provides sub-centimeter precision range measurements to artificial satellites and the Moon. The data has application to a wide range of Earth and lunar science issues including precise orbit determination, terrestrial reference frames, geodesy, geodynamics, oceanography, time transfer, lunar dynamics, gravity and relativity.

  2. Space Debris Laser Ranging at Graz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Kucharski, Daniel; Ploner, Martin; Riede, Wolfgang; Voelker, Uwe; Buske, Ivo; Friedrich, Fabian; Baur, Oliver; Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald

    2013-08-01

    The Graz Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station usually measures distances to retro-reflector equipped satellites with an accuracy of few millimetres, using short laser pulses with 10 ps pulse width, a low energy of 400 μJ, and a repetition rate of 2 kHz. To test laser ranging possibilities to space debris, we installed two stronger lasers (a diode-pumped 25 mJ / 1 kHz / 10 ns / 532 nm laser, exchanged later to a flash lamp pumped 150 mJ / 100 Hz / 3 ns / 532 nm laser) - both on loan from DLR / German Aerospace Centre Stuttgart -, and built lownoise single-photon detection units. With this configuration, we successfully tracked ≈ 100 passes of almost 50 different space debris targets, in distances between 600 km and up to more than 2500 km, with radar cross sections from > 15 m2 down to < 0.3 m2 , and measured their distances with an average accuracy of 0.7 m (10 ns laser) resp. ≈ 0.5 m (3 ns laser) RMS. The resulting data will be used to calculate improved orbits of the tracked debris objects, and to compare them with radar-based TLE (two-line element) orbits. As demonstration experiment, here we provide findings for ENVISAT normal point analysis. As a next step, we plan to additionally taking pointing information into account. Potentially, the joint analysis of both ranges and orientation angles further improves space debris orbit accuracy. Orbit determination and prediction was done with the GEODYN software package. In addition, we successfully tested a 'bi-static' mode: Graz fired laser pulses to ENVISAT; while Graz detected photons reflected from the retro-reflector, the Swiss SLR station Zimmerwald detected the photons diffusely reflected from the satellite body.

  3. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Topographic mapping of the earth, moon and planets can be accomplished with high resolution and accuracy using satellite laser altimeters. These systems employ nanosecond laser pulses and microradian beam divergences to achieve submeter vertical range resolution from orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers. Here, we develop detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies and use the results to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. Our analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 mu rad or less.

  4. Tracking capabilities of SPADs for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappa, F.; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, A.; Cova, Sergio; Samori, C.

    1993-01-01

    The spatial sensitivity of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be exploited in laser ranging measurements to finely tune the laser spot in the center of the detector sensitive area. We report the performance of a SPAD with l00 micron diameter. It features a time resolution better than 80 ps rms when operated 4V above V(b) at minus 30 C, and a spatial sensitivity better than 20 microns to radial displacements of the laser spot. New SPAD structures with auxiliary delay detectors are proposed. These improved devices could allow a two dimensional sensitivity, that could be employed for the design of pointing servos.

  5. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  6. Atmospheric effects and ultimate ranging accuracy for lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Douglas G.; Prochazka, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of next generation lunar laser retroreflectors is planned in the near future. With proper robotic deployment, these will support single shot single photo-electron ranging accuracy at the 100 micron level or better. There are available technologies for the support at this accuracy by advanced ground stations, however, the major question is the ultimate limit imposed on the ranging accuracy due to the changing timing delays due to turbulence and horizontal gradients in the earth's atmosphere. In particular, there are questions of the delay and temporal broadening of a very narrow laser pulse. Theoretical and experimental results will be discussed that address estimates of the magnitudes of these effects and the issue of precision vs. accuracy.

  7. Long-range laser-illuminated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Browne, Stephen L.; Sandven, Steven C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Gallegos, Joe; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate the utility of laser illuminated imaging for clandestine night time surveillance from a simulated airborne platform at standoff ranges in excess 20 km. In order to reduce the necessary laser per pulse energy required for illumination at such long ranges, and to mitigate atmospheric turbulence effects on image resolution, we have investigated a unique multi-frame post-processing technique. It is shown that in the presence of atmospheric turbulence and coherent speckle effects, this approach can produce superior results to conventional scene flood illumination.

  8. Tests of gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the pat four decades. The three retrorefiector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built array on the second Soviet Lunokhod rover continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point :3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly. it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retrorefiectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article. we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  9. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging.

    PubMed

    Merkowitz, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  10. Two wavelength satellite laser ranging using SPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Jelinkova, Helena; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, F.

    1993-01-01

    When ranging to satellites with lasers, there are several principal contributions to the error budget: from the laser ranging system on the ground, from the satellite retroarray geometry, and from the atmosphere. Using a single wavelength, we have routinely achieved a ranging precision of 8 millimeters when ranging to the ERS-1 and Starlette satellites. The systematic error of the atmosphere, assuming the existing dispersion models, is expected to be of the order of 1 cm. Multiple wavelengths ranging might contribute to the refinement of the existing models. Taking into account the energy balance, the existing picosecond lasers and the existing receiver and detection technology, several pairs or multiple wavelengths may be considered. To be able to improve the atmospheric models to the subcentimeter accuracy level, the differential time interval (DTI) has to be determined within a few picoseconds depending on the selected wavelength pair. There exist several projects based on picosecond lasers as transmitters and on two types of detection techniques: one is based on photodetectors, like photomultipliers or photodiodes connected to the time interval meters. Another technique is based on the use of a streak camera as an echo signal detector, temporal analyzer, and time interval vernier. The temporal analysis at a single wavelength using the streak camera showed the complexity of the problem.

  11. The airborne laser ranging system, its capabilities and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Degnan, J. J.; Englar, T. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne laser ranging system is a multibeam short pulse laser ranging system on board an aircraft. It simultaneously measures the distances between the aircraft and six laser retroreflectors (targets) deployed on the Earth's surface. The system can interrogate over 100 targets distributed over an area of 25,000 sq, kilometers in a matter of hours. Potentially, a total of 1.3 million individual range measurements can be made in a six hour flight. The precision of these range measurements is approximately + or - 1 cm. These measurements are used in procedure which is basically an extension of trilateration techniques to derive the intersite vector between the laser ground targets. By repeating the estimation of the intersite vector, strain and strain rate errors can be estimated. These quantities are essential for crustal dynamic studies which include determination and monitoring of regional strain in the vicinity of active fault zones, land subsidence, and edifice building preceding volcanic eruptions.

  12. Ground based laser ranging for satellite location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, G. C.; Newby, Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we describe a new satellite laser ranging capability which is a joint effort between the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Optical Tracking Facility at Malabar, Florida. Initial measurements off LAGEOS indicate that uncorrected radial range rms values of 8 mm are readily achievable. The number of photoelectron counts are on the order of 180 which are off by an order of magnitude from predicted values.

  13. Satellite and lunar laser ranging in infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean-Marie; Samain, Etienne; Martinot-Lagarde, Gregoire; Aimar, Mourad; Albanese, Dominique; Maurice, Nicolas; Mariey, Hervé; Viot, Hervé; Exertier, Pierre; Fienga, Agnes; Viswanathan, Vishnu

    2017-05-01

    We report on the implementation of a new infrared detection at the Grasse lunar laser ranging station and describe how infrared telemetry improves the situation. We present our first results on the lunar reflectors and show that infrared detection permits us to densify the observations and allows measurements during the new and the full moon periods. We also present the benefit obtained on the ranging of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites and on RadioAstron which have a very elliptic orbit.

  14. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  15. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-02-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  16. Single-mode lasers and parity-time symmetry broken gratings based on active dielectric-loaded long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Choloong; Song, Seok Ho; Oh, Cha Hwan; Berini, Pierre

    2015-07-27

    Single-mode distributed feedback laser structures and parity-time symmetry broken grating structures based on dielectric-loaded long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides are proposed. The structures comprise a thin Ag stripe on an active polymer bottom cladding with an active polymer ridge. The active polymer assumed is PMMA doped with IR140 dye providing optical gain at near infrared wavelengths. Cutoff top ridge dimensions (thickness and width) are calculated using a finite element method and selected to guarantee single-mode operation of the laser. Several parameters such as the threshold number of periods and the lasing wavelength are determined using the transfer matrix method. A related structure based on two pairs of waveguides of two widths, which have the same imaginary part but different real part of effective index, arranged within one grating period, is proposed as an active grating operating at the threshold for parity-time symmetry breaking (i.e., operating at an exceptional point). Such "exceptional point" gratings produce ideal reflectance asymmetry as demonstrated via transfer matrix computations.

  17. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  18. Highly mobile laser ranging facilities of the Crustal Dynamics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Technical specifications, performance, and applications of the NASA transportable laser ranging systems (TLRS-1 and -2) for use in the Crustal Dynamics Program are described. TLRS-1 is truck-mounted, with the laser deployed through the roof. Interacting with the LAGEOS satellite, TLRS has a photoelectric receiver for gathering data on the roundtrip time of the laser beam for calculations of the range gate. The laser has a 0.1 nsec pulse at 3.5 mJ/pulse. Range is measured to within an error of 9 cm. The TLRS-2 version is configured for ease of air transport and modular breakdown and assembly. It has been activated on Easter Island. TLRS-3 and -4 are in development to serve as mobile units in South America and the Mediterranean area.

  19. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed expressions for the range and pulse width measurement accuracies are developed and used to evaluate the ranging performances of several satellite laser altimeters currently under development by NASA for launch during the next decade. The analysis includes the effects of the target surface characteristics, spacecraft pointing jitter, and waveform digitizer characteristics. The results show that ranging accuracy is critically dependent on the pointing accuracy and stability of the altimeter especially over high relief terrain where surface slopes are large. At typical orbital altitudes of several hundred kilometers, single-shot accuracies of a few centimeters can be achieved only when the pointing jitter is on the order of 10 microrad or less.

  20. Earth rotation from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, R. B.; King, R. W.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-12-01

    Since the time when the first laser retroreflector was placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 11 astronauts, lunar laser ranging (LLR) has led to advances in a wide range of disciplines, including the study of variations in the rotation of the earth. The conventional techniques used to monitor earth rotation suffer from lack of precision on time scales of a few months and less. LLR, by contrast, makes it possible to monitor small changes in earth rotation with a temporal resolution of the order of 1 day. Studies of earth rotation by LLR are discussed, taking into account data sensitivity, aspects of data analysis, the variation of latitude, and UTO, the mean solar time at the site as affected by polar motion.

  1. Earth rotation from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; King, R. W.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    Since the time when the first laser retroreflector was placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 11 astronauts, lunar laser ranging (LLR) has led to advances in a wide range of disciplines, including the study of variations in the rotation of the earth. The conventional techniques used to monitor earth rotation suffer from lack of precision on time scales of a few months and less. LLR, by contrast, makes it possible to monitor small changes in earth rotation with a temporal resolution of the order of 1 day. Studies of earth rotation by LLR are discussed, taking into account data sensitivity, aspects of data analysis, the variation of latitude, and UTO, the mean solar time at the site as affected by polar motion.

  2. Detection performance of laser range-gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Xiaofeng; Luo, Jijun; Zhang, Shengxiu; Xu, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Laser radar is rapidly developing towards very capable sensors for number of applications such as military sensing and guidance, auto collision avoidance, robotic vision and atmospheric sensing. In this paper, the detection performance of non-scanned Laser Rang-gated (LRG) imaging system is studied. In order to compute the detection range of laser active imaging system, the range equation is derived by using laser illuminating model and considering factors which affect system imaging quality. According to the principle of laser radar and the characters of objects and the detectors in special applied setting, it mainly deduced the non-scanned laser radar range equation of the range-gated system, meanwhile, the SNR model of non-scanned LRG imaging system is set up. Then, relationship of the detection probability, the false alarm probability and the signal-to-noise ratio in the non-scanned LRG imaging system are analyzed, the influence factors of system's performance are pointed out, and the solution is proposed. The detection performance simulation software of non-scanned LRG imaging system is designed with MATLAB and the performance of the imaging system is simulated.

  3. Long range coherence in free electron lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The simple free electron laser (FEL) design uses a static, periodic, transverse magnetic field to undulate relativistic electrons traveling along its axis. This allows coupling to a co-propagating optical wave and results in bunching to produce coherent radiation. The advantages of the FEL are continuous tunability, operation at wavelengths ranging from centimeters to angstroms, and high efficiency resulting from the fact that the interaction region only contains light, relativistic electrons, and a magnetic field. Theoretical concepts and operational principles are discussed.

  4. Wheelchair assisted with laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Cheol U.; Wang, Hongbo; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Ochiai, Tsumoru

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents a wheel chair system with the capability of self-localization and obstacle avoidance. Firstly, the approaches of landmark recognition and the self-localization of the wheel chair are described. Then, the principal of the obstacle avoidance using a laser range finder is described. Subsequently, the total system of the wheel chair is introduced. Finally, a navigation experiment is given. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of our system.

  5. Atmospheric refraction errors in laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Rowlett, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of horizontal refractivity gradients on the accuracy of laser ranging systems were investigated by ray tracing through three dimensional refractivity profiles. The profiles were generated by performing a multiple regression on measurements from seven or eight radiosondes, using a refractivity model which provided for both linear and quadratic variations in the horizontal direction. The range correction due to horizontal gradients was found to be an approximately sinusoidal function of azimuth having a minimum near 0 deg azimuth and a maximum near 180 deg azimuth. The peak to peak variation was approximately 5 centimeters at 10 deg elevation and decreased to less than 1 millimeter at 80 deg elevation.

  6. Universal time - Results from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A least squares analysis of lunar laser ranging observations from the McDonald Observatory is used to estimate universal time. In addition to the ranging observations, the analysis simultaneously takes into account the parameters representing the locations of McDonald and the lunar retroreflectors, the orbits of the earth and the moon, and the moon's physical libration. The root-mean-square of the postfit range residuals for the 5-year period from October 1970 to November 1975 is 28 cm. The results are compared with those obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure and by Stolz et al. (1976), and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. It is suggested that problems in modeling the moon's motion make difficult the determination of UT with the accuracy inherent in the ranging observations.

  7. Lunar laser ranging in infrared at the Grasse laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courde, C.; Torre, J. M.; Samain, E.; Martinot-Lagarde, G.; Aimar, M.; Albanese, D.; Exertier, P.; Fienga, A.; Mariey, H.; Metris, G.; Viot, H.; Viswanathan, V.

    2017-06-01

    For many years, lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations using a green wavelength have suffered an inhomogeneity problem both temporally and spatially. This paper reports on the implementation of a new infrared detection at the Grasse LLR station and describes how infrared telemetry improves this situation. Our first results show that infrared detection permits us to densify the observations and allows measurements during the new and the full Moon periods. The link budget improvement leads to homogeneous telemetric measurements on each lunar retro-reflector. Finally, a surprising result is obtained on the Lunokhod 2 array which attains the same efficiency as Lunokhod 1 with an infrared laser link, although those two targets exhibit a differential efficiency of six with a green laser link.

  8. Broadband laser ranging: signal analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Rhodes, Michelle A.; Catenacci, Jared; Howard, Marylesa; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick; Lodes, Adam; Bennett, Corey V.; Harding, Patrick J.

    2017-02-01

    Broadband laser ranging (BLR) is essentially a spectral interferometer used to infer distance to a moving target. The light source is a mode-locked fiber laser, and chromatic dispersion maps the spectral interference pattern into the time domain, yielding chirped beat signals at the detector. A BLR record is a sequence of these chirped signals, representing consecutive target positions. To infer distance to a target, each underlying pulse envelope must be consistently registered and subtracted despite environmentally-induced variability. Then, nonlinear transformation of the phase is applied to remove the chirp, an FFT is performed to determine the peak frequency of the de-chirped signal, and a calibration factor relating de-chirped frequency to distance results in target position. Here, these analysis steps are discussed in detail.

  9. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  10. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1993-06-01

    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  11. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  12. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) 2003-2004 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael (Editor); Noll, Carey (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) organizes and coordinates Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to support programs in geodetic, geophysical, and lunar research activities and provides the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) with products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). This reference frame provides the stability through which systematic measurements of the Earth can be made over thousands of kilometers, decades of time, and evolution of measurement technology. This 2003-2004 ILRS annual report is comprised of individual contributions from ILRS components within the international geodetic community for the years 2003-2004. The report documents changes and progress of the ILRS and is also available on the ILRS Web site at http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/reports/ilrs_reports/ilrsar_2003.html.

  13. Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T W

    2013-07-01

    Lunar laser ranging has provided many of the best tests of gravitation since the first Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon. The march to higher precision continues to this day, now entering the millimeter regime, and promising continued improvement in scientific results. This review introduces key aspects of the technique, details the motivations, observables, and results for a variety of science objectives, summarizes the current state of the art, highlights new developments in the field, describes the modeling challenges, and looks to the future of the enterprise.

  14. Improved pulse laser ranging algorithm based on high speed sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuan-yi; Qian, Rui-hai; Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; He, Shi-jie; Guo, Xiao-kang

    2016-10-01

    Narrow pulse laser ranging achieves long-range target detection using laser pulse with low divergent beams. Pulse laser ranging is widely used in military, industrial, civil, engineering and transportation field. In this paper, an improved narrow pulse laser ranging algorithm is studied based on the high speed sampling. Firstly, theoretical simulation models have been built and analyzed including the laser emission and pulse laser ranging algorithm. An improved pulse ranging algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines the matched filter algorithm and the constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. After the algorithm simulation, a laser ranging hardware system is set up to implement the improved algorithm. The laser ranging hardware system includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. Subsequently, using Verilog HDL language, the improved algorithm is implemented in the FPGA chip based on fusion of the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm. Finally, the laser ranging experiment is carried out to test the improved algorithm ranging performance comparing to the matched filter algorithm and the CFD algorithm using the laser ranging hardware system. The test analysis result demonstrates that the laser ranging hardware system realized the high speed processing and high speed sampling data transmission. The algorithm analysis result presents that the improved algorithm achieves 0.3m distance ranging precision. The improved algorithm analysis result meets the expected effect, which is consistent with the theoretical simulation.

  15. Nd:YAG development for spaceborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L.; Logan, K. E.; Williams, R. H.; Stevens, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the development of a unique modelocked laser device to be utilized in future NASA space-based, ultraprecision laser ranger systems are summarized. The engineering breadboard constructed proved the feasibility of the pump-pulsed, actively modelocked, PTM Q-switched Nd:YAG laser concept for the generation of subnanosecond pulses suitable for ultra-precision ranging. The laser breadboard also included a double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier and provision for a Type II KD*P frequency doubler. The specific technical accomplishment was the generation of single 150 psec, 20-mJ pulses at 10 pps at a wavelength of 1.064 micrometers with 25 dB suppression of pre-and post-pulses.

  16. Picosecond sources for sub-centimeter laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Dallas, Joseph; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the tradeoffs involved in selecting a laser source for space-based laser ranging are outlined, and some of the recent developments in the laser field most relevant to space-based lasers for ranging and altimetry are surveyed. Laser pulse width and laser design are discussed. It is argued that, while doubled/tripled ND-host lasers are currently the best choice for laser ranging in two colors, they have the shortcoming that the atmospheric transmission at 355 nm is significantly poorer than it is at longer wavelengths which still have sufficient dispersion for two-color laser ranging. The life requirement appears to demand that laser diode pumping be used for space applications.

  17. Lunar Science from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, tidal Love number k2, and moment of inertia differences. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core/mantle boundary (CMB) and fluid core moment of inertia. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to variations in lunar rotation, orientation and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for Love numbers plus dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core. Detection of the fluid core polar minus equatorial moment of inertia difference due to CMB flattening is weakly significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core. Future approaches are considered to detect a solid inner core.

  18. Lunar Science from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, tidal Love number k2, and moment of inertia differences. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core/mantle boundary (CMB) and fluid core moment of inertia. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to variations in lunar rotation, orientation and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for Love numbers plus dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core. Detection of the fluid core polar minus equatorial moment of inertia difference due to CMB flattening is weakly significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core. Future approaches are considered to detect a solid inner core.

  19. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  20. High speed sampling circuit design for pulse laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Rui-hai; Gao, Xuan-yi; Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Guo, Xiao-kang; He, Shi-jie

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of digital chip, high speed sampling rate analog to digital conversion chip can be used to sample narrow laser pulse echo. Moreover, high speed processor is widely applied to achieve digital laser echo signal processing algorithm. The development of digital chip greatly improved the laser ranging detection accuracy. High speed sampling and processing circuit used in the laser ranging detection system has gradually been a research hotspot. In this paper, a pulse laser echo data logging and digital signal processing circuit system is studied based on the high speed sampling. This circuit consists of two parts: the pulse laser echo data processing circuit and the data transmission circuit. The pulse laser echo data processing circuit includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The data transmission circuit receives the processed data from the pulse laser echo data processing circuit. The sample data is transmitted to the computer through USB2.0 interface. Finally, a PC interface is designed using C# language, in which the sampling laser pulse echo signal is demonstrated and the processed laser pulse is plotted. Finally, the laser ranging experiment is carried out to test the pulse laser echo data logging and digital signal processing circuit system. The experiment result demonstrates that the laser ranging hardware system achieved high speed data logging, high speed processing and high speed sampling data transmission.

  1. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  2. Satellite laser ranging in the near-infrared regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckl, Johann J.; Schreiber, K. Ulrich; Schüler, Torben

    2017-05-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging Systems typically operate on the second harmonic wavelength of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm. The absence of sufficiently sensitive photo-detectors with a reasonably large active area made it beneficial to trade the conversion loss of frequency doubling against the higher quantum efficiency of the detectors. Solid state silicon detectors in the near infra-red regime at λ = 1.064 µm also suffered from high thermal noise and slow signal rise times, which increased the scatter of the measurements by more than a factor of 3 over the operation at λ = 532 nm. With the availability of InGaAs/InP compound - Single Photon Avalanche Diodes the situation has changed considerably. Their quantum efficiency has reached 70% and the compound material of these diodes provides a response bandwidth, which is commensurate with high high speed detectors in the regime of 532 nm. We have investigated the properties of such a diode type Princeton Lightwave PGA-200-1064 for its suitability for SLR at the Nd:YAG fundamental wavelength with respect to the quantum efficiency and their timing properties. The results are presented in this paper. Furthermore, we provide remarks to on the performance of the diode compared to state of the art detectors, that operate at the Nd:YAG second harmonic wavelength. Finally, we give an estimate of the photoelectron statistics in satellite laser ranging for different operational parameters of the Wettzell Laser Ranging System.

  3. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, A.; Hees, A.; Bouquillon, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Francou, G.; Angonin, M.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10-8 for s¯T X, 10-12 for s¯X Y and s¯X Z, 10-11 for s¯X X-s¯Y Y and s¯X X+s¯Y Y-2 s¯Z Z-4.5 s¯Y Z, and 10-9 for s¯T Y+0.43 s¯T Z. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  4. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A; Hees, A; Bouquillon, S; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C; Francou, G; Angonin, M-C

    2016-12-09

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10^{-8} for s[over ¯]^{TX}, 10^{-12} for s[over ¯]^{XY} and s[over ¯]^{XZ}, 10^{-11} for s[over ¯]^{XX}-s[over ¯]^{YY} and s[over ¯]^{XX}+s[over ¯]^{YY}-2s[over ¯]^{ZZ}-4.5s[over ¯]^{YZ}, and 10^{-9} for s[over ¯]^{TY}+0.43s[over ¯]^{TZ}. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  5. Laser ranging retro-reflector: continuing measurements and expected results.

    PubMed

    Alley, C O; Chang, R F; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Bender, P L; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Macdonald, G J; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Carrion, W; Wampler, E J

    1970-01-30

    After successful acquisition in August of reflected ruby laser pulses from the Apollo 11 laser ranging retro-reflector (LRRR) with the telescopes at the Lick and McDonald observatories, repeated measurements of the round-trip travel time of light have been made from the McDonald Observatory in September with an equivalent range precision of +/-2.5 meters. These acquisition period observations demonstrated the performance of the LRRR through lunar night and during sunlit conditions on the moon. Instrumentation activated at the McDonald Observatory in October has yielded a precision of +/-0.3 meter, and improvement to +/-0.15 meter is expected shortly. Continued monitoring of the changes in the earth-moon distance as measured by the round-trip travel time of light from suitably distributed earth stations is expected to contribute to our knowledge of the earth-moon system.

  6. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  7. Detection and laser ranging of orbital objects using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P.; Hampf, D.; Sproll, F.; Hasenohr, T.; Humbert, L.; Rodmann, J.; Riede, W.

    2016-09-01

    Laser ranging to satellites (SLR) in earth orbit is an established technology used for geodesy, fundamental science and precise orbit determination. A combined active and passive optical measurement system using a single telescope mount is presented which performs precise ranging measurements of retro reflector equipped objects in low earth orbit (LEO). The German Aerospace Center (DLR) runs an observatory in Stuttgart where a system has been assembled completely from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The visible light directed to the tracking camera is used to perform angular measurements of objects under investigation. This is done astrometrically by comparing the apparent target position with cataloged star positions. First successful satellite laser ranging was demonstrated recently using an optical fiber directing laser pulses onto the astronomical mount. The transmitter operates at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 3 kHz and pulse energy of 25 μJ. A motorized tip/tilt mount allows beam steering of the collimated beam with μrad accuracy. The returning photons reflected from the object in space are captured with the tracking telescope. A special low aberration beam splitter unit was designed to separate the infrared from visible light. This allows passive optical closed loop tracking and operation of a single photon detector for time of flight measurements at a single telescope simultaneously. The presented innovative design yields to a compact and cost effective but very precise ranging system which allows orbit determination.

  8. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  9. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  10. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse/sec ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f/11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling/recording systems. The basic concept of the laser/radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser range-finding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary range-finding results and expectations.

  11. Satellite laser ranging work at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Carrion, W. J.; Caudill, L. O.; Grant, C. R.; Johnson, T. S.; Premo, D. A.; Spadin, P. L.; Winston, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the satellite laser ranging system at the Goddard Space Flight Center, its range and accuracy capabilities, and planned improvements for future systems. Major subsystems are described, including the laser, optical/mechanical, receiver, computer/software, timing, and laser data preprocessing subsystems. Operational considerations are examined, with attention given the mobile station layout, manpower requirements, and transportability. System performance is considered, with emphasis on system accuracy (calibration, stability, clock synchronization, atmospheric propagation correction) and range capability.

  12. Design of high-precision ranging system for laser fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, He; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the high-precision ranging in the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze, a new type of pulsed laser ranging system has been designed. The laser transmitting module, laser receiving module and ranging processing module have been designed respectively. The factors affecting the ranging accuracy are discussed. And the method of improving the ranging accuracy is studied. The high-precision ranging system adopts the general high performance microprocessor C8051FXXX as the core. And the time interval measurement chip TDC-GP21 was used to implement the system. A PCB circuit board was processed to carry on the experiment. The results of the experiment prove that a centimeter level accuracy ranging system has been achieved. The works can offer reference for ranging system design of the circumferential scanning probe laser proximity fuze.

  13. Development of Shanghai satellite laser ranging station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Fu-Min; Tan, De-Tong; Xiao, Chi-Kun; Chen, Wan-Zhen; Zhang, J.-H.; Zhang, Z.-P.; Lu, Wen-Hu; Hu, Z.-Q.; Tang, W.-F.; Chen, J.-P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: improvement of the system hardware; upgrading of the software; the observation status; preliminary daylight tracking capability; testing the new type of laser; and future plans.

  14. Laser treatments of active acne.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren E; Stevenson, Mary L; Nagler, Arielle R

    2017-08-04

    The utility of laser therapy is increasingly being recognized in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We aimed to perform a narrative review of the medical literature on the use of laser therapy for the treatment of active acne vulgaris. We performed a PubMed literature search on September 1, 2016 using the search terms "active acne," "acne," "laser therapy," and "laser surgery." Case reports, case series, cohort, and controlled trials were included. Studies of lasers in the treatment of acne, including erbium glass, Nd:YAG, pulse dye laser (PDL), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, and laser-based photodynamic therapy, have been published. While treatment of active acne with lasers has been successful, many studies are limited by small patient number and lack of control populations and comparison to standard therapies for active acne. Laser therapies are increasingly becoming part of or an adjunct to the medical treatment of active acne and are a useful treatment modality.

  15. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  16. Laser beaming demonstrations at the Starfire Optical Range

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Meister, D.C.; Tucker, S.; Leatherman, P.; Fugate, R.Q.; Maes, C.; Lange, W.J.; Cowan, W.

    1995-03-01

    The ability to acquire, track, and accurately direct a laser beam to a satellite is crucial for power-beaming and laser-communications. To assess the state of the art in this area, a team consisting of Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and COMSAT Corporation personnel performed some laser beaming demonstrations to various satellites. A ruby laser and a frequency-doubled YAG laser were used with the Phillips Lab Starfire Optical Range (SOR) beam director for this activity. The ruby laser projected 20 J in 6 ms out the telescope with a beam divergence that increased from 1.4 to 4 times the diffraction limit during that time. The doubled YAG projected 0.09 J in 10 ns at 20 Hz. The SOR team demonstrated the ability to move rapidly to a satellite, center it in the telescope, then lock onto it with the tracker, and establish illumination. Several low-earth-orbit satellites with corner-cube retro-reflectors were illuminated at ranges from 1000 to 6000 km with a beam divergence estimated to be about 20 {mu}radians. The return signal from the ruby laser was collected in a 15-cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier tube, and recorded at 400 kHz. Rapid variations in intensity (as short at 15 {mu}s) were noted, which may be due to speckles caused by phase interference from light reflected from different retro-reflectors on the satellite. The return light from the YAG was collected by a 35-cm telescope and detected by an intensified CCD camera. The satellite brightened by about a factor of 30 in the sunlight when the laser was turned on, and dimmed back to normal when the 50-{mu}radian point-ahead was turned off. The satellite was illuminated at 1 Hz as it entered the earth`s shadow and followed for about 10 seconds in the shadow. In another demonstration, four neighboring GEO satellites were located and centered in succession with a 3.5-m telescope at a rate of about 16 seconds per satellite.

  17. Current Trends and Challenges in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Graham M.; Bianco, Giuseppe; Noll, Carey E.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    2016-12-01

    greatly enhancing efficiency. Discussions are ongoing with some missions that will allow the SLR network stations to provide crucial, but energy-safe, range measurements to optically vulnerable satellites. New retro-reflector designs are improving the signal link and enable daylight ranging that is now the norm for many stations. We discuss many of these laser ranging activities and some of the tough challenges that the SLR network currently faces.

  18. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  19. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  20. Laser range pole field evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A field evaluation was made of the laser pole equipment. The basic plan for the evaluation was to expose the equipment to the actual people and environment for which it was intended and determine, through the use of the equipment, its resultant effectivity in terms of improved performance. Results show the equipment performed better than expected in the high elevation clean air of Colorado, and did as well in Tennessee.

  1. Geometric analysis of satellite laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Brion; Bucey, Steven; Husson, Van S.; Decker, Winfield M.; Degnan, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of simultaneous laser data is investigated using the method of trilateration. Analysis of data from 1987 to 1992 is presented with selected baseline rates and station positions. The use of simultaneous Etalon data is simulated to demonstrate the additional global coverage these satellites provide. Trilateration has a great potential for regional deformation studies with monthly LAGEOS American solutions between 3-12 millimeters.

  2. Probing General Relativity and New Physics with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Maiello, M.; Currie, D. G.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Chandler, J.

    2012-11-01

    primary goal of these innovative tools is to provide critical design and diagnostic capabilities for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to Galileo and other GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) constellations. Implementation of new retroreflector designs being studied will help to improve GNSS orbits, which will then increase the accuracy, stability, and distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) [4], to provide better definition of the geocenter (origin) and the scale (length unit). The SCF is also actively used to develop, validate and optimize the second generation LLR arrays for precision gravity and lunar science measurements to be performed with robotic missions of the International Lunar Network in which NASA and ASI participate (ILN). The capability will allow us to optimize the design of GNSS laser retroreflector payloads to maximize ranging efficiency, to improve signal-to-noise conditions in daylight and to provide pre-launch validation of retroreflector performance under laboratory-simulated space conditions. For the MAGIA lunar orbiter Phase A study funded by ASI (Dell'Agnello et al., 2010 [14]), we studied fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments, to improve test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity and a precursor test of our second generation LLR payload.

  3. Satellite laser ranging work at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Carrion, W. J.; Caudill, L. O.; Grant, C. R.; Johnson, T. S.; Premo, D. A.; Spadin, P. L.; Winston, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Laser ranging systems, their range and accuracy capabilities, and planned improvements for future systems are discussed, the systems include one fixed and two mobile lasers ranging systems. They have demonstrated better than 10 cm accuracy both on a carefully surveyed ground range and in regular satellite ranging operations. They are capable of ranging to all currently launched retroreflector equipped satellites with the exception of Timation III. A third mobile system is discussed which will be accurate to better than 5 cm and will be capable of ranging to distant satellites such as Timation III and LAGEOS.

  4. Nd:YLF laser for airborne/spaceborne laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, Joseph L.; Selker, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the need for light weight, long lifetime, efficient, short pulse lasers, a diode-pumped, Nd:YLF oscillator and regenerative amplifier is being developed. The anticipated output is 20 mJ per 10 picosecond pulse, running at a repetition rate of 40 Hz. The fundamental wavelength is at 1047 nm. The oscillator is pumped by a single laser diode bar and mode locked using an electro-optic, intra-cavity phase modulator. The output from the oscillator is injected as a seed into the regenerative amplifier. The regenerative amplifier laser crystal is optically pumped by two 60W quasi-cw laser diode bars. Each diode is collimated using a custom designed micro-lens bar. The injected 10 ps pulse from the oscillator is kept circulating within the regenerative amplifier until this nanojoule level seed pulse is amplified to 2-3 millijoules. At this point the pulse is ejected and sent on to a more standard single pass amplifier where the energy is boosted to 20 mJ. The footprint of the entire laser (oscillator-regenerative amplifier-amplifier) will fit on a 3 by 4 ft. optical pallet.

  5. Lunar Science from Laser Ranging - Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, J. Todd; Williams, James G.; Turyshev, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    The interior properties of the Moon influence lunar tides and rotation. Three-axis rotation (physical librations) and tides are sensed by tracking lunar landers. The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment has acquired 38 yr of increasingly accurate ranges from observatories on the Earth to four corner cube retroreflector arrays on the Moon. Lunar Laser Ranging is reviewed in [1]. Recent lunar science results are in [4,5]. In this abstract present LLR capabilities are described followed by future possibilities.

  6. Micro-Laser Range Finder Development: Using the Monolithic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Micro- Laser Range Finder Development: Using the Monolithic Approach February 1999 John... Nettleton , Dallas Barr, Brad Schilling & Jonathan Lei US ARMY CECOM RDEC NVESD Fort Belvoir, VA Samuel M. Goldwasser Engineering Consultant Bala-Cynwyd, PA...ABSTRACT Laser range finders are a vital component of high precision targeting engagements. The precise and accurate range-to-target information is

  7. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  8. Precise attitude determination of defunct satellite laser ranging tragets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittet, Jean-Noel; Schildknecht, Thomas; Silha, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to determine the dynamics of objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to range to the spacecraft with very high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits. Non-active spacecraft, which are not any more attitude controlled, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques. Such a spinning can be around one constant axis of rotation or it can be more complex, when also precession and nutation motions are present. The rotation of the RRA around the spacecraft's centre of mass can create both a oscillation pattern of laser range signal and a periodic signal interruption when the RRA is hidden behind the satellite. In our work we will demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique to cooperative targets can be used to determine precisely their attitude state. The processing of the obtained data will be discussed, as well as the attitude determination based on parameters estimation. Continuous SLR measurements to one target can allow to accurately monitor attitude change over time which can be further used for the future attitude modelling. We will show our solutions of the attitude states determined for the non-active ESA satellite ENVISAT based on measurements acquired during year 2013-2015 by Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. The angular momentum shows a stable behaviour with respect to the orbital plane but is not aligned with orbital momentum. The determination of the inertial rotation over time, shows it evolving between 130 to 190 seconds within two year. Parameter estimation also bring a strong indication of a retrograde rotation. Results on other former satellites in low and medium Earth orbit such as TOPEX/Poseidon or GLONASS type will be also presented.

  9. Usachev uses a laser range finder during rendezvous ops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    STS102-E-5085 (10 March 2001) --- Cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, STS-102 mission specialist, uses a laser ranging device on Discovery's aft flight deck during rendezvous operations. The photograph was recorded with a digital still camera.

  10. Solid state long range surface plasmon polariton single mode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami Keshmarzi, Elham; Tait, R. Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Incorporation of a solid-state gain medium in the cladding of a Long Range Surface Plasmon Polariton (LRSPP) waveguide in order to create a single-mode near-infrared laser source is proposed. LRSPP Bragg gratings based on stepping the width of the metal strip are used to form the laser's cavity. Three laser configurations are presented: The first 2 lasers employ DBRs (Distributed Bragg Reflectors) in ECL (External Cavity Laser) architecture while the third is based on the DFB (Distributed Feedback) configuration. All 3 configurations are thermally tunable by heating the gratings directly by injecting current. The lasers are convenient to fabricate leading to inexpensive sources that could be used in optical integrated circuits or waveguide biosensors.

  11. Analysis Techniques for Airborne Laser Range Safety Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Subtitle) $- TYPE OP "EPORT 6 PERIOD COVEMEb Final ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR AIRBORNE LASER RANGE SAFETY EVALUATIONS 6, PERFORMING ORO . REPORT NUMBER 7...the total energy available will pass through various aperture sizes (i.e., 8-cm entrance aperture optics). One approximation is the range equation...Q a Total available energy out of the laser 11 - Radiant energy RELATIVE RADIANT ENERGY 1.0 ".,, I• .,•., -0.5 e20 . BEAM • DIAMETER - Figure 3. A

  12. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  13. Satellite laser ranging work at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Carrion, W. J.; Caudill, L. O.; Grant, C. R.; Johnson, T. S.; Premo, D. A.; Spadin, P. L.; Winston, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The pulsed-laser satellite ranging systems presently being operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center are described along with their range and accuracy capabilities. The major subsystems are outlined, operation of the fixed system and the two mobile systems is discussed, and the performance of all three systems is evaluated. It is noted that these systems have an accuracy of better than 10 cm on a carefully surveyed range as well as in regular satellite ranging operations and are capable of ranging to all currently launched retroreflector-equipped satellites with the exception of Timation III. Future improvements discussed include a third mobile system which will be able to range distant satellites, such as Timation III, with an accuracy of better than 5 cm and the use of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in place of the ruby lasers now being employed.

  14. Laser Range Evaluation Guide for Bioenvironmental Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    will be from a range of bearings, the LSDZ will be a summation of all possible footprints. This results in a LSDZ in the shape of two, pie -shaped...sections. The length of these will be equal to the forward and aft footprint dimensions. The width of these pie -shaped sections will be the extremes of...o Iniia Ll Outin e IT 57-I A 8. The area outlined by the two pie -shaped sections would be the LSDZ for flat terrain. Since the ground is not flat, we

  15. Tracking of Humans and Robots Using Laser Range Finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bršcic, Drazen; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    There exist various applications where tracking of humans or robots in an area is needed. An example of such applications are Intelligent Spaces, where humans and robots share a common space and their positions are tracked by a system of sensors in the space. In this paper a system for tracking both humans and robots that utilizes laser range finders as sensing devices is described. The details of the extraction of objects from the laser scan, data association and estimation are given, and results of tracking humans and robots are described. Calibration of the distributed laser range finders, which is important for the operation of the tracking system is also described, both in a manual and automated variant and experimental results are given. Finally, the inclusion of a laser range finder onboard the mobile robot in the tracking process is described and accompanied with experimental results. The distributed fusion of static and onboard sensors is also discussed.

  16. Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for interplanetary applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an interplanetary transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an interplanetary laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results

  17. Application of femtosecond laser range finder in space debris monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiang; Ji, Rongyi; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-11-01

    The space-based long-distance ranging of space debris will help to avoid collision. Compared with radar and telescope, the infrared binocular monitoring system can track and range space debris quickly. Because the measurement range is related to the baseline length, two cameras are placed on different satellites. Due to the lack of rigid connection between satellites, femtosecond laser ranging is used to measure the attitude of the camera.

  18. Probing Gravity with Next Generation Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Manuele; Dell'Agnello, Simone

    Lunar and satellite laser ranging (LLR/SLR) are consolidated techniques which provide a precise, and at the same time, cost-effective method to determine the orbits of the Moon and of satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors with respect to the International Celestial Reference System. We describe the precision tests of general relativity and of new theories of gravity that can be performed with second-generation LLR payloads on the surface of the Moon (NASA/ASI MoonLIGHT project), and with SLR/LLR payloads deployed on spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system. A new wave of lunar exploration and lunar science started in 2007-2008 with the launch of three missions (Chang'e by China, Kaguya by Japan, Chandrayaan by India), missions in preparation (LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL/LADEE by NASA) and other proposed missions (like MAGIA in Italy). This research activity will be greatly enhanced by the future robotic deployment of a lunar geophysics network (LGN) on the surface of the Moon. A scientific concept of the latter is the International Lunar Network (ILN, see http://iln.arc.nasa.gov/). The LLR retroreflector payload developed by a US-Italy team described here and under space qualification at the National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF) is the optimum candidate for the LGN, which will be populated in the future by any lunar landing mission.

  19. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; D. Loesser; A. L. Roquemore; M. M. Menon; R. E. Barry

    2000-07-13

    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 {micro}m laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100{micro}m at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated.

  20. Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program.

    PubMed

    Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F

    1994-07-22

    On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here.

  1. Lunar Laser Ranging: A Playground for Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Laser ranging to the reflectors placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts has long been a productive tool for probing gravitation, continuing to this day. This talk will survey the gravitational physics tested by lunar ranging and prospects for the future, touching on contributions to the endeavor by Irwin Shapiro, in celebration of the Einstein Prize.

  2. Current and Future Lunar Science from Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Dickey, O.; Murphy, T. W.

    2002-01-01

    The interior properties of the Moon influence lunar tides and rotation. Three-axis rotation and tides are sensed by tracking lunar landers. The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment has acquired three decades of accurate ranges from observatories on the Earth to four corner-cube retroreflector arrays on the Moon.

  3. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E

    1974-10-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse sec/ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling[equation]recording systems. The basic concept of the laser[equation]radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser rangefinding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary rangefinding results and expectations. The prototype system was assembled to investigate the feasibility of such systems and aid in the development of detailed specifications for an operational system. Both the feasibility and desirability of such systems integrations have been adequately demonstrated.

  4. Compact-range coordinate system established using a laser tracker.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, Floyd H.; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2006-12-01

    Establishing a Cartesian coordinate reference system for an existing Compact Antenna Range using the parabolic reflector is presented. A SMX (Spatial Metrix Corporation) M/N 4000 laser-based coordinate measuring system established absolute coordinates for the facility. Electric field characteristics with positional movement correction are evaluated. Feed Horn relocation for alignment with the reflector axis is also described. Reference points are established for follow-on non-laser alignments utilizing a theodolite.

  5. Scientific Value of the Laser Ranging of Asteroid Icarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong-Jie; Xia, Yan; Li, Guang-Yu

    2009-10-01

    The space mission of the laser ranging of asteroid Icarus is that a laser reflector and a timer are placed on the No.1566 asteroid and the laser interference ranging is conducted between the asteroid and the ground-based station for making the precise measurements of the PPN parameters γ and β, solar quadrupolar moment J2, time rate of change Ġ/ G of the gravitational constant and barycentric gravitational constant of the solar system objects. With the development of laser techniques, the timing accuracy of 10 ps (or 3 mm expressed by the amount of ranging) can be realized. In 2015 the asteroid Icarus will be close to the earth, which provides a better launch window for the Icarus lander. In the present article the 2003 interplanetary ephemeris frame of the PMOE is adopted to simulate the laser ranging between the ground-based station and the asteroid for 800 days from 2015 September 25 on and obtain the indeterminacies of 18 parameters, among which those of γ, β, J2 and Ġ/ G are respectively 7.8 × 10 -8, 9.0 × 10 -7, 9.8 × 10 -11 and 7.0 × 10-15yr -1, with each being 1 to 3 orders higher than the available experimental accuracy. The simulated result shows that this space mission is of scientific significance to the test of the theory of relativity, determination of the fundamental parameters of solar system and test of the space-time fundamental laws.

  6. Use of laser range finders and range image analysis in automated assembly tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvertos, Nicolas; Dcunha, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    A proposition to study the effect of filtering processes on range images and to evaluate the performance of two different laser range mappers is made. Median filtering was utilized to remove noise from the range images. First and second order derivatives are then utilized to locate the similarities and dissimilarities between the processed and the original images. Range depth information is converted into spatial coordinates, and a set of coefficients which describe 3-D objects is generated using the algorithm developed in the second phase of this research. Range images of spheres and cylinders are used for experimental purposes. An algorithm was developed to compare the performance of two different laser range mappers based upon the range depth information of surfaces generated by each of the mappers. Furthermore, an approach based on 2-D analytic geometry is also proposed which serves as a basis for the recognition of regular 3-D geometric objects.

  7. Laser Range and Bearing Finder for Autonomous Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has recently re-confirmed their interest in autonomous systems as an enabling technology for future missions. In order for autonomous missions to be possible, highly-capable relative sensor systems are needed to determine an object's distance, direction, and orientation. This is true whether the mission is autonomous in-space assembly, rendezvous and docking, or rover surface navigation. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. has developed a wide-angle laser range and bearing finder (RBF) for autonomous space missions. The laser RBF has a number of features that make it well-suited for autonomous missions. It has an operating range of 10 m to 5 km, with a 5 deg field of view. Its wide field of view removes the need for scanning systems such as gimbals, eliminating moving parts and making the sensor simpler and space qualification easier. Its range accuracy is 1% or better. It is designed to operate either as a stand-alone sensor or in tandem with a sensor that returns range, bearing, and orientation at close ranges, such as NASA's Advanced Video Guidance Sensor. We have assembled the initial prototype and are currently testing it. We will discuss the laser RBF's design and specifications. Keywords: laser range and bearing finder, autonomous rendezvous and docking, space sensors, on-orbit sensors, advanced video guidance sensor

  8. The coordinate frame of the lunar laser ranging network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1986-01-01

    The geocentric coordinates for four instruments, which were derived using lunar laser ranging, are compared with the 84L02 coordinates determined from the Lageos satellite. The determination of the geocentric coordinates for the 2.7 m and McDonald Observatory laser ranging system telescopes at McDonald Observatory, the Haleakala site, and the CERGA site near Grasse, France is described. Consideration is given to the McDonald Observatory colocation and station motion due to continential drift. A rms difference of 18 cm is determined for the two sets of geocentric coordinates; however, removing a data anomaly reduces the rms difference to 13 cm.

  9. The coordinate frame of the lunar laser ranging network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1986-01-01

    The geocentric coordinates for four instruments, which were derived using lunar laser ranging, are compared with the 84L02 coordinates determined from the Lageos satellite. The determination of the geocentric coordinates for the 2.7 m and McDonald Observatory laser ranging system telescopes at McDonald Observatory, the Haleakala site, and the CERGA site near Grasse, France is described. Consideration is given to the McDonald Observatory colocation and station motion due to continential drift. A rms difference of 18 cm is determined for the two sets of geocentric coordinates; however, removing a data anomaly reduces the rms difference to 13 cm.

  10. Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkine, A.; Lau, B.; Lim, A.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2008-02-01

    A method for range-resolved gas sensing using path-integrated optical systems is presented. The method involves dividing an absorption path into several measurement segments and extracting the gas concentration in each segment from two path-integrated measurements. We implemented the method with tunable lasers (a 1389-nm VCSEL and a 10.9-μm pulsed quantum cascade laser) and a group of retro reflectors (RRs) distributed along absorption paths. Using a rotating mirror with the VCSEL configuration, we could scan a group of seven tape RRs spaced by 10 cm in ˜ 9 ms to extract an H2O concentration profile. Reduced H2O concentrations were recorded in the segments purged with dry air. Hollow corner cube RRs were used in the quantum cascade laser configuration at distances up to 1.1 km from the laser. Two RRs placed at 66 m and 125 m from the laser allowed us to determine H2O concentrations in both segments. The RRs returns were separated due to the different round trip travel time of the 200-ns laser pulse. Novel instruments for range-resolved remote sensing in the atmosphere can be developed for a variety of applications, including monitoring the fluxes of atmospheric pollutants and controlling air quality in populated areas.

  11. Microchip green laser sources: broad range of possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaian, Stepan; Khaydarov, John; Slavov, Slav; Ter-Mikirtychev, Vartan; Gabrielyan, Gevorg; Keroopyan, Meruzhan; Soghomonyan, Suren

    2012-02-01

    Spectralus presents its progress in development of miniature, highly efficient, and versatile diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) green laser source, based on a monolithic cavity microchip laser platform. The use of periodically poled MgO-doped Lithium Niobate (PPMgOLN) as the nonlinear frequency doubler together with gain material Nd3+:YVO4 allows obtaining a significant increase in the overall efficiency of the green microchip laser in comparison with other compact green laser source architectures with comparable output power. Originally, this laser source was designed to be part of the miniature and efficient RGB light source for microdisplay-based (LCOS, DLP or similar) mobile projector devices. Recently, we have extended range of operations for our original laser platform. In particular, we demonstrate the following: high peak power (>500mW), high average power (>200mW), broad temperature range of operation (-30°C - 60°C), and low noise CW operation (<0.5% RMS).

  12. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  13. Validation and verification of the laser range safety tool (LRST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Paul K.; Keppler, Kenneth S.; Thomas, Robert J.; Polhamus, Garrett D.; Smith, Peter A.; Trevino, Javier O.; Seaman, Daniel V.; Gallaway, Robert A.; Crockett, Gregg A.

    2003-06-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Defense (DOD) is currently developing and testing a number of High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons systems. DOD range safety officers now face the challenge of designing safe methods of testing HEL's on DOD ranges. In particular, safety officers need to ensure that diffuse and specular reflections from HEL system targets, as well as direct beam paths, are contained within DOD boundaries. If both the laser source and the target are moving, as they are for the Airborne Laser (ABL), a complex series of calculations is required and manual calculations are impractical. Over the past 5 years, the Optical Radiation Branch of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/HEDO), the ABL System Program Office, Logicon-RDA, and Northrup-Grumman, have worked together to develop a computer model called teh Laser Range Safety Tool (LRST), specifically designed for HEL reflection hazard analyses. The code, which is still under development, is currently tailored to support the ABL program. AFRL/HEDO has led an LRST Validation and Verification (V&V) effort since 1998, in order to determine if code predictions are accurate. This paper summarizes LRST V&V efforts to date including: i) comparison of code results with laboratory measurements of reflected laser energy and with reflection measurements made during actual HEL field tests, and ii) validation of LRST's hazard zone computations.

  14. Effects of turbulence on the geodynamic laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churnside, James H.

    1993-01-01

    The Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS) is one of several instruments being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for implementation as part of the Earth Observing System in the mid-1990s (Cohen et al., 1987; Bruno et al., 1988). It consists of a laser transmitter and receiver in space and an array of retroreflectors on the ground. The transmitter produces short (100 ps) pulses of light at two harmonics (0.532 and 0.355 microns) of the Nd:YAG laser. These propagate to a retroreflector on the ground and return. The receiver collects the reflected light and measures the round-trip transit time. Ranging from several angles accurately determines the position of the retroreflector, and changes in position caused by geophysical processes can be monitored.

  15. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  16. Evaluation of a satellite laser ranging technique using pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Carolyn Kay

    1987-01-01

    Several types of Satellite Laser Ranging systems exist, operating with pulsed, high-energy lasers. The distance between a ground point and an orbiting satellite can be determined to within a few centimeters. A new technique substitutes pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes, which are much more compact, reliable and less costly, for the lasers now used. Since laser diode technology is only now achieving sufficiently powerful lasers, the capabilities of the new technique are investigated. Also examined are the effects of using an avalanche photodiode detector instead of a photomultiplier tube. The influence of noise terms (including background radiation, detector dark and thermal noise and speckle) that limit the system range and performance is evaluated.

  17. LISA-like Laser Ranging for GRACE Follow-on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, D.; Stede, G.; Müller, V.; Gerberding, O.; Mahrdt, C.; Sheard, B.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission successfully demonstrated that low-orbit satellite-to-satellite tracking is a powerful tool to analyze spatial and temporal changes in Earth's gravity field. Especially hydrological mass transports are well-resolved. To continue longterm observations, a GRACE follow-on mission is planned for 2017 which will almost be an identical copy of the GRACE mission. Additionally, for technological demonstration, a Laser Ranging Interferometer is planned supplementary to the conventional microwave ranging device to potentially improve the intersatellite range measurements. The frequency band of interest for Earth gravity observations coincides with the LISA frequency band, thus LISA technology can be inherited. We describe the basic concept of the Laser Ranging Interferometer for GRACE follow-on and present a testbed to investigate its functionality and key components.

  18. MS Reilly with laser range finder on aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-14

    STS104-E-5026 (14 July 2001) --- Positioned near a window on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis, astronaut James F. Reilly, STS-104 mission specialist, uses a laser ranging device to hone in on the International Space Station (ISS) during pre-docking operations about 237 miles above Earth.

  19. Thomas uses laser range finder during rendezvous ops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    STS102-E-5064 (10 March 2001) --- Astronaut Andrew S.W. Thomas, STS-102 mission specialist, uses a laser ranging device on aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Discovery. This instrument is a regularly called-on tool during rendezvous operations with the International Space Station (ISS). The photograph was recorded with a digital still camera.

  20. Monocular Vision Localization Using a Gimbaled Laser Range Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    unsuccessful. The laser range sensor was mounted to a Pandora pan and tilt gimbal [27]. This gimbal uses standard hobby-style analog servos (HS-81 and HS...URL: http://us.fluke.com/, July. 2008. 27. “DPC AV, pandora pan and tilt kit.” URL: http://www.dpcav.com/, June, 2008. 28. High Precision Tri-Axis

  1. Location Of A Vehicle With A Laser Range Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C. J.; Monchaud, S.; Marce, L.; Julliere, M.

    1984-02-01

    Absolute location of a mobile robot is necessary to improve the autonomy of vehicle built for hostile environments. We are developing a scanning laser range finder based on triangulation to get range data about the edges of a cylindrical polyhedral world. From the matching between the measurements and data computed from a model of the a priori known environment, the position of the robot is deduced accurately.

  2. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  3. Cassidy holds laser range finder in aft FD during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-28

    S127-E-011291 (28 July 2009) --- Astronauts Tom Marshburn (left) and Christopher Cassidy, both STS-127 mission specialists, look through an overhead window on the aft flight deck of Space Shuttle Endeavour during flight day 14 activities. Cassidy is holding a handheld laser ranging device -- designed to measure the range between two spacecraft.

  4. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) From Space - Laser Altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or lidar, is like radar but atoptical wavelengths. The principle of operation and theirapplications in remote sensing are similar. Lidars havemany advantages over radars in instrument designs andapplications because of the much shorter laser wavelengthsand narrower beams. The lidar transmitters and receiveroptics are much smaller than radar antenna dishes. Thespatial resolution of lidar measurement is much finer thanthat of radar because of the much smaller footprint size onground. Lidar measurements usually give a better temporalresolution because the laser pulses can be much narrowerthan radio frequency (RF) signals. The major limitation oflidar is the ability to penetrate clouds and ground surfaces.

  5. Establishing geodetic-geodynamic parameters using lunar laser range measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballani, L.

    The state of the art of lunar laser range measurements is reviewed. The transit time of the signals is simulated to determine if the effects of the final signal speed should be taken into account, and modeling of the signal time delay is treated in the frame of earth-moon dynamics. Results concerning coordinates and distances of laser stations in the United States, USSR and Austria, and essential UTO and UT1 analyses are presented. Conditions for establishing the geodetic-geodynamic parameters are determined, and preliminary estimations are made.

  6. Laser ranging contributions to monitoring and interpreting Earth orientation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The groundwork for a new field in the geophysical sciences - space geodesy - was laid in the 1960s with the development of satellite and lunar laser ranging systems, along with the development of very long baseline interferometry systems, for the purpose of studying crustal plate motion and deformation, the Earth's gravitational field, and Earth orientation changes. The availability of accurate, routine determinations of the Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) afforded by the launch of the LAser GEOdynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) on May 4, 1976, and the subsequent numerous studies of the LAGEOS observations, has led to a greater understanding of the causes of the observed changes in the Earth's orientation.

  7. Laser ranging contributions to monitoring and interpreting Earth orientation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The groundwork for a new field in the geophysical sciences - space geodesy - was laid in the 1960s with the development of satellite and lunar laser ranging systems, along with the development of very long baseline interferometry systems, for the purpose of studying crustal plate motion and deformation, the Earth's gravitational field, and Earth orientation changes. The availability of accurate, routine determinations of the Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) afforded by the launch of the LAser GEOdynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) on May 4, 1976, and the subsequent numerous studies of the LAGEOS observations, has led to a greater understanding of the causes of the observed changes in the Earth's orientation.

  8. Speckle phase noise in coherent laser ranging: fundamental precision limitations.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Esther; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Swann, William C; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2014-08-15

    Frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) measures the range to a surface through coherent detection of the backscattered light from a frequency-swept laser source. The ultimate limit to the range precision of FMCW LADAR, or any coherent LADAR, to a diffusely scattering surface will be determined by the unavoidable speckle phase noise. Here, we demonstrate the two main manifestations of this limit. First, frequency-dependent speckle phase noise leads to a non-Gaussian range distribution having outliers that approach the system range resolution, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio. These outliers are reduced only through improved range resolution (i.e., higher optical bandwidths). Second, if the range is measured during a continuous lateral scan across a surface, the spatial pattern of speckle phase is converted to frequency noise, which leads to additional excess range uncertainty. We explore these two effects and show that laboratory results agree with analytical expressions and numerical simulations. We also show that at 1 THz optical bandwidth, range precisions below 10 μm are achievable regardless of these effects.

  9. Performance Analysis of the Spaceborne Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Vonbun, F. O.; Smith, D. E.; Englar, T. S.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1979-01-01

    The 'spaceborne laser ranging system' is a proposed short pulse laser on board an orbiting spacecraft. It measures the distances between the spacecraft and many laser retroreflectors (targets) deployed on the earth's surface. The precision of these range measurements was assumed to be about plus or minus 2 cm. These measurements were then used together with the orbital dynamics of the spacecraft to derive the intersite vector between the laser ground targets. The errors associated with this vector were on the order of 1 to 2 cm. The baseline distances determined range from 25 km to 1200 km. By repeating the measurements of the intersite vector, strain and strain rate errors were estimated. The realizable precision for intersite distance determination was estimated to be on the order of 0.5 cm at 300 km and about 1.5 cm at 1200 km. The corresponding inaccuracies for the intersite distances were larger, than is 1 cm and 3.5 cm respectively. The corresponding precision in the vertical direction was 1 cm and 3 cm.

  10. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate.

  11. Estimability and simple dynamical analyses of range (range-rate range-difference) observations to artificial satellites. [laser range observations to LAGEOS using non-Bayesian statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, B. H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.

  12. Study of pseudo noise CW diode laser for ranging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyo S.; Ramaswami, Ravi

    1992-01-01

    A new Pseudo Random Noise (PN) modulated CW diode laser radar system is being developed for real time ranging of targets at both close and large distances (greater than 10 KM) to satisy a wide range of applications: from robotics to future space applications. Results from computer modeling and statistical analysis, along with some preliminary data obtained from a prototype system, are presented. The received signal is averaged for a short time to recover the target response function. It is found that even with uncooperative targets, based on the design parameters used (200-mW laser and 20-cm receiver), accurate ranging is possible up to about 15 KM, beyond which signal to noise ratio (SNR) becomes too small for real time analog detection.

  13. Laser ranging error budget for the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J A

    1990-09-01

    A laser ranging error budget is detailed, and a specific error budget is derived for the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. A ranging uncertainty of 0.76 cm is predicted for TOPEX/POSEIDON at 20 degrees elevation using the presently designed laser retroreflector array and only modest improvements in present system operations. Atmospheric refraction and satellite attitude effects cause the predicted range error to vary with satellite elevation angle from 0.71 cm at zenith to 0.76 cm at 20 degrees elevation. This a priori error budget compares well with the ~1.2-cm rms a posteriori polynomial orbital fit using existing data taken for an extant satellite of similar size and orbit.

  14. Satellite laser ranging and gravity field modeling accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosborough, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitational field mismodeling procedures errors in the estimated orbital motion of near Earth satellites. This effect is studied using a linear perturbation approach following the analysis of Kaula. The perturbations in the orbital position as defined by either orbital elements or Cartesian components are determined. From these perturbations it is possible to ascertain the expected signal due to gravitational mismodeling that would be present in station-to-satellite laser ranging measurements. This expected signal has been estimated for the case of the Lageos satellite and using the predicted uncertainties of the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models. The results indicate that observable signal still exists in the laser range residuals given the current accuracy of the range measurements and the accuracy of the gravity field models.

  15. Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment for Japanese SELENE-2 landing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Kunimori, H.; Araki, H.; Fuse, T.; Hanada, H.; Katayama, M.; Otsubo, T.; Sasaki, S.; Tazawa, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Funazaki, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Murata, K.

    2012-04-01

    We present the development status of the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment proposed to Japanese SELENE-2 lunar landing mission. The Lunar Laser Ranging measures the distance between laser link stations on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon, by detecting the time of flight of photons of high-powered laser emitted from the ground station. Since the Earth-Moon distance contains information of lunar orbit, lunar solid tides, and lunar orientation and rotation, we can estimate the inner structure of the Moon through orientation, rotation and tide. Retroreflectors put by the Apollo and Luna missions in 1970's are arrays of many small Corner Cube Prisms (CCP). Because of the tilt of these arrays from the Earth direction due to the optical libration, the returned laser pulse is broaden, causing the main range error of more than 1.5 cm ([1]). Therefore retroreflectors with larger single aperture are necessary for more accurate ranging, and we propose a large single retroreflector of hollow-type with 15 cm aperture. Larger aperture up to 20 cm might be favorable if more mass is permitted for payloads. To cancel the velocity aberration, a large, single aperture retroreflector needs small amount of offset angle between the reflecting planes to spoil the return beam pattern. This angle offset, called Dihedral Angle Offset (DAO) must be optimized to be less than 1 second of arc with 0.1 seconds of arc accuracy to accumulate more photons [2, 3]. The realization of such small DAO is challenging with current technology, therefore the development of fabrication method is important. As for the mirror material, some ceramic products (ZPF: Zero-expansion Pore-free ceramics or SiC: silicon carbide) are under consideration in terms of weight, hardness and handling. The thermal quality of the material can be evaluated by both the thermal conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion. The method to fasten three planes each other with precise DAO must be developed.

  16. Note: Digital laser frequency auto-locking for inter-satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingxin; Li, Hongyin; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-05-01

    We present a prototype of a laser frequency auto-locking and re-locking control system designed for laser frequency stabilization in inter-satellite laser ranging system. The controller has been implemented on field programmable gate arrays and programmed with LabVIEW software. The controller allows initial frequency calibrating and lock-in of a free-running laser to a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Since it allows automatic recovery from unlocked conditions, benefit derives to automated in-orbit operations. Program design and experimental results are demonstrated.

  17. Note: Digital laser frequency auto-locking for inter-satellite laser ranging

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yingxin; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Li, Hongyin

    2016-05-15

    We present a prototype of a laser frequency auto-locking and re-locking control system designed for laser frequency stabilization in inter-satellite laser ranging system. The controller has been implemented on field programmable gate arrays and programmed with LabVIEW software. The controller allows initial frequency calibrating and lock-in of a free-running laser to a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Since it allows automatic recovery from unlocked conditions, benefit derives to automated in-orbit operations. Program design and experimental results are demonstrated.

  18. Lunar Laser Ranging trial at Koganei SLR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Hirotomo; Kunimori, Hiroo; Araki, Hiroshi

    Introduction: The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is a technique to measure the distance between laser stations on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon, by detecting the time of flight of high-powered laser emitted from the ground station. Since the Earth-Moon distance contains information of lunar orbit, lunar solid tides, and lunar orientation and rotation, observation data of LLR have contributed to the lunar science, especially for the estimation of the inner structure of the Moon through orientation, rotation and tide. There are five refroreflectors on the Moon, Apollo 11, 14, 15 (U. S. A.), Lunokhod 1 and 2 (french-made, carried by former U. S. S. R.). The Apollo 15 has largest aperture among them, and almost 75 % of the total LLR data are from Apollo 15 site. System Description: Since there is no Japanese station which can range the Moon so far, a precursor ranging experiment by using the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) facility in the NICT Koganei campus in Tokyo is ongoing. The SLR station has a 1.5 m Cassegrain telescope with Coude focus. Normally it is equipped with a laser with 20mJ, 20Hz repetition rate, and 35 picoseconds pulse width for satellite ranging. In addition to it, a wide-pulse width laser (3 nanoseconds, which corresponds to 45 cm in 2-way range) with energy of about 350 mJ per shot, repetition rate of 10Hz, wavelength of 532 nm is introduced to detect photons from the lunar retroreflectors for demonstration. As the pulse width is broad, the high accuracy ranging is not expected, therefore it is solely used for the confirmation of the optical link budget between the ground station and retroreflectors on the Moon. As the photon detector, we use a SPAD (Single Photon Avalanche Diode) and also an MCP (Micro Channel Plate) photo multiplier whose quantum efficiency is twice as much as that of the SPAD in use. For the pointing, a CCD imager is also available in the same detector box. They can be switched by reflecting mirrors. To suppress the

  19. A 16-channel CMOS preamplifier for laser ranging radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ru-qing; Zhu, Jing-guo; Jiang, Yan; Li, Meng-lin; Li, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A 16-channal front-end preamplifier array has been design in a 0.18um CMOS process for pulse Laser ranging radar receiver. This front-end preamplifier array incorporates transimpedance amplifiers(TIAs) and differential voltage post-amplifier(PAMP),band gap reference and other interface circuits. In the circuit design, the regulated cascade (RGC) input stage, Cherry-Hooper and active inductor peaking were employed to enhance the bandwidth. And in the layout design, by applying the layout isolation structure combined with P+ guard-ring(PGR), N+ guard-ring(NGR),and deep-n-well(DNW) for amplifier array, the crosstalk and the substrate noise coupling was reduced effectively. The simulations show that a single channel receiver front-end preamplifier achieves 95 dBΩ transimpedance gain and 600MHz bandwidth for 3 PF photodiode capacitance. The total power of 16-channel front-end amplifier array is about 800mW for 1.8V supply.

  20. Laser system range calculations and the Lambert W function.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, Ove

    2009-02-01

    The knowledge of range performance versus atmospheric transmission, often given by the visibility, is critical for the design, use, and prediction of laser and passive electro-optic systems. I present a solution of the ladar-lidar equation based on Lambert's W function. This solution will reveal the dependence of the maximum range on the system and target parameters for different atmospheric attenuations and will also allow us to take the signal statistics into account by studying the influence on the threshold signal-to-noise ratio. The method is also applicable to many range calculations for passive systems where the atmospheric loss can be approximated by an exponential term.

  1. Photodiode Preamplifier for Laser Ranging With Weak Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; Chapsky, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    An improved preamplifier circuit has been designed for processing the output of an avalanche photodiode (APD) that is used in a high-resolution laser ranging system to detect laser pulses returning from a target. The improved circuit stands in contrast to prior such circuits in which the APD output current pulses are made to pass, variously, through wide-band or narrow-band load networks before preamplification. A major disadvantage of the prior wide-band load networks is that they are highly susceptible to noise, which degrades timing resolution. A major disadvantage of the prior narrow-band load networks is that they make it difficult to sample the amplitudes of the narrow laser pulses ordinarily used in ranging. In the improved circuit, a load resistor is connected to the APD output and its value is chosen so that the time constant defined by this resistance and the APD capacitance is large, relative to the duration of a laser pulse. The APD capacitance becomes initially charged by the pulse of current generated by a return laser pulse, so that the rise time of the load-network output is comparable to the duration of the return pulse. Thus, the load-network output is characterized by a fast-rising leading edge, which is necessary for accurate pulse timing. On the other hand, the resistance-capacitance combination constitutes a lowpass filter, which helps to suppress noise. The long time constant causes the load network output pulse to have a long shallow-sloping trailing edge, which makes it easy to sample the amplitude of the return pulse. The output of the load network is fed to a low-noise, wide-band amplifier. The amplifier must be a wide-band one in order to preserve the sharp pulse rise for timing. The suppression of noise and the use of a low-noise amplifier enable the ranging system to detect relatively weak return pulses.

  2. Short range laser obstacle detector. [for surface vehicles using laser diode array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriger, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A short range obstacle detector for surface vehicles is described which utilizes an array of laser diodes. The diodes operate one at a time, with one diode for each adjacent azimuth sector. A vibrating mirror a short distance above the surface provides continuous scanning in elevation for all azimuth sectors. A diode laser is synchronized with the vibrating mirror to enable one diode laser to be fired, by pulses from a clock pulse source, a number of times during each elevation scan cycle. The time for a given pulse of light to be reflected from an obstacle and received is detected as a measure of range to the obstacle.

  3. Effect on maximum ranging distance of laser range finder in different visibility with power fluctuation of emitting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-dan; Zhou, Bing; Xu, Chun-mei; Liu, Jie; Huang, Fu-yu; Zhang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important qualifications of laser range finder is the ranging distance. The ranging distance of laser range finder is usually supplied with a atmosphere condition. To reach the qualification of ranging distance, the manufacturers always increase the laser emitting power which the laser range finders can work not only in the ranging distance. It is important to find the real ranging distance in different visibility especially for military application. The maximum ranging distances in different visibility were discussed in the paper. First, the power of different types of laser range finder was got by experiment. The power of two models of laser range finder was got, and the power of same model but two serial numbers was obtained. Then, the fluctuation regularity was discussed. Then, the maximum ranging distances in different visibility were got by numerical simulation. The maximum ranging distances of laser range finder with same model but two serial numbers were calculated. The figures of maximum ranging distances varying with visibility were obtained. It was showed that the maximum ranging distances of laser range finder with same model but two serial numbers were different.

  4. Ranging with frequency-shifted feedback lasers: from μm-range accuracy to MHz-range measurement rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. I.; Ogurtsov, V. V.; Bonnet, G.; Yatsenko, L. P.; Bergmann, K.

    2016-12-01

    We report results on ranging based on frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) lasers with two different implementations: (1) An Ytterbium-fiber system for measurements in an industrial environment with accuracy of the order of 1 μm, achievable over a distance of the order of meters with potential to reach an accuracy of better than 100 nm; (2) A semiconductor laser system for a high rate of measurements with an accuracy of 2 mm @ 1 MHz or 75 μm @ 1 kHz and a limit of the accuracy of ≥10 μm. In both implementations, the distances information is derived from a frequency measurement. The method is therefore insensitive to detrimental influence of ambient light. For the Ytterbium-fiber system, a key feature is the injection of a single-frequency laser, phase modulated at variable frequency Ω, into the FSF-laser cavity. The frequency Ω_{max} at which the detector signal is maximal yields the distance. The semiconductor FSF-laser system operates without external injection seeding. In this case, the key feature is frequency counting that allows convenient choice of either accuracy or speed of measurements simply by changing the duration of the interval during which the frequency is measured by counting.

  5. The construction of a highly transportable laser ranging station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The technology of the transportable Laser Ranging Station (TLRS) used in crustal dynamics studies was examined. The TLRS used a single photoelectron beam of limited energy density returned from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS). Calibration was accomplished by the diversion of a small portion of the outgoing beam attenuated to the same level as the satellite return. Timing for the system was based on a self calibrating Ortec TD811, 100 picosec time interval device. The system was contained in a modified, single chassis recreational vehicle that allowed rapid deployment. The TLRS system was only airmobile on the largest transport aircraft. A 30 cm simple plano/concave transfer lens telescope aided in beam direction. The TLRS system fulfills the need for an accurate method of obtaining range measurements to the LAGEOS satellite incorporated in a mobile, air transportable, and economical configuration.

  6. A picosecond resolution Time Digitizer for laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turko, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Time Digitizer capable of covering a range of 0.34 sec in 9.76 psec increments is described. The time interval between a pair of start-stop pulses is digitized coarsely in 20 nsec periods by a very accurate 50 MHz reference clock. The residual fractions of a clock period at the start and the stop end of the measured interval are stretched in two interpolators and digitized in 9.76 psec increments. An equivalent digitizing frequency of 102.4 GHz is thus achieved. The digitizer is built in a minicrate and communicates via a standard crate controller. It is intended for use in the laser ranging between ground stations and the Laser Geodetic Satellite (LAGEOS). It is shown that the distribution in any two adjacent 9.76 psec channels of a small number of identical test time intervals is essentially binomial. The performance of the digitizer and test results are given.

  7. Precision geodesy and geodynamics using Starlette laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The French Starlette satellite, launched in February 1975, was the first satellite specifically designed to minimize the effects of nongravitational forces and to obtain the highest possible accuracy for laser range measurements. It has been found that Starlette represents a valuable complement to the U.S. geodetic satellites. In an analysis of Starlette laser ranging data conducted by Marsh and Williamson (1978), it was concluded that by tailoring a gravity model to a specific satellite and observation period, substantial improvements in data fits and, therefore, in orbit accuracy could be achieved. In the present analyses, a tailored gravity model has been derived for Starlette from the data acquired for the 4-year period, 1975-1978. Attention is given to the solution for geodetic and geodynamic parameters and polar motion.

  8. Photon-Limited Information in High Resolution Laser Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    the normalized power measured in the target bin for nominal signal flux of 1 , 5, and 30 photons respectively. The measured photoelectron flux is... August 2013. Area 1 ) Sensitivity and photon information in coherent FMCW ladar FMCW ladar covers many forms of laser ranging which utilize...histograms of the normalized power measured in the target bin for nominal signal flux of 1 , 5, and 30 photons respectively. The measured photoelectron

  9. Lunar Laser Ranging with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzes, Sarah; Perkins, J.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging is the process through which light pulses are bounced off of retroreflectors on the Moon. The travel time of the photons is measured and multiplied by the speed of light to calculate the Earth-Moon distance. The measured Earth-Moon distance can be compared to the Earth-Moon distance predicted by the theory of General Relativity. In that way, possible shortcomings of General Relativity are exposed. The current best measurements are performed by the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation using the ARC 3.5-m Ritchey-Chretien reflector at the Apache Point Observatory yielding errors of less than 1 mm. Upon launching pulses of 3 x 10^17 photons, this telescope yields a one to two photon per pulse return. This study investigates whether the larger surface area of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, such as the four 12-m diameter Davies-Cotton dishes that are part of the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, allows for a greater photon per pulse return rate and thus a more accurate measurement of the Earth-Moon distance. The feasibility of using these telescopes for lunar laser ranging is assessed, taking into account the poorer optical quality of Davies-Cotton reflectors. It is found that the Davies-Cotton dishes cannot be used as the outgoing beams in lunar laser ranging, so the feasibility of using other telescopes located close to the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System as outgoing beams is also examined. Other Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescope systems are considered, and the relationship between dish size and the length of time delay present with Davies-Cotton dishes is examined.

  10. Long Range Interactions With Laser Cooled Neutral Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, Giovanni Luca; Michaud, Franck; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Kaiser, Robin; Loureiro, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose Tito; Tercas, Hugo; Pohl, Thomas

    2008-09-07

    Multiple scattering of light in a trap of laser cooled neutral atoms leads to repulsion forces between the atoms. The corresponding interactions have long range behavior in 1/r{sup 2} and are thus similar to Coulomb interaction in an one component confined plasma. Consequences of these interactions will be described in this paper, including the limitation of the spatial density one can obtain in such systems and self-sustained oscillations of the cloud.

  11. The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System (GLARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.; Degnan, J. J.; Bufton, J. L.; Garvin, J. B.; Abshire, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimetry Ranging System (GLARS) is a highly precise distance measurement system to be used for making extremely accurate geodetic observations from a space platform. It combines the attributes of a pointable laser ranging system making observations to cube corner retroreflectors placed on the ground with those of a nadir looking laser altimeter making height observations to ground, ice sheet, and oceanic surfaces. In the ranging mode, centimeter-level precise baseline and station coordinate determinations will be made on grids consisting of 100 to 200 targets separated by distances from a few tens of kilometers to about 1000 km. These measurements will be used for studies of seismic zone crustal deformations and tectonic plate motions. Ranging measurements will also be made to a coarser, but globally distributed array of retroreflectors for both precise geodetic and orbit determination applications. In the altimetric mode, relative height determinations will be obtained with approximately decimeter vertical precision and 70 to 100 meter horizontal resolution. The height data will be used to study surface topography and roughness, ice sheet and lava flow thickness, and ocean dynamics. Waveform digitization will provide a measure of the vertical extent of topography within each footprint. The planned Earth Observing System is an attractive candidate platform for GLARS since the GLAR data can be used both for direct analyses and for highly precise orbit determination needed in the reduction of data from other sensors on the multi-instrument platform. (1064, 532, and 355 nm)Nd:YAG laser meets the performance specifications for the system.

  12. International Laser Ranging Services (ILRS) 2001 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael (Editor); Torrence, Mark (Editor); Noll, Carey (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This 2001 Annual Report of the International Laser Ranging Services (ILRS) is comprised of individual contributions from ILRS components within the international geodetic community. This report documents the work of the ILRS components for the year 2001. The report documents changes and progress of the ILRS. This document is also available on the ILRS Web site at http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/reports/ilrs_reports/ilrsar_2001.html.

  13. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) 1999 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael (Editor); Taggert, Linda (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This 1999 Annual Report of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is comprised of individual contributions from ILRS components within the international geodetic community. This report documents the work of the ILRS components from the inception of the Service through December 31,1999. Since the service has only recently been established, the ILRS associates decided to publish this Annual report as a reference to our organization and its components.

  14. Covariance analysis of the airborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements and limitations of employing an airborne laser ranging system for detecting crustal shifts of the Earth within centimeters over a region of approximately 200 by 400 km are presented. The system consists of an aircraft which flies over a grid of ground deployed retroreflectors, making six passes over the grid at two different altitudes. The retroreflector baseline errors are assumed to result from measurement noise, a priori errors on the aircraft and retroreflector positions, tropospheric refraction, and sensor biases.

  15. Simulation and analysis about noisy range images of laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingbo; He, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Xi, Dan

    2011-06-01

    A measured range image of imaging laser radar (ladar) is usually disturbed by dropouts and outliers. For the difficulty of obtaining measured data and controlling noise level of dropouts and outliers, a new simulation method for range image with noise is proposed. Based on the noise formation mechanism of ladar range image, an accurate ladar range imaging model is formulated, including three major influencing factors: speckle, atmospheric turbulence and receiver noise. The noisy range images under different scenarios are obtained using MATLABTM. Analysis on simulation results reveals that: (1) Despite of detection strategy, the speckle, the atmospheric turbulence and the receiver noise are major factors which cause dropouts and outliers. (2) The receiver noise itself has limited effect on outliers. However, if other factors (speckle, atmospheric turbulence, etc.) also exist, the effect will be sharply enhanced. (3) Both dropouts and outliers exist in background and target regions.

  16. Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector.

    PubMed

    Priedhorsky, W C; Smith, R C; Ho, C

    1996-01-20

    We propose a new technique for remote sensing: photon-counting laser mapping. MicroChannel plate detectors with a crossed delay-line (MCP/CDL) readout combine high position accuracy and subnanosecond photon timing, at event rates of 10(6) detected photons per second and more. A mapping system would combine an MCP/CDL detector with a fast-pulse, high-repetition-rate laser illuminator. The system would map solid targets with exceptional in-range and cross-range resolution. The resulting images would be intrinsically three dimensional, without resorting to multiple viewing angles, so that objects of identical albedo could be discriminated. For a detector time resolution and pulse width of the order of 10(-10) s, the in-range resolution would be a few centimeters, permitting the discrimination of surfaces by their textures. Images could be taken at night, at illumination levels up to full moonlight, from ground, airborne, or space platforms. We discuss signal to noise as a function of laser flux and background level and present simulated images.

  17. Laser Range and Bearing Finder with No Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas C.; Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    A proposed laser-based instrument would quickly measure the approximate distance and approximate direction to the closest target within its field of view. The instrument would not contain any moving parts and its mode of operation would not entail scanning over of its field of view. Typically, the instrument would be used to locate a target at a distance on the order of meters to kilometers. The instrument would be best suited for use in an uncluttered setting in which the target is the only or, at worst, the closest object in the vicinity; for example, it could be used aboard an aircraft to detect and track another aircraft flying nearby. The proposed instrument would include a conventional time-of-flight or echo-phase-shift laser range finder, but unlike most other range finders, this one would not generate a narrow cylindrical laser beam; instead, it would generate a conical laser beam spanning the field of view. The instrument would also include a quadrant detector, optics to focus the light returning from the target onto the quadrant detector, and circuitry to synchronize the acquisition of the quadrant-detector output with the arrival of laser light returning from the nearest target. A quadrant detector constantly gathers information from the entire field of view, without scanning; its output is a direct measure of the position of the target-return light spot on the focal plane and is thus a measure of the direction to the target. The instrument should be able to operate at a repetition rate high enough to enable it to track a rapidly moving target. Of course, a target that is not sufficiently reflective could not be located by this instrument. Preferably, retroreflectors should be attached to the target to make it sufficiently reflective.

  18. New progress of ranging technology at Wuhan Satellite Laser Ranging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Zhiz-Hong; Ye, Wen-Wei; Cai, Qing-Fu

    1993-01-01

    A satellite laser ranging system with an accuracy of the level of centimeter has been successfully developed at the Institute of Seismology, State Seismological Bureau with the cooperation of the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Science. With significant improvements on the base of the second generation SLR system developed in 1985, ranging accuracy of the new system has been upgraded from 15 cm to 3-4 cm. Measuring range has also been expanded, so that the ETALON satellite with an orbit height of 20,000 km launched by the former U.S.S.R. can now be tracked. Compared with the 2nd generation SLR system, the newly developed system has the following improvements. A Q modulated laser is replaced by a mode-locked YAG laser. The new device has a pulse width of 150 ps and a repetition rate of 1-4 pps. A quick response photomultiplier has been adopted as the receiver for echo; for example, the adoption of the MCP tube has obviously reduced the jitter error of the transit time and has improved the ranging accuracy. The whole system is controlled by an IBM PC/XT Computer to guide automatic tracking and measurement. It can carry out these functions for satellite orbit calculation, real-time tracking and adjusting, data acquisition and the preprocessed of observing data, etc. The automatization level and reliability of the observation have obviously improved.

  19. Baseline monitoring using aircraft laser ranging. [spaceborne laser simulation and aircraft laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Hoge, F. E.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of aircraft laser ranging for the determination of baselines between ground based retroreflectors was investigated via simulations and with tests at Wallops Flight Center using the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) on the Wallops C-54 aircraft ranging to a reflector array deployed around one of the Wallops runways. The aircraft altitude and reflector spacing were chosen on the basis of scaled down modeling of spacecraft tracking from 1000 km of reflectors separated by some 52 km, or of high altitude (10 km) aircraft tracking of reflectors separated by some 500 m. Aircraft altitudes flown for different passes across the runway reflector array varied from 800 m to 1350 m, with 32 reflectors deployed over an approximtely 300 m x 500 m ground pattern. The AOL transmitted 400 pulses/sec with a scan rate of 5/sec in a near circular pattern, so that the majority of the pulses were reflected by the runway surface or its environs rather than by retroreflectors. The return pulse characteristics clearly showed the high reflectivity of portions of the runway, with several returns indistinguishable in amplitude from reflector returns. For each pass across the reflector field, typically six to ten reflector hits were identified, consistent with that predicted by simulations and the observed transmitted elliptical pulse size.

  20. High-energy Laser-accelerated Electron Beams for Long-range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powers, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Umstadter, Donald; Vane, Randy; Schultz, David; Beene, James; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun

    2009-03-10

    We are studying the use of 0.1-1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  1. High-Energy Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams for Long-Range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummingham, N. J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powell, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Vane, C Randy; Schultz, David Robert; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun; Beene, James R; Umstadter, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of 0.1 1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  2. Detecting Topological Defect Dark Matter Using Coherent Laser Ranging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanpeng; Leng, Jianxiao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2016-07-01

    In the last few decades, optical frequency combs with high intensity, broad optical bandwidth, and directly traceable discrete wavelengths have triggered rapid developments in distance metrology. However, optical frequency combs to date have been limited to determine the absolute distance to an object (such as satellite missions). We propose a scheme for the detection of topological defect dark matter using a coherent laser ranging system composed of dual-combs and an optical clock via nongravitational signatures. The dark matter field, which comprises a defect, may interact with standard model particles, including quarks and photons, resulting in the alteration of their masses. Thus, a topological defect may function as a dielectric material with a distinctive frequency-depend index of refraction, which would cause the time delay of a periodic extraterrestrial or terrestrial light. When a topological defect passes through the Earth, the optical path of long-distance vacuum path is altered, this change in optical path can be detected through the coherent laser ranging system. Compared to continuous wavelength(cw) laser interferometry methods, dual-comb interferometry in our scheme excludes systematic misjudgement by measuring the absolute optical path length.

  3. Laser-guide-stars used for cophasing broad capture ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, P.; Janin-Potiron, P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Segmented primary mirrors are indispensable to master the steady increase in spatial resolution. Phasing optics systems must reduce segment misalignments to guarantee the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. Aims: Modern telescopes routinely use adaptive optics systems to compensate for the atmosphere and use laser-guide-stars to create artificial stars as bright references in the field of observation. Because multiple laser-guide-star adaptive optics are being implemented in all major observatories, we propose to use man-made stars not only for adaptive optics, but for phasing optics. Methods: We propose a method called the doublet-wavelength coherence technique (DWCT), exploiting the D lines of sodium in the mesosphere using laser guide-stars. The signal coherence properties are then used. Results: The DWCT capture range exceeds current abilities by a factor of 100. It represents a change in paradigm by improving the phasing optics capture range from micrometric to millimetric. It thereby potentially eliminates the need of a man-made mechanical pre-phasing step. Conclusions: Extremely large telescopes require hundreds of segments, several of which need to be substituted on a daily basis to be recoated. The DWCT relaxes mechanical integration requirements and speeds up integration and re-integration process.

  4. Detecting Topological Defect Dark Matter Using Coherent Laser Ranging System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanpeng; Leng, Jianxiao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2016-07-08

    In the last few decades, optical frequency combs with high intensity, broad optical bandwidth, and directly traceable discrete wavelengths have triggered rapid developments in distance metrology. However, optical frequency combs to date have been limited to determine the absolute distance to an object (such as satellite missions). We propose a scheme for the detection of topological defect dark matter using a coherent laser ranging system composed of dual-combs and an optical clock via nongravitational signatures. The dark matter field, which comprises a defect, may interact with standard model particles, including quarks and photons, resulting in the alteration of their masses. Thus, a topological defect may function as a dielectric material with a distinctive frequency-depend index of refraction, which would cause the time delay of a periodic extraterrestrial or terrestrial light. When a topological defect passes through the Earth, the optical path of long-distance vacuum path is altered, this change in optical path can be detected through the coherent laser ranging system. Compared to continuous wavelength(cw) laser interferometry methods, dual-comb interferometry in our scheme excludes systematic misjudgement by measuring the absolute optical path length.

  5. Detecting Topological Defect Dark Matter Using Coherent Laser Ranging System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanpeng; Leng, Jianxiao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Zhao, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, optical frequency combs with high intensity, broad optical bandwidth, and directly traceable discrete wavelengths have triggered rapid developments in distance metrology. However, optical frequency combs to date have been limited to determine the absolute distance to an object (such as satellite missions). We propose a scheme for the detection of topological defect dark matter using a coherent laser ranging system composed of dual-combs and an optical clock via nongravitational signatures. The dark matter field, which comprises a defect, may interact with standard model particles, including quarks and photons, resulting in the alteration of their masses. Thus, a topological defect may function as a dielectric material with a distinctive frequency-depend index of refraction, which would cause the time delay of a periodic extraterrestrial or terrestrial light. When a topological defect passes through the Earth, the optical path of long-distance vacuum path is altered, this change in optical path can be detected through the coherent laser ranging system. Compared to continuous wavelength(cw) laser interferometry methods, dual-comb interferometry in our scheme excludes systematic misjudgement by measuring the absolute optical path length. PMID:27389642

  6. Fast range estimation based on active range-gated imaging for coastal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingshan; Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Tong, Youwan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-11-01

    Coastal surveillance is very important because it is useful for search and rescue, illegal immigration, or harbor security and so on. Furthermore, range estimation is critical for precisely detecting the target. Range-gated laser imaging sensor is suitable for high accuracy range especially in night and no moonlight. Generally, before detecting the target, it is necessary to change delay time till the target is captured. There are two operating mode for range-gated imaging sensor, one is passive imaging mode, and the other is gate viewing mode. Firstly, the sensor is passive mode, only capturing scenes by ICCD, once the object appears in the range of monitoring area, we can obtain the course range of the target according to the imaging geometry/projecting transform. Then, the sensor is gate viewing mode, applying micro second laser pulses and sensor gate width, we can get the range of targets by at least two continuous images with trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile. This technique enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. Based on the first step, we can calculate the rough value and quickly fix delay time which the target is detected. This technique has overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging and enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. By the two steps, we can quickly obtain the distance between the object and sensor.

  7. APOLLO: Testing Gravity with Millimeter-precision Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, James; Murphy, Thomas; Adelberger, Eric; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, Russet; Michelsen, Eric; Nordtvedt, Kenneth; Orin, Adam; Stubbs, Christopher; Swanson, H. Erik

    2007-04-01

    Based on the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy, along with our inability to unite quantum mechanics and General Relativity, there is a clear need to probe deeper into gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a natural, fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) bounces laser light off of man-made retro-reflectors on the lunar surface to measure the Earth-Moon separation with one millimeter precision. These measurements of the lunar orbit enable improved constraints of gravitational phenomena such as the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Strong Equivalence Principle, de Sitter precession and dG/dt by an order of magnitude or better. I will describe the APOLLO project and its current status, as well as prospects for constraining PPN parameters and the universality of free-fall.

  8. Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic

  9. Diode laser arrays for 1.8 to 2.3 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Márc T.; Gilly, Jürgen; Ahlert, Sandra; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens; Rattunde, Marcel; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    High-power diode lasers in the mid-infrared wavelength range between 1.8μm and 2.3μm have emerged new possibilities either for direct military applications or as efficient pump sources for laser sources in the 2-4μm wavelength range for infrared countermeasures. GaSb based diode lasers are naturally predestinated for this wavelength range and offer clear advantages in comparison to InP based diode lasers in terms of output power and wall-plug efficiency. We will present results on different MBE grown (AlGaIn)(AsSb) quantum-well diode laser single emitters and linear laser arrays, the latter consisting of 19 emitters on a 1cm long bar, emitting at different wavelengths between 1.8μm and 2.3μm. Single emitters have resonator lengths between 1.0 and 1.5mm and stripe widths between 90μm and 200μm. Laser bars with 20% and 30% fill factors have been processed. For single emitters the electro-optical behaviour, beam quality and wavelength tunability have been investigated in detail. For diode laser bars mounted either on actively or passively cooled heat sinks by Indium or AuSn solder, more than 20W at 1.9μm in continuous-wave mode have been achieved at a heat sink temperature of 20°C resulting in maximum wall-plug efficiencies of 30%. Even at 2.2μm more than 16W have been measured, impressively demonstrating the potential of GaSb based diode lasers well beyond wavelengths of 2μm. Application driven fiber coupled single emitter based modules with 600mW as well as fiber coupled bar based modules with 20W have been realized.

  10. Laser-Ranging Transponders for Science Investigations of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijiang; Bimbaum, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An active laser was developed ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distances, and with submillimeter accuracy. In order to overcome the limitations to ranging accuracy from jitters and delay drifts within the transponders, architecture was proposed based on asynchronous paired one-way ranging with local references. A portion of the transmitted light is directed, via a reference path, to the local detector. This allows for compensation of any jitter in the timing of the emitted laser pulse. The same detector is used to measure the time of the received pulses emitted from the remote terminal. This approach removes any change in the delay caused by the detector or its electronics. Two separate terminals using commercial off-the-shelf hardware were built to emulate active laser ranging over interplanetary distances. The communication link for the command to start recording pulse arrival times and data transfer from one terminal to the other was achieved using a standard wireless link, emulating free space laser communication. The deviation is well below the goal of 1-mm precision. This leaves enough margin to achieve 1-mm precision when including the fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence while ranging to Mars through the Earth s atmosphere. The two terminals are mounted on translation stages, which can be moved freely on rails to yield a wide range of distances with fine adjustment. The two terminals were separated by approximately 16 meters.

  11. Laser device for measuring selected ranges of scattering indicatrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkiewicz, Jozef

    1995-03-01

    The author points out major dust particle size ranges and the scope of their noxious effect on human environment. Also, a dependence of the shape of scattering indicatrix on the size dust particle and the relation of the former to light wavelength are shown. This writer introduces his own design of a measuring head used in the research on the scattered light energy distribution in small solid angles. Examples are given of trial measurements of laser light affecting monofractional dusts with diameter ranges of interest within the study. An attempt has been made to determine the non-discrimination range of dust particles with slightly different radii. Finally, the author points out the further direction of the continued research.

  12. The GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Vitali

    2016-07-01

    The GRACE Follow-On mission consists of a pair of satellites to be launched in 2017 into a low-Earth polar orbit. As the precursor mission GRACE, it will provide monthly global maps of Earth's gravity field to study mass changes within the System Earth, like glacier melting or ground-water depletion. The new mission will be equipped with two ranging instruments: a conventional Microwave Ranging Instrument, as already present in the precursor mission, and with a Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI). Latter acts as a technical demonstrator, which will show the capability for enhanced sensitivity and additional precise attitude information of this new technology. The satellite and in particular the LRI working principle will be introduced together with observables and major noise and error contributors. Furthermore potential modifications and extensions for future gravimetric missions are addressed as well as applications in space-based gravitational wave detectors (i.e. eLISA).

  13. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On-going activities of the NASA special consultant to WEGENER (Working group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research) program are reported. Topics cover include: the WEGENER 2002 conference in Greece and the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS).

  14. Scientific achievements from ten years of lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    In the 10 years since lunar laser ranging became a reality the need to analyze the observations has motivated improvements in several aspects of the mathematical model of earth-moon dynamics. Application of the data to improved estimates of the physical parameters of the earth-moon system has yielded significant astronomical, selenophysical, geophysical, and cosmological results. The scientific impact, both in improved theories and in numerical applications, is surveyed. The underlying physics and major difficulties are discussed, as well as the scientific results.

  15. Scientific achievements from ten years of lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    In the 10 years since lunar laser ranging became a reality the need to analyze the observations has motivated improvements in several aspects of the mathematical model of earth-moon dynamics. Application of the data to improved estimates of the physical parameters of the earth-moon system has yielded significant astronomical, selenophysical, geophysical, and cosmological results. The scientific impact, both in improved theories and in numerical applications, is surveyed. The underlying physics and major difficulties are discussed, as well as the scientific results.

  16. Geophysical parameters from the analysis of laser ranging to starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    Starlette Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data were used, along with several other satellite data sets, for the solution of a preliminary gravity field model for TOPEX, PTGF1. A further improvement in the earth gravity model was accomplished using data collected by 12 satellites to solve another preliminary gravity model for TOPEX, designated PTGF2. The solution for the Earth Rotation Parameter (ERP) was derived from the analysis of SLR data to Starlette during the MERIT Campaign. Starlette orbits in 1976 and 1983 were analyzed for the mapping of the tidal response of the earth. Publications and conference presentations pertinent to research are listed.

  17. Advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    This paper show an advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation. The LRF is the common sensor for unmanned ground vehicle, autonomous mobile robot and security applications. The cost of the measurement system is extremely high, therefore the simulation tool is designed. The simulation gives an opportunity to execute algorithm such as the obstacle avoidance[1], slam for robot localization[2], detection of vegetation and water obstacles in surroundings of the robot chassis[3], LRF measurement in crowd of people[1]. The Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) and alternative technique based on CUDA (NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture) is presented.

  18. Intelligent liquid surface measuring system based on laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; He, Ping'an; Han, Jianzhong; Yu, Feng

    2003-09-01

    Using laser range finder DISTO as a sensor, we developed an intelligent liquid surface measuring system that can be used to measure the depth of liquid. Many problems such as liquid surface reflected in fixed direction, measuring errors caused by reflex reflections and liquid surface fluctuation are solved. Now it is proved by our experiments on the spot that the system would be used in measuring depth of all kind of liquid, especially in combustible or explosive oil and liquefaction gas with the accuracy of +/-3mm.

  19. Polar motion results from GEOS 3 laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.; Ries, J.; Eanes, R.

    1979-01-01

    The observability of polar motion from laser range data has been investigated, and the contributions from the dynamical and kinematical effects have been evaluated. Using 2-day arcs with GEOS 3 laser data, simultaneous solutions for pole position components and orbit elements have been obtained for a 2-week interval spanning August 27 to September 10, 1975, using three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center stations located at Washington, D.C., Bermuda, and Grand Turk. The results for the y-component of pole position from this limited data set differenced with the BIH linearly interpolated values yield a mean of 39 cm and a standard deviation of 1.07 m. Consideration of the variance associated with each estimate yields a mean of 20 cm and a standard deviation of 81 cm. The results for the x-component of pole position indicate that the mean value is in fair agreement with the BIH; however, the x-coordinate determination is weaker than the y-coordinate determination due to the distribution of laser sites (all three are between 77 deg W and 65 deg W) which results in greater sensitivity to the data distribution. In addition, the sensitivity of these results to various model parameters is discussed.

  20. Polar motion results from GEOS 3 laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.; Ries, J.; Eanes, R.

    1979-01-01

    The observability of polar motion from laser range data has been investigated, and the contributions from the dynamical and kinematical effects have been evaluated. Using 2-day arcs with GEOS 3 laser data, simultaneous solutions for pole position components and orbit elements have been obtained for a 2-week interval spanning August 27 to September 10, 1975, using three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center stations located at Washington, D.C., Bermuda, and Grand Turk. The results for the y-component of pole position from this limited data set differenced with the BIH linearly interpolated values yield a mean of 39 cm and a standard deviation of 1.07 m. Consideration of the variance associated with each estimate yields a mean of 20 cm and a standard deviation of 81 cm. The results for the x-component of pole position indicate that the mean value is in fair agreement with the BIH; however, the x-coordinate determination is weaker than the y-coordinate determination due to the distribution of laser sites (all three are between 77 deg W and 65 deg W) which results in greater sensitivity to the data distribution. In addition, the sensitivity of these results to various model parameters is discussed.

  1. End-to-end laser radar range code for coherent cw lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, M. John; Seliverstov, Dima

    1996-06-01

    A user friendly modular computer code is described for CW coherent laser radar which includes all relevant physical effects needed to evaluate the probability of detection versus time after launch for ballistic missiles or other targets of interest. The beginning point of the code is the conventional laser radar range equation. Atmospheric attenuation is determined from an integral FASCODE calculation, and the laser radar range equation is solved for a curved-earth geometry including free air turbulence induced beam spreading. Several different atmospheric turbulence models are selectable. Target cross-sections can be input into the code as a function of aspect angle Coherence time and transverse coherence length limits are included in the code. Beam jitter effects are also calculated. The carrier-to-noise ratio is calculated including all of these (complicated) variables and degradations. The code then calculates the probability of detection of the target as a function of time using incoherent integration of coherent sub-pulses. The governing equations and practical results are presented for detection and tracking of long range theater ballistic missiles from airborne surveillance platforms. The use of CW lasers requires increased measurement times compared to pulsed lasers and results in an averaging of the target fading statistics.

  2. Laser materials for the 0.67-microns to 2.5-microns range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Minoru; Zamerowski, Thomas J.; Ladany, Ivan; Martinelli, Ramon U.

    1987-01-01

    Basic requirements for obtaining injection laser action in III-V semiconductors are discussed briefly. A detailed review is presented of materials suitable for lasers emitting at 0.67, 1.44, 1.93, and 2.5 microns. A general approach to the problem is presented, based on curves of materials properties published by Sasaki et al. It is also shown that these curves, although useful, may need correction in certain ranges. It is deduced that certain materials combinations, either proposed in the literature or actually tried, are not appropriate for double heterostructure lasers, because the refractive index of the cladding material is higher than the index of the active material, thus resulting in no waveguiding, and high threshold currents. Recommendations are made about the most promising approach to the achievement of laser action in the four wavelengths mentioned above.

  3. Active Dendrites Enhance Neuronal Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; Kinouchi, Osame; Copelli, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB). Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range. PMID:19521531

  4. Mars laser altimeter based on a single photon ranging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, B.; Pershin, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars 94/96 Mission will carry, among others things, the balloon probe experiment. The balloon with the scientific cargo in the gondola underneath will drift in the Mars atmosphere, its altitude will range from zero, in the night, up to 5 km at noon. The accurate gondola altitude will be determined by an altimeter. As the Balloon gondola mass is strictly limited, the altimeter total mass and power consumption are critical; maximum allowed is a few hundred grams a few tens of mWatts of average power consumption. We did propose, design, and construct the laser altimeter based on the single photon ranging technique. Topics covered include the following: principle of operation, altimeter construction, and ground tests.

  5. The precision of today's satellite laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.; Hussen, Van S.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent improvements in the accuracy of modern satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems are strengthened by the new capability of many instruments to track an increasing number of geodetic satellite targets without significant scheduling conflict. This will allow the refinement of some geophysical parameters, such as solid Earth tidal effects and GM, and the improved temporal resolution of others, such as Earth orientation and station position. Better time resolution for the locations of fixed observatories will allow us to monitor more subtle motions at the stations, and transportable systems will be able to provide indicators of long term trends with shorter occupations. If we are to take advantage of these improvements, care must be taken to preserve the essential accuracy of an increasing volume of range observations at each stage of the data reduction process.

  6. Geoscience Laser Ranging System design and performance predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kent L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser System (GLRS) will be a high-precision distance-measuring instrument planned for deployment on the EOS-B platform. Its primary objectives are to perform ranging measurements to ground targets to monitor crustal deformation and tectonic plate motions, and nadir-looking altimetry to determine ice sheet thicknesses, surface topography, and vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols. The system uses a mode-locked, 3-color Nd:YAG laser source, a Microchannel Plate-PMT for absolute time-of-flight (TOF) measurement (at 532 nm), a streak camera for TOF 2-color dispersion measurement (532 nm and 355 nm), and a Si avalanche photodiode for altimeter waveform detection (1064 nm). The performance goals are to make ranging measurements to ground targets with about 1 cm accuracy, and altimetry height measurements over ice with 10 cm accuracy. This paper presents an overview of the design concept developed during a phase B study. System engineering issues and trade studies are discussed, with particular attention to error budgets and performance predictions.

  7. Impact of Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging on Lunar Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnès; Manche, Hervé; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clément; Torre, Jean-Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques; LLR Observers : Astrogeo-OCA, Apache Point, McDonald Laser Ranging Station, Haleakala Observatory, Matera Laser Ranging Observatory

    2016-10-01

    Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [ C.Courde et al 2016 ]. In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [ Fienga et al 2015 ]. IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [ V.Viswanathan et al 2015 ]. Constraints provided by GRAIL, on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented.

  8. Broadband laser ranging development at the DOE Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Corey V.; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick W.; Daykin, Ed P.; Rhodes, Michelle A.

    2017-02-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a new diagnostic being developed in collaboration across multiple USA Dept. of Energy (DOE) facilities. Its purpose is to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at speeds of a few kilometers per second. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to encode distance into a modulation in the spectrum of pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser and uses a dispersive Fourier transformation to map the spectral modulation into time. This combination enables recording of range information in the time domain on a fast oscilloscope every 25-80 ns. Discussed here are some of the hardware design issues, system tradeoffs, calibration issues, and experimental results. BLR is being developed as an add-on to conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) systems because PDV often yields incomplete information when lateral velocity components are present, or when there are drop-outs in the signal amplitude. In these cases, integration of the velocity from PDV can give incorrect displacement results. Experiments are now regularly fielded with over 100 channels of PDV, and BLR is being developed in a modular way to enable high channel counts of BLR and PDV recorded from the same probes pointed at the same target location. In this way instruments, will independently record surface velocity and distance information along the exact same path.

  9. Synthesis and analysis of precise spaceborne laser ranging systems, volume 2. [Spacelab payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddon, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The performance capabilities of specific shuttle-based laser ranging systems were evaluated, and interface and support requirements were determined. The preliminary design of a shuttle-borne laser ranging experiment developed as part of the Spacelab program is discussed.

  10. Compact active mirror laser (CAMIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John

    2002-03-01

    This work presents concept and scaling considerations for a solid-state laser with a gain medium disk operating in the active mirror mode. The disk is of composite construction formed by bonding undoped optical medium to the peripheral edges of a gain medium disk. Pump diode arrays are placed around the perimeter of the composite disk and pump light is injected into the undoped edge. With proper choice of lasant doping, diode placement and diode divergence, a uniform laser gain can be achieved across large portions of the disk. To mitigate thermal deformations, the gain medium disk is pressure-clamped to a rigid, cooled substrate. Effective reduction of thermo-optical distortions makes this laser suitable for operation at high-average power.

  11. Design and implementation of control system for range-gated underwater laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wei-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Han, Hong-Wei; Hua, Liang-Hong

    2011-11-01

    There is currently considerable in developing underwater target detection, the underwater imaging system can be divided into active imaging system and passive system. The main feature of the active imaging system is that they use light sources to illuminate the targets and collect the reflection from targets. The advantages of active imaging system over passive imaging systems are high contrast and without the affection of environment sources. In this article, a range-gated underwater laser imaging system is built, which consists of laser illumination system, photoelectric imaging system and control system. The laser illumination system includes a light-pumped solid state doubled ND-YAG laser(532nm) which laser power and frequency can be adjusted and an optics expanding system of variable ratio. The photoelectric imaging system includes a gated Intensified CCD(ICCD) cameras which ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain can be adjusted and a optics received system of variable ratio. In order to acquire effectual target image using range-gated underwater laser imaging system, appropriate control parameters that include laser power and frequency, ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain, optics expanding system ratio and optics received system ratio must be given accurately. A control system which used C8051F320 and C8051F040 (MCU) as the core is designed, the control system can effectively control seven parameters that given above. The construction of software and hardware of the control system is introduced. And target image of underwater distance 25 m and 40m is given, Experimental results showed that the control system has high control precision, safe and stable operation and good speed adjusting performance can be achieved. It can be satisfied to apply to underwater target detection.

  12. Design and implementation of control system for range-gated underwater laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Han, Hong-wei; Hua, Liang-hong

    2012-01-01

    There is currently considerable in developing underwater target detection, the underwater imaging system can be divided into active imaging system and passive system. The main feature of the active imaging system is that they use light sources to illuminate the targets and collect the reflection from targets. The advantages of active imaging system over passive imaging systems are high contrast and without the affection of environment sources. In this article, a range-gated underwater laser imaging system is built, which consists of laser illumination system, photoelectric imaging system and control system. The laser illumination system includes a light-pumped solid state doubled ND-YAG laser(532nm) which laser power and frequency can be adjusted and an optics expanding system of variable ratio. The photoelectric imaging system includes a gated Intensified CCD(ICCD) cameras which ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain can be adjusted and a optics received system of variable ratio. In order to acquire effectual target image using range-gated underwater laser imaging system, appropriate control parameters that include laser power and frequency, ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain, optics expanding system ratio and optics received system ratio must be given accurately. A control system which used C8051F320 and C8051F040 (MCU) as the core is designed, the control system can effectively control seven parameters that given above. The construction of software and hardware of the control system is introduced. And target image of underwater distance 25 m and 40m is given, Experimental results showed that the control system has high control precision, safe and stable operation and good speed adjusting performance can be achieved. It can be satisfied to apply to underwater target detection.

  13. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1995-01-01

    This Interim report consists of a manuscript, 'Receiver Design for Satellite to Satellite Laser Ranging Instrument,' and copies of two papers we co-authored, 'Demonstration of High Sensitivity Laser Ranging System' and 'Semiconductor Laser-Based Ranging Instrument for Earth Gravity Measurements. ' These two papers were presented at the conference Semiconductor Lasers, Advanced Devices and Applications, August 21 -23, 1995, Keystone Colorado. The manuscript is a draft in the preparation for publication, which summarizes the theory we developed on space-borne laser ranging instrument for gravity measurements.

  14. Wide range optofluidically tunable multimode interference fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J. E.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.; LiKamWa, P.; May-Arrioja, D. A.

    2014-08-01

    An optofluidically tunable fiber laser based on multimode interference (MMI) effects with a wide tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on an MMI fiber filter fabricated using a special fiber known as no-core fiber, which is a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding. Therefore, when the MMI filter is covered by liquid the optical properties of the no-core fiber are modified, which allow us to tune the peak wavelength response of the MMI filter. Rather than applying the liquid on the entire no-core fiber, we change the liquid level along the no-core fiber, which provides a highly linear tuning response. In addition, by selecting the adequate refractive index of the liquid we can also choose the tuning range. We demonstrate the versatility of the optofluidically tunable MMI filter by wavelength tuning two different gain media, erbium doped fiber and a semiconductor optical amplifier, achieving tuning ranges of 55 and 90 nm respectively. In both cases, we achieve side-mode suppression ratios (SMSR) better than 50 dBm with output power variations of less than 0.76 dBm over the whole tuning range.

  15. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  16. Limitations to testing the equivalence principle with satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Comandi, G. L.; Bramanti, D.; Doravari, Suresh; Lucchesi, D. M.; Maccarrone, F.

    2008-07-01

    We consider the possibility of testing the equivalence principle (EP) in the gravitational field of the Earth from the orbits of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II satellites, which are very accurately tracked from ground by laser ranging. The orbital elements that are affected by an EP violation and can be used to measure the corresponding dimensionless parameter η are semimajor axis and argument of pericenter. We show that the best result is obtained from the semimajor axis, and it is limited—with all available ranging data to LAGEOS and LAGEOS II—to η ≃ 2 × 10-9, more than 3 orders of magnitude worse than experimental results provided by torsion balances. The experiment is limited because of the non uniformity of the gravitational field of the Earth and the error in the measurement of semimajor axis, precisely in the same way as they limit the measurement of the product GM of the Earth. A better use of the pericenter of LAGEOS II can be made if the data are analyzed searching for a new Yukawa-like interaction with a distance scale of one Earth radius. It is found that the pericenter of LAGEOS II is 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to a composition dependent new interaction with this particular scale than it is to a composition dependent effect expressed by the η parameter only. Nevertheless, the result is still a factor 500 worse than EP tests with torsion balances in the gravitational field of the Earth (i.e. at comparable distance), though a detailed data analysis has yet to be performed. While EP tests with satellite laser ranging are not competitive, laser ranging to the Moon has been able to provide a test of the EP almost 1 order of magnitude better than torsion balances. We show that this is due to the much greater distance of the test masses (the Earth and the Moon) from the primary body (the Sun) and the correspondingly smaller gradients of its gravity field. We therefore consider a similar new experiment involving the orbit of LAGEOS: testing LAGEOS

  17. Design of laser beam expander in underwater high-repetition-rate range-gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-10-01

    Active underwater imaging systems, using an artificial light source for underwater target illumination, have preferable practical value in military and civil domain. Back-scattering of water impacts imaging system performance by reducing image contrast, and this is especially bad when the light source is close to the camera. Range-gated technique can effectively rejecting the back-scattering of water and improve the range of underwater target detection, while it can only collect image at certain distance for every laser impulse. High-repetition-rate green laser is a better light source in underwater range-gated imaging system. It has smaller pulse energy, while it can improve the imaging result. In order to illuminate the proper area underwater according to the different distance between the laser source and targets, there must be a magnifying-ratio variable beam expander to adjust the divergent angle of the laser. Challenges associated with magnifying-ratio computation and designing of beam expander are difficult to overcome due to the obvious refraction and forward-scattering of water. An efficiency computing method is presented to obtain the magnifying-ratio of beam expander. The illuminating area of laser beam can be computed according to the refraction index and beam spread function (BSF) which has already considered forward-scattering process. The magnifying-ratio range of beam expander should be 0.925~3.09 in order to obtain about φ1m illuminating area when the distance between laser and target is 10~40m. A magnifying-ratio variable beam expander is designed according to computation. Underwater experiments show that this beam expander plays an effective role on illuminating in underwater high-repetition-rate range-rated Imaging system.

  18. Range extension in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using femtosecond-nanosecond dual-beam laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Li, Ziting; Yao, Jinping; Xie, Hongqiang; Li, Guihua; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2017-06-01

    We extend the detection range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with high-energy nanosecond CO2 laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses ionize the molecules and generate filament in air. The free electrons generated in the self-confined plasma channel by the femtosecond laser serve as the seed electrons which cause efficient avalanche ionization in the nanosecond CO2 laser field. We show that the detection distance has been extended by three times with the assistance of femtosecond laser filamentation.

  19. New test of the equivalence principle from lunar laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Dicke, R. H.; Bender, P. L.; Alley, C. O.; Currie, D. G.; Carter, W. E.; Eckhardt, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of six years of lunar-laser-ranging data gives a zero amplitude for the Nordtvedt term in the earth-moon distance yielding the Nordtvedt parameter eta = 0.00 plus or minus 0.03. Thus, earth's gravitational self-energy contributes equally, plus or minus 3%, to its inertial mass and passive gravitational mass. At the 70% confidence level this result is only consistent with the Brans-Dicke theory for omega greater than 29. We obtain the absolute value of beta - 1 less than about 0.02 to 0.05 for five-parameter parametrized post-Newtonian theories of gravitation with energy-momentum conservation.

  20. Applications of laser ranging and VLBI observations for selenodetic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fajemirokun, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    The observation equations necessary to utilize lunar laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry measurements were developed for the establishment of a primary control network on the moon. The network consists of coordinates of moon points in the selenodetic Cartesian coordinate system, which is fixed to the lunar body, oriented along the three principal axes of inertia of the moon, and centered at the lunar center of mass. The observation equations derived are based on a general model in which the unknown parameters included: the selenodetic Cartesian coordinates, the geocentric coordinates of earth stations, parameters of the orientation of the selenodetic coordinate system with respect to a fixed celestial system, the parameters of the orientation of the average terrestrial coordinate system with respect to a fixed celestial coordinate system, and the geocentric coordinates of the center of mass of the moon, given by a lunar ephemeris.

  1. The role of satellite laser ranging through the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Contributions of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) in the fields of geodesy, oceanography, geodynamics, and geopotential are reviewed. With the best current systems SLR has successfully defined an absolute vertical datum to 3 cm and a relative horizontal datum with comparable accuracy. In the areas of Earth and space physics SLR has demonstrated its ability to provide information regarding the vertical and horizontal movements of the lithosphere, the rheology of the Earth, improved understanding of the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the Earth's albedo and upper atmosphere, the polar wander, the frequency structure of the polar motion and in the definition of fundamental constants. Future options are discussed. It is indicated that SLR will continue to provide a unique and powerful tool for the study of space and geosciences.

  2. Laser Ranging to the Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Current and future optical technologies will aid exploration of the Moon and Mars while advancing fundamental physics research in the solar system. Technologies and possible improvements in the laser-enabled tests of various physical phenomena are considered along with a space architecture that could be a cornerstone for robotic and human exploration in the solar system. In particular, accurate ranging to the Moon and Mars would not only lead to construction of a new space communication infrastructure enabling improved navigational accuracy, but would provide a significant improvement in several tests of gravitational theory: the equivalence principle, geodetic precession, PPN parameters beta and gamma, and the constancy of the gravitational constant G. Other tests would become possible with an optical architecture that would allow proceeding from cm to mm to sub-mm range accuracies. Looking to future exploration, what characteristics are desired for the next generation of ranging devices, what is the optimal architecture that would benefit both space exploration and fundamental physics, and what fundamental questions can be investigated?

  3. Upgrading NASA/DOSE laser ranging system control computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Cheek, Jack; Seery, Paul J.; Emenheiser, Kenneth S.; Hanrahan, William P., III; Mcgarry, Jan F.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ranging systems now managed by the NASA Dynamics of the Solid Earth (DOSE) and operated by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Texas have produced a wealth on interdisciplinary scientific data over the last three decades. Despite upgrades to the most of the ranging station subsystems, the control computers remain a mix of 1970's vintage minicomputers. These encompass a wide range of vendors, operating systems, and languages, making hardware and software support increasingly difficult. Current technology allows replacement of controller computers at a relatively low cost while maintaining excellent processing power and a friendly operating environment. The new controller systems are now being designed using IBM-PC-compatible 80486-based microcomputers, a real-time Unix operating system (LynxOS), and X-windows/Motif IB, and serial interfaces have been chosen. This design supports minimizing short and long term costs by relying on proven standards for both hardware and software components. Currently, the project is in the design and prototyping stage with the first systems targeted for production in mid-1993.

  4. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  5. Laser Ranging to the Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Current and future optical technologies will aid exploration of the Moon and Mars while advancing fundamental physics research in the solar system. Technologies and possible improvements in the laser-enabled tests of various physical phenomena are considered along with a space architecture that could be a cornerstone for robotic and human exploration in the solar system. In particular, accurate ranging to the Moon and Mars would not only lead to construction of a new space communication infrastructure enabling improved navigational accuracy, but would provide a significant improvement in several tests of gravitational theory: the equivalence principle, geodetic precession, PPN parameters beta and gamma, and the constancy of the gravitational constant G. Other tests would become possible with an optical architecture that would allow proceeding from cm to mm to sub-mm range accuracies. Looking to future exploration, what characteristics are desired for the next generation of ranging devices, what is the optimal architecture that would benefit both space exploration and fundamental physics, and what fundamental questions can be investigated?

  6. Laser-Directed Ranging System Implementing Single Camera System for Telerobotics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor); Li, Larry C. (Inventor); Cox, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates generally to systems for determining the range of an object from a reference point and, in one embodiment, to laser-directed ranging systems useful in telerobotics applications. Digital processing techniques are employed which minimize the complexity and cost of the hardware and software for processing range calculations, thereby enhancing the commercial attractiveness of the system for use in relatively low-cost robotic systems. The system includes a video camera for generating images of the target, image digitizing circuitry, and an associated frame grabber circuit. The circuit first captures one of the pairs of stereo video images of the target, and then captures a second video image of the target as it is partly illuminated by the light beam, suitably generated by a laser. The two video images, taken sufficiently close together in time to minimize camera and scene motion, are converted to digital images and then compared. Common pixels are eliminated, leaving only a digital image of the laser-illuminated spot on the target. Mw centroid of the laser illuminated spot is dm obtained and compared with a predetermined reference point, predetermined by design or calibration, which represents the coordinate at the focal plane of the laser illumination at infinite range. Preferably, the laser and camera are mounted on a servo-driven platform which can be oriented to direct the camera and the laser toward the target. In one embodiment the platform is positioned in response to movement of the operator's head. Position and orientation sensors are used to monitor head movement. The disparity between the digital image of the laser spot and the reference point is calculated for determining range to the target. Commercial applications for the system relate to active range-determination systems, such as those used with robotic systems in which it is necessary to determine the, range to a workpiece or object to be grasped or acted upon by a robot arm end

  7. Active tracking lasers for precision target stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riker, Jim F.

    2003-09-01

    Lasers have historically been considered in the context of weapons, but recent progress has also permitted us to consider using lasers for more subtle applications such as designation, tracking, and discrimination. In this paper, we will review the state of the art of active tracking, including effects such as laser beam quality, diffraction, atmospheric turbulence, and other aspects of laser interactions with its propagation environment. We will present the theory for using lasers in these lower power applications.

  8. Testing Gravity via Lunar Laser Ranging: Maximizing Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Thomas

    We propose to continue leading-edge observations with the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in an effort to subject gravity to the most stringent tests yet. APOLLO has delivered a dramatic improvement in the measurement of the lunar orbit: now at the millimeter level. Yet incomplete models are thus far unable to confirm the accuracy. We therefore seek to build a calibration system to ensure that APOLLO meets its millimeter measurement goal. Gravity--the most evident force of nature--is in fact the weakest of the fundamental forces, and consequently the most poorly tested. Einstein’s general relativity, which is currently our best description of gravity, is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics and is likely to be replaced by a more complete theory in the future. A modified theory would predict small deviations in the solar system that could have profound consequences for our understanding of the Universe as a whole. Lunar laser ranging (LLR), in which short laser pulses launched from a telescope are bounced off of reflectors placed on the Moon by U.S. astronauts and Soviet landers, has for decades produced some of the leading tests of gravity by mapping the shape of the lunar orbit to high precision. These include tests of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-ofchange of Newton’s gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse-square law, and many others. Among the attributes that contribute to APOLLO’s superior observations, routine ranging to all five lunar reflectors on timescales of minutes dramatically improves our ability to gauge lunar orientation and body distortion. This information produces insights into the interior structure and dynamics of the Moon, allowing a more precise determination of the path for the Moon’s center of mass, lending to tests of fundamental gravity. Simultaneously, higher precision range measurements, together with data from a superconducting gravimeter at the

  9. Determination of crustal motions using satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging has matured over the last decade into one of the essential space geodesy techniques. It has demonstrated centimeter site positioning and millimeter per year velocity determinations in a frame tied dynamically to the mass center of the solid Earth hydrosphere atmosphere system. Such a coordinate system is a requirement for studying long term eustatic sea level rise and other global change phenomena. Earth orientation parameters determined with the coordinate system have been produced in near real time operationally since 1983, at a relatively modest cost. The SLR ranging to Lageos has also provided a rich spectrum of results based upon the analysis of Lageos orbital dynamics. These include significant improvements in the knowledge of the mean and variable components of the Earth's gravity field and the Earth's gravitational parameter. The ability to measure the time variations of the Earth's gravity field has opened as exciting area of study in relating global processes, including meteorologically derived mass transport through changes in the satellite dynamics. New confirmation of general relativity was obtained using the Lageos SLR data.

  10. Tectonic motion and deformation from satellite laser ranging to Lageos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ronald; Dunn, Peter J.; Robbins, John W.; Torrence, Mark H.; Klosko, Steve M.; Williamson, Ronald G.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Douglas, Nancy B.

    1990-01-01

    Data on satellite laser ranging (SLR) to Lageos aquired during the period 1978-1988 are analyzed on the basis of the precise modeling of the orbit dynamics of Lageos, producing estimates of tectonic motion for 22 sites located on seven major plates. It was estimated that intraplate motion within northern Europe is below the 2 mm/yr level in absolute rate, in agreement with conclusions of Zoback et al. (1989) regarding the stress across the region. A comparison of SLR geodesic rates with those from NUVEL-1 and AMO-2 models showed high correlations between tracking sites that are well within plate interiors, but displayed small but significant departures from unity in slope which are attributed to the possibility of recent changes in relative velocities or geologic time scale uncertainties. For lines crossing the Nnorth Atlantic, the San Andreas fault, and within the Basin and Range province, the geodesic rates determined by SLR are in good agreement with those determined by VLBI.

  11. Differential time domain method improves performance of pulsed laser ranging and three-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Hao, Qun; Cheng, Yang; Peng, Yuxin; Zhang, Kaiyu; Mu, Jiaxing; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-10

    A ranging method based on the differential time domain method (DTDM) is proposed in order to improve ranging accuracy and the range of active measurement based on peak discriminator (PD). We develop mathematical models and deduce that zero-crossing sensitivity is an important factor, which affects the ranging error of DTDM. Additionally, zero-crossing sensitivity is determined by delayed time. We carried out relative experiments and obtained the smallest ranging error when delayed time is receiving pulse width. We also compare ranging, three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and depth images based on two methods under same testing conditions. The results show that DTDM is beneficial in improving performance of pulse laser ranging and 3D imaging.

  12. The application and research of the multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Zhongping; Deng, Huarong; Li, Pu; Meng, Wendong; Cheng, Zhien; Shen, Lurun; Tang, Zhenhong

    2014-11-01

    Laser ranging technology can directly measure the distance between space targets and ground stations with the highest measurement precision and will play an irreplaceable role in orbit check and calibrating microwave measurement system. The precise orbit determination and accurate catalogue of space targets can also be realized by laser ranging with multi-stations. Among space targets, most of ones are inactive targets and space debris, which should be paid the great attentions for the safety of active spacecrafts. Because of laser diffuse reflection from the surface of targets, laser ranging to space debris has the characteristics of wide coverage and weak strength of laser echoes, even though the powerful laser system is applied. In order to increase the receiving ability of laser echoes, the large aperture telescope should be adopted. As well known, some disadvantages for one set of large aperture telescope, technical development difficulty and system running and maintenance complexity, will limit its flexible applications. The multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets is put forward to realize the equivalent receiving ability produced by one larger aperture telescope by way of using multi-receiving telescopes, with the advantages of flexibility and maintenance. The theoretical analysis of the feasibility and key technologies of multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets are presented in this paper. The experimental measurement system based on the 60cm SLR system and 1.56m astronomical telescopes with a distance of about 50m is established to provide the platform for researching on the multi-receiving telescopes technology. The laser ranging experiments to satellites equipped with retro-reflectors are successfully performed by using the above experimental system and verify the technical feasibility to increase the ability of echo detection. And the multi-receiving telescopes technology will become a

  13. Diode laser arrays for 1.8 to 2.3 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Márc T.; Gilly, Jürgen; Haag, M.; Biesenbach, Jens; Rattunde, Marcel; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    High-power diode lasers in the mid-infrared wavelength range between 1.8μm and 2.3μm have emerged new possibilities for application fields like materials processing, medical surgery and for military applications like infrared countermeasures. GaSb based diode lasers are naturally predestined for this wavelength range and offer clear advantages in comparison to InP based diode lasers in terms of output power and wall-plug efficiency. We will present results on different MBE grown (AlGaIn)(AsSb) quantum-well diode laser single emitters and linear laser arrays, the latter consisting of 19 emitters on a 1 cm long bar, emitting at different wavelengths between 1.8 and 2.3 μm. Each emitter has a resonator length of 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm and stripe widths of 90 μm or 150 μm. The distance from emitter to emitter is 500μm for both types, resulting in 20% and 30% fill factors. For single emitters the electrooptical and beam behaviour and the wavelength tunability by current and temperature have been carefully investigated in detail. For diode laser arrays mounted on actively cooled heat sinks, nearly 20W at 1.94μm in continuous-wave mode have been achieved at a heat sink temperature of 20 °C. Even at 2.2μm more than 15W with a wall plug efficiency of 23% have been measured, impressively demonstrating the potential of GaSb based diode lasers well beyond wavelengths of 2μm.

  14. View of the Laser Ranging Retro Reflector deployed by Apollo 14 astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-67-9386 (5 Feb. 1971) --- A close-up view of the laser ranging retro reflector (LR3) which the Apollo 14 astronauts deployed on the moon during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  15. A compact, short-pulse laser for near-field, range-gated imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.; Loubriel, G.M.; Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; McDonald, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a compact laser, which produces high power, wide-angle emission for a near-field, range-gated, imaging system. The optical pulses are produced by a 100 element laser diode array (LDA) which is pulsed with a GaAs, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS). The LDA generates 100 ps long, gain-switched, optical pulses at 904 nm when it is driven with 3 ns, 400 A, electrical pulses from a high gain PCSS. Gain switching is facilitated with this many lasers by using a low impedance circuit to drive an array of lasers, which are connected electrically in series. The total optical energy produced per pulse is 10 microjoules corresponding to a total peak power of 100 kW. The entire laser system, including prime power (a nine volt battery), pulse charging, PCSS, and LDA, is the size of a small, hand-held flashlight. System lifetime, which is presently limited by the high gain PCSS, is an active area of research and development. Present limitations and potential improvements will be discussed. The complete range-gated imaging system is based on complementary technologies: high speed optical gating with intensified charge coupled devices (ICCD) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and high gain, PCSS-driven LDAs developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system is designed for use in highly scattering media such as turbid water or extremely dense fog or smoke. The short optical pulses from the laser and high speed gating of the ICCD are synchronized to eliminate the back-scattered light from outside the depth of the field of view (FOV) which may be as short as a few centimeters. A high speed photodiode can be used to trigger the intensifier gate and set the range-gated FOV precisely on the target. The ICCD and other aspects of the imaging system are discussed in a separate paper.

  16. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D.; Dell-Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.

    Over the past forty years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner (CCR) Retroreflector arrays has supplied almost all of the significant tests of General Relativity. The LLR program has evaluated the PPN parameters and addressed, for example, the possible change in the gravitational constant and the properties of the self-energy of the gravitational field. In addition, LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the moon. These arrays are the only experiment of the Apollo program that are still in operation. Initially the Apollo Lunar Arrays contributed a negligible portion of the error budget used to achieve these results. Over the decades, the performance of ground stations has greatly upgraded so that the ranging accuracy has improved by more than two orders of magnitude, i.e., a factor of 140. Now, after forty years, because of the lunar librations the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. The University of Maryland, as the Principal Investigator for the original Apollo arrays, is now proposing a new approach to the Lunar Laser CCR array technology. The investigation of this new technology, with Professor Currie as Principal Investigator, is currently being supported by two NASA programs and, in part, also by INFN/LNF. Thus after the proposed installation on the next Lunar landing, the new arrays will support ranging observations that are a factor 100 more accurate than the current Apollo LLRRAs, from the centimeter level to the micron level. The new fundamental physics and the lunar physics that this new LLRRA can provide will be described. In the design of the new array, there are three major challenges: 1) Validate that the specifications of the CCR required for the new array, with are significantly beyond the properties of current CCRs, can indeed be achieved. 2) Address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar

  17. Satellite laser ranging and geological constraints on plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Douglas, Nancy B.

    1990-10-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) observed baseline rates of change were measured and compared with rates determined from sea floor spreading rates and directions, and earth-quake solutions. With the number of years of observation now over six for many of the baselines, the inaccuracy of determining baseline rates of change has diminished so that in some cases it is less than a few mm per year. Thus, a direct comparison between baseline rates of change and rates of change established using geophysical information (called geological rates) is now feasible. In most cases, there is good agreement between the rates determined from SLR and geological rates, but in some cases there appear to be discrepancies. These discrepancies involve many of the data for which one end of the baseline is either Quincy (California), Huahine (French Polynesia), or Simosato (Japan). A method for looking at the discrepancies for these SLR observatories has been devised which makes it possible to calculate the motion not modeled by the geologic information.

  18. Satellite laser ranging and geological constraints on plate motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Douglas, Nancy B.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) observed baseline rates of change were measured and compared with rates determined from sea floor spreading rates and directions, and earth-quake solutions. With the number of years of observation now over six for many of the baselines, the inaccuracy of determining baseline rates of change has diminished so that in some cases it is less than a few mm per year. Thus, a direct comparison between baseline rates of change and rates of change established using geophysical information (called geological rates) is now feasible. In most cases, there is good agreement between the rates determined from SLR and geological rates, but in some cases there appear to be discrepancies. These discrepancies involve many of the data for which one end of the baseline is either Quincy (California), Huahine (French Polynesia), or Simosato (Japan). A method for looking at the discrepancies for these SLR observatories has been devised which makes it possible to calculate the motion not modeled by the geologic information.

  19. Registration of partially overlapping laser-radar range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dan; Sun, Jian-Feng; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    To register partially overlapping three-dimensional point sets from different viewpoints, it is necessary to remove spurious corresponding point pairs that are not located in overlapping regions. Most variants of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm require users to manually select the rejection parameters for discarding spurious point pairs between the registering views. This requirement often results in unreliable and inaccurate registration. To overcome this problem, we present an improved ICP algorithm that can automatically determine the rejection percentage to reliably and accurately align partially overlapping laser-radar (ladar) range images. The similarity of k neighboring features of each nonplanar point is employed to determine reasonable point pairs in nonplanar regions, and the distance measurement method is used to find reasonable point pairs in planar regions. The rejection percentage can be obtained from these two sets of reasonable pairs. The performance of our algorithm is compared with that of five other algorithms using various models with low and high curvatures. The experimental results show that our algorithm is more accurate and robust than the other algorithms.

  20. The active electrosensory range of Gymnotus omarorum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Carolina; Aguilera, Pedro; Caputi, Angel A

    2012-09-15

    This article reports a biophysical and behavioral assessment of the active electrolocation range of Gymnotus omarorum. Physical measurements show that the stimulus field of a point on the sensory mosaic (i.e. the potential positions in which an object may cause a significant departure of the transcutaneous field from basal in the absence of an object) consists of relatively extended volumes surrounding this point. The shape of this stimulus field is dependent on the position of the point on the receptive mosaic and the size of the object. Although the limit of stimulus fields is difficult to assess (it depends on receptor threshold), departure from the basal field decays rapidly, vanishing at about 1.5 diameters for conductive spheres. This short range was predictable from earlier theoretical constructs and experimental data. Here, we addressed the contribution of three different but synergetic mechanisms by which electrosensory signals attenuate with object distance. Using novelty responses as an indicator of object detection we confirmed that the active electrosensory detection range is very short. Behavioral data also indicate that the ability to precisely locate a small object of edible size decays even more rapidly than the ability to detect it. The role of active electroreception is discussed in the context of the fish's habitat.

  1. Next-generation hollow retroreflectors for lunar laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Preston, Alix; Merkowitz, Stephen

    2013-12-20

    The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon 40 years ago by the Apollo astronauts and the French-built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant, as well as valuable insight into the Moon's interior. However, the precision of the ranging measurements are now being limited by the physical size of the arrays and a new generation of retroreflectors is required to make significant advances over current capabilities. Large single-cube retroreflectors represent the most promising approach to overcoming current limitations, and hollow retroreflectors in particular have the potential to maintain their good optical performance over the nearly 300 K temperature swing that occurs during the lunar cycle. Typically, epoxies are used for aligning and bonding hollow retroreflectors, but their thermal stability will predominantly be limited by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the epoxy and the glass. A relatively new bonding method known as hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) has been used to adhere complex optical components for space-based missions. HCB has an extremely thin bond, a low CTE, and a high breaking strength that makes it an ideal candidate for bonding hollow retroreflectors for lunar laser ranging (LLR). In this work, we present results of a feasibility study of bonded Pyrex and fused silica hollow retroreflectors using both epoxy and HCB methods, including the results of thermally cycling the hollow retroreflectors from 295 to 185 K. Finally, we discuss the potential for using these retroreflectors for future LLR.

  2. SIRE (sight-integrated ranging equipment): an eyesafe laser rangefinder for armored vehicle fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Howard S.; Gudmundson, Glen A.; Woodall, Milton A., II

    1991-04-01

    The Sight Integrated Ranging Equipment (SIRE) incorporates an eyesafe laser rangefinder into the M-36 periscope used in tactical armored vehicles, such as the Commando Stingray light tank. The SIRE unit provides crucial range data simultaneously to the gunner and fire control computer. This capability greatly reduces 'time-to-fire', improves first-round hit probability, and increases the overall effectiveness of the vehicle under actual and simulated battlefield conditions. The SIRE can provide target range up to 10-km, with an accuracy of 10-meters. The key advantage of the SIRE over similar laser rangefinder systems is that it uses erbium:glass as the active lasing medium. With a nominal output wavelength of 1.54-microns, the SIRE can produce sufficient peak power to penetrate long atmospheric paths (even in the presence of obscurants), while remaining completely eyesafe under all operating conditions. The SIRE is the first eyesafe vehicle-based system to combine this level of accuracy, maximum range capability, and fire control interface. It simultaneously improves the accuracy and confidence of the operator, and eliminates the ocular hazard issues typically encountered with laser rangefinder devices.

  3. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-05-04

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach.

  4. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  5. Effect of Laser Irradiation on Enzyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Kashii, Masafumi; Kitano, Hiroshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Doi, Masaaki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2005-11-01

    We previously developed a protein crystallization technique using a femtosecond laser and protein crystal processing and detaching techniques using a pulsed UV laser. In this study, we examine the effect of laser irradiation on protein integrity. After several kinds of laser were irradiated on part of a solution of glycerol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, we measured the enzyme activity. Femtosecond and deep-UV laser irradiations have little influence on the whole enzyme activity, whereas the enzyme lost its activity upon high-power near-infrared laser irradiation at a wavelength of 1547 nm. These results suggest that suitable laser irradiation has no remarkable destructive influence on protein crystallization or crystal processing.

  6. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  7. Nonlinear Time-Variant Response in an Avalanche Photodiode Array Based Laser Detection and Ranging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Nonlinear Time-Variant Response in an Avalanche Photodiode Array Based Laser Detection and Ranging System THESIS Michael D. Seal, Captain, USAF AFIT...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GEO/ENG/07-03 Nonlinear Time-Variant Response in an Avalanche Photodiode Array Based Laser Detection and Ranging System...time-variant behavior exhibited by an avalanche photodiode (APD) array based laser ranging and detec- tion (LADAR) system. This examination was

  8. Performance of the upgraded Orroral laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: upgrade arrangements, system prior to 1991, elements of the upgrade, laser performance, timing system performance, pass productivity, system precision, system accuracy, telescope pointing and future upgrades and extensions.

  9. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  10. Theoretical distribution of range data obtained by laser radar and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijiao, Jiang; Jiancheng, Lai; Wei, Yan; Chunyong, Wang; Zhenhua, Li

    2013-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution of range data obtained by laser radar. An analytical solution of the range distribution was obtained for direct detection laser radar using constant threshold discriminator based on the time-of-flight principle. The analytical solution was verified by experiments and simulations. The results show that the derived analytical function can describe the probability density distribution of the range data obtained by laser radar with a constant threshold discriminator. The probability density distribution of the range data is proportional to the probability density function of the noise and to the slope of the rising edge of the laser echo pulse. The probability density distributions of the range data obtained by laser radar with different pulse shapes, amplitudes, widths and thresholds are also presented. These factors are important for improvements in the design of laser radar systems.

  11. Receiver Design, Performance Analysis, and Evaluation for Space-Borne Laser Altimeters and Space-to-Space Laser Ranging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report consists of two separate reports. The first one describes our work on the use of variable gain amplifiers to increase the receiver dynamic range of space borne laser altimeters such as NASA's Geoscience Laser Altimeter Systems (GLAS). The requirement of the receiver dynamic range was first calculated. A breadboard variable gain amplifier circuit was made and the performance was fully characterized. The circuit will also be tested in flight on board the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA-02) next year. The second report describes our research on the master clock oscillator frequency calibration for space borne laser altimeter systems using global positioning system (GPS) receivers.

  12. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  13. Tracking strategies for laser ranging to multiple satellite targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. W.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    By the middle of the decade, several new Laser Geodynamic Satellites will be launched to join the current constellation comprised of the laser geodynamic satellite (LAGEOS) (US), Starlette (France), Ajisai (Japan), and Etalon I and II (USSR). The satellites to be launched, LAGEOS II and III (US & Italy), and Stella (France), will be injected into orbits that differ from the existing constellation so that geodetic and gravimetric quantities are sampled to enhance their resolution and accuracy. An examination of various possible tracking strategies adopted by the network of laser tracking stations has revealed that the recovery of precise geodetic parameters can be obtained over shorter intervals than is currently obtainable with the present constellation of satellites. This is particularly important in the planning of mobile laser tracking operations, given a network of permanently operating tracking sites. Through simulations, it is shown that laser tracking of certain satellite passes, pre-selected to provide optimal sky-coverage, provides the means to acquire a sufficient amount of data to allow the recovery of 1 cm station positions.

  14. Tracking strategies for laser ranging to multiple satellite targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. W.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    By the middle of the decade, several new Laser Geodynamic Satellites will be launched to join the current constellation comprised of the laser geodynamic satellite (LAGEOS) (US), Starlette (France), Ajisai (Japan), and Etalon I and II (USSR). The satellites to be launched, LAGEOS II and III (US & Italy), and Stella (France), will be injected into orbits that differ from the existing constellation so that geodetic and gravimetric quantities are sampled to enhance their resolution and accuracy. An examination of various possible tracking strategies adopted by the network of laser tracking stations has revealed that the recovery of precise geodetic parameters can be obtained over shorter intervals than is currently obtainable with the present constellation of satellites. This is particularly important in the planning of mobile laser tracking operations, given a network of permanently operating tracking sites. Through simulations, it is shown that laser tracking of certain satellite passes, pre-selected to provide optimal sky-coverage, provides the means to acquire a sufficient amount of data to allow the recovery of 1 cm station positions.

  15. Optimization and control of the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, I. A.; Tkachenko, A. Yu; Kablukov, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of the laser cavity parameters (an active fiber length and output coupling losses) and the temperature of elements (active fiber and pump laser diode) on the sweeping range in an Yb-doped self-sweeping laser is investigated. The obtained results show that the sweeping spectral region is shifted to shorter wavelengths for shorter active fibers and with increasing absorbed power. This allows one to obtain self-sweeping operation in a broad range within a ytterbium gain bandwidth from 1028 to 1080 nm. At the same time, there are optimal cavity parameters at which the sweeping span is the broadest (>20 nm). Good agreement between the experimental sweeping range and the calculated maximum gain wavelength is demonstrated.

  16. Geophysical parameters from the analysis of laser ranging to Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    The results of geodynamic research from the analysis of satellite laser ranging data to Starlette are summarized. The time period of the investigation was from 15 Mar. 1986 to 31 Dec. 1991. As a result of the Starlette research, a comprehensive 16-year Starlette data set spanning the time period from 17 Mar. 1975 through 31 Dec. 1990, was produced. This data set represents the longest geophysical time series from any geodetic satellite and is invaluable for research in long-term geodynamics. A low degree and order ocean tide solution determined from Starlette has good overall agreement with other satellite and oceanographic tide solutions. The observed lunar deceleration is -24.7 +/- 0.6 arcsecond/century(exp 2), which agrees well with other studies. The estimated value of J2 is (-2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) yr(exp -1), assuming there are no variations in higher degree zonals and that the 18.6-year tide is fixed at an equilibrium value. The yearly fluctuations in the values for S(sub a) and S(sub sa) tides determined by the 16-year Starlette data are found to be associated with changes in the Earth's second degree zonal harmonic caused primarily by meteorological excitation. The mean values for the amplitude of S(sub a) and S(sub sa) variations in J2 are 32.3 x 10(exp -11) and 19.5 x 10(exp -11), respectively; while the rms about the mean values are 4.1 x 10(exp -11) and 6.3(10)(exp -11), respectively. The annual delta(J2) is in good agreement with the value obtained from the combined effects of air mass redistribution without the oceanic inverted-barometer effects and hydrological change. The annual delta(J3) values have much larger disagreements. Approximately 90 percent of the observed annual variation from Starlette is attributed to the meteorological mass redistribution occurring near the Earth's surface.

  17. Constaints on Lorentz symmetry violations using lunar laser ranging observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, Adrien

    2016-12-01

    General Relativity (GR) and the standard model of particle physics provide a comprehensive description of the four interactions of nature. A quantum gravity theory is expected to merge these two pillars of modern physics. From unification theories, such a combination would lead to a breaking of fundamental symmetry appearing in both GR and the standard model of particle physics as the Lorentz symmetry. Lorentz symmetry violations in all fields of physics can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework called the standard-model extension (SME). Local Lorentz Invariance violations in the gravitational sector should impact the orbital motion of bodies inside the solar system, such as the Moon. Thus, the accurate lunar laser ranging (LLR) data can be analyzed in order to study precisely the lunar motion to look for irregularities. For this purpose, ELPN (Ephéméride Lunaire Parisienne Numérique), a new lunar ephemeris has been integrated in the SME framework. This new numerical solution of the lunar motion provides time series dated in temps dynamique barycentrique (TDB). Among that series, we mention the barycentric position and velocity of the Earth-Moon vector, the lunar libration angles, the time scale difference between the terrestrial time and TDB and partial derivatives integrated from variational equations. ELPN predictions have been used to analyzed LLR observations. In the GR framework, the residuals standard deviations has turned out to be the same order of magnitude compare to those of INPOP13b and DE430 ephemerides. In the framework of the minimal SME, LLR data analysis provided constraints on local Lorentz invariance violations. Spetial attention was paid to analyze uncertainties to provide the most realistic constraints. Therefore, in a first place, linear combinations of SME coefficients have been derived and fitted to LLR observations. In a second time, realistic uncertainties have been determined with a resampling method. LLR data

  18. New laser technology expands the range of holographic NDT

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroseo, J.; Peterson, P. )

    1994-05-01

    Holographic nondestructive testing and shearography are interferometric, optical methods used to detect flaws during stress testing. This process can be used to test a diverse cross-section of items, such as airplane jet engines, turbine rings, electronic circuit boards, and truck/aircraft tires. As with any interferometric technique, both methods require a coherent light source (laser) with appropriate characteristics. Until very recently, visible wavelength gas lasers have been the source of choice for these applications. In this article the authors examine the impact of a new breed of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers that offers high power visible output, true portability, and a high level of stability and coherence. The major benefits of this novel technology for holography and shearography are improvements in resolution, accuracy, convenience, and utility, combined with low overall operating costs.

  19. A self-analyzing double-loop digital controller in laser frequency stabilization for inter-satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yingxin; Li, Hongyin; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Luo, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We present a digital controller specially designed for laser frequency stabilization in the application of inter-satellite laser ranging. The prototype of controller is developed using field programmable gate arrays programmed with National Instruments LabVIEW software. The controller is flexible, self-analyzing, and easily optimized with build-in system analysis. Application and performance of the controller to a laser frequency stabilization system designed for spaceborne scientific missions are demonstrated.

  20. Television-and-Laser Range-Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Triangulation system measures angle between two lines of sight to point on object, determining distance to object. Amenable to automation. Includes automatically aimed rotatable mirrors and laser beam to define one of lines of sight. Adjusts automatically to bring two lines of sight into convergence at common point on object.

  1. Television-and-Laser Range-Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Triangulation system measures angle between two lines of sight to point on object, determining distance to object. Amenable to automation. Includes automatically aimed rotatable mirrors and laser beam to define one of lines of sight. Adjusts automatically to bring two lines of sight into convergence at common point on object.

  2. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  3. Panoramic 3D Reconstruction by Fusing Color Intensity and Laser Range Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Lu, Jian

    Technology for capturing panoramic (360 degrees) three-dimensional information in a real environment have many applications in fields: virtual and complex reality, security, robot navigation, and so forth. In this study, we examine an acquisition device constructed of a regular CCD camera and a 2D laser range scanner, along with a technique for panoramic 3D reconstruction using a data fusion algorithm based on an energy minimization framework. The acquisition device can capture two types of data of a panoramic scene without occlusion between two sensors: a dense spatio-temporal volume from a camera and distance information from a laser scanner. We resample the dense spatio-temporal volume for generating a dense multi-perspective panorama that has equal spatial resolution to that of the original images acquired using a regular camera, and also estimate a dense panoramic depth-map corresponding to the generated reference panorama by extracting trajectories from the dense spatio-temporal volume with a selecting camera. Moreover, for determining distance information robustly, we propose a data fusion algorithm that is embedded into an energy minimization framework that incorporates active depth measurements using a 2D laser range scanner and passive geometry reconstruction from an image sequence obtained using the CCD camera. Thereby, measurement precision and robustness can be improved beyond those available by conventional methods using either passive geometry reconstruction (stereo vision) or a laser range scanner. Experimental results using both synthetic and actual images show that our approach can produce high-quality panoramas and perform accurate 3D reconstruction in a panoramic environment.

  4. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    Accomplishments in the following areas of research are presented: receiver performance study of spaceborne laser altimeters and cloud and aerosol lidars; receiver performance analysis for space-to-space laser ranging systems; and receiver performance study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR).

  5. Monoblock laser for a low-cost, eyesafe, microlaser range finder.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, J E; Schilling, B W; Barr, D N; Lei, J S

    2000-05-20

    A small, lightweight, low-cost prototype laser has been developed for use in a microlaser range finder (muLRF). The laser design is based on a flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:YAG laser with a Cr(4+) passive Q switch. The design incorporates a monolithic potassium titanyl arsenide (KTA) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in an intracavity configuration, producing output at 1.54 mum. Precisely cut, properly coated crystals make up the laser resonator, reducing the number of components and enabling laser oscillation with the simplest of alignment fixtures. The 1.54-mum laser cavity consists of only four rectangular-shaped crystals: a Nd:YAG laser rod, a Nd:YAG endcap, a Cr(4+) Q switch, and a KTA OPO. Along with a ceramic laser pallet and a flash lamp, these six components make up a prototype monoblock (essentially a one-piece) laser transmitter. Several of these simple prototypes have been built and tested, giving a nominal output of >3.0 mJ at 1.54 mum with a 27-ns pulse width. The transmitter was incorporated into a breadboard laser range finder, and successful ranging operations were performed to targets at ranges in excess of 3 km.

  6. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  7. Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Bourayou, Riad; Méjean, Guillaume; Kasparian, Jérôme; Yu, Jin; Salmon, Estelle; Scholz, Alexander; Stecklum, Bringfried; Eislöffel, Jochen; Laux, Uwe; Hatzes, Artie P; Sauerbrey, Roland; Wöste, Ludger; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2004-03-01

    Ultrashort, high-power laser pulses propagating vertically in the atmosphere have been observed over more than 20 km using an imaging 2-m astronomical telescope. This direct observation in several wavelength bands shows indications for filament formation at distances as far as 2 km in the atmosphere. Moreover, the beam divergence at 5 km altitude is smaller than expected, bearing evidence for whole-beam parallelization about the nonlinear focus. We discuss implications for white-light Lidar applications.

  8. Polar motion from laser range measurements of GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.; Ries, J.

    1979-01-01

    Using two-day arcs of GEOS-3 laser data, simultaneous solutions for pole position components, x sub p and y sub p, and orbit elements have been obtained for the period spanning 3 February to 6 March 1976 using three NASA Goddard Space Flight Center laser stations located near Washington, D.C. (STALAS) and on the islands of Bermuda and Grand Turk. The results are in general agreement with the BIH results. However, because of the locations of the laser sites, the x sub p solution is weaker than the y sub p solution. The x sub p and y sub p estimates were smoothed with a straight line by weighted least squares using the variance associated with the pole estimates as weights in order to reflect the effect of widely different data distributions. The smoothed y sub p differs by one meter with respect to the BIH smoothed values and the smoothed x sub p differs by about two meters. Spectral analysis of the results has identified frequencies associated with the orbital motion indicating the need for further improvements in the model of the physical system.

  9. Dynamic techniques for studies of secular variations in position from ranging to satellites. [using laser range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Agreen, R. W.; Dunn, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite laser range measurements were applied to the study of latitude variation arising from polar motion, and the solid-earth and ocean tidal distortion of the earth's gravity field. Experiments involving two laser tracking stations were conducted. The relative location of one station with respect to the other was determined by performing simultaneous range measurements to a satellite from two stations several hundred kilometers apart. The application of this technique to the San Andreas Fault Experiment in California is discussed. Future capabilities of spacecraft equipped with laser retroreflectors include: (1) determination of the product of the earth's mass and gravitational constant; (2) measurement of crustal and tectonic motions; (3) determination of the elastic response of the solid-earth tidal forces; (4) measurement of the amplitudes and phase of certain components of the ocean tides; and (5) self-monitoring of the latitude and height variations of the tracking station.

  10. Extending the continuous tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repasky, Kevin S.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Hawthorne, Justin T.; Switzer, Gregg W.; Carlsten, John L.

    2006-12-01

    The continuous tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser can be extended by making small corrections to the external-cavity length through an electronic feedback loop so that the cavity resonance condition is maintained as the laser wavelength is tuned. By maintaining the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned, the mode hops that typically limit the continuous tuning range of the external-cavity diode laser are eliminated. We present the design of a simple external-cavity diode laser based on the Littman-Metcalf external-cavity configuration that has a measured continuous tuning range of 1 GHz without an electronic feedback loop. To include the electronic feedback loop, a small sinusoidal signal is added to the drive current of the laser diode creating a small oscillation of the laser power. By comparing the phase of the modulated optical power with the phase of the sinusoidal drive signal using a lock-in amplifier, an error signal is created and used in an electronic feedback loop to control the external-cavity length. With electronic feedback, we find that the continuous tuning range can be extended to over 65 GHz. This occurs because the electronic feedback maintains the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned. An experimental demonstration of this extended tuning range is presented in which the external-cavity diode laser is tuned through an absorption feature of diatomic oxygen near 760 nm.

  11. Extending the continuous tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser.

    PubMed

    Repasky, Kevin S; Nehrir, Amin R; Hawthorne, Justin T; Switzer, Gregg W; Carlsten, John L

    2006-12-10

    The continuous tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser can be extended by making small corrections to the external-cavity length through an electronic feedback loop so that the cavity resonance condition is maintained as the laser wavelength is tuned. By maintaining the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned, the mode hops that typically limit the continuous tuning range of the external-cavity diode laser are eliminated. We present the design of a simple external-cavity diode laser based on the Littman-Metcalf external-cavity configuration that has a measured continuous tuning range of 1 GHz without an electronic feedback loop. To include the electronic feedback loop, a small sinusoidal signal is added to the drive current of the laser diode creating a small oscillation of the laser power. By comparing the phase of the modulated optical power with the phase of the sinusoidal drive signal using a lock-in amplifier, an error signal is created and used in an electronic feedback loop to control the external-cavity length. With electronic feedback, we find that the continuous tuning range can be extended to over 65 GHz. This occurs because the electronic feedback maintains the cavity resonance condition as the laser is tuned. An experimental demonstration of this extended tuning range is presented in which the external-cavity diode laser is tuned through an absorption feature of diatomic oxygen near 760 nm.

  12. Synthesis and analysis of precise spaceborne laser ranging systems, volume 1. [link analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddon, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement accuracy goals of 2 cm rms range estimation error and 0.003 cm/sec rms range rate estimation error, with no more than 1 cm (range) static bias error are requirements for laser measurement systems to be used in planned space-based earth physics investigations. Constraints and parameters were defined for links between a high altitude, transmit/receive satellite (HATRS), and one of three targets: a low altitude target satellite, passive (LATS), and active low altitude target, and a ground-based target, as well as with operations with a primary transmit/receive terminal intended to be carried as a shuttle payload, in conjunction with the Spacelab program.

  13. High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF) Enhanced Laser and Range Operations. Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    energy technologies for the DoD, other government agencies, industry, and academia. HELSTF represents a national investment of approximately $800 million...in high energy laser technology . As a result of the existing laser technologies and supporting infrastructure, which have an established record of...successful and innovative laser testing, research, and development, HELSTF is an important national asset to support continued laser technologies . It is

  14. Pump power stability range of single-mode solid-state lasers with rod thermal lensing

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; La Porta, P.; Magni, V.

    1987-11-01

    The pump power stability range of solid-state laser resonators operating in the TEM/sub 00/ mode has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that, for a very general resonator containing intracavity optical systems, rod thermal lensing engenders a pump power stability range which is a characteristic parameter of laser material and pump cavity, but is independent of resonator configuration. Stability ranges have been calculated and critically discussed for Nd:YAG, Nd:Glasses, Nd:Cr:GSGG, and alexandrite. The independence of the pump power stability range from the resonator configuration has been experimentally demonstrated for a CW Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Photofragmentation of colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles under femtosecond laser pulses in IR and visible ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, P A; Zayarnyi, D A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Rudenko, A A; Saraeva, I N; Yurovskikh, V I; Lednev, V N; Pershin, S M

    2015-05-31

    The specific features of photofragmentation of sols of gold nanoparticles under focused femtosecond laser pulses in IR (1030 nm) and visible (515 nm) ranges is experimentally investigated. A high photofragmentation efficiency of nanoparticles in the waist of a pulsed laser beam in the visible range (at moderate radiation scattering) is demonstrated; this efficiency is related to the excitation of plasmon resonance in nanoparticles on the blue shoulder of its spectrum, in contrast to the regime of very weak photofragmentation in an IR-laser field of comparable intensity. Possible mechanisms of femtosecond laser photofragmentation of gold nanoparticles are discussed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Expanding range of pulsed range sensors with active projection from spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Xiaodong; Su, Wei; Cohn, Robert W.; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.

    2006-05-01

    LIDAR-based systems measure the time-of-flight of a laser source onto the scene and back to the sensor, building a wide field of view 3D raster image, but as a scanning process, there are problems associated with motion inside the scene over the duration of the scan. By illuminating the entire scene simultaneously using a broad laser pulse, a 2D camera equipped with a high speed shutter can measure the time-of-flight over the entire field of view (FOV), thereby, recording an instantaneous snap-shot of the entire scene. However, spreading the laser reduces the range. So what is required is a programmable system that can track multiple regions of interest by varying the field of regard to (1) a single direction, (2) the entire FOV, or (3) intermediate views of interest as required by the evolving scene environment. In this project, the investigators intend to add this variable illumination capability to existing instantaneous ranging hardware by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) beam steering system that adaptively varies the (single or multi) beam intensity profiles and pointing directions. For autonomous satellite rendezvous, docking, and inspection, the system can perform long-range sensing with a narrow FOV while being able to expand the FOV as the target object approaches the sensor. To this end in a previous paper, we analyzed the performance of a commercially available TOF sensor (3DVSystems' Zmini) in terms of the depth sensitivity versus target range and albedo. In this paper, we will analyze the laser system specifications versus range of field-of-view when beam steering is performed by means of a Boulder Nonlinear Systems' phase-only liquid crystal SLM. Experimental results show that the adjustable laser beam FOV extensively compensate the reflected image grayscale from objects at long range, and prove the feasibility of expanding range with the projection from the SLM.

  17. Benefits Derived From Laser Ranging Measurements for Orbit Determination of the GPS Satellite Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2007-01-01

    While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current research is examining methods to lower the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. Two GPS satellites that are currently in orbit carry retro-reflectors onboard. One notion to reduce the error in the satellite ephemerides is to utilize the retro-reflectors via laser ranging measurements taken from multiple Earth ground stations. Analysis has been performed to determine the level of reduction in the semi-major axis covariance of the GPS satellites, when laser ranging measurements are supplemented to the radiometric station keeping, which the satellites undergo. Six ground tracking systems are studied to estimate the performance of the satellite. The first system is the baseline current system approach which provides pseudo-range and integrated Doppler measurements from six ground stations. The remaining five ground tracking systems utilize all measurements from the current system and laser ranging measurements from the additional ground stations utilized within those systems. Station locations for the additional ground sites were taken from a listing of laser ranging ground stations from the International Laser Ranging Service. Results show reductions in state covariance estimates when utilizing laser ranging measurements to solve for the satellite s position component of the state vector. Results also show dependency on the number of ground stations providing laser ranging measurements, orientation of the satellite to the ground stations, and the initial covariance of the satellite's state vector.

  18. A laser ranging system operating at 1036 nm with Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Ren, Min; Liang, Yan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Haifeng; Zeng, Heping

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrated a laser ranging experiment obtained with a Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si GAPD). The Surface-to-surface resolution of 15 cm was achieved with the technique of time-correlated single-photon counting. In the experiment, a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser at 1036 nm was applied, as the detection efficiency at 1036 nm of Si GAPDs is much higher than that at 1064nm which was widely applied in remote sensing. Due to the single-photon detector, the laser ranging system was able to measure the reflected photon pulses at single-photon level. We realized 32- m laser ranging experiment with a 135-mm diameter Newtonian telescope in daylight. And the system could measure the non-cooperated object longer than 11.3 km far away, which was tested through inserting the optical loss. It presented a potential for hundreds-of-kilometer laser ranging at low-light level.

  19. Statistical Model for Range Safety Analysis of Laser Hazard. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    4-111 - -- ~ ~ -J CASE 2 MOVING LASER, MOVING TARGET 0. -50c .0 -000.t -’sO .t U30 .0 -?50A.0 -200C.0 - ISAC .0 A -aVL.1 -5 1 ?LC.C C. A.A.. .A .. 0...in feet) is obtained by use of a Newton iteration: (2) Let C 1 = 4U/iQ C2 = (.11)Db/. 3 34 ) 26(C 2/2I1.56 2 b n RO = (iCI-Db)/2o S0 = Db + 2R 0 To

  20. Active alignment and reliable pigtailing of laser diode transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhali, M.; Saktioto, .; Zainal, J.; Munajat, Y.; Ali, J.; Rahman, R.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we present theoretical and experimental analysis on Nd:YAG laser microwelding for pigtailing laser diode transmitter through two ball lenses that are employed for effectively matching the elliptical mode field of the laser diode with the circular on of the single mode fiber. The fiber attachment and the fixing of various coupling components have been performed in what is so called active alignment process. The system continues measuring the coupled power during the processes of alignment and attachment of various coupling components as well as the working distance and misalignment tolerances optimizations. Results of theoretical modeling of laser weld penetration depth agree with the experimentally measured results in the low laser pulse energy range. Moreover the laser pulse parameters such as, duration, energy, number of pulse shoots as well as the focusing position over the workpiece and angle of laser pulse incidence are found to have very significant effects on the weld yields and greatly affect the laser weld depth to width ratio. Optimization of all the mentioned parameters found to be necessary for achieving strong laser microwelds with more penetration and less width in the attachments of the sensitive optical components inside the packaged photonic devices modules.

  1. New criteria for measuring range management activities.

    Treesearch

    T.M. Quigley; D.S. Dillard; J.B. [and others] Reese

    1989-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service national range program is currently evaluating its information needs at the national level A Range Measurement Task Group of Agency personnel was assembled in January 1988 to evaluate the information needs and recommend appropriate measures and reports. This document is the final recommendation of the task group. The recommendation includes...

  2. Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.

    1984-07-01

    Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.

  3. Underwater three-dimensional range-gated laser imaging based on triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Xiaoquan; Ren, Pengdao; Sun, Liang; Fan, Songtao; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Underwater 3D range-gated imaging can extend the detection range over underwater stereo cameras, and also has great potentials in real-time high-resolution imaging than 3D laser scanning. In this paper, a triangular-range-intensity profile spatial correlation method is used for underwater 3D range-gated imaging. Different from the traditional trapezoidal method, in our method gate images have triangular range-intensity profiles. Furthermore, inter-frame correlation is used for video-rate 3D imaging. In addition, multi-pulse time delay integration is introduced to shape range-intensify profiles and realize flexible 3D SRGI. Finally, in experiments, 3D images of fish net, seaweed and balls are obtained with mm-scaled spatial and range resolution.

  4. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A; Chamorovsky, A Yu; Yakubovich, S D

    2015-08-31

    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  5. A Detailed Evaluation of a Laser Triangulation Ranging System for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    A RPI TECHNICAL REPORT MP-82 A DETAILED EVALUATION OF A LASER - TRIANGULATION RANGING SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ROBOTS by Thomas J. Clement Contract MDA-903...ML/MD VISION SYSTEM THEORY............................... 7 2.1 Laser Triangulation......................................... 7 2.1.1 ML/MD Vision...System Accuracy Factors..................10 2.1.2 Detector "Cone of Vision" Problem ..................... 10 2. 1.3 Laser Triangulation Justification

  6. Improvement of range precision in laser detection and ranging system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kong, Hong Jin; Jo, Sung Eun; Jeon, Byoung Goo; Oh, Min Seok; Heo, Ayoung; Park, Dong Jo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the improvement of range precision in a laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) is described. The LADAR system is implemented by using two GmAPDs with a beam splitter and applying comparative process to their ends. Then, the timing circuit receives the electrical signals only if each GmAPDs generates electrical signals simultaneously. Though this system decreases the energy of a laser-return pulse scattered from the target, it is effective in reducing the range precision. The experimental results showed that the average value of standard deviation of time of flights was improved from 61 mm to 37 mm when the pulse energy is 0.6 μJ. When the time bin width is 0.5 ns, the single-shot precision error of the LADAR system was also improved from 280 mm to 67 mm.

  7. Improvement of range precision in laser detection and ranging system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kong, Hong Jin; Jo, Sung Eun; Jeon, Byoung Goo; Oh, Min Seok; Heo, Ayoung; Park, Dong Jo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the improvement of range precision in a laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system by using two Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) is described. The LADAR system is implemented by using two GmAPDs with a beam splitter and applying comparative process to their ends. Then, the timing circuit receives the electrical signals only if each GmAPDs generates electrical signals simultaneously. Though this system decreases the energy of a laser-return pulse scattered from the target, it is effective in reducing the range precision. The experimental results showed that the average value of standard deviation of time of flights was improved from 61 mm to 37 mm when the pulse energy is 0.6 μJ. When the time bin width is 0.5 ns, the single-shot precision error of the LADAR system was also improved from 280 mm to 67 mm.

  8. Geophysical parameters from the analysis of laser ranging to Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research (UT/CSR) research efforts covering the time period from August 1, 1990 through January 31, 1991 have concentrated on the following areas: (1) Laser Data Processing (more than 15 years of Starlette data (1975-90) have been processed and cataloged); (2) Seasonal Variation of Zonal Tides (observed Starlette time series has been compared with meteorological data-derived time series); (3) Ocean Tide Solutions . (error analysis has been performed using Starlette and other tide solutions); and (4) Lunar Deceleration (formulation to compute theoretical lunar deceleration has been verified and applied to several tidal solutions). Concise descriptions of research achievement for each of the above areas are given. Copies of abstracts for some of the publications and conference presentations are included in the appendices.

  9. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  10. Micron-Accurate Laser Fresnel-Diffraction Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehner, David; Campbell, Jonathan; Smith, Kelly; Sanders, Alvin; Allison, Stephen; Smaley, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Two versions of an optoelectronic system undergoing development are depicted. The system is expected to be capable of measuring a distance between 2 and 10 m with an error of no more than 1 micrometer. The system would be designed to exploit Fresnel diffraction of a laser beam. In particular, it would be designed to take advantage of the fact that a Fresnel diffraction pattern is ultrasensitive to distance. The two versions would differ in the following respects: In version 1, the focus of the telescope would be in the Fresnel region, and the telescope would have a small depth of focus. As a consequence, the Fresnel pattern would be imaged directly onto the photodetector array; in version 2, a multielement lens module would displace the Fresnel region from the vicinity of the pinhole to the vicinity of the optical receiver. As the distance to be measured varied, the location of the receiver relative to the displaced Fresnel-diffraction region would vary, thereby causing the Fresnel diffraction pattern on the focal plane to vary. The multielement lens module would also correct for aberrations. The processing of the digitized Fresnel diffraction pattern in the computer might be accelerated by using only parts of the pattern or even only one small part - the central pixel. As the distance from the pinhole increased, the central pixel would rapidly cycle between maximum and minimum light intensity. This in itself would not be sufficient to uniquely determine the distance. However, by varying the size of the pinhole or the wavelength of the laser, one could obtain a second cycle of variation of intensity that, in conjunction with the first cycle, could enable a unique determination of distance. Alternatively, for a single wavelength and a single pinhole size, it should suffice to consider the data from only two different key pixels in the Fresnel pattern.

  11. Three Dimension Position of Space Debris with Laser Ranging and Optical Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.; Mao, Y. D.; Cao, J. J.; Tang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.

    2015-10-01

    According to the principles of space debris orbit determination, its success rate and reliability will be improved if the celestial coordinates are known at the time of the laser ranging. The method of determining the 3D location of space debris by laser ranging and optical astrometry is presented. A test platform is established by installing a photographic equipment on the 60cm satellite laser ranging telescope system of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. Experimental observations are carried out and the satellite Ajisai is chosen as the target. The results show this method is feasible and the angle measurement accuracy of the satellite Ajisai is about 5 arc second.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Mode-Locked Thulium Fiber Laser With 200 nm Tuning Range

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yafei; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Wang, Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a mode-locked thulium/holmium (Tm/Ho) fiber laser continuously tunable across 200 nm (from 1860 nm to 2060 nm), which to the best of our knowledge represents the widest tuning range ever achieved for a passively mode-locked fiber laser oscillator. The combined use of a broadband carbon nanotube (CNT) saturable absorber and a diffraction grating mirror ensures ultra-broad tuning range, superb stability and repeatability, and makes the demonstrated laser a highly practical source for spectroscopy, imaging and optical communications. The laser emits <5 ps pulses with an optical spectral bandwidth of ∼3 nm across the full tuning range. Our results indicate that carbon nanotubes can be an excellent saturable absorber for achieving gain-bandwidth-limited tunable operation for 2 μm thulium fiber lasers. PMID:28322327

  13. Data collection and simulation of high range resolution laser radar for surface mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Chevalier, Tomas; Larsson, Håkan

    2006-05-01

    Rapid and efficient detection of surface mines, IED's (Improvised Explosive Devices) and UXO (Unexploded Ordnance) is of high priority in military conflicts. High range resolution laser radars combined with passive hyper/multispectral sensors offer an interesting concept to help solving this problem. This paper reports on laser radar data collection of various surface mines in different types of terrain. In order to evaluate the capability of 3D imaging for detecting and classifying the objects of interest a scanning laser radar was used to scan mines and surrounding terrain with high angular and range resolution. These data were then fed into a laser radar model capable of generating range waveforms for a variety of system parameters and combinations of different targets and backgrounds. We can thus simulate a potential system by down sampling to relevant pixel sizes and laser/receiver characteristics. Data, simulations and examples will be presented.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Mode-Locked Thulium Fiber Laser With 200 nm Tuning Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yafei; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Wang, Fengqiu

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated a mode-locked thulium/holmium (Tm/Ho) fiber laser continuously tunable across 200 nm (from 1860 nm to 2060 nm), which to the best of our knowledge represents the widest tuning range ever achieved for a passively mode-locked fiber laser oscillator. The combined use of a broadband carbon nanotube (CNT) saturable absorber and a diffraction grating mirror ensures ultra-broad tuning range, superb stability and repeatability, and makes the demonstrated laser a highly practical source for spectroscopy, imaging and optical communications. The laser emits <5 ps pulses with an optical spectral bandwidth of ∼3 nm across the full tuning range. Our results indicate that carbon nanotubes can be an excellent saturable absorber for achieving gain-bandwidth-limited tunable operation for 2 μm thulium fiber lasers.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Mode-Locked Thulium Fiber Laser With 200 nm Tuning Range.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yafei; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Wang, Fengqiu

    2017-03-21

    We demonstrated a mode-locked thulium/holmium (Tm/Ho) fiber laser continuously tunable across 200 nm (from 1860 nm to 2060 nm), which to the best of our knowledge represents the widest tuning range ever achieved for a passively mode-locked fiber laser oscillator. The combined use of a broadband carbon nanotube (CNT) saturable absorber and a diffraction grating mirror ensures ultra-broad tuning range, superb stability and repeatability, and makes the demonstrated laser a highly practical source for spectroscopy, imaging and optical communications. The laser emits <5 ps pulses with an optical spectral bandwidth of ∼3 nm across the full tuning range. Our results indicate that carbon nanotubes can be an excellent saturable absorber for achieving gain-bandwidth-limited tunable operation for 2 μm thulium fiber lasers.

  16. Application of Satellite Laser Ranging Techniques for Space Situational Awareness Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Coyle, D. B.; Hull, S. M.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2016-09-01

    With the numbers of conjunction avoidance maneuvers for the International Space Station and other Low Earth Orbit satellites rising and likely to continue to increase, the need to develop methods to produce accurate 72+ hour orbital predictions is becoming critical. One emerging solution is to utilize satellite laser ranging techniques to range to debris and refine the initial positions to improve the orbital predictions for objects predicted to experience a close approach. Some stations in Europe have already demonstrated that this technique is possible, but it has not been employed to refine the likelihood of collision. We will present a notional architecture for laser ranging to debris utilizing existing satellite laser ranging or visual tracking facilities. We will also discuss the capabilities of laser ranging for Space Situational Awareness and provide a direct comparison to current visual and radar tracking methods.

  17. Design and simulation of a mixer and phase difference measuring circuitry for laser range finding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guili; Wang, Yanlin; Liu, Gang

    2006-11-01

    This article focuses on the circuit implementation of a mixer and phase difference measurement for laser range finding systems. It will introduce simply the principle of the laser range finding system, which is the basis of the electronic circuitry design. The modulated laser lights of two different frequencies are mixed and the phase difference is detected in order to measure the range. The method of measuring the range is to use the mixer and the phase difference detector. The new and high precision IC that has a high quality makes the circuit simple and reliable. The circuit of the mixer and the phase difference detector for laser range finding systems is designed using AD608 and AD8302 chips.

  18. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  19. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  20. OPO-laser system for atmospheric sounding in the mid-IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Kondratyuk, N. V.; Protasenya, A. L.; Shumskii, V. K.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    A laser system is designed that provides for tunable generation of nanosecond radiation pulses in the 3-4 μm range. Optical block-diagram and specifications of the system are presented. The laser system as a part of a differential absorption lidar designed can be used for remote control of pollutant concentrations along surface atmospheric paths.

  1. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  2. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-04-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging.

  3. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging. PMID:27032979

  4. Precise pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder for industrial distance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpelä, Ari; Pennala, Riku; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2001-04-01

    A pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder with a 1 GHz avalanche photo diode (APD) receiver and a laser pulser with ˜35 ps pulse width has been developed and tested. The receiver channel is constructed using a silicon ASIC chip and a commercially available silicon APD placed on a hybrid ceramic susbstrate. The laser pulser utilizes a single heterostructure laser operating in Q-switching mode. It is shown that the single-shot precision of the complete laser range finder is ˜2.1 mm (σ value) at best. The nonaccuracy in the distance range of 0.5-34.5 m was ˜±2 mm excluding errors caused by the statistical variations and long-term instability. The single-shot precision is clearly better than the single-shot precision of the earlier laser range finders with ˜100-200 MHz bandwidths. Also, two types of optics, coaxial and paraxial, were tested. The linearity of the coaxial optics was better, especially with a long (4 m) receiver fiber. Some possible applications of the laser range finder utilizing ps level pulses are, for example, fast three-dimensional vision in industrial environments and structure analysis of materials.

  5. A new bismuth-doped fibre laser, emitting in the range 1625 – 1775 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, E M; Firstov, S V; Alyshev, S V; Riumkin, K E; Shubin, A V; Medvedkov, O I; Mel'kumov, M A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-06-30

    CW lasing of a Bi-doped germanosilicate fibre in a wavelength range that covers the spectral region between the emission bands of Er and Tm fibre lasers has been demonstrated for the first time. (letters)

  6. Earth orientation from lunar laser range-differencing. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leick, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the optimal use of high precision lunar laser ranging (LLR), an investigation regarding a clear definition of the underlying coordinate systems, identification of estimable quantities, favorable station geometry and optimal observation schedule is given.

  7. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Field, Christopher T.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1996-01-01

    We report here the design and the performance measurements of the breadboard receiver of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). The measured ranging accuracy was better than 2 cm and 10 cm for 5 ns and 30 ns wide received laser pulses under the expected received signal level, which agreed well with the theoretical analysis. The measured receiver sensitivity or the link margin was also consistent with the theory. The effects of the waveform digitizer sample rate and resolution were also measured.

  8. Statistics of the residual refraction errors in laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model for the range error covariance was derived by assuming that the residual refraction errors are due entirely to errors in the meteorological data which are used to calculate the atmospheric correction. The properties of the covariance function are illustrated by evaluating the theoretical model for the special case of a dense network of weather stations uniformly distributed within a circle.

  9. Receiver design, performance analysis, and evaluation for space-borne laser altimeters and space-to-space laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Frederic M.; Sun, Xiaoli; Field, Christopher T.

    1995-01-01

    Laser altimeters measure the time of flight of the laser pulses to determine the range of the target. The simplest altimeter receiver consists of a photodetector followed by a leading edge detector. A time interval unit (TIU) measures the time from the transmitted laser pulse to the leading edge of the received pulse as it crosses a preset threshold. However, the ranging error of this simple detection scheme depends on the received, pulse amplitude, pulse shape, and the threshold. In practice, the pulse shape and the amplitude are determined by the target target characteristics which has to be assumed unknown prior to the measurement. The ranging error can be improved if one also measures the pulse width and use the average of the leading and trailing edges (half pulse width) as the pulse arrival time. The ranging error becomes independent of the received pulse amplitude and the pulse width as long as the pulse shape is symmetric. The pulse width also gives the slope of the target. The ultimate detection scheme is to digitize the received waveform and calculate the centroid as the pulse arrival time. The centroid detection always gives unbiased measurement even for asymmetric pulses. In this report, we analyze the laser altimeter ranging errors for these three detection schemes using the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) as an example.

  10. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  11. Precision laser range finder system design for Advanced Technology Laboratory applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, K. E.; Kohn, R. L.; Seib, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary system design of a pulsed precision ruby laser rangefinder system is presented which has a potential range resolution of 0.4 cm when atmospheric effects are negligible. The system being proposed for flight testing on the advanced technology laboratory (ATL) consists of a modelocked ruby laser transmitter, course and vernier rangefinder receivers, optical beacon retroreflector tracking system, and a network of ATL tracking retroreflectors. Performance calculations indicate that spacecraft to ground ranging accuracies of 1 to 2 cm are possible.

  12. Generation of picosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm with gigahertz range continuously tunable repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, Adrien; Lhermite, Jérôme; Hocquet, Steve; Cormier, Eric; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    We report on a watt range laser system generating picosecond pulses using electro-optical modulation of a 1030 nm single frequency low noise laser diode. Its repetition rate is continuously tunable between 11 and 18 GHz. Over this range, output spectra and pulse characteristics are measured and compared with a numerical simulation. Finally, amplitude and residual phase noise measurements of the source are also presented.

  13. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  14. MLRS - A lunar/artificial satellite laser ranging facility at the McDonald Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Experience from lunar and satellite laser ranging experiments carried out at McDonald Observatory has been used to design the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS). The MLRS is a dual-purpose installation designed to obtain observations from the LAGEOS satellite and lunar targets. The instruments used at the station include a telescope assembly 0.76 meters in diameter; a Q-switched doubled neodymium YAG laser with a pulse rate of three nanoseconds; and a GaAs photodetector with Fabry-Perot interferometric filter. A functional diagram of the system is provided. The operating parameters of the instruments are summarized in a table.

  15. Laser triangulation range finder based on a chaotic modulation and detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Mario A.; Pizolato, Jose C., Jr.; Neto, Luiz G.

    2000-08-01

    A laser triangulation range finder based on a chaotic and detection scheme is presented. An elementary non-linear electronic oscillator composed by two operation amplifiers with feedback current form two antiparallel diodes generates a chaotic signal that is used to generate a chaotic clock modulation with a well-defined broad band spectrum. This chaotic clock modulates a laser beam that is transmitted and received by a collecting optics in a laser triangulation range finder scheme. A band limited phase delay equalized amplifier sends the received signal to a balanced demodulator using the same chaotic generated signal as 'local oscillator'. A low pass filter is tuned to assure good compromise against noise immunity and the desired response speed. This modulator scheme allows several laser stations to operate in same working area, avoiding carefully adjusted field-of-view screening and cross-detection false alarm due to the interference of other laser stations. The chaotic modulator can be used as an alternative for microprocessor based pseudo random sequence generator when board space or cost is a critical system specification. The laser triangulation range finder has a range of 0.5m to 2m using a 3mW class IIIa visible laser, with precision of 5 mm.

  16. Laser scanning methods and a phase comparison, modulated laser range finder for terrain sensing on a Mars roving vehicle. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herb, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    Two areas of a laser range finder for a Mars roving vehicle are investigated: (1) laser scanning systems, and (2) range finder methods and implementation. Several ways of rapidly scanning a laser are studied. Two digital deflectors and a matrix of laser diodes, are found to be acceptable. A complete range finder scanning system of high accuracy is proposed. The problem of incident laser spot distortion on the terrain is discussed. The instrumentation for a phase comparison, modulated laser range finder is developed and sections of it are tested.

  17. Error analysis for a spaceborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The dependence (or independence) of baseline accuracies, obtained from a typical mission of a spaceborne ranging system, on several factors is investigated. The emphasis is placed on a priori station information, but factors such as the elevation cut-off angle, the geometry of the network, the mean orbital height, and to a limited extent geopotential modeling are also examined. The results are obtained through simulations, but some theoretical justification is also given. Guidelines for freeing the results from these dependencies are suggested for most of the factors.

  18. Active resonant subwavelength grating for scannerless range imaging sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Nellums, Robert O.; Boye, Robert R.; Peters, David William

    2006-11-01

    In this late-start LDRD, we will present a design for a wavelength-agile, high-speed modulator that enables a long-term vision for the THz Scannerless Range Imaging (SRI) sensor. It takes the place of the currently-utilized SRI micro-channel plate which is limited to photocathode sensitive wavelengths (primarily in the visible and near-IR regimes). Two of Sandia's successful technologies--subwavelength diffractive optics and THz sources and detectors--are poised to extend the capabilities of the SRI sensor. The goal is to drastically broaden the SRI's sensing waveband--all the way to the THz regime--so the sensor can see through image-obscuring, scattering environments like smoke and dust. Surface properties, such as reflectivity, emissivity, and scattering roughness, vary greatly with the illuminating wavelength. Thus, objects that are difficult to image at the SRI sensor's present near-IR wavelengths may be imaged more easily at the considerably longer THz wavelengths (0.1 to 1mm). The proposed component is an active Resonant Subwavelength Grating (RSG). Sandia invested considerable effort on a passive RSG two years ago, which resulted in a highly-efficient (reflectivity greater than gold), wavelength-specific reflector. For this late-start LDRD proposal, we will transform the passive RSG design into an active laser-line reflector.

  19. Detecting laser-range-finding signals in surveying converter lining based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Yang, Xiaofei; Shi, Tielin; Yang, Shuzi

    1998-08-01

    The precision of the laser range finding subsystem has important influences on the performances of the whole measurement system applied to survey the steelmaking converter lining erosion state. In the system, the object of laser beams is some rough lighting surfaces in high temperature. the laser range finding signals to reach the microcomputer system would be submerged in intense disturb environments. Common laser range finding devices could not work normally. This paper presents a method based on the wavelet transform to test solving the problem. The idea of this method includes encoding the measuring signals, decomposing the encoded received signals of components in different frequency scales and time domains by the wavelet transform method, extracting the features of encoded signals according to queer points to confirm the arrival of signals, and accurately calculating out the measured distances. In addition, the method is also helpful to adopt some digital filter algorithms in time. It could make further in improvement on the precision.

  20. Gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser with ultra-wide tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Li, Z.; Hou, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) producing nanosecond pulses with variable wavelength in the 2 μm waveband. The laser features tunable operation in an ultra-wide spectral region of 1765 - 2055 nm (24 THz). The nearly 300 nm tunability doubles the record tuning range of existing gain-switched fiber lasers, and to the best of our knowledge, presents the broadest tuning range that has been reported for a monolithic pulsed rare earth doped fiber laser to date. The TDFL can operate at a repetition rate of 5 - 100 kHz with a pulse width as short as 200 ns. A modest compromise in the tuning range allows pulse width reduction to sub-100 ns.

  1. Laser-ranging scanning system to observe topographical deformations of volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Takabe, M; Mizutani, K; Itabe, T

    1997-02-20

    We have developed a laser-ranging system to observe the topographical structure of volcanoes. This system can be used to measure the distance to a target by a laser and shows the three-dimensional topographical structure of a volcano with an accuracy of 30 cm. This accuracy is greater than that of a typical laser-ranging system that uses a corner-cube reflector as a target because the reflected light jitters as a result of inclination and unevenness of the target ground surface. However, this laser-ranging system is useful for detecting deformations of topographical features in which placement of a reflector is difficult, such as in volcanic regions.

  2. Measuring laser reflection cross-sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles for laser detection, ranging and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-05-01

    An increasing number of incidents are reported where small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are involved flying at low altitude. Thus UAVs are becoming more and more a serious threat in civilian and military scenarios leading to serious danger to safety or privacy issues. In this context, the detection and tracking of small UAV flying at low altitude in urban environment or near background structures is a challenge for state of the art detection technologies. In this paper, we focus on detection, tracking and identification by laser sensing technologies that are Laser Gated Viewing and scanning LiDAR. The laser reflection cross-sections (LRCS) has direct impact on the probability to detection and capability for range measurement. Here, we present methods to determine the laser reflection cross-sections by experimental and computational approaches.

  3. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  4. Fission-activated laser as primary power for CW laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the development of reactor-pumped lasers (RPL`s) have stimulated renewed interest in the concept of laser-powered propulsion. This paper surveys a number of laser propulsion concepts and identifies the one that is most promising from the standpoint of practicality. It is proposed that a ground-based FALCON (Fission-Activated Laser CONcept) RPL can provide primary for this launch vehicle design. The laser-vehicle system could launch small payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO) with high repetition rates and at low costs per kilogram. For the favored design, thruster efficiencies are currently estimated to be about 50%, with 80% being seen as a potentially realizable goal after further design refinements. Laser launch system simulations indicate that with a buy-in laser power of 10 MW, it will be possible to obtain specific impulses in the range of 600 to 800 seconds and payload-to-power ratios of 1 to 3 kg/MW.

  5. Fission-activated laser as primary power for CW laser propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, David K.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in the development of reactor-pumped lasers (RPLs) have stimulated renewed interest in the concept of laser-powered propulsion. This paper surveys a number of laser propulsion concepts and identifies the one that is most promising from the standpoint of practicality. It is proposed that a ground-based FALCON (fission-activated laser concept) RPL can provide primary power for this launch vehicle design. The laser-vehicle system could launch small payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO) with high repetition rates and at low costs per kilogram. For the favored design, thruster efficiencies are currently estimated to be about 50%, with 80% being seen as a potentially reliable goal after further design refinements. Laser launch system simulations indicate that, with a buy-in laser power of 10 MW, it will be possible to obtain specific impulses in the range of 600 to 800 seconds and payload-to-power ratios of 1 to 3 kg/MW.

  6. Corner-Cube Retroreflector Instrument for Advanced Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Folkner, William M.; Gutt, Gary M.; Williams, James G.; Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Baran, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes how, based on a structural-thermal-optical-performance analysis, it has been determined that a single, large, hollow corner cube (170- mm outer diameter) with custom dihedral angles offers a return signal comparable to the Apollo 11 and 14 solid-corner-cube arrays (each consisting of 100 small, solid corner cubes), with negligible pulse spread and much lower mass. The design of the corner cube, and its surrounding mounting and casing, is driven by the thermal environment on the lunar surface, which is subject to significant temperature variations (in the range between 70 and 390 K). Therefore, the corner cube is enclosed in an insulated container open at one end; a narrow-bandpass solar filter is used to reduce the solar energy that enters the open end during the lunar day, achieving a nearly uniform temperature inside the container. Also, the materials and adhesive techniques that will be used for this corner-cube reflector must have appropriate thermal and mechanical characteristics (e.g., silica or beryllium for the cube and aluminum for the casing) to further reduce the impact of the thermal environment on the instrument's performance. The instrument would consist of a single, open corner cube protected by a separate solar filter, and mounted in a cylindrical or spherical case. A major goal in the design of a new lunar ranging system is a measurement accuracy improvement to better than 1 mm by reducing the pulse spread due to orientation. While achieving this goal, it was desired to keep the intensity of the return beam at least as bright as the Apollo 100-corner-cube arrays. These goals are met in this design by increasing the optical aperture of a single corner cube to approximately 170 mm outer diameter. This use of an "open" corner cube allows the selection of corner cube materials to be based primarily on thermal considerations, with no requirements on optical transparency. Such a corner cube also allows for easier pointing requirements

  7. Flight phasemeter on the Laser Ranging Interferometer on the GRACE Follow-On mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, B.; de Vine, G.; Dickson, J.; Dubovitsky, S.; Liu, J.; Klipstein, W.; McKenzie, K.; Spero, R.; Sutton, A.; Ware, B.; Woodruff, C.

    2017-05-01

    As the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer, the Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI) on the GRACE Follow-On Mission will demonstrate interferometry technology relevant to the LISA mission. This paper focuses on the completed LRI Laser Ranging Processor (LRP), which includes heterodyne signal phase tracking at μ {{cycle/}}\\sqrt{{{Hz}}} precision, differential wavefront sensing, offset frequency phase locking and Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization. The LRI design has characteristics that are similar to those for LISA: 1064 nm NPRO laser source, science bandwidth in the mHz range, MHz-range intermediate frequency and Doppler shift, detected optical power of tens of picoWatts. Laser frequency stabilization has been demonstrated at a level below 30{{Hz/}}\\sqrt{{{Hz}}}, better than the LISA requirement of 300{{Hz/}}\\sqrt{{{Hz}}}. The LRP has completed all performance testing and environmental qualification and has been delivered to the GRACE Follow-On spacecraft. The LRI is poised to test the LISA techniques of tone-assisted time delay interferometry and arm-locking. GRACE Follow-On launches in 2017.

  8. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  9. ICESAT Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Carabajal, C. C.; Harding, D. H.; Bufton, J. L.; Williams, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfully placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which has a primary measurement of short-pulse laser- ranging to the Earth s surface at 1064nm wavelength at a rate of 40 pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS s surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth s surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data. Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. ICESat laser altimeter data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers in order to calibrate pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and current calibration results are discussed along with future efforts.

  10. Fusing Range Measurements from Ultrasonic Beacons and a Laser Range Finder for Localization of a Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nak Yong; Kuc, Tae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization. PMID:25970259

  11. A View of the Lunar Interior Through Lunar Laser Range Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Yoder, C. F.; Dickey, J. O.

    1999-01-01

    Laser ranges between observatories on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon started in 1969 and continue to the present. Recent range accuracies are 2 cm while earliest ranges are an C, order of magnitude less certain. Four retroreflectors are ranged: three located at the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 sites and one on the Lunakhod 2 rover. Accurate analysis of the range data determines a number of lunar science parameters. The lunar interior variables include a fluid core parameter. The Lunar Laser Ranging effort is reviewed elsewhere. Many parameters are detected through their influence on rotation. Also detected are solid-body tides and accurate selenocentric reflector locations. Determined through the rotation are moment-of-inertia differences, gravitational harmonics, potential Love number, and dissipation effects due to tides and molten core. The rotation of the Moon is not at its minimum energy state; some recently active process has caused free librations. The moment differences contributed to the recent improvement of the Moon's moment of inertia from the Lunar Prospector gravity field. The Love numbers provide bulk elastic properties. Future possibilities for measurement include oblateness of the core-mantle boundary and core moment. A study of dissipation signatures in the rotation determines tidal Q vs. frequency and concludes that the Moon has a molten core. At 1 month the tidal Q is 37 and at 1 yr it is 60. The core radius is < or = 352 km for Fe and < or = 374 km for the Fe-FeS eutectic. The core detection exceeds 3x its uncertainty. The spin of the core is not aligned with the spin of the mantle and torque arises from the velocity difference at the boundary. Yoder's turbulent boundary layer theory is used to compute the radii. The present heat generation from tides and core interaction is minor compared to radiogenic heating. The heating for ancient times is more interesting. Peale and Cassen investigated lunar tidal heating while the lunar orbit

  12. A View of the Lunar Interior Through Lunar Laser Range Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Yoder, C. F.; Dickey, J. O.

    1999-01-01

    Laser ranges between observatories on the Earth and retroreflectors on the Moon started in 1969 and continue to the present. Recent range accuracies are 2 cm while earliest ranges are an C, order of magnitude less certain. Four retroreflectors are ranged: three located at the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 sites and one on the Lunakhod 2 rover. Accurate analysis of the range data determines a number of lunar science parameters. The lunar interior variables include a fluid core parameter. The Lunar Laser Ranging effort is reviewed elsewhere. Many parameters are detected through their influence on rotation. Also detected are solid-body tides and accurate selenocentric reflector locations. Determined through the rotation are moment-of-inertia differences, gravitational harmonics, potential Love number, and dissipation effects due to tides and molten core. The rotation of the Moon is not at its minimum energy state; some recently active process has caused free librations. The moment differences contributed to the recent improvement of the Moon's moment of inertia from the Lunar Prospector gravity field. The Love numbers provide bulk elastic properties. Future possibilities for measurement include oblateness of the core-mantle boundary and core moment. A study of dissipation signatures in the rotation determines tidal Q vs. frequency and concludes that the Moon has a molten core. At 1 month the tidal Q is 37 and at 1 yr it is 60. The core radius is < or = 352 km for Fe and < or = 374 km for the Fe-FeS eutectic. The core detection exceeds 3x its uncertainty. The spin of the core is not aligned with the spin of the mantle and torque arises from the velocity difference at the boundary. Yoder's turbulent boundary layer theory is used to compute the radii. The present heat generation from tides and core interaction is minor compared to radiogenic heating. The heating for ancient times is more interesting. Peale and Cassen investigated lunar tidal heating while the lunar orbit

  13. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  14. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Tomohiro Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  15. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  16. Laser Ranging for Effective and Accurate Tracking of Space Debris in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Haag, Herve; Hennegrave, Laurent; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Samain, Etienne

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary design options for an operational laser ranging system adapted to the measurement of the distance of space debris. Thorough analysis of the operational parameters is provided with identification of performance drivers and assessment of enabling design options. Results from performance simulation demonstrate how the range measurement enables improvement of the orbit determination when combined with astrometry. Besides, experimental results on rocket-stage class debris in LEO were obtained by Astrium beginning of 2012, in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), by operating an experimental laser ranging system supported by the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope.

  17. The optical detection in turbid water by range-gated imaging system with HPRF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Liang-hong; Han, Hong-wei; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2015-10-01

    In the field of underwater sensing, the rang-gated imaging based on the principle of "time slice" is an effective way to suppress backscatter and improve operating distance. In this paper, a kind of underwater range-gated imaging system which selects the LD end-pumped solid laser as the illuminator is described. Comparing to the traditional ones using the lamp-pumped Nd: YAG laser, the prime characteristics of the new designed underwater range-gated imaging system lie in the dramatic dropping of single pulse energy and the dramatic increasing of pulse repetition frequency, and the resultant change of echo receiving pattern throughout the image formation. The advantage and disadvantage of the change is first analysed in this paper, and then the underwater range-gated imaging system with high pulse repetition frequency (HPRF) laser is introduced. Finally, the experiment results in the indoor tank and the corresponding analysis is provided.

  18. Cassidy uses laser range finder in the aft FD during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-28

    S127-E-011166 (28 July 2009) --- Astronaut Christopher Cassidy, STS-127 mission specialist, uses a handheld laser ranging device -- designed to measure the range between two spacecraft -- through one of the overhead windows on the aft flight deck of Space Shuttle Endeavour after undocking from the International Space Station.

  19. Compensation for the distortion in satellite laser range predictions due to varying pulse travel times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paunonen, Matti

    1993-01-01

    A method for compensating for the effect of the varying travel time of a transmitted laser pulse to a satellite is described. The 'observed minus predicted' range differences then appear to be linear, which makes data screening or use in range gating more effective.

  20. High-power cw laser bars of the 750 - 790-nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyareva, N S; Kondakov, S A; Mikayelyan, G T; Gorlachuk, P V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Yarotskaya, I V

    2013-06-30

    We have developed the effective design of semiconductor heterostructures, which allow one to fabricate cw laser diodes emitting in the 750 - 790-nm spectral range. The optimal conditions for fabrication of GaAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs heterostructures by MOCVD have been determined. It is shown that the use of quantum wells with a precisely defined quantity mismatch reduces the threshold current density and increases the external differential efficiency. The results of studies of characteristics of diode laser bars fabricated from these heterostructures are presented. (lasers)

  1. Laser ranging with the MéO telescope to improve orbital accuracy of space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennegrave, L.; Pyanet, M.; Haag, H.; Blanchet, G.; Esmiller, B.; Vial, S.; Samain, E.; Paris, J.; Albanese, D.

    2013-05-01

    Improving orbital accuracy of space debris is one of the major prerequisite to performing reliable collision prediction in low earth orbit. The objective is to avoid false alarms and useless maneuvers for operational satellites. This paper shows how laser ranging on debris can improve the accuracy of orbit determination. In March 2012 a joint OCA-Astrium team had the first laser echoes from space debris using the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), upgraded with a nanosecond pulsed laser. The experiment was conducted in full compliance with the procedures dictated by the French Civil Aviation Authorities. To perform laser ranging measurement on space debris, the laser link budget needed to be improved. Related technical developments were supported by implementation of a 2J pulsed laser purchased by ASTRIUM and an adapted photo detection. To achieve acquisition of the target from low accuracy orbital data such as Two Lines Elements, a 2.3-degree field of view telescope was coupled to the original MéO telescope 3-arcmin narrow field of view. The wide field of view telescope aimed at pointing, adjusting and acquiring images of the space debris for astrometry measurement. The achieved set-up allowed performing laser ranging and angular measurements in parallel, on several rocket stages from past launches. After a brief description of the set-up, development issues and campaigns, the paper discusses added-value of laser ranging measurement when combined to angular measurement for accurate orbit determination. Comparison between different sets of experimental results as well as simulation results is given.

  2. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at "Luch" laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility "Luch" with laser intensity 1014 W/cm2 is used to compress copper up to ˜8 Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance-matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  3. Saturated semiconductor optical amplifier phase modulation for long range laser radar applications.

    PubMed

    Carns, Jennifer L; Duncan, Bradley D; Dierking, Matthew P

    2012-08-20

    We investigate the use of a semiconductor optical amplifier operated in the saturation regime as a phase modulator for long range laser radar applications. The nature of the phase and amplitude modulation resulting from a high peak power Gaussian pulse, and the impact this has on the ideal pulse response of a laser radar system, is explored. We also present results of a proof-of-concept laboratory demonstration using phase-modulated pulses to interrogate a stationary target.

  4. Experiences from long range passive and active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Gustafsson, David; Steinvall, Ove; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We present algorithm evaluations for ATR of small sea vessels. The targets are at km distance from the sensors, which means that the algorithms have to deal with images affected by turbulence and mirage phenomena. We evaluate previously developed algorithms for registration of 3D-generating laser radar data. The evaluations indicate that some robustness to turbulence and mirage induced uncertainties can be handled by our probabilistic-based registration method. We also assess methods for target classification and target recognition on these new 3D data. An algorithm for detecting moving vessels in infrared image sequences is presented; it is based on optical flow estimation. Detection of moving target with an unknown spectral signature in a maritime environment is a challenging problem due to camera motion, background clutter, turbulence and the presence of mirage. First, the optical flow caused by the camera motion is eliminated by estimating the global flow in the image. Second, connected regions containing significant motions that differ from camera motion is extracted. It is assumed that motion caused by a moving vessel is more temporally stable than motion caused by mirage or turbulence. Furthermore, it is assumed that the motion caused by the vessel is more homogenous with respect to both magnitude and orientation, than motion caused by mirage and turbulence. Sufficiently large connected regions with a flow of acceptable magnitude and orientation are considered target regions. The method is evaluated on newly collected sequences of SWIR and MWIR images, with varying targets, target ranges and background clutter. Finally we discuss a concept for combining passive and active imaging in an ATR process. The main steps are passive imaging for target detection, active imaging for target/background segmentation and a fusion of passive and active imaging for target recognition.

  5. A novel micro-pulse laser active imaging method based on photon counting scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chenghao; Yin, Wenye; Miao, Zhuang; He, Wei-ji; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-Hua

    2013-12-01

    We present the use and characterization of a Single Photon Detector (SPD) for active micro-pulse laser imaging. Laser active imaging technology obtains the two dimensional (2D) intensity information of objects by using the active continuous or pulsed laser illumination and an image sensor array. The Maximum range of laser active imaging is limited by the performance of image sensor, whose noise can seriously lower the obtainable SNR and degrade the quality of the reconstructed image. This paper presents a photon counting scheme based micro-pulse laser active imaging method that utilizes the SPD as the receiver and the micro-pulsed laser as the source. In this case, SPD was used to detect the laser echo. By using repeated multi-cycle detection strategies, every detected photon event is treated as an independent measurement of laser echo and thus the intensity information of objects is acquired with the response possibility estimation of laser echo. We chose a Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APD) based approach, extending the methods of micro-pulse laser active imaging. In our implement, the number of TTL pulses output from the GM-APD within the duration of the pixel dwell time was recorder by a LabView pre-programmed instrument and then the laser echo response possibility of GM-APD was established by Full Waveform Analysis algorithm. This approach combined remote imaging with single photon sensitivity and laser active imaging.

  6. Time biases in laser ranging observations: A concerning issue of Space Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, Pierre; Belli, A.; Lemoine, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Time transfer by Laser Ranging (LR) recently demonstrated a remarkable stability (a few ps over ∼1000 s) and accuracy (<1 ns) in synchronizing both space and ground clocks over distances from a few thousands to tens of thousands kilometers. Given its potential role in navigation, fundamental physics and metrology, it is crucial that synergy between laser ranging and Time&Frequency (T/F) technologies improves to meet the present and future space geodesy requirements. In this article, we examine the behavior of T/F systems that are used in LR tracking stations of the international laser ranging service. The approach we investigate is to compute time synchronization between clocks used at LR stations using accurate data of the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment onboard the satellite Jason-2 (Samain et al., 2014). Systematic time biases are estimated against the UTC time scale for a set of 22 observing stations in 2013, in the range of zero to a few μ s. Our results suggest that the ILRS network suffers from accuracy issues, due to time biases in the laser ranging observations. We discuss how these systematic effects impact the precise orbit determination of LAGEOS geodetic satellites over a 1-year analysis, and additionally give a measure of the local effect into station coordinates, regarding in particular the effect in the east-west component that is of 2-6 mm for a typical systematic time bias of one μ s.

  7. ACTIVE MEDIA. LASERS: Diode-array-pumped repetitively pulsed neodymium phosphate glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, A. P.; Drakin, A. E.; Miftakhutdinov, D. R.; Mikaelyan, G. T.; Starodub, A. N.

    2008-09-01

    Repetitively pulsed generation (200 μs, 40 Hz) was obtained in a neodymium phosphate glass laser pumped by a 870-nm diode array. The maximum slope lasing efficiency with respect to the optical pump energy equal to 13% is restricted by the factor (≈0.23) of active-medium filling by the mode field. By adjusting the laser cavity, the single-transverse mode regime, in particular, the generation of the TEM00 mode is obtained in the entire range of pump energies.

  8. A stabilized laser continuously tunable over a range of 1.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, B. L.; Xiong, W.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of 133Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra. Furthermore, the tuning range of the laser can be doubled compared to the coverage of common SAS by fixing the frequency of the pumping laser. The best stability of the locked laser induced by the EO-AM is 1.27 × 10-11 over an integrating time of 125 s. This method may be applied for more precise and flexible manipulation of atoms and molecules.

  9. A stabilized laser continuously tunable over a range of 1.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Fan, B L; Xiong, W; Wang, S G; Wang, L J

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of (133)Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra. Furthermore, the tuning range of the laser can be doubled compared to the coverage of common SAS by fixing the frequency of the pumping laser. The best stability of the locked laser induced by the EO-AM is 1.27 × 10(-11) over an integrating time of 125 s. This method may be applied for more precise and flexible manipulation of atoms and molecules.

  10. Characterisation of small targets in a maritime environment by means of laser range profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Benoist, Koen

    2011-06-01

    Potential asymmetric threats at short range in complex environments need to be identified quickly during coastal operations. Laser range profiling is a technology that has the potential to shorten the OODA loop (Orient, Observe, Detect, Act) by performing automatic characterisation of targets at large distance. The advantages of non-cooperative target recognition with range profiles are: (a) a relatively short time on target is required, (b) the detection range is longer than in the case of passive observation technologies such as IRST, and (c) characterisation of range profiles is possible at any aspect angle. However, the shape of a range profile depends strongly on aspect angle. This means that a large data set is necessary of all expected targets with reference profiles on a very dense aspect angle grid. Analysis of laser range profiles can be done by comparing the measured profile with a database of laser range profiles obtained from 3D models of possible targets. An alternative is the use of a profile database from one or several measurement campaigns. A prerequisite for this is the availability of enough measured profiles of the appropriate targets, for many aspect angles. Comparison of measured laser range profiles with a reference database can be performed using, e.g., formal statistical correlation techniques or histogram dissimilarity techniques. In this work, a field trial has been conducted to validate the concept of identification by using a laser range profiling system with a high bandwidth receiver and short laser pulses. The field trial aimed at characterization of sea-surface targets in a coastal/harbour environment. The targets ranged from pleasure boats like sailing boats, jet skis, and speed boats to professional vessels like barges, cabin boats, and military vessels, all ranging from 3 to 30 meters in length. We focus on (a) the use of a reference database generated via 3D target models, and (b) the use of a reference database of measured

  11. Overview of the laser activities at Rheinmetall Waffe Munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, Klaus; Riesbeck, Thomas; Schünemann, B.; Graf, A.; Jung, Markus; Schreiber, Th.; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, A.

    2012-11-01

    The paper will give an overview over the laser weapon activities at RWM (Rheinmetall Waffe Munition) over the last years. Starting from the actual scenarios for laser weapon applications as: CRAM (Counter Rocket Artillery Mortar), Air Defence and UXO (unexploded ordnance) clearing. The basic requirements of a future laser weapon as beam diameter, beam quality, tracking capability, adaptive optics were deduced. For the UXO scenario a mobile directed energy laser demonstrator for humanitarian mine and UXO clearing based on fiber lasers is presented. Based on the parameters the system concept including the cooling system, power supply and the integration into the armoured vehicle TM 170 are explained. The contribution show first experiments of UXO and IED clearing. Different technical approaches to achieve laser power in the 100 kW regime combined with very good beam quality are discussed to fulfil the requirements of the CRAM and Air Defence scenario. Spectral coupling and the beam superimposing both are performed by Rheinmetall Waffe Munition. At the spectral coupling the basic technology parameters for the fiber laser and the dielectric grating as the latest results were put into context with the power levels reached at other groups. For the beam super imposing technology the basic experiments regarding the tracking capability and compensation of the atmosphere on the test range at Unterlüß will be explained. A generic 10 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator based on 2 Laser Weapon Modules (LWM) from RWM each 5 kW fiber Laser with beam forming and tracking integrate by the team of RWM and RAD (Rheinmetall Air Defense) into a Ground based Air Defend system consisting of Skyguard and Millenium turret are presented. The flight path of the UAV within the valley of the life firing range at Ochsenboden Switzerland is shown. Selected results of the successful tests against UAV's are presented. It shows the capability of the generic 10 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator to track and

  12. Identification and calibration of one-way delays in satellite laser ranging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Blazej, Josef; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan

    2017-05-01

    We are reporting on identification and calibration of one-way delays in satellite laser ranging systems. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is a standard technique to measure the distance of satellites as a function of time with millimeter precision and a few millimeters accuracy. For one-way laser ranging, laser time transfer ground to space and for bi- and multi-static laser ranging to space objects identification and measurement of system delays related separately to transmitting and receiving parts of the system are needed. The epochs of transmission and reception of optical signals have to be referred to the coordinated time scale with the accuracy reaching one nanosecond level or better for one-way ranging and space debris multi-static ranging. For transponder ranging and laser time transfer an even higher accuracy of 50 ps or better is needed. These accuracy requirements are by several orders of magnitude higher in comparison to standard SLR applications. A new procedure of calibration of one-way delays related to the SLR systems has been developed and tested. The necessary hardware components needed for calibration measurements were designed and developed in a form of a Calibration Device. It consists of a photon counting detector, an epoch timing device and a dedicated signal cable. The signal propagation delays of these components were determined with an accuracy of better than 20 ps. The signal propagation delay stability of the Calibration Device is on a level of units of picoseconds over days of operation. The Calibration Device and calibration procedure were tested in real measurements at the SLR site in Graz, Austria. The time needed to complete a calibration of one-way delays of the SLR system is less than two days. The one-way system delays were determined with the accuracy better than 50 ps. The measurement principle, Calibration Device and the first results are presented.

  13. Optimizing the performance of modulated pulse laser systems for imaging and ranging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, L.; Lee, R.; Illig, D.

    2017-05-01

    Blue-green laser systems are being developed for optical imaging and ranging in the underwater environment. The imaging application requires high range resolution to distinguish between multiple targets in the scene or between multiple target features, while the ranging application benefits from measurements with high range accuracy. The group at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) in Patuxent River, MD has been investigating the merging of wideband radar modulation schemes with a pulsed laser system for underwater imaging and ranging applications. For the imaging application, the narrow peak produced by pulse compression at the receiver offers enhanced range resolution relative to traditional short pulse approaches. For ranging, the selection of modulation frequency bands approaching 1GHz provides backscatter and forward scatter suppression and enhanced range accuracy. Both passband and baseband digital processing have been applied to data collected in laboratory water tank experiments. The results have shown that the choice of processing scheme has a significant impact on optimizing the performance of modulated pulse laser systems for either imaging or ranging applications. These different processing schemes will be discussed, and results showing the effect of the processing schemes for imaging and ranging will be presented.

  14. SLR2000: a microlaser-based single photoelectron satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan F.

    1998-01-01

    SLR2000 is an autonomous and eyesafe satellite laser ranging (SLR) station with an expected single shot range precision of about one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) precision better than 3 mm. The system wil provide continuous 24 hour tracking coverage for a constellation of over twenty artificial satellites. Replication costs are expected to be roughly an order of magnitude less than current operational systems, and the system will be about 75% less expensive to operate and maintain relative to manned systems. Computer simulations have predicted a daylight tracking capability to GPS and lower satellites with telescope apertures of 40 cm and have demonstrated the ability of our current autotracking algorithm to extract mean signal strengths below .001 photoelectrons per pulse from daytime background noise. The dominant cost driver in present SLR systems is the onsite and central infrastructure manpower required to operate the system, to service and maintain the complex subsystems, and to ensure that the transmitted laser beam is not a hazard to onsite personnel or to overflying aircraft. To keep development, fabrication, and maintenance costs at a minimum, we adopted the following design philosophies: (1) use off the shelf commercial components wherever possible; this allows rapid component replacement and "outsourcing" of engineering support; (2) use smaller telescopes (less than 50 cm) since this constrains the cost, size, and weight of the telescope and tracking mount; and (3) for low maintenance and failsafe reliability, choose simple versus complex technical approaches and, where possible, use passive techniques and components rather than active ones. Adherence to these philosophies has led to the SLR2000 design described here.

  15. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  16. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Wang, YanLan; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Wu, ChengYin; Gong, QiHuang; He, XianTu; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends. PMID:27256904

  17. A modulated pulse laser for underwater detection, ranging, imaging, and communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2012-06-01

    A new, modulated-pulse, technique is currently being investigated for underwater laser detection, ranging, imag- ing, and communications. This technique represents a unique marriage of pulsed and intensity modulated sources. For detection, ranging, and imaging, the source can be congured to transmit a variety of intensity modulated waveforms, from single-tone to pseudorandom code. The utility of such waveforms in turbid underwater envi- ronments in the presence of backscatter is investigated in this work. The modulated pulse laser may also nd utility in underwater laser communication links. In addition to exibility in modulation format additional variable parameters, such as macro-pulse width and macro-pulse repetition rate, provide a link designer with additional methods of optimizing links based on the bandwidth, power, range, etc. needed for the application. Initial laboratory experiments in simulated ocean waters are presented.

  18. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongju; Yu, Shaogang; Xu, Songpo; Wang, Yanlan; Sun, Renping; Lai, Xuanyang; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; He, Xiantu; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-01

    In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.

  19. An active solid state ring laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of an active, solid state ring laser gyroscope were investigated. Two laser diode pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPRO), forced to lase in opposite directions, formed the NPRO-Gyro. It was unique in being an active ring laser gyroscope with a homogeneously broadened gain medium. This work examined sources of technical and fundamental noise. Associated calculations accounted for aspects of the NPRO-Gyro performance, suggested design improvements, and outlined limitations. The work brought out the need to stabilize the NPRO environment in order to achieve performance goals. Two Nd:YAG NPROs were mounted within an environment short term stabilized to microdegrees Celsius. The Allan variance of the NPRO-Gyro beat note was 500 Hz for a one second time delay. Unequal treatment of the NPROs appeared as noise on the beat frequency, therefore reducing its rotation sensitivity. The sensitivity to rotation was limited by technical noise sources.

  20. Preliminary results from the portable standard satellite laser ranging intercomparison with MOBLAS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selden, Michael; Varghese, Thomas K.; Heinick, Michael; Oldham, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Conventional Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) instrumentation has been configured and successfully used to provide high-accuracy laboratory measurements on the LAGEOS-2 and TOPEX cube-corner arrays. The instrumentation, referred to as the Portable Standard, has also been used for field measurements of satellite ranges in tandem with MOBLAS-7. Preliminary results of the SLR measurements suggest that improved range accuracy can be achieved using this system. Results are discussed.

  1. Experimental demonstration of weak-light laser ranging and data communication for LISA.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Juan José; García, Antonio F; Barke, Simon; Peinado, Antonio M; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán; Bykov, Iouri; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2011-08-15

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors with an unequal and time-varying arm length configuration like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna rely on time-delay interferometry (TDI) for laser frequency noise subtraction. However, the TDI algorithm requires a laser ranging scheme with meter accuracy over a five million kilometer arm length. At the end of each arm only about 100 pW of light power will be detected for gravitational wave measurements and only 1% of this power can be used for laser ranging in order to avoid degradation in the phase stability of the science measurements. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of such a ranging scheme at 1 pW power levels using a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS/SS) modulation. This type of modulation also enables optical communication by encoding data with ranging signals and provides significant noise reduction against spurious interfering signals for bidirectional ranging. Experimental results show ranging measurements of 42 cm at 3 Hz and the viability of highly reliable data transfer at several kilobits per second.

  2. Comparison of flash and accumulation mode in range-gated active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, Frank; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    Range-gated active imaging has significantly been improved in the recent past. Due to the availability of high power laser diodes around 800-860 nm, it is now possible to find off-the-shelf systems working with very sensitive light intensifier and laser diodes. On the other hand, eye-safe systems working around 1.5 μm suffer from a lack of intensified sensor in the SWIR band. The only existing intensified sensors require the use of high power pulsed laser sources for the illumination. Consequently, the type of source (diode or solid-state laser) gives fundamental differences between the two types of system. The first technique which uses laser diodes, μchip or fiber lasers, is called "accumulation" imaging. These sources are characterized by a low-pulse power and high repetition rate, mostly around a few tens of kHz. Here, each image is the result of the accumulation of hundred of pulses during the frame time. The second technique which uses a solid-state laser illumination is called "flash" imaging. Here, each image is the result of a unique high power illumination of the scene at low repetition rate, mostly around the video rate. In this paper, we investigate the theoretical and practical differences between these two imaging modes and its influence on image quality, on sensitivity to day light or stray light, on fog penetration capacity, on its sensitivity to turbulences and on laser safety (NOHD). For comparative experimental purposes, we've built a range-gated active imaging system which allows the investigation of both methods. We've carried out precise comparative studies between the two acquisition methods.

  3. High power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkkälä, Jarkko; Boucart, Julien; Krejci, Martin; Crum, Trevor; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of the latest generation of high power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range suitable for industrial applications such as plastics welding and medical applications including acne treatment, skin rejuvenation and surgery. The paper presents the newest chip generation developed at II-VI Laser Enterprise, increasing the output power and the power conversion efficiency while retaining the reliability of the initial design. At an emission wavelength around 1440 nm we applied the improved design to a variety of assemblies exhibiting maximum power values as high as 7 W for broad-area single emitters. For 1 cm wide bars on conductive coolers and for bars on active micro channel coolers we have obtained 50 W and 72 W in continuous wave (cw) operation respectively. The maximum power measured for a 1 cm bar operated with 50 μs pulse width and 0.01% duty cycle was 184 W, demonstrating the potential of the chip design for optimized cooling. Power conversion efficiency values as high as 50% for a single emitter device and over 40% for mounted bars have been demonstrated, reducing the required power budget to operate the devices. Both active and conductive bar assembly configurations show polarization purity greater than 98%. Life testing has been conducted at 95 A, 50% duty cycle and 0.5 Hz hard pulsed operation for bars which were soldered to conductive copper CS mounts using our hard solder technology. The results after 5500 h, or 10 million "on-off" cycles show stable operation.

  4. Unique criterion to estimate the performances of some laser diode range finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, Bernard A.; Bazin, Gaelle; Durieu, Cecile

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general method to estimate the intrinsic performances of some laser range finders based on flight time measurement. Classically this flight time can be measured directly, or after a conversion into a phase shift, or into a beat frequency. We prose here a criterion based on signal processing notions, as matched filtering to get the best detection, and ambiguity function to estimate the quality of the detection. The concept of characteristic length is introduced and applied to the different kind of laser range finders, which suggest a new possibility for flight time measurement.

  5. Stable Gain-Switched Thulium Fiber Laser With 140-nm Tuning Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengqiu; Meng, Yafei; Kelleher, Edmund; Guo, Guoxiang; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Zhu, Shining

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a gain-switched thulium fiber laser that can be continuously tuned over 140 nm, while maintaining stable nanosecond single-pulse operation. To the best of our knowledge, this system represents the broadest tuning range for a gain-switched fiber laser. The system simplicity and wideband wavelength tunability combined with the ability to control the temporal characteristics of the gain-switched pulses mean this is a versatile source highly suited to a wide range of applications in the eye-safe region of the infrared, including spectroscopy, sensing and material processing, as well as being a practical seed source for pumping nonlinear processes.

  6. Real-time tracking of objects for space applications using a laser range scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, F.; Couvillon, R. A.; Rioux, M.; Maclean, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    Real-time tracking of multiple targets and three dimensional object features was demonstrated using a laser range scanner. The prototype was immune to ambient illumination and sun interference. Tracking error feedback was simultaneously obtained from individual targets, global predicted target position, and the human operator. A more complete study of calibration parameters and temperature variations on the scanner is needed to determine the exact performance of the sensor. Lissajous patterns used in three-dimensional real-time tracking prove helpful given their high resolution. The photogrammetry-based Advanced Space Vision System (ASVS) is discussed in combination with the laser range scanner.

  7. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, J.; Sun, X.

    2011-12-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be >~20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (<~0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels. An assessment of the technique, discussions of measurement precision and error sources as well as preliminary data will be presented.

  8. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

  9. Optofluidic laser for dual-mode sensitive biomolecular detection with a large dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang; Oo, Maung Kyaw Khaing; Reddy, Karthik; Chen, Qiushu; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2014-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a powerful method for biomolecular analysis. The traditional ELISA employing light intensity as the sensing signal often encounters large background arising from non-specific bindings, material autofluorescence and leakage of excitation light, which deteriorates its detection limit and dynamic range. Here we develop the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, where ELISA occurs inside a laser cavity. The laser onset time is used as the sensing signal, which is inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration and hence the analyte concentration inside the cavity. We first elucidate the principle of the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, and then characterize the optofluidic laser performance. Finally, we present the dual-mode detection of interleukin-6 using commercial ELISA kits, where the sensing signals are simultaneously obtained by the traditional and the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, showing a detection limit of 1 fg ml-1 (38 aM) and a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude.

  10. 45 CFR 1614.3 - Range of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range of activities. 1614.3 Section 1614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIVATE ATTORNEY INVOLVEMENT § 1614.3 Range of activities. (a) Activities undertaken by the recipient to meet the...

  11. 45 CFR 1614.3 - Range of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range of activities. 1614.3 Section 1614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIVATE ATTORNEY INVOLVEMENT § 1614.3 Range of activities. (a) Activities undertaken by the recipient to meet the...

  12. Injection seeded, diode pumped regenerative ring Nd:YAG amplifier for spaceborne laser ranging technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Degnan, John J.; Krebs, Danny J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1992-01-01

    A small, all solid state, regenerative ring amplifier designed as a prototype for space application is discussed. Novel features include dual side pumping of the Nd:YAG crystal and a triangular ring cavity design which minimizes the number of optical components and losses. The amplifier is relatively small (3 ns round trip time) even though standard optical elements are employed. The ring regeneratively amplifies a 100 ps single pulse by approximately 10(exp 5) at a repetition rate of 10 to 100 Hz. The amplifier is designed to be injection seeded with a pulsed, 100 ps laser diode at 1.06 microns, but another Nd:YAG laser system supplying higher pulse energies was employed for laboratory experiment. This system is a prototype laser oscillator for the Geoscience Laser Ranging System (GLRS) platform. Results on measurements of beam quality, astigmatism, and gain are given.

  13. A demonstration of arm-locking for LISA using the GRACE-FO Laser Ranging Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Ira; McKenzie, Kirk; Sutton, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The mitigation of laser frequency noise is a key challenge for the design of space-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and its derivatives. Arm locking is novel technique of stabilizing the laser frequency using the LISA arms that has been studied through simulations and in the laboratory. The Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) on the upcoming GRACE-FO geodesy mission provides an opportunity to perform an on-orbit demonstration of arm-locking in a configuration that is representative of LISA in many aspects. In this talk, I will describe a potential arm-locking experiment for GRACE-FO and present preliminary results from time-domain simulations being used to refine the proposed experiment design.

  14. Graphene actively Q-switched lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Diao; Xue, Hui; Qi, Mei; Wang, Yadong; Aksimsek, Sinan; Chekurov, Nikolai; Kim, Wonjae; Li, Changfeng; Riikonen, Juha; Ye, Fangwei; Dai, Qing; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Hasan, Tawfique; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2017-06-01

    Graphene electro-optic modulators (GEOMs) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional material-based modulators mainly due to their broadband and ultrafast performance. These GEOMs with combined advantages of small footprint and low energy consumption can potentially enable various high-performance applications that are not possible using conventional approaches. Here, we report the first actively Q-switched lasers with a GEOM. In contrast to the previously reported lasers that are passively modulated by two-dimensional layered material-based saturable absorbers, our actively modulated laser concept represents significant advantages, such as electrically tunable output parameters (e.g. output repetition rate, pulse duration and pulse energy) and electro-optical synchronization. Using a single GEOM, we generate broadband Q-switched pulses at  ∼1.55 and 2 μm with output energies of up to 123 nJ. This indicates the broadband pulse generation capability of the graphene-based active devices, superior to widely used bulk material-based active modulation approaches. Our results demonstrate a simple and viable design towards broadband, high-repetition-rate, electrically modulated ultrafast lasers for various applications, such as telecommunications and spectroscopy.

  15. Satellite Laser Ranging and the Modelling of Non-gravitational Perturbations: the LARASE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    -gravitational forces modelling. This is also particularly important for the role played by these satellites in general relativity theory tests in the field of the Earth, wherever the tiny predictions of Einstein’s geometrodynamics need a quite reliable and robust POD. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth and, as highlighted above, a key role to reach such a goal is played by high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of the satellites. Therefore, in the context of the LARASE collaboration, we started an activity dedicated to revisit, extend and improve current models for the non-gravitational perturbations in the case of LAGEOS-type satellites. We discuss the spin modelling problem and its intimate relationship with the thermal thrust forces; also the atmospheric drag impact on the orbit will be discussed, especially in the case of LARES due to its much lower altitude with respect to that of the two LAGEOS. Finally, we present our recent results on the data analysis of the orbit of the two LAGEOS satellites and on that of LARES.

  16. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  17. Maximum detection range limitation of pulse laser radar with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Benlian; Xu, Huigang; Chen, Jingbo; Fu, Yadan

    2015-05-01

    When designing and evaluating the performance of laser radar system, maximum detection range achievable is an essential parameter. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model of maximum detection range for simulating the Geiger-mode laser radar's ranging performance. Based on the laser radar equation and the requirement of the minimum acceptable detection probability, and assuming the primary electrons triggered by the echo photons obey Poisson statistics, the maximum range theoretical model is established. By using the system design parameters, the influence of five main factors, namely emitted pulse energy, noise, echo position, atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and target reflectivity on the maximum detection range are investigated. The results show that stronger emitted pulse energy, lower noise level, more front echo position in the range gate, higher atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and higher target reflectivity can result in greater maximum detection range. It is also shown that it's important to select the minimum acceptable detection probability, which is equivalent to the system signal-to-noise ratio for producing greater maximum detection range and lower false-alarm probability.

  18. Long-wavelength-range laser diode using GaInNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondow, Masahiko; Nakatsuka, Shin'ichi; Kitatani, Takeshi; Yazawa, Yoshiaki; Okai, Makoto O.

    1997-05-01

    We propose a novel material: GaInNAs. It can be formed on a GaAs substrate, and has a bandgap energy suitable for long- wavelength-range laser diodes. The band lineup is ideal for preventing electron overflow. Therefore, applying GaInNAs to long-wavelength-range laser diodes is expected to result in excellent high-temperature performance. We have succeeded in demonstrating continuous-wave operation of GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum well laser diodes at room temperature. The threshold current density was about 1.4 kA/cm2. The lasing wavelength was about 1.2 micrometers . We have measured some characteristic parameters of the GaInNAs laser diode under pulsed operation. A high characteristic temperature (T0) of 127 K and a small wavelength shift per ambient temperature change of 0.48 nm/ degree(s)C were obtained. The experimental results indicate the applicability of GaInNAs to long-wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high- temperature performance.

  19. French transportable laser ranging station: scientific objectives, technical features, and performance.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J; Pierron, F; Kasser, M; Exertier, P; Bonnefond, P; Barlier, F O; Haase, J

    2000-01-20

    The French Transportable Laser Ranging Station (FTLRS) is a highly mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) system unit that weighs 300 kg and is housed in eight containers. This telemetry laser station is dedicated to the tracking of geodetic satellites equipped with retroreflectors. There are fascinating uses in the geosciences for such a system: in tectonics, oceanography, terrestrial reference frames, and precise positioning. The idea is to use a very small 13-cm-diameter telescope installed on a motorized mount and derived from a geodetic motorized theodolite of high precision. The laser is also compact, and the use of an avalanche photodiode makes detection possible at a single photoelectron level. On-site installation of this new SLR system is fast, and the system's routine operation is quite automated. It started its operational phase in late 1996. At present, it can track satellites at altitudes of as much as 3000 km and is designed to range to the Laser Geodynamic Earth Orientation Satellite (LAGEOS) at 6000 km in a further step. The standard error of individual measurements during the first observation campaign in Corsica is estimated to be of the order of 2-3 cm. Since then, significant improvements have been implemented. A technical description of the FTLRS is given, and the main results of the Corsica campaign are summarized.

  20. Technique Errors and Limiting Factors in Laser Ranging to Geodetic Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, G. M.; Luceri, V.; Mueller, H.; Noll, C. E.; Otsubo, T.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-12-01

    The tracking stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) global network provide to the Data Centres a steady stream of very precise laser range normal points to the primary geodetic spherical satellites LAGEOS (-1 and -2) and Etalon (-1 and -2). Analysis of these observations to determine instantaneous site coordinates and Earth orientation parameters provides a major contribution to ongoing international efforts to define a precise terrestrial reference frame, which itself supports research into geophysical processes at the few mm level of precision. For example, the latest realization of the reference frame, ITRF2008, used weekly laser range solutions from 1983 to 2009, the origin of the Frame being determined solely by the SLR technique. However, in the ITRF2008 publication, Altamimi et al (2011, Journal of Geodesy) point out that further improvement in the ITRF is partly dependent upon improving an understanding of sources of technique error. In this study we look at SLR station hardware configuration that has been subject to major improvements over the last four decades, at models that strive to provide accurate translations of the laser range observations to the centres of mass of the small geodetic satellites and at the considerable body of work that has been carried out via orbital analyses to determine range corrections for some of the tracking stations. Through this study, with specific examples, we start to put together an inventory of system-dependent technique errors that will be important information for SLR re-analysis towards the next realization of the ITRF.

  1. Indetermination of particle sizing by laser diffraction in the anomalous size ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Linchao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhang, Fugen

    2017-09-01

    The laser diffraction method is widely used to measure particle size distributions. It is generally accepted that the scattering angle becomes smaller and the angles to the location of the main peak of scattered energy distributions in laser diffraction instruments shift to smaller values with increasing particle size. This specific principle forms the foundation of the laser diffraction method. However, this principle is not entirely correct for non-absorbing particles in certain size ranges and these particle size ranges are called anomalous size ranges. Here, we derive the analytical formulae for the bounds of the anomalous size ranges and discuss the influence of the width of the size segments on the signature of the Mie scattering kernel. This anomalous signature of the Mie scattering kernel will result in an indetermination of the particle size distribution when measured by laser diffraction instruments in the anomalous size ranges. By using the singular-value decomposition method we interpret the mechanism of occurrence of this indetermination in detail and then validate its existence by using inversion simulations.

  2. Analysis of one-way laser ranging data to LRO, time transfer and clock characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-02-01

    We processed and analyzed one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), obtained from June 13, 2009 until September 30, 2014. We pair and analyze the one-way range observables from station laser fire and spacecraft laser arrival times by using nominal LRO orbit models based on the GRAIL gravity field. We apply corrections for instrument range walk, as well as for atmospheric and relativistic effects. In total we derived a tracking data volume of ≈ 3000 hours featuring 64 million Full Rate and 1.5 million Normal Point observations. From a statistical analysis of the dataset we evaluate the experiment and the ground station performance. We observe a laser ranging measurement precision of 12.3 cm in case of the Full Rate data which surpasses the LOLA timestamp precision of 15 cm. The averaging to Normal Point data further reduces the measurement precision to 5.6 cm. We characterized the LRO clock with fits throughout the mission time and estimated the rate to 6.9 × 10-8, the aging to 1.6 × 10-12/day and the change of aging to 2.3 × 10-14 /day2over all mission phases. The fits also provide referencing of onboard time to the TDB time scale at a precision of 166 ns over two and 256 ns over all mission phases, representing ground to space time transfer. Furthermore we measure ground station clock differences from the fits as well as from simultaneous passes which we use for ground to ground time transfer from common view observations. We observed relative offsets ranging from 33 to 560 ns and relative rates ranging from 2 × 10-13 to 6 × 10-12 between the ground station clocks during selected mission phases. We study the results from the different methods and discuss their applicability for time transfer.

  3. Graphene active plasmonic metamaterials for new types of terahertz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Satou, Akira; Popov, Vyacheslav; Ryzhii, Victor

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene active plasmonic metamaterials for new types of terahertz lasers. We theoretically discovered that when the population of Dirac Fermionic carriers in graphene are inverted by optical or electrical pumping the excitation of graphene plasmons by the THz photons results in propagating surface plasmon polaritons with giant gain in a wide THz range. Furthermore, when graphene is patterned in a micro- or nano-ribbon array by grating gate metallization, the structure acts as an active plasmonic metamaterial, providing a super-radiant plasmonic lasing with giant gain at the plasmon modes in a wide THz frequency range.

  4. Resonant activation in bistable semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lepri, Stefano; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2007-08-15

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of observing resonant activation in the hopping dynamics of two-mode semiconductor lasers. We present a series of simulations of a rate-equation model under random and periodic modulation of the bias current. In both cases, for an optimal choice of the modulation time scale, the hopping times between the stable lasing modes attain a minimum. The simulation data are understood by means of an effective one-dimensional Langevin equation with multiplicative fluctuations. Our conclusions apply to both edge-emitting and vertical cavity lasers, thus opening the way to several experimental tests in such optical systems.

  5. Active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers in an external ring cavity

    PubMed Central

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Wang, Y.; Cockburn, J. W.; Belyanin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Stable ultrashort light pulses and frequency combs generated by mode-locked lasers have many important applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, fast chemical detection and identification, studies of ultrafast processes, and laser metrology. While compact mode-locked lasers emitting in the visible and near infrared range have revolutionized photonic technologies, the systems operating in the mid-infrared range where most gases have their strong absorption lines, are bulky and expensive and rely on nonlinear frequency down-conversion. Quantum cascade lasers are the most powerful and versatile compact light sources in the mid-infrared range, yet achieving their mode-locked operation remains a challenge, despite dedicated effort. Here we report the demonstration of active mode locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser. The laser operates in the mode-locked regime at room temperature and over the full dynamic range of injection currents. PMID:27147409

  6. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, R. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Manizade, K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Multiangle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring, such as the ability to measure the height of cloud tops through stereoscopic imaging. As technology advances so do the options for developing spacecraft instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with multiangle measurements. One such instrument is the infrared spectral imaging radiometer, which flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle in 1997 and was the first earth- observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height with a precision of +/- 620 m from the multispectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed, and the results are compared with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the shuttle laser altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  7. Miniaturized laser range finder for the volumetric characterization of underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorani, Luca; Bortone, Marco; Mattei, Stefania; Ruocchio, Cristiano; Salome, Antonio; Vetrella, Sergio

    2000-07-01

    Laser remote sensing has proved to be a mature technique in many scientific, military, and civilian fields. In particular, laser range-finders are widely applied in non- contact measurements of distances. In the framework of the project ARCHEO, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities and Scientific and Technological Research, we have developed GEOLIDAR, a miniaturized laser range-finder that provides useful information for archaeological excavations. More precisely, GEOLIDAR performs volumetric characterizations of underground cavities, such as buried tanks, temples, and tombs. A coring machine bores a small- diameter hole up to the cavity where GEOLIDAR is let down and executes a motor-driven 3D scan. Operation and acquisition are fully controlled by a user-friendly computer interface.

  8. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, R. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Manizade, K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Multiangle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring, such as the ability to measure the height of cloud tops through stereoscopic imaging. As technology advances so do the options for developing spacecraft instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with multiangle measurements. One such instrument is the infrared spectral imaging radiometer, which flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle in 1997 and was the first earth- observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height with a precision of +/- 620 m from the multispectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed, and the results are compared with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the shuttle laser altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  9. Implications of the corneal temperature range in the prediction of laser thermal damage. [Monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, G.W. Jr.; Schepler, K.L.

    1980-04-01

    Corneal temperatures of the rhesus monkeys have been measured under conditions that may exist during laser experiments. The minimum and maximum temperatures found for all experimental conditions were 29.54/sup 0/C and 39.16/sup 0/C, respectively, a range of 9.62/sup 0/C. A computer model of thermal damage due to laser irradiation was used to determine the effect varying initial temperature could have on corneal damage thresholds (ED50's). The range of 9.62/sup 0/C found in monkeys for all experimental conditions corresponded to a 39% difference in threshold power. The dependence of damage thresholds on initial temperature could be an important factor to consider when basing laser safety standards on damage threshold data.

  10. Actively mode-locked Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuezong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Fan, Tingwei; Feng, Yan

    2015-07-27

    Active mode-locking of Raman fiber laser is experimentally investigated for the first time. An all fiber connected and polarization maintaining loop cavity of ~500 m long is pumped by a linearly polarized 1120 nm Yb fiber laser and modulated by an acousto-optic modulator. Stable 2 ns width pulse train at 1178 nm is obtained with modulator opening time of > 50 ns. At higher power, pulses become longer, and second order Raman Stokes could take place, which however can be suppressed by adjusting the open time and modulation frequency. Transient pulse evolution measurement confirms the absence of relaxation oscillation in Raman fiber laser. Tuning of repetition rate from 392 kHz to 31.37 MHz is obtained with harmonic mode locking.

  11. Linear FMCW Laser Radar for Precision Range and Vector Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockhard, George; Rubio, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An all fiber linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) coherent laser radar system is under development with a goal to aide NASA s new Space Exploration initiative for manned and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. By employing a combination of optical heterodyne and linear frequency modulation techniques and utilizing state-of-the-art fiber optic technologies, highly efficient, compact and reliable laser radar suitable for operation in a space environment is being developed. Linear FMCW lidar has the capability of high-resolution range measurements, and when configured into a multi-channel receiver system it has the capability of obtaining high precision horizontal and vertical velocity measurements. Precision range and vector velocity data are beneficial to navigating planetary landing pods to the preselected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing. The all-fiber coherent laser radar has several important advantages over more conventional pulsed laser altimeters or range finders. One of the advantages of the coherent laser radar is its ability to measure directly the platform velocity by extracting the Doppler shift generated from the motion, as opposed to time of flight range finders where terrain features such as hills, cliffs, or slopes add error to the velocity measurement. Doppler measurements are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the velocity estimates obtained by pulsed laser altimeters. In addition, most of the components of the device are efficient and reliable commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic telecommunication components. This paper discusses the design and performance of a second-generation brassboard system under development at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project.

  12. On the real performance of SWIR range-gated active imaging in scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, Frank; Schertzer, Stéphane; Metzger, Nicolas; Bacher, Emmanuel; Poyet, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Range-gated active imaging is a well-known technique used for night vision or for vision enhancement in scattering environments. The elimination of the backscattering effects leads to a significant increase in the vision range in scattering environments. Surprisingly, even if a lot of authors estimate that active imaging brings a gain in range when used in scattering environments, there are no studies which systematically investigate and quantify the real gain provided by range gating in comparison with classical imaging systems and in different controlled obscurant densities. In this paper, we thoroughly examined the performance enhancement of laser range gating in comparison with a color camera representing the human vision. On the one hand, we studied the influence of different types of obscurants and showed that the type of obscurant leads to very different results. On the other hand, we examined the influence of different technical parameters on the laser side and on the camera side. The influence of range gating and of the gate shape was studied. These experiments led us to conclude that it is necessary to combine a short laser pulse with a short camera integration time to acquire contrasted images in dense scattering media.

  13. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  14. Dynamic Range of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in Multimode Links

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.L.T.; Dalal, R.V.; Ram, R.J.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-07-07

    The authors report spurious free dynamic range measurements of 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in short multimode links for radio frequency communication. For a 27m fiber link, the dynamic range at optimal bias was greater than 95dB-Hz{sup 2/3} for modulation frequencies between 1 and 5.5 GHz, which exceeds the requirements for antenna remoting in microcellular networks. In a free space link, they have measured the highest dynamic range in an 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser of 113dB-Hz{sup 2/3} at 900MHz. We have also investigated the effects of modal noise and differential mode delay on the dynamic range for longer lengths of fiber.

  15. Measuring Earth: Current status of the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Daniel; LRI Team

    2016-05-01

    The GRACE mission that was launched in 2002 has impressively proven the feasibility of low-orbit satellite-to-satellite tracking for Earth gravity observations. Especially mass transport related to Earth's hydrological system could be well resolved both spatially and temporally. This allows to study processes such as polar ice sheet decline and ground water depletion in great detail. Owing to GRACE's success, NASA and GFZ will launch the successor mission GRACE Follow-On in 2017. In addition to the microwave ranging system, GRACE Follow-On will be the first mission to use a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator to track intersatellite distance changes with unprecedented precision. This new ranging device inherits some of the technologies which have been developed for the future spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA. I will present the architecture of the Laser Ranging Interferometer, point out similarities and differences to LISA, and conclude with the current status of the flight hardware production.

  16. Upgrading and performance of the SAO laser ranging system in Matera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, J.; Pearlman, M.; Throp, J.; Wohn, J.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the SAO lasers was improved considerably in terms of accuracy, range noise, data yield, and reliability. With the narrower laser pulse (2.5-3.0 nsec) and a new analog pulse processing system, the systematic range errors were reduced to 3-5 cm and range noise has been reduced to 5-15 cm on low satellites and 10-18 cm on Lageos. Pulse repetition rate was increased to 30 ppm and considerable improvement has been made in signal-to-noise ratio by using a 3 Angstrom interference filter and by reducing the range gate window down to 200-400 nsec. The first upgraded system was installed in Arequipa, Peru in the spring of 1982. The second upgraded system is now in operation in Matera, Italy. The third system is expected to be installed in Israel during 1984.

  17. NASA ground-based and space-based laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Laser ranging is expected to help unlock the mysteries of the earthquake phenomenon by producing unique results of crustal motions of the Earth. The current state of the art and future projections are presented, including principal applications and characteristics of typical systems.

  18. Ultraviolet laser-based communication system for short-range tactical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Barry; Hughes, Bill; Erickson, Andrew; Wilkins, Jay; Teppo, Edward A.

    1994-06-01

    Solar blind ultraviolet communication techniques have promise to address the military's needs for short range applications where non-line-of-sight and a low probability of interception and detection is required. This paper addresses the general requirements for these systems and discusses an example system developed using a compact quadrupled Nd:YAG laser.

  19. Investigation of a new method for determination of atmospheric refractivity corrections in satellite laser ranging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, N. T.; Prokopov, A. V.; Remaev, E. V.

    1997-08-01

    A new algorithm is investigated for calculating atmospheric refractivity corrections in satellite laser ranging in the Earth's spherically stratified atmosphere based on results of measuring meteorological parameters on the Earth's surface. A numerical experiment with 125 meteorological sounding profiles shows that the new method allows to determine atmospheric refractivity corrections with the accuracy better than the Marini-Murray method does.

  20. Single photon ranging system using two wavelengths laser and analysis of precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunfei; He, Weiji; Miao, Zhuang; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian

    2013-09-01

    The laser ranging system based on time correlation single photon counting technology and single photon detector has the feature of high precision and low emergent energy etc. In this paper, we established a single photon laser ranging system that use the supercontinuum laser as light source, and two wavelengths (532nm and 830nm) of echo signal as the stop signal. We propose a new method that is capable to improve the single photon ranging system performance. The method is implemented by using two single-photon detectors to receive respectively the two different wavelength signals at the same time. We extracted the firings of the two detectors triggered by the same laser pulse at the same time and then took mean time of the two firings as the combined detection time-of-flight. The detection by two channels using two wavelengths will effectively improve the detection precision and decrease the false alarm probability. Finally, an experimental single photon ranging system was established. Through a lot of experiments, we got the system precision using both single and two wavelengths and verified the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Wide field of view laser beacon system for three dimensional aircraft range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A system that measures accurately the distance from an aircraft to a helicoper for rotor noise flight testing was developed. The system measures the range and angles between two aircraft using laser optics. This system can be applied in collision avoidance, robotics and other measurement critical tasks.

  2. Investigation of a new method for the determination of atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, N. T.; Prokopov, A. V.; Remaev, E. V.

    The authors investigate a new algorithm for calculating atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging in the spherically stratified terrestrial atmosphere. The algorithm is based on results of measuring meteorological parameters on the Earth's surface. A numerical experiment with 125 meteorological sounding profiles shows that the new method allows the atmospheric corrections to be determined in the range of zenith angles from 0° to 80° more accurately than with the Marini-Murray method.

  3. STS-109 MS Linnehan with laser range finder on aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-02

    STS109-E-5003 (3 March 2002) --- Astronaut Richard M. Linnehan, mission specialist, uses a laser ranging device designed to measure the range between two spacecraft. Linnehan positioned himself on the cabin's aft flight deck as the Space Shuttle Columbia approached the Hubble Space Telescope. A short time later, the STS-109 crew captured and latched down the giant telescope in the vehicle's cargo bay for several days of work on the Hubble. The image was recorded with a digital still camera.

  4. STS-109 MS Linnehan with laser range finder on aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-02

    STS109-E-5002 (3 March 2002) --- Astronaut Richard M. Linnehan, mission specialist, uses a laser ranging device designed to measure the range between two spacecraft. Linnehan positioned himself on the cabin's aft flight deck as the Space Shuttle Columbia approached the Hubble Space Telescope. A short time later, the STS-109 crew captured and latched down the giant telescope in the vehicle's cargo bay for several days of work on the Hubble. The image was recorded with a digital still camera.

  5. All-fiber broad-range self-sweeping Yb-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey A.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of broad-range self-sweeping in Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. The self-sweeping effect is observed in an all-fiber laser configuration with a double-clad Yb-doped fiber and a cavity formed by a broad-band fiber loop mirror and Fresnel reflection from one cleaved end. The sweep range is limited by the width of the broad-band reflector and reaches up to 16nm. It is found that the self-sweeping effect is related to selfpulsations. So the sweep rate is increased with an increase in pump power and is decreased with increasing cavity length. RF and optical spectra (linewidth is measured to be not more than 100 MHz) show that during the evolution of a single pulse a small number of longitudinal modes take a part in lasing. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model is based on the spatial hole burning effect and the gain saturation in Yb laser transition, and takes into account self-pulsations of the laser. Theoretical estimation for pulse to pulse change of lasing frequency is in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  7. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  8. The GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer; A inter-spacecraft laser interferometry technology demonstrator with similarities to LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, William; McKenzie, Kirk; Grace Follow-On LASER Ranging Interferometer Team

    2016-03-01

    GRACE Follow-On will replace the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which has been measuring Earth's gravity field since 2002. Like GRACE, GRACE Follow-On will use a microwave link as its primary instrument to measure micron-level changes in the 200km separation of a pair of satellites in a following polar orbit. GRACE Follow-On will also include a 2-way laser-link, the Laser Ranging Interferometer (LRI), as a technology demonstrator package. The LRI is an NASA/German partnership and will demonstrate inter-spacecraft laser interferometry with a goal of 10 times better precision than the microwave instrument, or about 90 nm/ √(Hz) between 10 and 100 mHz. The similarities between the LRI and a single arm of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mean many of the required technologies will be the same. This talk will give an overview of the LRI and the status of the LRI instruments, and implications for LISA.

  9. A high resolution laser ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yixin; Wang, Huanqin; Huang, Zhe; Cao, Yangyang; Gui, Huaqiao

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging has become an important method for both distance measurements and acquisition of threedimensional (3D) images. In this paper, a laser ranging system based on Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting technology (TCSPC) is developed. A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD), which has the ability of detecting single-photon events, is used to capture the weak light scattered from the long-range target. In order to improve the ranging resolution of TCSPC based measurement system, a high repetition frequency of subnanosecond narrow pulse generator circuit based on the avalanche effect of RF-BJT is designed and applied as the light source. Moreover, some optimized optical light designs have been done to improve the system signal to noise rate (SNR), including using a special aspherical lens as projecting lens, adopting a telephoto camera lens with small view angle and short depth of field before detector. Experimental tests for evaluation of the laser raging system performance are described. As a means of echo signal analysis, three different algorithms have been introduced, in which the cross-correlation algorithm was demonstrated to be the most effective algorithm to determining the round trip time to a target, even based on histograms with a significant amount of background noise photons. It was found that centimeter ranging resolution can be achieved thanks to the use of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) with picosecond resolution and the Cross-Correlation algorithm. The proposed laser ranging system has advantages of high range resolution, short response time and simple structure, which was potential applications for 3D object recognition, computer vision, reverse engineering and virtual reality.

  10. Range finding and velocimetry with directional discrimination using a modulated laser diode Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebbour, A.; Gorecki, C.; Tribillon, G.

    1994-09-01

    A dynamic laser interferometer for ranging and velocity measurements using a modulated laser diode as light source in an unbalanced Michelson configuration is described. The technique uses the fact that the wavelength of the emitted light varies linearly with the injection current. When the diode's injection current is modulated in a triangular wave, a heterodyne beat signal is generated with a frequency proportional to the optical path difference. When the target is moving, the technique allows absolute distance measurement with directional discrimination as well as target velocity. The device is described and experimental results are presented.

  11. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ∼8 Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  12. Laser ranging application to time transfer using geodetic satellite and to other Japanese space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunimori, Hiroo; Takahashi, Fujinobu; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been developing a laser time transfer system using a satellite laser ranging (SLR) system. We propose Japanese geodetic satellite 'AJISAI', launched in 1986 as a target satellite. The surface is covered not only with corner cube reflectors but also with mirrors. The mirrors are originally designed for observation of flushing solar light reflected by the separate mirrors while the satellite is spinning. In the experiment, synchronized laser pulses are transferred via specified mirror from one station to another while the satellite is up on the horizon to both stations. The system is based on the epoch timing ranging system with 40 ps ranging precision, connected together with UTC(CRL). Simulation study indicates that two stations at thousands of km distance from each other can be linked with signal strength of more than 10 photons and the distributed images of laser beam from AJISAI mirrors give many chances for two stations to link each other during a single AJISAI pass. Retro-reflector In Space for Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS) and RendDezVous docking mission of Experimental Technology Satellite-7 (ETS-7) are briefly presented.

  13. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  14. Satellite Laser Ranging in the 1990s: Report of the 1994 Belmont Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    An international network of 43 stations in 30 countries routinely collects satellite ranging data which is used to study the solid Earth and its interactions with the oceans, atmosphere, and Moon. Data products include centimeter accuracy site positions on a global scale, tectonic plate motions, regional crustal deformation, long wavelength gravity field and geoid, polar motion, and variations in the Earth's spin rate. By calibrating and providing precise orbits for spaceborne microwave altimeters, satellite laser ranging also enables global measurement of sea and ice surface topography, mean sea level, global ocean circulation, and short wavelength gravity fields and marine geoids. It provides tests of general relativity and a means or subnanosecond time transfer. This workshop was convened to define future roles and directions in satellite laser ranging.

  15. Approach range and velocity determination using laser sensors and retroreflector targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, L.; Kim, K. J.; Wang, J.; Schoknecht, W.; Donovan, William J.

    Rockwell International is conducting an ongoing program to develop Laser Docking Sensors (LDS) that provide high performance and high intrinsic value while meeting all mission objectives. These LDS systems are now being required to aid future spacecraft docking, station keeping, and berthing/capture systems. Improved automated tracking, rendezvous, soft docking, and capture will be required in the construction and support of SSF and future orbiting platforms. The development of a practical LDS requires an easy-to-operate, low-cost, compact system. A wide range of options for laser range detection equipment, ranging from commercial technology to specialized military systems, was evaluated. This evaluation focused on both direct applicability of existing systems and usability of specific technologies contained in these systems. From these efforts it was determined that a new approach provided the greatest promise of fulfilling all mission requirements at the lowest life-cycle cost.

  16. Approach range and velocity determination using laser sensors and retroreflector targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, L.; Kim, K. J.; Wang, J.; Schoknecht, W.; Donovan, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Rockwell International is conducting an ongoing program to develop Laser Docking Sensors (LDS) that provide high performance and high intrinsic value while meeting all mission objectives. These LDS systems are now being required to aid future spacecraft docking, station keeping, and berthing/capture systems. Improved automated tracking, rendezvous, soft docking, and capture will be required in the construction and support of SSF and future orbiting platforms. The development of a practical LDS requires an easy-to-operate, low-cost, compact system. A wide range of options for laser range detection equipment, ranging from commercial technology to specialized military systems, was evaluated. This evaluation focused on both direct applicability of existing systems and usability of specific technologies contained in these systems. From these efforts it was determined that a new approach provided the greatest promise of fulfilling all mission requirements at the lowest life-cycle cost.

  17. Using mid-range laser scanners to digitize cultural-heritage sites.

    PubMed

    Spring, Adam P; Peters, Caradoc; Minns, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Here, we explore new, more accessible ways of modeling 3D data sets that both professionals and amateurs can employ in areas such as architecture, forensics, geotechnics, cultural heritage, and even hobbyist modeling. To support our arguments, we present images from a recent case study in digital preservation of cultural heritage using a mid-range laser scanner. Our appreciation of the increasing variety of methods for capturing 3D spatial data inspired our research. Available methods include photogrammetry, airborne lidar, sonar, total stations (a combined electronic and optical survey instrument), and midand close-range scanning.1 They all can produce point clouds of varying density. In our case study, the point cloud produced by a mid-range scanner demonstrates how open source software can make modeling and disseminating data easier. Normally, researchers would model this data using expensive specialized software, and the data wouldn't extend beyond the laser-scanning community.

  18. Relative lateration across the Los Angeles basin using a satellite laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.; Cahill, T.; Dorman, J.

    1982-01-01

    In January of 1981 the Transportable Laser Ranging System (TLRS) developed for NASA by the University of Texas was used to conduct a four-day test of the relative lateration technique. The test evolved making repeated measurements of six lines over the Los Angeles basin varying in distance from 26 to 84 kilometers. Although the raw times-of-flight to the various targets changed typically by 5 parts in 10 to the 6th, their line ratios varied nearly an order of magnitude less. The test suggests that the TLRS or other pulsed laser ranging systems might be able to economically combine Lageos ranging and long baseline horizontal work to survey large areas for accumulating crustal strain.

  19. Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. At Goddard Space Flight Center, we have developed a facility where we can design, build, and test next-generation hollow retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging. Here we will describe this facility as well as report on the bonding techniques used to assemble the retroreflectors. Results from investigations into different high reflectivity mirror coatings, as well as dust mitigation coatings will also be presented.

  20. Large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging based on image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pengdao; Wang, Xinwei; Sun, Liang; You, Ruirong; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Laser range-gated imaging has great potentials in remote night surveillance with far detection distance and high resolution, even if under bad weather conditions such as fog, snow and rain. However, the field of view (FOV) is smaller than large objects like buildings, towers and mountains, thus only parts of targets are observed in one single frame, so that it is difficult for targets identification. Apparently, large FOV is beneficial to solve the problem, but the detection range is not available due to low illumination density in a large field of illumination matching with the FOV. Therefore, a large field-of-view range-gated laser imaging is proposed based on image fusion in this paper. Especially an image fusion algorithm has been developed for low contrast images. First of all, an infrared laser range-gated system is established to acquire gate images with small FOV for three different scenarios at night. Then the proposed image fusion algorithm is used for generating panoramas for the three groups of images respectively. Compared with raw images directly obtained by the imaging system, the fused images have a larger FOV with more detail target information. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image fusion algorithm is effective to expand the FOV of range-gated imaging.

  1. A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ian M.; Duncan, Stuart S.; Copley, Jeremy W.

    2004-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has developed a laser-illuminated, gated imaging system for long range target identification which has generated bright images at ranges in excess of 10km from modest laser energies. The system is based on a short pulsewidth laser and a custom detector for sensing the return pulse. The source is a Nd YAG laser converted by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to 1571nm and producing 20ns pulses at 15Hz. The detector (named SWIFT) is a 320x256 array of HgCdTe photodiodes operating with high avalanche gain to achieve sensitivities as low as 10 photon rms. A custom silicon multiplexer performs the signal injection and temporal gating function, and adds additional electronic gain. Trials show that the current detectors have gate edges equivalent to 1.5m in range and complete extinction of signals outside of the gated range. The detector is encapsulated in an integrated-detector-cooler-assembly and utilises standard productionised thermal imaging electronics to perform non-uniformity correction and grey scale images. Imaging trials using the camera have shown little excess noise, crosstalk or non-uniformity due to the use of avalanching in the HgCdTe photodiodes up to gains of over 100. The images have shown high spatial resolution arising from the use of solid state focal plane array technology. The imagery, collected both in the laboratory and in field trials, has been used to explore the phenomenology unique to laser-illuminated targets and to verify system models.

  2. Analysis of One-Way Laser Ranging Data to LRO, Time Transfer and Clock Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We processed and analyzed one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), obtained from June 13, 2009 until September 30, 2014. We pair and analyze the one-way range observables from station laser fire and spacecraft laser arrival times by using nominal LRO orbit models based on the GRAIL gravity field. We apply corrections for instrument range walk, as well as for atmospheric and relativistic effects. In total we derived a tracking data volume of approximately 3000 hours featuring 64 million Full Rate and 1.5 million Normal Point observations. From a statistical analysis of the dataset we evaluate the experiment and the ground station performance. We observe a laser ranging measurement precision of 12.3 centimeters in case of the Full Rate data which surpasses the LOLA (Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter) timestamp precision of 15 centimeters. The averaging to Normal Point data further reduces the measurement precision to 5.6 centimeters. We characterized the LRO clock with fits throughout the mission time and estimated the rate to 6.9 times10 (sup -8), the aging to 1.6 times 10 (sup -12) per day and the change of aging to 2.3 times 10 (sup -14) per day squared over all mission phases. The fits also provide referencing of onboard time to the TDB (Barycentric Dynamical Time) time scale at a precision of 166 nanoseconds over two and 256 nanoseconds over all mission phases, representing ground to space time transfer. Furthermore we measure ground station clock differences from the fits as well as from simultaneous passes which we use for ground to ground time transfer from common view observations. We observed relative offsets ranging from 33 to 560 nanoseconds and relative rates ranging from 2 times 10 (sup -13) to 6 times 10 (sup -12) between the ground station clocks during selected mission phases. We study the results from the different methods and discuss their applicability for time

  3. Analysis of One-Way Laser Ranging Data to LRO, Time Transfer and Clock Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We processed and analyzed one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), obtained from June 13, 2009 until September 30, 2014. We pair and analyze the one-way range observables from station laser fire and spacecraft laser arrival times by using nominal LRO orbit models based on the GRAIL gravity field. We apply corrections for instrument range walk, as well as for atmospheric and relativistic effects. In total we derived a tracking data volume of approximately 3000 hours featuring 64 million Full Rate and 1.5 million Normal Point observations. From a statistical analysis of the dataset we evaluate the experiment and the ground station performance. We observe a laser ranging measurement precision of 12.3 centimeters in case of the Full Rate data which surpasses the LOLA (Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter) timestamp precision of 15 centimeters. The averaging to Normal Point data further reduces the measurement precision to 5.6 centimeters. We characterized the LRO clock with fits throughout the mission time and estimated the rate to 6.9 times10 (sup -8), the aging to 1.6 times 10 (sup -12) per day and the change of aging to 2.3 times 10 (sup -14) per day squared over all mission phases. The fits also provide referencing of onboard time to the TDB (Barycentric Dynamical Time) time scale at a precision of 166 nanoseconds over two and 256 nanoseconds over all mission phases, representing ground to space time transfer. Furthermore we measure ground station clock differences from the fits as well as from simultaneous passes which we use for ground to ground time transfer from common view observations. We observed relative offsets ranging from 33 to 560 nanoseconds and relative rates ranging from 2 times 10 (sup -13) to 6 times 10 (sup -12) between the ground station clocks during selected mission phases. We study the results from the different methods and discuss their applicability for time

  4. A novel laser ranging system for measurement of ground-to-satellite distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, K. E.; Kind, D. E.; Leonard, S. L.; Ward, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A technique was developed for improving the precision of laser ranging measurements of ground-to-satellite distances. The method employs a mode-locked laser transmitter and utilizes an image converter tube equipped with deflection plates in measuring the time of flight of the laser pulse to a distant retroreflector and back. Samples of the outgoing and returning light pulses are focussed on the photocathode of the image converter tube, whose deflection plates are driven by a high-voltage 120 MHz sine wave derived from a very stable oscillator. From the relative positions of the images produced at the output phosphor by the two light pulses, it is possible to make a precise determination of the fractional amount by which the time of flight exceeds some large integral multiple of the period of the deflection sinusoid.

  5. Ytterbium-doped fibre laser tunable in the range 1017 - 1040 nm with second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsova, E I; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A

    2013-05-31

    A cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser has been tuned to shorter emission wavelengths (from 1040 to 1017 nm). The laser output power obtained has been compared to calculation results. We have studied frequency doubling of the laser in a KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) crystal with type II phase matching in the XY plane and demonstrated wavelength tuning in the range 510 - 520 nm. (lasers)

  6. Laser range measurement for a satellite navigation scheme and mid-range path selection and obstacle avoidance. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuraski, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    The functions of a laser rangefinder on board an autonomous Martian roving vehicle are discussed. The functions are: (1) navigation by means of a passive satellite and (2) mid-range path selection and obstacle avoidance. The feasibility of using a laser to make the necessary range measurements is explored and a preliminary design is presented. The two uses of the rangefinder dictate widely different operating parameters making it impossible to use the same system for both functions.

  7. Arm-Locking with the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira; Mckenzie, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Arm-locking is a technique for stabilizing the frequency of a laser in an inter-spacecraft interferometer by using the spacecraft separation as the frequency reference. A candidate technique for future space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), arm-locking has been extensive studied in this context through analytic models, time-domain simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop laboratory demonstrations. In this paper we show the Laser Ranging Instrument flying aboard the upcoming Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission provides an appropriate platform for an on-orbit demonstration of the arm-locking technique. We describe an arm-locking controller design for the GRACE-FO system and a series of time-domain simulations that demonstrate its feasibility. We conclude that it is possible to achieve laser frequency noise suppression of roughly two orders of magnitude around a Fourier frequency of 1Hz with conservative margins on the system's stability. We further demonstrate that `pulling' of the master laser frequency due to fluctuating Doppler shifts and lock acquisition transients is less than 100MHz over several GRACE-FO orbits. These findings motivate further study of the implementation of such a demonstration.

  8. Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) activities in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    This technical report presents the summary of the 2nd NASA Aerospace Pyrotechnic Systems Workshop's discussion on Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO). Laser initiated ordnance benefits, applications, advantage of laser ordnance, and disadvantage of laser diode initiated ordnance are discussed. In addition, the three LIO programs: NASA standard laser diode safe and arm, NASA standard laser detonators, and laser diode safe/arm performance are reviewed. Steps for the LIO implementation are also presented.

  9. Influence of laser scanner range measurement noise on the quantification of rock surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh; Altundag, Dogan

    2010-05-01

    The roughness of rock surfaces is traditionally measured by using manual tools such as carpenter's comp and compass and disc clinometers. The manual measurements are limited to small samples at accessible parts of the rock. Terrestrial laser scanning is an attractive alternative measurement technique, which offers large coverage, high resolution, and the ability to reach inaccessible high rock faces. The application of laser scanning to the study of rock surface roughness faces a major challenge: the inherent range imprecision hinders the quantification of roughness parameters. In practice, when roughness is in millimeter scale it is often lost in the range measurement noise. The parameters derived from the data, therefore, reflect noise rather than the actual roughness of the surface. In this paper, we investigate the influence of laser scanner range measurement noise on the quantification of rock surfaces roughness. We show that measurement noise leads to the overestimation of roughness parameters. We also demonstrate the application of wavelet de-noising method to eliminating noise from laser scanner data and deriving realistic roughness parameters. A slightly metamorphosed limestone rock in the east bank of the Meuse River in southern Belgium was scanned with a Faro LS880 terrestrial laser scanner. The scanner was positioned at approximately 5 meters distance to the rock surface, and operated at the highest possible angular resolution, i.e. 0.009 degrees. The resulting point cloud contained about 1.2 million points on the rock surface with a point-spacing of 1 mm on average. According to the technical specifications of the laser scanner, the nominal range precision at a perpendicular incidence angle, which was roughly the case in our scan, is between 0.7 mm and 5.2 mm respectively for objects of 90% and 10% reflectivity at a distance of 10 m. To serve as reference roughness data were also collected manually along three profiles on the rock surface by using a

  10. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  11. State-of-the-art satellite laser range modeling for geodetic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosko, Steve M.; Smith, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in the modeling and accuracy of Satellite Laser Range (SLR) data since the launch of LAGEOS in 1976. Some of these include: improved models of the static geopotential, solid-Earth and ocean tides, more advanced atmospheric drag models, and the adoption of the J2000 reference system with improved nutation and precession. Site positioning using SLR systems currently yield approximately 2 cm static and 5 mm/y kinematic descriptions of the geocentric location of these sites. Incorporation of a large set of observations from advanced Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking systems have directly made major contributions to the gravitational fields and in advancing the state-of-the-art in precision orbit determination. SLR is the baseline tracking system for the altimeter bearing TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 satellites and thus, will play an important role in providing the Conventional Terrestrial Reference Frame for instantaneously locating the geocentric position of the ocean surface over time, in providing an unchanging range standard for altimeter range calibration, and for improving the geoid models to separate gravitational from ocean circulation signals seen in the sea surface. Nevertheless, despite the unprecedented improvements in the accuracy of the models used to support orbit reduction of laser observations, there still remain systematic unmodeled effects which limit the full exploitation of modern SLR data.

  12. Two-Step Laser Ranging for Precise Tracking of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    A document proposes a two-step laser ranging technique for precise tracking of a coasting interplanetary spacecraft to determine the degree to which leakage of fuel, solar wind, and/or solar-radiation pressure causes it to deviate from a purely gravitational trajectory. Such a determination could contribute to the precision of a test of a theory of gravitation. In the technique, a proof mass would be released from the spacecraft. By use of laser ranging equipment on the spacecraft and retroreflectors attached to the proof mass, the relative position of the spacecraft and proof mass would be determined. Meanwhile, the position of the spacecraft relative to the Earth would be determined by ranging by use of a laser transponder. The vector sum of the two sets of ranging measurements would be the position of the proof mass relative to the Earth. Unlike the acceleration of the spacecraft, the acceleration of the proof mass should not include a residual component attributable to leakage of fuel. In addition, the effects of solar radiation and solar wind on the proof mass could be minimized by releasing the proof mass into the shadow of the spacecraft.

  13. Compressed sensing for super-resolution spatial and temporal laser detection and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stephane; Christnacher, Frank

    2016-10-01

    In the past decades, laser aided electro-optical sensing has reached high maturity and several commercial systems are available at the market for various but specific applications. These systems can be used for detection i.e. imaging as well as ranging. They cover laser scanning devices like LiDAR and staring full frame imaging systems like laser gated viewing or LADAR. The sensing capabilities of these systems is limited by physical parameter (like FPA array size, temporal band width, scanning rate, sampling rate) and is adapted to specific applications. Change of system parameter like an increase of spatial resolution implies the setup of a new sensing device with high development cost or the purchase and installation of a complete new sensor unit. Computational imaging approaches can help to setup sensor devices with flexible or adaptable sensing capabilities. Especially, compressed sensing is an emerging computational method which is a promising candidate to realize super-resolution sensing with the possibility to adapt its performance to various sensing tasks. It is possible to increase sensing capabilities with compressed sensing to gain either higher spatial and/or temporal resolution. Then, the sensing capabilities depend no longer only on the physical performance of the device but also on the computational effort and can be adapted to the application. In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss laser aided imaging using CS for super-resolution tempo-spatial imaging and ranging.

  14. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s

  15. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s

  16. Determining the 3-D structure and motion of objects using a scanning laser range sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Smith, Philip W.

    1993-12-01

    In order for the EVAHR robot to autonomously track and grasp objects, its vision system must be able to determine the 3-D structure and motion of an object from a sequence of sensory images. This task is accomplished by the use of a laser radar range sensor which provides dense range maps of the scene. Unfortunately, the currently available laser radar range cameras use a sequential scanning approach which complicates image analysis. Although many algorithms have been developed for recognizing objects from range images, none are suited for use with single beam, scanning, time-of-flight sensors because all previous algorithms assume instantaneous acquisition of the entire image. This assumption is invalid since the EVAHR robot is equipped with a sequential scanning laser range sensor. If an object is moving while being imaged by the device, the apparent structure of the object can be significantly distorted due to the significant non-zero delay time between sampling each image pixel. If an estimate of the motion of the object can be determined, this distortion can be eliminated; but, this leads to the motion-structure paradox - most existing algorithms for 3-D motion estimation use the structure of objects to parameterize their motions. The goal of this research is to design a rigid-body motion recovery technique which overcomes this limitation. The method being developed is an iterative, linear, feature-based approach which uses the non-zero image acquisition time constraint to accurately recover the motion parameters from the distorted structure of the 3-D range maps. Once the motion parameters are determined, the structural distortion in the range images is corrected.

  17. Determining the 3-D structure and motion of objects using a scanning laser range sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Smith, Philip W.

    1993-01-01

    In order for the EVAHR robot to autonomously track and grasp objects, its vision system must be able to determine the 3-D structure and motion of an object from a sequence of sensory images. This task is accomplished by the use of a laser radar range sensor which provides dense range maps of the scene. Unfortunately, the currently available laser radar range cameras use a sequential scanning approach which complicates image analysis. Although many algorithms have been developed for recognizing objects from range images, none are suited for use with single beam, scanning, time-of-flight sensors because all previous algorithms assume instantaneous acquisition of the entire image. This assumption is invalid since the EVAHR robot is equipped with a sequential scanning laser range sensor. If an object is moving while being imaged by the device, the apparent structure of the object can be significantly distorted due to the significant non-zero delay time between sampling each image pixel. If an estimate of the motion of the object can be determined, this distortion can be eliminated; but, this leads to the motion-structure paradox - most existing algorithms for 3-D motion estimation use the structure of objects to parameterize their motions. The goal of this research is to design a rigid-body motion recovery technique which overcomes this limitation. The method being developed is an iterative, linear, feature-based approach which uses the non-zero image acquisition time constraint to accurately recover the motion parameters from the distorted structure of the 3-D range maps. Once the motion parameters are determined, the structural distortion in the range images is corrected.

  18. Dichroic atomic vapor laser lock with multi-gigahertz stabilization range

    SciTech Connect

    Pustelny, S.; Schultze, V.; Scholtes, T.; Budker, D.

    2016-06-15

    A dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) system exploiting buffer-gas-filled millimeter-scale vapor cells is presented. This system offers similar stability as achievable with conventional DAVLL system using bulk vapor cells, but has several important advantages. In addition to its compactness, it may provide continuous stabilization in a multi-gigahertz range around the optical transition. This range may be controlled either by changing the temperature of the vapor or by application of a buffer gas under an appropriate pressure. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the ability of the system to lock the laser frequency between two hyperfine components of the {sup 85}Rb ground state or as far as 16 GHz away from the closest optical transition.

  19. Simulation of optical response of retroreflectors for future lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo

    2010-03-01

    We numerically examined various retroreflectors as laser ranging targets for future missions to the Moon. The geometric conditions, such as the angle of incidence and velocity aberration, with lunar targets are much more restricted than those with most of the earth-orbiting artificial satellites. The numerical optical response simulation carried out in this study indicates that a single retroreflector with a diameter of 150-250 mm performs similar to the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays. Further, no dihedral angle is required for small retroreflectors with diameters below 150 mm for uncoated ones and below 100 mm for coated and hollow ones. Retroreflectors with larger diameters require dihedral angles of 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 arcsec for coated, uncoated and hollow types, respectively. The objective of this fundamental study is to underlie the development of future laser ranging targets that are to be placed on the Moon.

  20. Asymmetric dihedral angle offsets for large-size lunar laser ranging retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masato

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of two-dimensional velocity aberration is off-centered by 5 to 6 microradians in lunar laser ranging, due to the stable measurement geometry in the motion of the Earth and the Moon. The optical responses of hollow-type retroreflectors are investigated through numerical simulations, especially focusing on large-size, single-reflector targets that can ultimately minimize the systematic error in future lunar laser ranging. An asymmetric dihedral angle offset, i.e. setting unequal angles between the three back faces, is found to be effective for retroreflectors that are larger than 100 mm in diameter. Our numerical simulation results reveal that the optimized return energy increases approximately 3.5 times more than symmetric dihedral angle cases, and the optimized dihedral angle offsets are 0.65-0.8 arcseconds for one angle, and zeroes for the other two angles.

  1. Modulated pulse laser with pseudorandom coding capabilities for underwater ranging, detection, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2011-11-20

    Optical detection, ranging, and imaging of targets in turbid water is complicated by absorption and scattering. It has been shown that using a pulsed laser source with a range-gated receiver or an intensity modulated source with a coherent RF receiver can improve target contrast in turbid water. A blended approach using a modulated-pulse waveform has been previously suggested as a way to further improve target contrast. However only recently has a rugged and reliable laser source been developed that is capable of synthesizing such a waveform so that the effect of the underwater environment on the propagation of a modulated pulse can be studied. In this paper, we outline the motivation for the modulated-pulse (MP) concept, and experimentally evaluate different MP waveforms: single-tone MP and pseudorandom coded MP sequences.

  2. Heterostructures for quantum-cascade lasers of the wavelength range of 7-8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, A. V.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Filimonov, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kurochkin, A. S.; Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Bugrov, V. E.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Bousseksou, A.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that molecular-beam-epitaxy technology can be used to fabricate heterostructures for quantum-cascade lasers of the wavelength range of 7-8 μm with an active region comprising 50 cascades based on a heterojunction of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As solid solutions. The optical emission is obtained using a quantum-cascade design operating on the principle of two-phonon resonance scattering. The properties of heterostructures were studied by the methods of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, which showed their high quality with respect to the identical compositions and thicknesses of all 50 cascades. Stripe-geometry lasers made of these heterostructures exhibited lasing with a threshold current density below 1.6 kA/cm2 at a temperature of 78 K.

  3. Proposed satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry sites for crustal dynamics investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.; Allenby, R. J.; Frey, H. V.

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for a global network of 125 sites for geodetic measurements by satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry. The sites were proposed on the basis of existing facilities and scientific value for investigation of crustal dynamics as related to earthquake hazards. Tectonic problems are discussed for North America peripheral regions and for the world. The sites are presented in tables and maps, with bibliographic references.

  4. Scintillation statistics caused by atmospheric turbulence and speckle in satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Iyer, R. S.; Taylor, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    We study the statistics of scintillation at the ground-based receiver for the earth-space-earth retroreflector configuration of satellite laser ranging. These statistics are governed by the joint effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle produced by the retroreflector array. An expression for the probability density function of scintillation is obtained and evaluated numerically. Comparison of the normalized variance of scintillation calculated by using this function shows good agreement with results obtained by other methods.

  5. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AFRL- RH -FS-TR-2014-0035 MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques Paul...Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). (AFRL- RH -FS-TR- - ) has been reviewed and is approved for...Texas 78234 711 HPW/RHDO 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL- RH -FS-TR-2014-0035 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution A

  6. Scintillation statistics caused by atmospheric turbulence and speckle in satellite laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Iyer, R. S.; Taylor, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    We study the statistics of scintillation at the ground-based receiver for the earth-space-earth retroreflector configuration of satellite laser ranging. These statistics are governed by the joint effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle produced by the retroreflector array. An expression for the probability density function of scintillation is obtained and evaluated numerically. Comparison of the normalized variance of scintillation calculated by using this function shows good agreement with results obtained by other methods.

  7. STS-115 MS Stefanyshyn-Piper uses laser ranging device throught window in the Aft FD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-11

    S115-E-05356 (11 Sept. 2006) --- Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, STS-115 mission specialist, aims a laser range finder through one of the overhead windows on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at it approaches the International Space Station. The subsequent docking will allow the STS-115 astronauts and the Expedition 13 crew to team up for several days of key tasks in space.

  8. Olivas uses a laser ranging device on STS-117 Space Shuttle Atlantis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-10

    S117-E-06953 (10 June 2007) --- Astronaut John "Danny" Olivas, STS-117 mission specialist, aims a laser range finder through one of the overhead windows on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at it approaches the International Space Station. This instrument is a regularly called-on tool during rendezvous operations with the station. The subsequent docking will allow the STS-117 astronauts and the Expedition 15 crew to team up for several days of key tasks in space.

  9. Scintillation statistics caused by atmospheric turbulence and speckle in satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Bufton, J L; Iyer, R S; Taylor, L S

    1977-09-01

    We study the statistics of scintillation at the ground-based receiver for the earth-space-earth retroreflector configuration of satellite laser ranging. These statistics are governed by the joint effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle produced by the retroreflector array. An expression for the probability density function of scintillation is obtained and evaluated numerically. Comparison of the normalized variance of scintillation calculated by using this function shows good agreement with results obtained by other methods.

  10. Pearson's distribution of type VII of the errors of satellite laser ranging data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhun', I. V.

    1991-06-01

    The distribution of differences O-C of the laser ranging data is studied. It has been found that actual distribution of these differences is better described by the Pearson curve of type VII than by the normal law which may be explained by variability of the observational conditions. The estimates of the parameter m of the Pearson law vary from 2.7 to ∞ (normal law).

  11. Approach range and velocity determination using laser sensors and retroreflector targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A laser docking sensor study is currently in the third year of development. The design concept is considered to be validated. The concept is based on using standard radar techniques to provide range, velocity, and bearing information. Multiple targets are utilized to provide relative attitude data. The design requirements were to utilize existing space-qualifiable technology and require low system power, weight, and size yet, operate from 0.3 to 150 meters with a range accuracy greater than 3 millimeters and a range rate accuracy greater than 3 mm per second. The field of regard for the system is +/- 20 deg. The transmitter and receiver design features a diode laser, microlens beam steering, and power control as a function of range. The target design consists of five target sets, each having seven 3-inch retroreflectors, arranged around the docking port. The target map is stored in the sensor memory. Phase detection is used for ranging, with the frequency range-optimized. Coarse bearing measurement is provided by the scanning system (one set of binary optics) angle. Fine bearing measurement is provided by a quad detector. A MIL-STD-1750 A/B computer is used for processing. Initial test results indicate a probability of detection greater than 99 percent and a probability of false alarm less than 0.0001. The functional system is currently at the MIT/Lincoln Lab for demonstration.

  12. Research on techniques for laser ranging to optical corner reflectors on the moon. Research on laser techniques and single photo-electron detection and timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, C. O.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies using a pulsed LED, Cerenkov source, and a 100 ps laser were made of various photomultipliers and discriminator combinations. In addition, a new type of neodymium-YAG frequency doubled laser was used as the basis for the development of a stable, short pulse, high repetition rate laser system. This laser was then used in conjunction with atomic clocks to study the effect of gravitational potential on elapsed time. Avenues to promote the development of international cooperation in the area of lunar laser ranging were also explored.

  13. Building block diode laser concept for high brightness laser output in the kW range and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Fabio; Fritsche, Haro; Grohe, Andreas; Hagen, Thomas; Kern, Holger; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Reich, Axel; Sanftleben, Dennis; Steger, Ronny; Wallendorf, Till; Gries, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    applications, materials processing such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel and also medical application. Typical operating at wavelengths in the 9XX nm range, these systems are designed for and mainly used in cutting and welding applications, but adapted wavelength ranges such as 793 nm and 1530 nm are also offered. Around 15XX nm the diodes are already successfully used for resonant pumping of Erbium lasers [1]. Furthermore, the fully integrated electronic concept allows addressing further applications, as due to short lead lengths it is capable of generating very short μs pulses up to cw mode operation by simple software commands.

  14. Pulsed multiwavelength laser ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A pulsed multiwavelength laser ranging system for measuring atmospheric delay was built and tested, and its theoretical performance limits were calculated. The system uses a dye modelocked ND:YAG laser, which transmits 70 psec wide pulses simultaneously at 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The differential delay of the 1064 and 355 nm pulses is measured by a specially calibrated waveform digitizer to estimate the dry atmospheric delay. The delay time of the 532 nm pulse is used to measure the target distance. Static crossed field photomultipliers are used as detectors for all wavelengths. Theoretical analysis shows that path curvature and atmospheric turbulence are fundamental limits to the ranging accuracy of both single and multicolor systems operating over horizontal paths. For two color systems, an additional error is caused by the uncertainty in the path averaged water vapor. The standard deviation of the multicolor instrument's timing measurements is directly proportional to the laser pulse width plus photomultiplier jitter divided by the square root of the received photoelectron number. The prototype system's maximum range is km, which is limited by atmospheric and system transmission losses at 355 nm. System signal detection and false alarm calculations are also presented.

  15. Lunar laser ranging data processing in a Unix/X windows environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Randall L.; Ries, Judit G.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperation with the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project initiative placing workstation computers at each of its laser ranging stations to handle data filtering and normalpointing, MLRS personnel have developed a new generation of software to provide the same services for the lunar laser ranging data type. The Unix operating system and X windows/Motif provides an environment for both batch and interactive filtering and normalpointing as well as prediction calculations. The goal is to provide a transportable and maintainable data reduction environment. This software and some sample displays are presented. that the lunar (or satellite) datacould be processed on one computer while data was taken on the other. The reduction of the data was totally interactive and in no way automated. In addition, lunar predictions were produced on-site, another first in the effort to down-size historically mainframe-based applications. Extraction of earth rotation parameters was at one time attempted on site in near-realtime. In 1988, the Crustal Dynamics Project SLR Computer Panel mandated the installation of Hewlett-Packard 9000/360 Unix workstations at each NASA-operated laser ranging station to relieve the aging controller computers of much of their data and communications handling responsibility and to provide on-site data filtering and normal pointing for a growing list of artificial satellite targets. This was seen by MLRS staff as an opportunity to provide a better lunar data processing environment as well.

  16. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  17. Status of gamma laser problem on current moment 2000: ranging analysis and screening of gamma laser schemes on their feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyagin, Stanislav V.

    2001-03-01

    Joint theory of gamma-generation (GG) and radiation-heat regime (GG&RH) in active medium (AM) of (gamma) -laser (GL) is applied for the analyses of total world experience in the GL-problem in order to choose those nuclei-candidates, active media, GL-schemes which are indeed actual for the GL- creation. The classification of GL over a degree of the `comfortable conditions' for the GG is given. The GL-schemes could be `residential (Rsd)' (creation of excited laser- active nuclei, ELAN, from its parents directly in the site of AM) or `nonresidential (Nrsd)' (creation of ELAN out off the AM). It has been turned out that all `residential' part of the world experience does not fit for the realization of GL and can be considered only as a museum-piece. Any Rsd AM on the short-lived isomers must be inevitably blasted before the beginning of the GG. That `museum' part includes a lot of ideas: GG on long-lived isomers; line narrowing by radio- frequency or optical fields; creation of (gamma) -gain in the inversion less mixture of the excited and de-excited nuclei (amplification without inversion); super-dilution of work- nuclei in a matrix via multi wave Borrman effect; non- Moessbauer active media in plasma, gas or beam with its optical laser cooling, a lot of schemes (one-stage, two- stage, two-phase, two-step, two-photon, etc.). The exception could be only Rsd GL pumped by another GL. But the Nrsd part of world experience had stood yet all strict tests of that joint theory.

  18. Investigation of tidal displacements of the Earth's surface by laser ranging to GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, D. R.; Halpenny, J.; Paul, M. K.; Lambert, A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of laser ranging data from three stations was carried out in an attempt to measure the geometric Earth tide. Two different approaches to the problem were investigated. The dynamic method computes pass to pass apparent movements in stations height relative to short arcs fitted to several passes of data from the same station by the program GEODYNE. The quasi-geometric method reduces the dependence on unmodelled satellite dynamics to a knowledge of only the radial position of the satellite by considering two station simultaneous ranging at the precise time that the satellite passes through the plane defined by two stations and the center of mass of the Earth.

  19. Record tuning range of a 1.55 {micro}m DBR laser realized by selective area growth

    SciTech Connect

    Delprat, D.; Silvestre, L.; Ougazzaden, A.; Delorme, F.; Slempkes, S.; Ramdane, A.

    1996-12-31

    A DBR laser diode with a record 7 nm tuning range has been demonstrated using SAG. The use of MQW structures combined with a small detuning between active and tuning regions of the device have lead to an appreciable output power stability while tuning it. SAG appears as a very simple way for achieving wavelength compatibility. This demonstrates the potential of the method to realize with strained InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW more complex components with for example three sections of different transition energy.

  20. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER TECHNOLOGY: Xenon and hydrogen gas mixtures as laser active media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, V. S.; Kanaev, A. V.; Mikheev, L. D.

    1988-08-01

    It is suggested that gaseous mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen may be used as active media of Xe2 (172 nm) and XeH ( ~ 250 nm) photochemical lasers. By adding more than 3 Torr of hydrogen to xenon, amplification can be achieved in the 172 nm range as a result of quenching of the 1u/0u- absorbing state under optical pumping conditions. The hydrogen atoms produced by the quenching process can be utilized to populate XeH* by three-body recombination with Xe* ( 3P1/2) atoms.

  1. Compact MEMS mirror based Q-switch module for pulse-on-demand laser range finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Atwood, Bryan; Su, Yu; Limkrailassiri, Kevin; Nettleton, John E.; Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian J.; Hough, Nathaniel

    2015-02-01

    A highly compact and low power consuming Q-switch module was developed based on a fast single-axis MEMS mirror, for use in eye-safe battery-powered laser range finders The module's 1.6mm x 1.6mm mirror has <99% reflectance at 1535nm wavelength and can achieve mechanical angle slew rates of over 500 rad/sec when switching the Er/Yb:Glass lasing cavity from pumping to lasing state. The design targeted higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost than the traditional Electro-Optical Q-Switch. Because pulse-on-demand capability is required, resonant mirrors cannot be used to achieve the needed performance. Instead, a fast point-to-point analog single-axis tilt actuator was designed with a custom-coated high reflectance (HR) mirror to withstand the high intra-cavity laser fluence levels. The mirror is bonded on top of the MEMS actuator in final assembly. A compact MEMS controller was further implemented with the capability of autonomous on-demand operation based on user-provided digital trigger. The controller is designed to receive an external 3V power supply and a digital trigger and it consumes ~90mW during the short switching cycle and ~10mW in standby mode. Module prototypes were tested in a laser cavity and demonstrated high quality laser pulses with duration of ~20ns and energy of over 3mJ.

  2. Design and evaluation of an optically-tracked single-CCD laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Pheiffer, Thomas S; Simpson, Amber L; Lennon, Brian; Thompson, Reid C; Miga, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    Acquisition of laser range scans of an organ surface has the potential to efficiently provide measurements of geometric changes to soft tissue during a surgical procedure. A laser range scanner design is reported here which has been developed to drive intraoperative updates to conventional image-guided neurosurgery systems. The scanner is optically-tracked in the operating room with a multiface passive target. The novel design incorporates both the capture of surface geometry (via laser illumination) and color information (via visible light collection) through a single-lens onto the same charge-coupled device (CCD). The accuracy of the geometric data was evaluated by scanning a high-precision phantom and comparing relative distances between landmarks in the scans with the corresponding ground truth (known) distances. The range-of-motion of the scanner with respect to the optical camera was determined by placing the scanner in common operating room configurations while sampling the visibility of the reflective spheres. The tracking accuracy was then analyzed by fixing the scanner and phantom in place, perturbing the optical camera around the scene, and observing variability in scan locations with respect to a tracked pen probe ground truth as the camera tracked the same scene from different positions. The geometric accuracy test produced a mean error and standard deviation of 0.25 ± 0.40 mm with an RMS error of 0.47 mm. The tracking tests showed that the scanner could be tracked at virtually all desired orientations required in the OR set up, with an overall tracking error and standard deviation of 2.2 ± 1.0 mm with an RMS error of 2.4 mm. There was no discernible difference between any of the three faces on the lasers range scanner (LRS) with regard to tracking accuracy. A single-lens laser range scanner design was successfully developed and implemented with sufficient scanning and tracking accuracy for image-guided surgery.

  3. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P.; Nicholas, A.; Thomas, L.; Davis, M.; Hoberman, C.; Davis, M.

    The Naval Research Laboratory will provide an orbiting calibration sphere to be used with ground-based laser imaging telescopes and HF radio systems. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a practical, reliable, high-performance HF calibration sphere and laser imaging target to orbit at about 600 km altitude. The sphere will be made of a spherical wire frame with aspect independent radar cross section in the 3 to 35 MHz frequency range. The necessary launch vehicle to place the PERCS in orbit will be provided by the Department of Defense Space Test Program. The expandable calibration target has a stowed diameter of 1 meter and a fully deployed diameter of 10.2 meters. A separate deployment mechanism is provided for the sphere. After deployment, the Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) with 180 vertices will be in a high inclination orbit to scatter radio pulses from a number of ground systems, including (1) over-the-horizon (OTH) radars operated by the United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral region mapping; and (4) HF direction finding for Navy ships. With the PERCS satellite, the accuracy of HF radars can be periodically checked for range, elevation, and azimuth errors. In addition, each of the 360 vertices on the PERCS sphere will support an optical retro-reflector for operations with ground laser facilities used to track satellites. The ground laser systems will be used to measure the precise location of the sphere within one cm accuracy and will provide the spatial orientation of the sphere as well as the rotation rate. The Department of Defense facilities that can use the corner-cube reflectors on the PERCS include (1) the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), (2) the Starfire Optical Range (SOR), and (3) the NRL Optical Test Facility (OTF).

  4. Six orders of magnitude dynamic range in capillary electrophoresis with ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Colin D.; Essaka, David; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detector was used with capillary electrophoresis for the study of 5-carboxy-tetramethylrhodamine. The raw signal from the detector provided roughly three orders of magnitude dynamic range. The signal saturated at high analyte concentrations due to the dead time associated with the single-photon counting avalanche photodiode employed in the detector. The signal can be corrected for the detector dead time, providing an additional order of magnitude dynamic range. To further increase dynamic range, two fiber-optic beam-splitters were cascaded to generate a primary signal and two attenuated signals, each monitored by a single-photon counting avalanche photodiode. The combined signals from the three photodiodes are reasonably linear from the concentration detection limit of 3 pM to 10 μM, the maximum concentration investigated, a range of 3,000,000. Mass detection limits were 150 yoctomoles injected onto the capillary. PMID:19836546

  5. Sensory processing and world modeling for an active ranging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Tsai-Hong; Wu, Angela Y.

    1991-01-01

    In this project, we studied world modeling and sensory processing for laser range data. World Model data representation and operation were defined. Sensory processing algorithms for point processing and linear feature detection were designed and implemented. The interface between world modeling and sensory processing in the Servo and Primitive levels was investigated and implemented. In the primitive level, linear features detectors for edges were also implemented, analyzed and compared. The existing world model representations is surveyed. Also presented is the design and implementation of the Y-frame model, a hierarchical world model. The interfaces between the world model module and the sensory processing module are discussed as well as the linear feature detectors that were designed and implemented.

  6. Short Range Photoassociation of Rb2 by a high power fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passagem, Henry; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ventura, Paulo; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Marcassa, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Photoassociation has been studied using cold trapped atomic samples for the last 20 years. Due to poor Franck-Condon overlap, a free-to-bound transition followed by spontaneous decay results in a small production of electronic ground state molecules. If the photoassociation is done at short range, deeply bound ground state molecules can be formed. Optical pumping schemes can be used to populate a single state. In our experiment, we have performed trap loss spectroscopy on trapped 85 Rb atoms in a MOT using a high power fiber laser. Our single mode fiber laser (linewidth < 1 MHz) produces about 50 W, which can be tuned in the 1060-1070 nm range. Two vibrational bound states of the 0u+ potential were observed (ν = 137 and 138). The frequency positions as well as the rotational constants of these states are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We have also measured the lifetime of a crossed optical dipole trap using such fiber laser. The lifetime on resonance is shorter than off resonance as expected. A simple theoretical model indicates that the molecules decay to deeply bound vibrational levels in the ground state. This work was supported by Fapesp and INCT-IQ.

  7. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Spinhirne, James D.; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-angle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring. And, as technology advances so do the options for developing instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with these types of measurements. In the current work, the multiangle measurement capability of the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer is demonstrated. This instrument flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle Columbia in 1997 and was the first earth-observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height from the multi-spectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed and the results demonstrate that a vertical precision of 10.6 km was achieved. Further, the accuracy of these measurements is confirmed by comparison with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the Shuttle Laser Altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  8. Method of calculating retroreflector-array transfer functions. [laser range finders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques and equations used in calculating the transfer functions to relate the observed return laser pulses to the center of mass of the Lageos satellite retroflector array, and for most of the retroreflector-equipped satellites now in orbit are described. The methods derived include the effects of coherent interference, diffraction, polarization, and dihedral-angle offsets. Particular emphasis is given to deriving expressions for the diffraction pattern and active reflecting area of various cube-corner designs.

  9. In-line process control for laser welding of titanium by high dynamic range ratio pyrometry and plasma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Baselt, T.; Rudek, F.; Maschke, R.; Basan, F.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    The production of complex titanium components for various industries using laser welding processes has received growing attention in recent years. It is important to know whether the result of the cohesive joint meets the quality requirements of standardization and ultimately the customer requirements. Erroneous weld seams can have fatal consequences especially in the field of car manufacturing and medicine technology. To meet these requirements, a real-time process control system has been developed which determines the welding quality through a locally resolved temperature profile. By analyzing the resulting weld plasma received data is used to verify the stability of the laser welding process. The determination of the temperature profile is done by the detection of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from the material in a range of 500 nm to 1100 nm. As detectors, special high dynamic range CMOS cameras are used. As the emissivity of titanium depends on the wavelength, the surface and the angle of radiation, measuring the temperature is a problem. To solve these a special pyrometer setting with two cameras is used. That enables the compensation of these effects by calculating the difference between the respective pixels on simultaneously recorded images. Two spectral regions with the same emissivity are detected. Therefore the degree of emission and surface effects are compensated and canceled out of the calculation. Using the spatially resolved temperature distribution the weld geometry can be determined and the laser process can be controlled. The active readjustment of parameters such as laser power, feed rate and inert gas injection increases the quality of the welding process and decreases the number of defective goods.

  10. Multi-range free-electron laser with a pair of dielectric multilayer mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2012-10-01

    We report the experimental achievement of a free-electron laser in three wavelength regions, mid-infrared, near-infrared, and visible, using a pair of dielectric multilayer mirrors in the storage ring NIJI-IV. Dielectric multilayer mirrors can have high reflectivity at wavelength regions corresponding to higher-diffraction orders of the target wavelength. A narrowing of the relative bandwidth of the dielectric multilayer mirrors was observed in the higher-diffraction orders of the target wavelength and was found to be caused by high diffraction and carbon contamination. Our experimental results will be applied to development of a multi-rang laser that have a gain in a wade wavelength region.

  11. Apollo 11 Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: Initial Measurements from the McDonald Observatory.

    PubMed

    Alley, C O; Chang, R F; Curri, D G; Mullendore, J; Poultney, S K; Rayner, J D; Silverberg, E C; Steggerda, C A; Plotkin, H H; Williams, W; Warner, B; Richardson, H; Bopp, B

    1970-01-23

    Acquisition measurements of the round-trip travel time of light, from the McDonald Observatory to the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector deployed on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts, were made on 20 August and on 3, 4, and 22 September 1969. The uncertainty in the round-trip travel time was +/- 15 nanoseconds, with the pulsed ruby laser and timing system used for the acquisition. The uncertainty in later measurements of a planned long-term sequence from this observatory is expected to be an order of magnitude smaller. The successful performance of the retro-reflector at several angles of solar illumination, as well as during and after a lunar night, confirms the prediction of thermal design analyses.

  12. Correction of laser range tracking data for atmospheric refraction at elevations above 10 degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.; Murray, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A formula for correcting laser measurements of satellite range for the effect of atmospheric refraction is given. The corrections apply above 10 deg elevation to satellites whose heights exceed 70 km. The meteorological measurements required are the temperature, pressure, and relative humidity of the air at the laser site at the time of satellite pass. The accuracy of the formula was tested by comparison with corrections obtained by ray-tracing radiosonde profiles. The standard deviation of the difference between the refractive retardation given by the formula and that calculated by ray-tracing was less than about 0.04% of the retardation or about 0.5 cm at 10 deg elevation, decreasing to 0.04 cm near zenith.

  13. Earth orientation from lunar laser ranging and an error analysis of polar motion services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data are obtained on the basis of the timing of laser pulses travelling from observatories on earth to retroreflectors placed on the moon's surface during the Apollo program. The modeling and analysis of the LLR data can provide valuable insights into earth's dynamics. The feasibility to model accurately the lunar orbit over the full 13-year observation span makes it possible to conduct relatively long-term studies of variations in the earth's rotation. A description is provided of general analysis techniques, and the calculation of universal time (UT1) from LLR is discussed. Attention is also given to a summary of intercomparisons with different techniques, polar motion results and intercomparisons, and a polar motion error analysis.

  14. Testing gravity with Lunar Laser Ranging: An update on the APOLLO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, James; Colmenares, Nick; Davis, Rodney; Ruixue, Louisa Huang; Murphy, Thomas W., Jr.; Apollo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mystery of dark energy and the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and General Relativity indicate the need for precision experimental probes of gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) makes optical range measurements to retro-reflectors on the Moon with one millimeter precision. These measurements of the lunar orbit enable incisive constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Strong Equivalence Principle and dG / dt (among others). Until now, the APOLLO team had not been able to assess the accuracy of our data, in large part because known limitations to lunar range models ensure data-model residuals at the centimeter scale. To directly measure the APOLLO system timing accuracy, we have built an Absolute timing Calibration System (ACS) that delivers photons to our detector at known, stable time intervals using a pulsed fiber laser locked to a cesium frequency standard. This scheme provides real-time calibration of the APOLLO system timing, synchronous with the range measurements. We installed the calibration system in August, 2016. In this talk, we will describe the ACS design, and present present preliminary results from the ACS calibration campaign. We acknowledge the support of both NSF and NASA

  15. Earth rotation parameters from an on-site study of laser ranging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelus, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-faceted effort was maintained to achieve the following goals: (1) provide for state-of-the-art, on-site, near-real-time Earth orientation parameter determinations at levels of precision and accuracy commensurate with a 'quick-look' type of an analysis, using the lunar laser ranging (LLR) data type from the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS) and other LLR facilities around the world; (2) create a state-of-the-art, highly transportable, LLR-based Earth orientation solution package, which could be easily implemented at LLR facilities other than the MLRS; (3) accommodate, within the routine MLRS lunar range prediction and Earth orientation data analysis software packages, the standard set of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Solar System ephemerides, lunar librations, and Solar System partial derivatives; and (4) examine, wherever possible, opportunities for the performance of state-of-the-art, on-site, joint, simultaneous, quick-look analysis for Earth orientation parameters, using both MLRS lunar and LAGEOS (and, perhaps, Etalon) ranging observations, as well as from multiple LLR station observations. Excellent results were obtained at all levels of effort and it can be said that all of these goals were attained. The reader is referred to the complete series of our semi-annual reports for a full description of our efforts.

  16. The GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Instrument - On track for launch in 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görth, Alexander; LRI Team

    2016-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) is a highly successful satellite mission whose main purpose is to record the temporal and spatial variations of the gravitational field of the Earth. Its successor mission, GRACE Follow-On, is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2017. It will be the first space mission to host a laser-based intersatellite ranging system as a technology demonstrator: the laser ranging interferometer (LRI). The ranging sensitivity of the LRI is expected to be ≤80 nm/sqrt(Hz) which would exceed the original GRACE ranging noise by at least one order of magnitude. Additionally, the LRI will provide new precise data streams for the line-of-sight alignment of the two spacecraft. 
In January 2015 the LRI's critical design review, a major project milestone, was passed successfully. By the end of last year the production of flight hardware was completed. Currently, the LRI is being integrated into the spacecraft and important calibration measurements are performed.
 In my talk I will give an overview of the unique design of the LRI and give an update on the current status of the instrument.

  17. Evaluating through-water terrestrial laser scanning under a range of flow and suspended sediment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Vericat, D.

    2012-04-01

    The fine scale structure of the water-sediment boundary in fluvial environments is dynamic and complex, influencing near-bed flows, sediment transport and instream ecology. Recent advances in surveying technology have enabled the acquisition of high-resolution topographic datasets for both exposed and deeply submerged surfaces using terrestrial and bathymetric LiDAR respectively. However, there remains the challenge of accurately surveying marginally- or partially- inundated areas of river channels. Preliminary tests confirm that terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can be performed through relatively shallow water columns, obtaining three-dimensional submerged topography at a millimetre resolution. With correction for laser refraction at the water surface and estimation of the actual point of laser emission, scanning through water using a standard green-wavelength time-of-flight terrestrial laser scanner has been shown to introduce additional errors of less than 5 mm with no effect on point precision. For partially-submerged surfaces, the sub-aerial and submerged components can be united seamlessly within a single three dimensional topographic model. However, to date, this method has only been evaluated under ideal conditions of a static, relatively shallow and clear water column. This paper evaluates through-water TLS under variable flow and suspended sediment conditions to establish the additional error introduced. In a laboratory setting, submerged topography was acquired under variable water flow, colour and suspended sediment conditions. Decreased precision was observed with increased flow rates, while the effect of suspended sediment in the water column decreased the number of returns to the laser scanner as a function of laser path distance through the turbid water and suspended sediment concentration. The potential range of flow conditions within which through-water terrestrial laser scanning can be applied is established and additional error expected from

  18. Development of a Mid-Infrared Laser for Range-Resolved Methane DIAL Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Hannun, R. A.; Smith, J. B.; Dykema, J. A.; Witinski, M. F.; Anderson, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining a global, homogenous observational record of atmospheric methane mixing ratio as a function of altitude constitutes a challenging experimental problem. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) as well as several climate satellites such as SCIAMACHY provide global data of ground-level concentrations and atmospheric column averages, mapping the global methane content as part of the carbon cycle. However, recent data from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations mission (HIPPO) reveals highly variable spatial structure within the vertical profile, that is not captured by satellite or ground-based in situ data. This underscores the need for new approaches for range-resolved methane detection. Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) has proven to be a viable technique for range-resolved greenhouse gas measurements from both ground-based and airborne platforms. In order to achieve the necessary vertical resolution for long-range methane measurements, a high-power, pulsed laser system in the mid-IR has been developed. The optical set-up includes a single-frequency Nd:YAG laser, which pumps a non-linear crystal to generate broadly tunable, mid-IR pulses via Optical Parametric Generation (OPG). A detailed sensitivity analysis, including computational estimates of the requirements for laser linewidth, spectral purity, and frequency stability and an examination of different spectral regions in the mid-IR, will be presented. Depending on the deployment location of such a ground-based DIAL observing system, these measurements would make substantial contributions to a range of carbon cycle science questions, including monitoring of national emissions inventories and quantifying potential increases in methane emissions from natural reservoirs due to changing climate.

  19. Endoscopic laser range scanner for minimally invasive, image guided kidney surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friets, Eric; Bieszczad, Jerry; Kynor, David; Norris, James; Davis, Brynmor; Allen, Lindsay; Chambers, Robert; Wolf, Jacob; Glisson, Courtenay; Herrell, S. Duke; Galloway, Robert L.

    2013-03-01

    Image guided surgery (IGS) has led to significant advances in surgical procedures and outcomes. Endoscopic IGS is hindered, however, by the lack of suitable intraoperative scanning technology for registration with preoperative tomographic image data. This paper describes implementation of an endoscopic laser range scanner (eLRS) system for accurate, intraoperative mapping of the kidney surface, registration of the measured kidney surface with preoperative tomographic images, and interactive image-based surgical guidance for subsurface lesion targeting. The eLRS comprises a standard stereo endoscope coupled to a steerable laser, which scans a laser fan beam across the kidney surface, and a high-speed color camera, which records the laser-illuminated pixel locations on the kidney. Through calibrated triangulation, a dense set of 3-D surface coordinates are determined. At maximum resolution, the eLRS acquires over 300,000 surface points in less than 15 seconds. Lower resolution scans of 27,500 points are acquired in one second. Measurement accuracy of the eLRS, determined through scanning of reference planar and spherical phantoms, is estimated to be 0.38 +/- 0.27 mm at a range of 2 to 6 cm. Registration of the scanned kidney surface with preoperative image data is achieved using a modified iterative closest point algorithm. Surgical guidance is provided through graphical overlay of the boundaries of subsurface lesions, vasculature, ducts, and other renal structures labeled in the CT or MR images, onto the eLRS camera image. Depth to these subsurface targets is also displayed. Proof of clinical feasibility has been established in an explanted perfused porcine kidney experiment.

  20. Science Investigations with Laser Ranging to the Moon and Mars/Phobos: Recent Advances, Technology Demonstrations, and New Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Williams, James G.; Folkner, William M.

    2010-05-01

    Since it's initiation by the Apollo 11 astronauts in 1969, LLR has strongly contributed to our understanding of the Moon's internal structure and the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. The data provide for unique, multi-disciplinary results in the areas of lunar science, gravitational physics, Earth sciences, geodesy and geodynamics, solar system ephemerides, and terrestrial and celestial reference frames. However, the current distribution of the retroreflectors is not optimal, other weaknesses exist. A geographic distribution of new instruments on the lunar surface wider than the current distribution would be a great benefit; the accuracy of the lunar science parameters would increase several times. We are developing the next-generation of the LLR experiment. This work includes development of new retroreflector arrays and laser transponders to be deployed on the lunar surface by a series of proposed missions to the moon. The new laser instruments will enable strong advancements in LLR-derived science. Anticipated science impact includes lunar science, gravitational physics, geophysics, and geodesy. Thus, properties of the lunar interior, including tidal properties, liquid core and solid inner core can be determined from lunar rotation, orientation, and tidal response. Anticipated improvements in Earth geophysics and geodesy would include the positions and rates for the Earth stations, Earth rotation, precession rate, nutation, and tidal influences on the orbit. Strong improvements are also expected in several tests of general relativity. We address the science return enabled by the new laser retroreflectors. We also discuss deployment of pulsed laser transponders with future landers on Mars/Phobos. The development of active laser techniques would extend the accuracies characteristic of passive laser tracking to interplanetary distances. Highly-accurate time-series of the round-trip travel times of laser pulses between an observatory on the Earth and an optical

  1. Long-range open-path greenhouse gas monitoring using mid-infrared laser dispersion spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghestani, Nart; Brownsword, Richard; Weidmann, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and sensitive methods of monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission over large areas has become a pressing need to deliver improved estimates of both human-made and natural GHG budgets. These needs relate to a variety of sectors including environmental monitoring, energy, oil and gas industry, waste management, biogenic emission characterization, and leak detection. To address the needs, long-distance open-path laser spectroscopy methods offer significant advantages in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity, compactness and cost effectiveness. Path-integrated mixing ratio measurements stemming from long open-path laser spectrometers can provide emission mapping when combined with meteorological data and/or through tomographic approaches. Laser absorption spectroscopy is the predominant method of detecting gasses over long integrated path lengths. The development of dispersion spectrometers measuring tiny refractive index changes, rather than optical power transmission, may offer a set of specific advantages1. These include greater immunity to laser power fluctuations, greater dynamic range due to the linearity of dispersion, and ideally a zero baseline signal easing quantitative retrievals of path integrated mixing ratios. Chirped laser dispersion spectrometers (CLaDS) developed for the monitoring of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide will be presented. Using quantum cascade laser as the source, a minimalistic and compact system operating at 7.8 μm has been developed and demonstrated for the monitoring of atmospheric methane over a 90 meter open path2. Through full instrument modelling and error propagation analysis, precision of 3 ppm.m.Hz-0.5 has been established (one sigma precision for atmospheric methane normalized over a 1 m path and 1 s measurement duration). The system was fully functional in the rain, sleet, and moderate fog. The physical model and system concept of CLaDS can be adapted to any greenhouse gas species. Currently we are

  2. A Hybrid Fiber/Solid-State Regenerative Amplifier with Tunable Pulse Widths for Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Barry; Poulios, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    A fiber/solid-state hybrid seeded regenerative amplifier, capable of achieving high output energy with tunable pulse widths, has been developed for satellite laser ranging applications. The regenerative amplifier cavity uses a pair of Nd:YAG zigzag slabs oriented orthogonally to one another in order to make thermal lensing effects symmetrical and simplify optical correction schemes. The seed laser used is a fiber-coupled 1,064-nm narrowband (<0.02 nm) diode laser that is discretely driven in a new short-pulsed mode, enabling continuously tunable seed pulse widths in the 0.2-to-0.4-ns range. The amplifier gain unit consists of a pair of Brewster-cut 6-bounce zigzag Nd:YAG laser slabs, oriented 90deg relative to each other in the amplifier head. This arrangement creates a net-symmetrical thermal lens effect (an opposing singleaxis effect in each slab), and makes thermo-optical corrections simple by optimizing the curvature of the nearest cavity mirror. Each slab is pumped by a single 120-W, pulsed 808-nm laser diode array. In this configuration, the average pump beam distribution in the slabs had a 1-D Gaussian shape, which matches the estimated cavity mode size. A half-wave plate between the slabs reduces losses from Fresnel reflections due to the orthogonal slabs Brewster-cut end faces. Successful "temporal" seeding of the regenerative amplifier cavity results in a cavity Q-switch pulse envelope segmenting into shorter pulses, each having the width of the input seed, and having a uniform temporal separation corresponding to the cavity round-trip time of approx. =10 ns. The pulse energy is allowed to build on successive passes in the regenerative amplifier cavity until a maximum is reached, (when cavity gains and losses are equal), after which the pulse is electro- optically switched out on the next round trip The overall gain of the amplifier is approx. =82 dB (or a factor of 1.26 million). After directing the amplified output through a LBO frequency doubling

  3. A low-noise large dynamic-range readout suitable for laser spectroscopy with photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, A.; Sanvito, T.; Potenza, M. A.; Zocca, F.

    2012-10-01

    An original low-noise large dynamic-range readout system for optical light spectroscopy with PIN diodes is presented. The front-end circuit is equipped with a smart device for automatic cancellation of the large dc offset brought about by the photodiode current. This device sinks away the exact amount of dc current from the preamplifier input, yielding auto zeroing of the output-voltage offset, while introducing the minimum electronic noise possible. As a result the measurement dynamic-range is maximized. Moreover, an auxiliary inspection point is provided which precisely tracks the dc component of the photodiode current. This output allows for precise beam alignment and may also be used for diagnostic purposes. The excellent gain stability and linearity make the circuit perfectly suited for optical-light pulse spectroscopy. Applications include particle sizing in the 100 nm range, two-dimensional characterization of semiconductor detectors, ultra-precise characterization of laser beam stability, confocal microscopy.

  4. Effects of random path fluctuations on the accuracy of laser ranging systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C S

    1976-10-01

    The effects of turbulence induced pathlength fluctuations on the accuracy of single color and two color laser ranging systems are examined. Correlation and structure functions for the path deviations are derived using several proposed models for the variation of C(n)(2) with altitude. For single color systems, random pathlength fluctuations can limit the accuracy of a range measurement to a few centimeters when the turbulence is strong (C(n)(2) ~ 10(-13) m(-2/3)), and the effective propagation path is long (>10 km). Two color systems can partially correct for the random path fluctuations so that in most cases their accuracy is limited to a few millimeters. However, at low elevation angles for satellite ranging (<20 degrees ) and over long horizontal paths, two color systems can also have errors approaching a few centimeters.

  5. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift using a tracked laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Miga, Michael I; Thompson, Reid C; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Cao, Aize; Dawant, Benoit M

    2007-01-01

    Intra-operative brain shift limits the usefulness of image-guided neurosurgery systems (IGNS), which are based on pre-operative images. Methods that are being developed to address this problem need intra-operative measurements as input. In this work, we present an intra-operative surface shift measurement technique that relies on a tracked 3D laser range scanner. This scanner acquires both 3D range data and 2D images, which are co-registered. We compare two methods to derive displacements at every point in the field of view. The first one relies on the registration of the 2D images; the second relies on the direct 3D registration of the 3D range data. Our results, based on five data sets, show that the 2D method is preferable.

  6. Multi-station lunar laser ranging - An analysis of data quality and earth rotation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The lunar laser ranging (LLR) results obtained from the MERIT period (Sept. 1983 through Oct. 1984) as well as from the post-MERIT period (Nov. 1, 1984 through Aug. 12, 1985) are presented. The ranging targets on the moon include the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 reflectors and a reflector on Lunokhod 2; the LLR network includes McDonald, Texas; CERGA, France; Haleakala, Hawaii; Orroral, Australia; and Crimea, USSR, stations. Data acquired with these systems are reported, and the data quality is assessed, with particular emphasis on recent ranges. During the MERIT period, sixty-five earth rotation values (UTO) were derived from LLR data, with the best accuracy being 0.25 msec; during the post-MERIT period, 115 determinations of UTO were calculated with the best inherent accuracy of about 0.1 msec. The results are compared with those from other techniques.

  7. Multi-station lunar laser ranging - An analysis of data quality and earth rotation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    The lunar laser ranging (LLR) results obtained from the MERIT period (Sept. 1983 through Oct. 1984) as well as from the post-MERIT period (Nov. 1, 1984 through Aug. 12, 1985) are presented. The ranging targets on the moon include the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 reflectors and a reflector on Lunokhod 2; the LLR network includes McDonald, Texas; CERGA, France; Haleakala, Hawaii; Orroral, Australia; and Crimea, USSR, stations. Data acquired with these systems are reported, and the data quality is assessed, with particular emphasis on recent ranges. During the MERIT period, sixty-five earth rotation values (UTO) were derived from LLR data, with the best accuracy being 0.25 msec; during the post-MERIT period, 115 determinations of UTO were calculated with the best inherent accuracy of about 0.1 msec. The results are compared with those from other techniques.

  8. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector at 532 nm and demonstration in satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Meng, Wengdong; Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhongping; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-02-22

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at a wavelength of 532 nm were designed and fabricated aiming to satellite laser ranging (SLR) applications. The NbN SNSPDs were fabricated on one-dimensional photonic crystals with a sensitive-area diameter of 42 μm. The devices were coupled with multimode fiber (ϕ = 50 μm) and exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency of 75% at an extremely low dark count rate of <0.1 Hz. An SLR experiment using an SNSPD at a wavelength of 532 nm was successfully demonstrated. The results showed a depth ranging with a precision of ~8.0 mm for the target satellite LARES, which is ~3,000 km away from the ground ranging station at the Sheshan Observatory.

  9. The Laser Ranging Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five Years of Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 hours of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 centimeter precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 centimeter after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nomi- nally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of approximately 50 meters in total position, and approximately 20 centimeters in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to approximately 15 centimeters. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 milliseconds over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  10. The Laser Ranging Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five Years of Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 hours of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 centimeter precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 centimeter after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nomi- nally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of approximately 50 meters in total position, and approximately 20 centimeters in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to approximately 15 centimeters. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 milliseconds over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  11. The laser ranging experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five years of operations and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 h of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 cm precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 cm after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nominally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of ∼50 m in total position, and ∼20 cm in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to ∼15 cm. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 ms over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  12. Development of the Retroreflector on the Moon for the Future Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Hiroshi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Kashima, Shingo; Noda, Hirotomo; Chiba, Kohta; Otsubo, Toshimichi; Utsunomiya, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data are important for the investigations of the lunar rotation, tide, and lunar deep interior structure. The range accuracy of LLR has been less than 2 cm for the last 20 years due to the progress of laser transmit/receive system on the ground stations and the atmospheric signal delay model, however, one order or more accurate ranging than 2cm is needed for better understanding of the lunar deep interior. We are developing 'single aperture and hollow' retroreflector (Corner Cube Mirror; CCM) to be aboard future lunar landing missions. The aperture of CCM is 20cm because the reflection efficiency of that size is found to be higher than that of Apollo 11 array CCP (Corner Cube Prism). For the CCM ultra low expansion glass-ceramic (ClearCeramRZ-EX, OHARA Inc.; hereafter CCZ-EX)' or 'single crystal Si' is selected for candidate material of CCM taking into account small |CTE|/K (Thermal expansion coefficient over thermal diffusivity) and large specific Young modulus. The optical performance of CCM deformed by lunar gravity or solar illumination in the holder model is presented for some cases.

  13. Method to simulate the object tracking with photon-counting laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xian; Xing, JiChuan; Huang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    We provide a new method to simulate the process of tracking the noncooperative object that moves beyond visual range with a photon-counting laser ranging system. Based on fundamentals of photon-counting laser ranging techniques and parameters of the experimental prototype, we generate echo events according to their probability. Then, we accumulate the echo data in a certain period of time and accurately extract the object's trajectory with mean-shift and random sample consensus algorithms. Depending on the trajectory during the accumulation period, we predict the relative movement of the object in succeeding cycles by using self-tuning α-β filtering and carefully pick out photon echo signals and apply the polynomial fitting to them to compute the trajectory of the object. The simulation shows that the error between the theoretical trajectory and the extracted trajectory is decreasing all the time, which suggests that we can track the object precisely as the time goes by. The simulation in this paper provides a new way for applications like satellite orientation, identification, troubleshooting, etc.

  14. Intersatellite laser ranging with homodyne optical phase locking for Space Advanced Gravity Measurements mission.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Yan, Qi-Zhong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Ying; Luo, Jun

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we present the scheme and the preliminary results of an intersatellite laser ranging system that is designed for the Earth's gravity recovery mission proposed in China, called Space Advanced Gravity Measurements (SAGM). The proposed intersatellite distance is about 100 km and the precision of inter-satellite range monitoring is 10 nm/Hz(1/2) at 0.1 Hz. To meet the needs, we designed a transponder-type intersatellite laser ranging system by using a homodyne optical phase locking technique, which is different from the heterodyne optical phase-locked loop used in GRACE follow-on mission. Since an ultrastable oscillator is unnecessary in the homodyne phase-locked loop, the measurement error caused by the frequency instability of the ultrastable oscillator need not be taken into account. In the preliminary study, a heterodyne interferometer with 10-m baseline (measurement arm-length) was built up to demonstrate the validity of the measurement scheme. The measurement results show that a resolution of displacement measurement of about 3.2 nm had been achieved. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Development of an Interferometric Laser Ranging System for a Follow-On Gravity Mission to GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Bender, P.; Loomis, B.; Watkins, M. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Stephens, M.; Craig, R.; Leitch, J.; Pierce, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has ushered in a new era for satellite measurements of the Earth system. The tremendous advances made by GRACE have led to an interest in launching a follow- on mission with even better spatial resolution. The spatial resolution can be improved by improving the ranging performance, implementing a drag-free control system, and flying at a lower altitude. This presentation will focus on an effort, funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, to develop an interferometric laser ranging system that we expect to perform near the 1 nm/sec level or better over 5 second intervals, which when coupled with other mission improvements, would improve the spatial resolution to ~100 km for 1 cm water equivalent accuracy. We have built an engineering model of the instrument, and will report results from testing this instrument in the laboratory. The laser system will range directly to the proof mass of the drag-free system, eliminating many of the difficulties associated with post-processing the accelerometer data on GRACE. Using the expected instrument performance, we will also summarize the gravity recovery accuracies expected if the instrument were flown.

  16. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; ...

    2016-06-03

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. In conclusion, the propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  17. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  18. Prospects for TLRS baseline accuracies in the western USA. [transportable laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D.; Smith, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    One of the main goals of the LAGEOS satellite mission is the detection of regional geotectonic movements. A parametric study with the intention to obtain the optimal baseline precision from dynamic solutions of laser ranging to LAGEOS is presented. The varied parameters are: length of reduced arc, number of tracking stations, data noise and rate, biases, refraction errors, system efficiency, gravity model errors in the value of GM. The baseline precisions are 1-10 cm depending upon the set of parameters adopted. General principles obtained are also presented.

  19. Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Boggs, Dale H.; Ratcliff, J. Todd

    2004-01-01

    Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q=33+/-4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior properties; a fluid core is indicated with radius approx.20% that of the Moon. Tests of relativistic gravity verify the equivalence principle to +/-1.4x10(exp -13), limit deviations from Einstein's general relativity, and show no rate for the gravitational constant G/G with uncertainty 9x10(exp -13)/yr.

  20. Effects of horizontal refractivity gradients on the accuracy of laser ranging to satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    Numerous formulas have been developed to partially correct laser ranging data for the effects of atmospheric refraction. All the formulas assume the atmospheric refractivity profile is spherically symmetric. The effects of horizontal refractivity gradients are investigated by ray tracing through spherically symmetric and three-dimensional refractivity profiles. The profiles are constructed from radiosonde data. The results indicate that the horizontal gradients introduce an rms error of approximately 3 cm when the satellite is near 10 deg elevation. The error decreases to a few millimeters near zenith.