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Sample records for active layers grown

  1. Ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on single-layered nickel hydroxide with high hydrogen evolution activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Muqsit, Abdul; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Design and synthesis of effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is critical to reduce energy losses in alkaline water electrolysis. Here we report a hybrid nanomaterial comprising of one-dimensional ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on two-dimensional single-layered nickel hydroxide. Judicious surface chemistry to generate the fully exfoliated nickel hydroxide single layers is explored to be the key for controllable growth of ultrathin platinum nanowires with diameters of about 1.8 nm. Impressively, this hybrid nanomaterial exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution, which outperforms currently reported catalysts, and the obviously improved catalytic stability. We believe that this work may lead towards the development of single-layered metal hydroxide-based hybrid materials for applications in catalysis and energy conversion.

  2. Improving Morphological Quality and Uniformity of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanowires by Surface Activation of Catalyst Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Lozano, Helena; Cases-Utrera, Joana; Lee, Minbaek; Esteve, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study about the dependence of the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with the passivation level of the active surface of the Au catalyst layer. The hydrothermal method has many potential applications because of its low processing temperature, feasibility, and low cost. However, when a gold thin film is utilized as the seed material, the grown NWs often lack morphological homogeneity; their distribution is not uniform and the reproducibility of the growth is low. We hypothesize that the state or condition of the active surface of the Au catalyst layer has a critical effect on the uniformity of the NWs. Inspired by traditional electrochemistry experiments, in which Au electrodes are typically activated before the measurements, we demonstrate that such activation is a simple way to effectively assist and enhance NW growth. In addition, several cleaning processes are examined to find one that yields NWs with optimal quality, density, and vertical alignment. We find cyclic voltammetry measurements to be a reliable indicator of the seed-layer quality for subsequent NW growth. Therefore, we propose the use of this technique as a standard procedure prior to the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO NWs to control the growth reproducibility and to allow high-yield wafer-level processing.

  3. Layer-by-layer grown scalable redox-active ruthenium-based molecular multilayer thin films for electrochemical applications and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Kuzume, Akiyoshi; Maharajan, Sivarajakumar; Pobelov, Ilya V.; Kwon, Nam Hee; Mohos, Miklos; Broekmann, Peter; Fromm, Katharina M.; Haga, Masa-Aki; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the first study on the electrochemical energy storage application of a surface-immobilized ruthenium complex multilayer thin film with anion storage capability. We employed a novel dinuclear ruthenium complex with tetrapodal anchoring groups to build well-ordered redox-active multilayer coatings on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface using a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and Raman spectroscopy showed a linear increase of peak current, absorbance and Raman intensities, respectively with the number of layers. These results indicate the formation of well-ordered multilayers of the ruthenium complex on ITO, which is further supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the layers can be controlled with nanometer precision. In particular, the thickest layer studied (65 molecular layers and approx. 120 nm thick) demonstrated fast electrochemical oxidation/reduction, indicating a very low attenuation of the charge transfer within the multilayer. In situ-UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy results demonstrated the reversible electrochromic/redox behavior of the ruthenium complex multilayered films on ITO with respect to the electrode potential, which is an ideal prerequisite for e.g. smart electrochemical energy storage applications. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments demonstrated a pseudocapacitor behavior of the multilayer film with a good specific capacitance of 92.2 F g-1 at a current density of 10 μA cm-2 and an excellent cycling stability. As demonstrated in our prototypical experiments, the fine control of physicochemical properties at nanometer scale, relatively good stability of layers under ambient conditions makes the multilayer coatings of this type an excellent material for e.g. electrochemical energy storage, as interlayers in inverted bulk heterojunction solar cell applications and as functional components in molecular electronics applications

  4. Self-grown Ni(OH)(2) layer on bimodal nanoporous AuNi alloys for enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Han, Gao-Feng; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Lang, Xing-You; Wen, Zi; Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jian-Chen; Jiang, Qing

    2014-10-08

    Au nanostructures as catalysts toward electrooxidation of small molecules generally suffer from ultralow surface adsorption capability and stability. Here, we report Ni(OH)2 layer decorated nanoporous (NP) AuNi alloys with a three-dimensional and bimodal porous architecture, which are facilely fabricated by a combination of chemical dealloying and in situ surface segregation, for the enhanced electrocatalytic performance in biosensors. As a result of the self-grown Ni(OH)2 on the AuNi alloys with a coherent interface, which not only enhances adsorption energy of Au and electron transfer of AuNi/Ni(OH)2 but also prohibits the surface diffusion of Au atoms, the NP composites are enlisted to exhibit significant enhancement in both electrocatalytic activity and stability toward glucose electrooxidation. The highly reliable glucose biosensing with exceptional reproducibility and selectivity as well as quick response makes it a promising candidate as electrode materials for the application in nonenzymatic glucose biosensors.

  5. Phonon excitation and its significance for electrochemically grown copper layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küssner, T.; Wünsche, M.; Schumacher, R.

    2001-04-01

    Electrochemically grown fine and coarsely grained copper films have been exposed to low and strongly damped 5 MHz shear oscillations that travel through them with normal incidence. The real parts of the electrical components such as inductivity L, capacitance C and Ohmic resistance R were evaluated from impedance spectroscopy performed on copper films affixed to 5 MHz quartz oscillators. L, C, R-data were used to calculate the inverse quality factor 1/ Q which is related to the energy dissipated during a single oscillation cycle. Recently, phonon activation has been identified as a major route to explain energy dissipation that occur between sliding surfaces. With the reasonable assumption that shear movement across a grained metal film causes sliding across the grain boundary the sliding distance as and sliding velocity vs can be evaluated. Their presentation as 1/ Q vs. as and vs plots prove that energy dissipation is limited to very small ranges for as and vs. On the basis of this observation atomic scale sliding is subdivided into non-sliding, effective sliding and non-effective sliding. The observed energy dissipation for effective sliding is attributed to the formation of localized phonons which cause the resistivity to increase. As a consequence two conducting states are formed defined as conductivity ground and excited state. One is characterized by a small 1/ Q-value and is attributed to a conducting state which is purely determined by the Ohmic film resistance as prepared. For this situation the current flow through the sample occurs normal to the surface. On the other hand, the conducting state associated with a large 1/ Q-value results from phonon excitation that arise due to the motion across the grain boundary. The resulting increase of the Ohmic resistance causes a change of the current direction from normal to parallel to the surface. These two conducting states coexist during shear oscillation. Their individual contributions to the overall

  6. Suppression of Mg propagation into subsequent layers grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Tahhan, Maher; Mates, Tom; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) flow modulation epitaxy (FME) or "pulsed" growth was successfully used to prevent magnesium from Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown p-GaN:Mg layers riding into subsequently deposited n-type layers. Mg concentration in the subsequent layers was lowered from ˜1 × 1018 cm-3 for a medium temperature growth at 950 °C to ˜1 × 1016 cm-3 for a low temperature growth at 700 °C via FME. The slope of the Mg concentration drop in the 700 °C FME sample was 20 nm/dec—the lowest ever demonstrated by MOCVD. For growth on Mg implanted GaN layers, the drop for a medium temperature regrowth at 950 °C was ˜10 nm/dec compared to >120 nm/dec for a high temperature regrowth at 1150 °C. This drop-rate obtained at 950 °C or lower was maintained even when the growth temperature in the following layers was raised to 1150 °C. A controlled silicon doping series using LT FME was also demonstrated with the lowest and highest achieved doping levels being 5 × 1016 cm-3 and 6 × 1019 cm-3, respectively.

  7. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  8. Interface properties of thin oxide layers grown on strained SiGe layers at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, M.; Ray, S. K.; Ghosh, T. B.; Sreemany, M.; Maiti, C. K.

    1996-03-01

    The chemical state and the electrical properties of the interfaces of thin oxide films grown on strained 0268-1242/11/3/014/img8 layers using plasma and thermal oxidation have been studied in detail. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show no Ge pile-up at the oxide/substrate interface. In the case of plasma oxidation, Ge at the oxide surface is found to be in a fully oxidized state, while the formation of an intermediate oxidized state is observed in the case of low-temperature thermal oxidation. High-frequency (1 MHz) capacitance - voltage (C - V) and conductance - voltage (G - V) measurements have indicated the growth of good quality gate oxides. The fixed oxide charge and interface state densities are comparable to those of low-temperature-grown metal - oxide - semiconductor capacitors on Si with aluminium gates.

  9. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    SciTech Connect

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-08-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al{sub 0.32}Ga{sub 0.68}As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al{sub 0.32}Ga{sub 0.68}:Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700{degrees}C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450{degrees}C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500{degrees}C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230{degrees}C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230{degrees}C, respectively.

  10. As- or P-Doped Si Layers Grown by RPCVD for Emitter Application in SiGeC HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvar, Erdal; Haralson, Erik; Hållstedt, Julius; Radamson, Henry H.; Östling, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    A new module for the emitter formation in a bipolar transistor is presented. Arsenic- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon layer for the emitter formation is deposited in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using silane as the silicon source gas. Characteristics such as the carrier concentration, conductivity, surface morphology, and thermal stability of the polycrystalline-silicon layer as well as the influence this layer has on a SiGeC transistor structure during the drive-in step area studied. The active carrier concentration of the as-grown sample is strongly dependent on the deposition temperature, especially arsenic doped layers which exhibit more than one order of magnitude difference. However, the carrier concentration for the As- or P-doped layer were comparable to that of a standard in-situ doped poly-crystalline layer after a dopant activation at 925°C for 10s.

  11. Germanium segregation in CVD grown SiGe layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikau, Andrei; Gaiduk, Peter

    2010-02-01

    A 2D layer of spherical, crystalline Ge nanodots embedded in a SiO2 layer was formed by low pressure chemical vapour deposition combined with furnace oxidation and rapid thermal annealing. The samples were characterized structurally by using transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry, as well as electrically by measuring C-V and I-V characteristics. It was found that formation of a high density Ge dots took place due to oxidation induced Ge segregation. The dots were situated in the SiO2 at the average distance 5-6 nm from the substrate. Strong evidence of charge storage effect in the crystalline Ge-nanodot layer was demonstrated by the hysteresis behavior of the high-frequency C-V curves.

  12. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  13. Surface defect states in MBE-grown CdTe layers

    SciTech Connect

    Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Fronc, Krzysztof; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-02-21

    Semiconductor surface plays an important role in the technology of semiconductor devices. In the present work we report results of our deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) investigations of surface defect states in nitrogen doped p-type CdTe layers grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique. We observed a deep-level trap associated with surface states, with the activation energy for hole emission of 0.33 eV. DLTS peak position in the spectra for this trap, and its ionization energy, strongly depend on the electric field. Our measurements allow to determine a mechanism responsible for the enhancement of hole emission rate from the traps as the phonon-assisted tunnel effect. Density of surface defect states significantly decreased as a result of passivation in ammonium sulfide. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed the results obtained by the DLTS technique.

  14. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  15. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a “step-composition gradient channel.” We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (−3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift (Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm{sup 2}/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the “step-composition gradient channel” in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  16. Active protein and calcium hydroxyapatite bilayers grown by laser techniques for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Motoc, M M; Axente, E; Popescu, C; Sima, L E; Petrescu, S M; Mihailescu, I N; Gyorgy, E

    2013-09-01

    Active protein and bioceramic calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) bilayers were grown by combining conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) techniques. A pulsed UV KrF* excimer laser was used for the irradiations. The HA layers were grown by PLD. Proteins with antimicrobial action were attached to the bioceramic layers using MAPLE. The composite MAPLE targets were obtained by dissolving the proteins powder in distilled water. The crystalline status and chemical composition of the obtained structures were studied by X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The layers were grown for the design of advanced future metal implants coatings, ensuring both enhanced bone formation and localized antimicrobial therapy. Our results demonstrated that protein coatings improve bone cell proliferation in vitro. Immunofluorescence experiments show that actin filaments stretch throughout bone cells and sustain their optimal spreading.

  17. ZnO Nanorod Array Grown on Ag Layer: A Highly Efficient Fluorescence Enhancement Platform

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongqi; Sun, Ye; Yu, Miao; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Tingting; Yang, Bin; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Shaoqin; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) are known for ultra-sensitive biomolecule detection through fluorescence enhancement. In this work, we demonstrate that ZnO NR arrays grown on Ag layers can significantly improve the enhancement up to 86 times compared to that grown on bare Si, and the enhancement can be modified in a controlled manner by varying Ag thickness. The much improved waveguide properties are attributed to the high reflectance of the Ag layers and their tuning effect on the diameters of ZnO NRs. Our results provide a deep insight into the mechanism of NRs-based fluorescence enhancement platform. PMID:25633246

  18. TEM studies of laterally overgrown GaN layers grown on non-polarsubstrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2006-01-05

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study pendeo-epitaxial GaN layers grown on polar and non-polar 4H SiC substrates. The structural quality of the overgrown layers was evaluated using a number of TEM methods. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on polar substrates leads to better structural quality of the overgrown areas, however edge-on dislocations are found at the meeting fronts of two wings. Some misorientation between the 'seed' area and wing area was detected by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction. Growth of pendeo-epitaxial layers on non-polar substrates is more difficult. Two wings on the opposite site of the seed area grow in two different polar directions with different growth rates. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity are 10 times wider than wings grown with N-polarity making coalescence of these layers difficult. Most dislocations in a wing grown with Ga polarity bend in a direction parallel to the substrate, but some of them also propagate to the sample surface. Stacking faults formed on the c-plane and prismatic plane occasionally were found. Some misorientation between the wings and seed was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction.

  19. Characterization of 1064nm laser-induced damage on antireflection coatings grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Wei, Yaowei; Chen, Songlin; Luo, Jin; Ma, Ping

    2011-12-01

    Damage tests were carried out to measure the laser resistance of Al2O3/TiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 antireflection coatings at 1064nm grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The S-on-1 and R-on-1 damage results are given. It's interesting to find that ALD coatings damage performance seems closed to those grown by conventional e-beam evaporation process. For Al2O3/TiO2 coatings, the grown temperature will impact the damage resistance of thin films. Crystallization of TiO2 layer at higher temperature could play an importance role as absorption defects that reduced the LIDT of coatings. In addition, it is found that using inorganic compound instead of organic compound as precursors for ALD process can effective prevent residual carbon in films and will increase the LIDT of coatings.

  20. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer.

    PubMed

    Dong, K F; Deng, J Y; Peng, Y G; Ju, G; Chow, G M; Chen, J S

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained.

  1. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, K. F.; Deng, J. Y.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained. PMID:27686046

  2. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, K. F.; Deng, J. Y.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) <100>//ZrN (001) <100>//TiN (001) <100> among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained.

  3. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Farimani, Amir Barati; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants. PMID:27791052

  4. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Farimani, Amir Barati; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N R; Rogers, John A

    2016-10-18

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  5. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Barati Farimani, Amir; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Ashraful Alam, Muhammad; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  6. Electron microscopy of an aluminum layer grown on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lovygin, M. V. Borgardt, N. I.; Kazakov, I. P.; Seibt, M.

    2015-03-15

    A thin Al layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a misoriented GaAs (100) substrate is studied by transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction data and bright-field, dark-field, and high-resolution images show that, in the layer, there are Al grains of three types of crystallographic orientation: Al (100), Al (110), and Al (110)R. The specific structural features of the interfaces between the differently oriented grains and substrate are studied by digital processing of the high-resolution images. From quantitative analysis of the dark-field images, the relative content and sizes of the differently oriented grains are determined. It is found that atomic steps at the substrate surface cause an increase in the fraction and sizes of Al (110)R grains and a decrease in the fraction of Al (100) grains, compared to the corresponding fractions and sizes in the layer grown on a singular substrate surface.

  7. Photoconductivities in monocrystalline layered V2O5 nanowires grown by physical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruei-San; Wang, Wen-Chun; Chan, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Hung-Pin; Tien, Li-Chia; Chen, Yu-Jyun

    2013-10-01

    Photoconductivities of monocrystalline vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires (NWs) with layered orthorhombic structure grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been investigated from the points of view of device and material. Optimal responsivity and gain for single-NW photodetector are at 7,900 A W-1 and 30,000, respectively. Intrinsic photoconduction (PC) efficiency (i.e., normalized gain) of the PVD-grown V2O5 NWs is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the V2O5 counterpart prepared by hydrothermal approach. In addition, bulk and surface-controlled PC mechanisms have been observed respectively by above- and below-bandgap excitations. The coexistence of hole trapping and oxygen sensitization effects in this layered V2O5 nanostructure is proposed, which is different from conventional metal oxide systems, such as ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, and WO3.

  8. Inverted fractal analysis of TiOx thin layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Égerházi, L.; Smausz, T.; Bari, F.

    2013-08-01

    Inverted fractal analysis (IFA), a method developed for fractal analysis of scanning electron microscopy images of cauliflower-like thin films is presented through the example of layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition (IPLD). IFA uses the integrated fractal analysis module (FracLac) of the image processing software ImageJ, and an objective thresholding routine that preserves the characteristic features of the images, independently of their brightness and contrast. IFA revealed fD = 1.83 ± 0.01 for TiOx layers grown at 5-50 Pa background pressures. For a series of images, this result was verified by evaluating the scaling of the number of still resolved features on the film, counted manually. The value of fD not only confirms the fractal structure of TiOx IPLD thin films, but also suggests that the aggregation of plasma species in the gas atmosphere may have only limited contribution to the deposition.

  9. Photoconductivities in monocrystalline layered V2O5 nanowires grown by physical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Photoconductivities of monocrystalline vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires (NWs) with layered orthorhombic structure grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been investigated from the points of view of device and material. Optimal responsivity and gain for single-NW photodetector are at 7,900 A W-1 and 30,000, respectively. Intrinsic photoconduction (PC) efficiency (i.e., normalized gain) of the PVD-grown V2O5 NWs is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the V2O5 counterpart prepared by hydrothermal approach. In addition, bulk and surface-controlled PC mechanisms have been observed respectively by above- and below-bandgap excitations. The coexistence of hole trapping and oxygen sensitization effects in this layered V2O5 nanostructure is proposed, which is different from conventional metal oxide systems, such as ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, and WO3. PMID:24160337

  10. Growth and characterization of polymer thin films grown using molecular layer deposition with heterobifunctional precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Zachary Michael Conway

    In this work, growth of thin polymer films using molecular layer deposition with heterobifunctional precursors is investigated. Several growth phenomena are observed including: loss or gain of reactive sites as a result of precursor reactivity or vapor pressure; precursor diffusion and reaction within the porous polymer film; and crosslinking. Reactions were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and various ex situ techniques. Reactions involving 4-azidophenylisothiocyanate and 4-aminobenzonitrile were shown to stop growth after only a few cycles which is attributed to a loss in reactive sites which was modeled by an exponentially decaying growth rate. Growth of 4-carboxyphenylisothiocyanate with TMA and water was investigated as well. Active site multiplication as a result of the trifunctionality of the TMA molecule was proposed to explain the significantly higher growth rate for TMA/CI films. TMA/H2O/CI films showed the ability to crosslink through aluminum hydroxyl condensation reactions. Upon increasing the reaction temperature, reactant diffusion was observed in the form of mass removal upon TMA exposure. This same phenomena is thought to be occurring in films grown using Diels-Alder reactions in the third section of this thesis. These films showed a strong growth rate dependence upon reactant purge time and growth temperature. FTIR seems to weakly support Diels-Alder reaction, but it appears that the primary film growth mechanism is through CVD-like diffusion and condensation reactions.

  11. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid

    2017-04-01

    In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  12. Surface-confined single-layer covalent organic framework on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Wei Quan; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Yan Feng; Lei, Shengbin; Liu, Zhong Fan

    2014-09-01

    The integration of 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with atomic thickness with graphene will lead to intriguing two-dimensional materials. A surface-confined covalently bonded Schiff base network was prepared on single-layer graphene grown on copper foil and the dynamic reaction process was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy. DFT simulations provide an understanding of the electronic structures and the interactions between the surface COF and graphene. Strong coupling between the surface COF and graphene was confirmed by the dispersive bands of the surface COF after interaction with graphene, and also by the experimental observation of tunneling condition dependent contrast of the surface COF.

  13. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiOx stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Bhartiya, S.; Gupta, M.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiOx stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiOx on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ˜6-65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R⊙) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R⊙(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R⊙ and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiOx stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  14. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  15. Strain and Electrical Characterization of Boron-Doped SiGeC Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hållstedt, J.; Parent, A.; Zhang, S.-L.; Östling, M.; Radamson, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation, induced strain and electrical properties of boron and carbon in Si1 x yGexCy epitaxial layers (x = 0.23 and 0.28 with y = 0 and 0.005) grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been studied. The boron concentration in the epitaxial layers was in the range of 3 × 1018 1 × 1021cm 3. The growth rate enhanced weakly by increasing boron partial pressure up to 0.002 mtorr corresponding to 2 × 1019cm 3 where a significant increase in deposition rate was observed. In SiGeC layers, the active boron concentration was obtained from the strain compensation amount. It was also found that the boron atoms have a tendency to locate at substitutional sites more preferentially compared to carbon. The incorporation of boron in SiGeC layers was clearly improved in the range 2 × 1019 3 × 1020cm 3. These investigations also enabled an estimation of the Hall scattering factor of the SiGeC layers. A comparison between our results with the previous theoretical calculations showed a good agreement. This created the possibility to evaluate the drift mobility in our samples.

  16. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D. . E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan . E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-06-15

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study.

  17. Structure of GaSb layers grown on (111) GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkevich, A. Yu.; Cowley, R. A.; Mason, N. J.; Shields, P. A.; Stadelman, T.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; Paul, D.

    2004-09-01

    The structure of GaSb layers with thicknesses of 70Å, 160Å, and 1260Å grown on GaAs (111) substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy has been studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The lattice mismatch between the layer and the substrate is large and most of the misfit strain is taken up by a regular network of dislocations localized at the interface between the GaSb and the GaAs. The spacing between the dislocations is about 49Å along the [1¯1¯2] direction. We observe that the layers have both the ABC … and ACB … face-centered-cubic (fcc) domains with a domain size of about 1500Å. The presence of approximately the same volume of both the domains in the overall layer suggests that the particular domain is chosen largely randomly and independent of the orientation of the substrate. In contrast, the results show that the structure of the GaAs substrate was a single fcc domain. The widths of the off-axis Bragg reflections along the [111] direction for the thinnest sample was within error the same as those for the (hhh ) Bragg reflections showing that each fcc domain penetrated through the entire layer.

  18. STM studies of GeSi thin layers epitaxially grown on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, N.; Sgarlata, A.; De Crescenzi, M.; Derrien, J.

    1996-08-01

    Ge/Si alloys were prepared in UHV by solid phase epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The alloy formation, as a function of the evaporation rate and the Ge layer thickness has been followed in situ by RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The 5 × 5 surface reconstruction appeared after annealing at 450°C Ge layers (up to 10 Å thick), obtained from a low rate Knudsen cell evaporator. In this case a nearly flat and uniform layer of reconstructed alloy was observed. When using an e-gun high rate evaporator we needed to anneal the Ge layer up to 780°C to obtain a 5 × 5 reconstruction. The grown layer was not flat, with many steps and Ge clusters; at high coverages (10 Å and more) large Ge islands appeared. Moreover, we then succeeded in visualizing at atomic resolution the top of some of these Ge islands which displayed a 2 × 1 reconstruction, probably induced from the high compressive strain due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate. We suggest that this unusual behavior could be connected to the high evaporation rate, which helped the direct formation of Ge microcrystals on the Si substrate during the deposition process.

  19. Diffusion of cations in chromia layers grown on iron-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobnig, R.E.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. ); Schmidt, H.P.

    1992-02-01

    Diffusion of the cations Cr, Fe, Mn, and Ni in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated at 1,173 K. The diffusion measurements were performed on chromia layers grown on the model alloys Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-12Ni in order to consider effects of small amounts of dissolved alien cations in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The samples were diffusion annealed in H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at an oxygen partial pressure close to the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cr equilibrium. For all tracers the lattice-diffusion coefficients are 3-5 orders of magnitude smaller than the grain-boundary diffusion coefficients. The lattice diffusivity of Mn is about two orders of magnitude greater than the other lattice-diffusion coefficients, especially in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on Fe-20Cr-12Ni. The values of the diffusion coefficients for Cr, Fe, and Ni are in the same range. Diffusion of the tracers in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on different alloys did not show significant differences with the exception of Mn.

  20. Structural Defects in Laterally Overgrown GaN Layers Grown onNon-polar Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Ni, X.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-02-14

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study defects in lateral epitaxial layers of GaN which were overgrown on a template of a-plane (11{und 2}0) GaN grown on (1{und 1}02) r-plane Al2O3. A high density of basal stacking faults is formed in these layers because the c-planes of wurtzite structure are arranged along the growth direction. Density of these faults is decreasing at least by two orders of magnitude lower in the wings compared to the seed areas. Prismatic stacking faults and threading dislocations are also observed, but their densities drastically decrease in the wings. The wings grow with opposite polarities and the Ga-wing width is at least 6 times larger than N-wing and coalescence is rather difficult. Some tilt and twist was detected using Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction.

  1. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    SciTech Connect

    Szymański, Tomasz Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  2. Diffusion-reaction of aluminum and oxygen in thermally grown Al2O3 oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Julián D.; Giraldo, Juliana; Hernández, Juan C.; Toro, Alejandro; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P.

    2014-04-01

    The diffusion-reaction of aluminum (Al) and oxygen (O), to form thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), is studied through an analytical model. A nonsymmetrical radial basis function approach is used to numerically solve the mass balance equations that predict the TGO growth. Correct boundary conditions for the Al and O reactions are laid out using scaling arguments. The Damköhler number shows that the O-Al reaction is several orders of magnitude faster than diffusion. In addition, a comparison between aluminum and oxygen diffusivities indicates that TGO growth is governed by aluminum diffusion. The results are compared with experimental measurements on air plasma spray-deposited TBCs treated at 1,373 K with exposure times ranging from 1 to 1700 hours. We found that, for several time decades, the thickness of the thermally grown layer has power law dependence of time with an exponent of ½, following the diffusion control mechanism. At later times, however, the presence of other oxides and additional kinetics modify the diffusive exponent.

  3. Improved crystalline quality of N-polar GaN epitaxial layers grown with reformed flow-rate-modulation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wu, Zili; Dai, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Cui, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    A reformed flow-rate-modulation technology was developed for the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers. To improve the crystalline quality of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layers, a GaN nucleation layer was grown at relatively low temperature with carefully-controlled pulsed supply of Ga source and showed diverse morphology with atomic force microscope (AFM). Furthermore, the electrical and optical properties of the grown N-polar GaN epitaxial layers were investigated extensively by means of Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurements. The characterization results revealed that as compared with the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown over the conventional GaN nucleation layer which was deposited with continuous supply of both N and Ga sources, the electrical and optical properties of the N-polar GaN epitaxial layer grown with optimized supply of Ga source for the GaN nucleation layer were significantly improved.

  4. Triclinic deformation of InGaN layers grown on vicinal surface of GaN (00.1) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysko, M.; Domagala, J. Z.; Czernecki, R.; Leszczynski, M.

    2013-09-01

    We report on a triclinic unit cell deformation of fully strained InGaN layers grown on vicinal GaN (00.1) substrates. The samples were examined using the high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR XRD) using a set of asymmetrical reflections and one symmetrical reflection of 00.2. The substrate miscut induced triclinic deformation of the layer unit cells, breaking the hexagonal symmetry. The experimental results are compared with predictions of the theory of elasticity. We formulate equations for unit cell parameters of layers grown on substrates cut in any direction, based on the equations given by Romanov et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023522 (2006)]. Additionally, the paper provides a recipe of the XRD measurements necessary to establish unit cell parameters (useful for composition determination of ternary compounds) of the hexagonal mismatched layers grown on off-axis substrates.

  5. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  6. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, James E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  7. Superheating suppresses structural disorder in layered BiI3 semiconductors grown by the Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, J. E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In this work, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown by others to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals (Rudolph et al., 1996) [26]; thus the technique was explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, X-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) grown thin films for ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Ott, J.; Mäkelä, M.; Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Peltola, T.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Junkes, A.; Niinistö, J.; Ritala, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report we cover two special applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) thin films to solve these challenges of the very small size pixel detectors. First, we propose to passivate the p-type pixel detector with ALD grown Al2O3 field insulator with a negative oxide charge instead of using the commonly adopted p-stop or p-spray technologies with SiO2, and second, to use plasma-enhanced ALD grown titanium nitride (TiN) bias resistors instead of the punch through biasing structures. Surface passivation properties of Al2O3 field insulator was studied by Photoconductive Decay (PCD) method and our results indicate that after appropriate annealing Al2O3 provides equally low effective surface recombination velocity as thermally oxidized Si/SiO2 interface. Furthermore, with properly designed annealing steps, the TiN thin film resistors can be tuned to have up to several MΩ resistances with a few μm of physical size required in ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors.

  9. Surface structure and surface kinetics of InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy: A HREELS study

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Ananta R. E-mail: anantaach@gmail.com; Thoms, Brian D.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-03-15

    The surface bonding configuration and kinetics of hydrogen desorption from InN grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. High resolution electron energy loss spectra exhibited loss peaks assigned to a Fuchs–Kliewer surface phonon, N-N and N-H surface species. The surface N-N vibrations are attributed to surface defects. The observation of N-H but no In-H surface species suggested N-terminated InN. Isothermal desorption data were best fit by the first-order desorption kinetics with an activation energy of (0.88 ± 0.06) eV and pre-exponential factor of (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5 }s{sup −1}.

  10. Role of strain relaxation in exciton resonance energies of ZnO epitaxial layers grown on SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almamun Ashrafi, Abm

    2004-03-01

    The wide bandgap ZnO semiconductor is currently the subject of interest for the study of physics as well as investigations in response to the industrial demand for applications in optoelectronics devices. The most exciting physical properties of ZnO are the largest exciton binding energy of 60 meV and this can be tuned up to 120 meV by controlling the ZnO active layers1. Towards these goals, a great deal of efforts has been made on ZnO layers grown mostly on Al2O3 substrates. It is noted that the lattice mismatch in ZnO/Al2O3 is 18structural defects, and higher residual carrier concentration. To overcome these basic but unavoidable problems for crystalline quality, nearly-matched SiC substrate may play a role including reproducible p-type conductivity in ZnO layers2. Considering the ZnO lattice constant, the estimated lattice mismatch between the ZnO and SiC is to be 5may explore the ZnO epitaxy with the superior crystalline as well as optical properties towards the study of quantum physics in nanoscale level where strain governs the local atomic mechanisms in principle. Recently, we have reported the superior ZnO crystalline quality grown on SiC substrates compared to the ZnO/Al2O3 samples by MOCVD3. In progress to these results, strain relaxation effects in exciton resonance energies of ZnO layers have been addressed in this letter. The surface morphology of ZnO layers grown on SiC exhibited hexagons geometry for the VI/II falux raio of 4 by reflecting the +c ZnO surface. From these layers, therefore, free exciton (FX) emission was appeared with A and B bands to the corresponding energies of 3.377 and 3.390 eV4. With the increase of temperature, however, the FXs emission showed the quenching of excitons energy as well as intensity which may be a subject of overlapping the A and donor-bound (D0X) excitons4. The deduced activation energies of A and D0X exciton emissions suggested a consistency with an inclusion of exciton-defect binding energy in optical bands. The

  11. Surface morphology of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers on (100) and (110) Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, W. T.; Fathauer, R. W.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    The surface morphology and dislocation structure of Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers grown on (100) and (110) Si substrates have been investigated using atomic force microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The layers, which have up to a 1.2 percent lattice mismatch with the substrates, were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at 550 C at thicknesses above those required for the introduction of dislocations. Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers grown on (100) show a crosshatch morphology which is correlated to the underlying misfit dislocation network. Annealing greatly enhances the surface roughness producing a partial islanding growing on the preexisting crosshatch morphology. On the (110) substrates no annealing is necessary to produce a roughened surface. The roughened surface morphology is analyzed as a strain-reducing growth mode which enables partial relaxation of the near-surface atomic planes.

  12. Growth and optical properties of AlN homoepitaxial layers grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Shiro; Nanjo, Yoshiyuki; Okuno, Toshihiro; Kurai, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-04-01

    We have performed the homoepitaxial growth of high-crystalline quality Aluminium nitride (AlN) epilayers by the ammonia-gas source (GS) molecular-beam epitaxy method using the hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown AlN thin layers as substrates. Surface morphologies and step-bunching structures of the homoepitaxially grown AlN epilayers were evaluated using in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns and scanning probe microscopy. It is noted that the step height of several monolayers was achieved on the surface of homoepitaxial layers. The homoepitaxial AlN thin films had the same or improved crystalline quality compared with the HVPE-grown AlN layers from X-ray rocking curve measurements, and its optical properties were investigated using cathodoluminescence measurements. Excitonic emission, which originates from the A free-exciton transition, was clearly observed in the present high-quality homoepitaxial AlN epilayers.

  13. Photocurrent detection of chemically tuned hierarchical ZnO nanostructures grown on seed layers formed by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the morphological control method of ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an Al2O3/ZnO seed layer surface and the application of a hierarchical ZnO nanostructure for a photodetector. Two layers of ZnO and Al2O3 prepared using ALD with different pH values in solution coexisted on the alloy film surface, leading to deactivation of the surface hydroxyl groups. This surface complex decreased the ZnO nucleation on the seed layer surface, and thereby effectively screened the inherent surface polarity of ZnO. As a result, a 2-D zinc hydroxyl compound nanosheet was produced. With increasing ALD cycles of ZnO in the seed layer, the nanostructure morphology changes from 2-D nanosheet to 1-D nanorod due to the recovery of the natural crystallinity and polarity of ZnO. The thin ALD ZnO seed layer conformally covers the complex nanosheet structure to produce a nanorod, then a 3-D, hierarchical ZnO nanostructure was synthesized using a combined hydrothermal and ALD method. During the deposition of the ALD ZnO seed layer, the zinc hydroxyl compound nanosheets underwent a self-annealing process at 150 °C, resulting in structural transformation to pure ZnO 3-D nanosheets without collapse of the intrinsic morphology. The investigation on band electronic properties of ZnO 2-D nanosheet and 3-D hierarchical structure revealed noticeable variations depending on the richness of Zn-OH in each morphology. The improved visible and ultraviolet photocurrent characteristics of a photodetector with the active region using 3-D hierarchical structure against those of 2-D nanosheet structure were achieved. PMID:22672780

  14. Interface roughness of double buffer layer of GaN film grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate using GIXR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamabe, N.; Ohachi, T.

    2011-03-01

    A double buffer layer (DBL), interface reaction epitaxy (IRE) AlN/β-Si3N4/Si, grown by an IRE of β-Si3N4 and AlN films on Si, was fabricated to improve the crystalline quality of successively grown 30 nm GaN on a 30 nm AlN buffer layer using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The DBL was first prepared by surface nitridation of Si and successively prepared by IRE between the deposited Al and N atoms in β-Si3N4. Both the AlN buffer layer on the DBL and GaN film on the AlN buffer layer were grown by activity-modulation migration enhanced epitaxy (AM-MEE). Hetero epitaxial grown films of GaN(30 nm)/AlN buffer(30 nm)/DBL/Si(1 1 1) were prepared for analysis using a three layer model of grazing incidence-angle X-ray reflectivity (GIXR), which consisted of three layers of GaN, AlN buffer and Si and of the three interfaces of the GaN surface, GaN/AlN buffer and AlN buffer/DBL/Si. The nitridation temperature dependence of the interface roughness of the DBL was measured to be 0.5 and 0.6 nm, for nitridation temperatures of 780 and 830 °C, respectively. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve GaN(0 0 0 2) measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for nitridation temperatures of 780 and 830 °C were 58.2 and 55.2 arcmin, respectively.

  15. Highly phosphorus-doped crystalline Si layers grown by pulse-magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, Frank; Gorka, Benjamin

    2009-04-01

    The electrical properties of highly phosphorus-doped crystalline silicon films deposited by pulse-magnetron sputtering were studied. The films were grown, 450 nm thick, on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers at low substrate temperatures Ts of 450-550 °C and post-treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and plasma hydrogenation (PH). In the case of films grown on Si(100), at all values of Ts postgrowth treatment by RTA resulted in an increase in the dopant activation up to 100% and of the Hall mobility to about bulklike values of 50 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result suggests high structural quality of the films on Si(100). The Si(111) films, which are typically more defective, exhibit a completely different behavior with a strong dependence of the electrical dopant activation and the Hall mobility on Ts. By post-treatment a maximum P donor activation level of 22% could be obtained. The variation in the post-treatment procedure (RTA+PH and PH+RTA) for the films deposited at high Ts showed that PH results only in minor changes in the film properties. The different influence of RTA and PH is discussed in terms of the different defect structure of the films. These investigations reveal that high Ts and after-treatment by RTA are the main preconditions for optimal electrical film properties.

  16. Carbon Doping of Compound Semiconductor Epitaxial Layers Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Carbon Tetrachloride.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A dilute mixture of CCl_4 in high purity H_2 has been used as a carbon dopant source for rm Al_ {x}Ga_{1-x}As grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To understand the mechanism for carbon incorporation from CCl_4 doping and to provide experimental parameters for the growth of carbon doped device structures, the effects of various crystal growth parameters on CCl _4 doping have been studied, including growth temperature, growth rate, V/III ratio, Al composition, and CCl_4 flow rate. Although CCl _4 is an effective p-type dopant for MOCVD rm Al_{x}Ga_ {1-x}As, injection of CCl_4 into the reactor during growth of InP resulted in no change in the carrier concentration or carbon concentration. Abrupt, heavy carbon doping spikes in GaAs have been obtained using CCl_4 without a dopant memory effect. By annealing samples with carbon doping spikes grown within undoped, n-type, and p-type GaAs, the carbon diffusion coefficient in GaAs at 825 ^circC has been estimated and has been found to depend strongly on the GaAs background doping. Heavily carbon doped rm Al_{x}Ga _{1-x}As/GaAs superlattices have been found to be more stable against impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) than Mg or Zn doped superlattices, indicating that the low carbon diffusion coefficient limits the IILD process. Carbon doping has been used in the base region on an Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Transistors with 3 x 10 μm self-aligned emitter fingers have been fabricated which exhibit a current gain cutoff frequency of f_ {rm t} = 26 GHz.

  17. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  18. Mechanism of arsenic incorporation and electrical properties in CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawa, Mitsuru; Yasuda, Kazuhito; Ferid, Touati; Saji, Manabu; Tanaka, Akikazu

    1992-03-01

    The As doping mechanism in (100) CdTe layers grown on (100) GaAs by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was studied. Triethylarsine (TEAs) was used as a dopant source. The source materials used were dimethylcadmium (DMCd) and diethyltelluride (DETe). The As incorporation was enhanced by decreasing the DETe flow rate under a fixed DMCd flow condition, and by lowering the growth temperature. Assuming 100% activation of As, the As incorporation efficiency was estimated to be about 0.1%. The As incorporation was dominated by the sticking rate of the As species onto the Cd species. The hole concentration was controlled from 2×1015 to 3×1016 cm-3 in proportion to the TEAs flow rate below 1×10-7 mol/min. Those doped layers showed hole mobilities as high as 75 cm2/V s. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies revealed that a neutral-acceptor bound-exciton at 1.5901 eV is due to a substitutional As acceptor on the Te site. The As ionization energy was about 90 meV from the PL and electrical measurements.

  19. Structural properties and metallic conductivity of Ti1-x Nb x O2 films grown by atomic layer deposition on crystalline substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Jakiela, Rafal; Lusakowska, Elzbieta

    2015-12-01

    Niobium-doped titanium dioxide (Ti1-x Nb x O2, x  ≈  0.04, TNO) films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low growth temperature (220 °C) on LaAlO3(1 0 0) (LAO) and Al2O3(0 0 0 1) (c-sapphire) substrates. The films were without any post-deposition annealing. The films grown on both kinds of substrates have anatase structure. However, the films grown on LAO substrates have (0 0 1) predominant orientation compared to a higher content of (1 1 2) orientation in the films grown on sapphire. TNO/LAO films showed low resistivities (~10-3 Ω cm at room temperature) and a metallic-type electrical conductivity as opposed to higher resistivities (~10-2 Ω cm) and a thermally activated conductivity of TNO/sapphire layers. ALD growth mechanisms of TNO films on crystalline substrates were described.

  20. Density functional theory predictions of the composition of atomic layer deposition-grown ternary oxides.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ciaran; Elliott, Simon D

    2013-05-01

    The surface reactivity of various metal precursors with different alkoxide, amide, and alkyl ligands during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ternary oxides was determined using simplified theoretical models. Quantum chemical estimations of the Brønsted reactivity of a metal complex precursor at a hydroxylated surface are made using a gas-phase hydrolysis model. The geometry optimized structures and energies for a large suite of 17 metal precursors (including cations of Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, La, Ti, Zr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, and Ga) with five different anionic ligands (conjugate bases of tert-butanol, tetramethyl heptanedione, dimethyl amine, isopropyl amidine, and methane) and the corresponding hydrolyzed complexes are calculated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The theoretically computed energies are used to determine the energetics of the model reactions. These DFT models of hydrolysis are used to successfully explain the reactivity and resulting stoichiometry in terms of metal cation ratios seen experimentally for a variety of ALD-grown ternary oxide systems.

  1. Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Aile Kozlova, Jekaterina; Aarik, Lauri; Aarik, Jaan; Kukli, Kaupo; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo

    2015-01-15

    Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates. For depositing dysprosium and titanium oxides Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 3} were used as precursors combinations. Appropriate parameters for Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} growth process were obtained by using a quartz crystal microbalance system. The Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The Dy/Ti ratio of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited on a planar silicon substrate ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. Magnetometry studies revealed that saturation of magnetization could not be observed in planar Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, but it was observable in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on 3D substrates and in doped TiO{sub 2} films with a Dy/Ti atomic ratio of 0.06. The latter films exhibited saturation magnetization 10{sup −6} A cm{sup 2} and coercivity 11 kA/m at room temperature.

  2. Defect studies in MBE grown GaSb{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} layers

    SciTech Connect

    Segercrantz, N.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Slotte, J.; Song, Y.; Wang, S.

    2014-02-21

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy in Doppler broadening mode is used to study epitaxial layers of GaSb{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} on undoped GaSb. The samples were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy at different temperatures and with different Bi/Sb beam equivalent pressure ratios resulting in Bi concentrations of 0–0.7 %. The results show a relationship between the growth parameters and Doppler broadening parameters. Incorporating Bi into GaSb decreases the vacancy concentration in the epitaxial layers compared to the sample with no Bi in the epitaxial layer.

  3. Physical properties of epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, A. B.; Zhang, C.; Sardela, M.; Eckstein, J. N.; Rockett, A.; Howe, B. M.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2013-11-15

    Single-crystal ZrN films, 830 nm thick, are grown on MgO(001) at 450 °C by magnetically unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering. The combination of high-resolution x-ray diffraction reciprocal lattice maps, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction shows that ZrN grows epitaxially on MgO(001) with a cube-on-cube orientational relationship, (001){sub ZrN}‖(001){sub MgO} and [100]{sub ZrN}‖[100]{sub MgO}. The layers are essentially fully relaxed with a lattice parameter of 0.4575 nm, in good agreement with reported results for bulk ZrN crystals. X-ray reflectivity results reveal that the films are completely dense with smooth surfaces (roughness = 1.3 nm, consistent with atomic-force microscopy analyses). Based on temperature-dependent electronic transport measurements, epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers have a room-temperature resistivity ρ{sub 300K} of 12.0 μΩ-cm, a temperature coefficient of resistivity between 100 and 300 K of 5.6 × 10{sup −8}Ω-cm K{sup −1}, a residual resistivity ρ{sub o} below 30 K of 0.78 μΩ-cm (corresponding to a residual resistivity ratio ρ{sub 300Κ}/ρ{sub 15K} = 15), and the layers exhibit a superconducting transition temperature of 10.4 K. The relatively high residual resistivity ratio, combined with long in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray coherence lengths, ξ{sub ‖} = 18 nm and ξ{sub ⊥} = 161 nm, indicates high crystalline quality with low mosaicity. The reflectance of ZrN(001), as determined by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, decreases slowly from 95% at 1 eV to 90% at 2 eV with a reflectance edge at 3.04 eV. Interband transitions dominate the dielectric response above 2 eV. The ZrN(001) nanoindentation hardness and modulus are 22.7 ± 1.7 and 450 ± 25 GPa.

  4. High indium content homogenous InAlN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Erin C. H.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Wu, Feng; Bonef, Bastien; Speck, James S.

    2016-11-01

    InAlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy often contains a honeycomb microstructure. The honeycomb microstructure consists of 5-10 nm diameter aluminum-rich regions which are surrounded by indium-rich regions. Layers without this microstructure were previously developed for nominally lattice-matched InAlN and have been developed here for higher indium content InAlN. In this study, InAlN was grown in a nitrogen-rich environment with high indium to aluminum flux ratios at low growth temperatures. Samples were characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Atomic force microscopy showed InAlN layers grown at temperatures below 450 °C under nitrogen-rich conditions were free of droplets. InAlN films with indium contents up to 81% were grown at temperatures between 410 and 440 °C. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography showed no evidence of honeycomb microstructure for samples with indium contents of 34% and 62%. These layers are homogeneous and follow a random alloy distribution. A growth diagram for InAlN of all indium contents is reported.

  5. Luminescence properties of lanthanide and ytterbium lanthanide titanate thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Per-Anders Fjellvåg, Helmer; Nilsen, Ola; Finstad, Terje G.

    2016-01-15

    Lanthanide based luminescent materials are highly suitable as down conversion materials in combination with a UV-absorbing host material. The authors have used TiO{sub 2} as the UV-absorbing host material and investigated the energy transfer between TiO{sub 2} and 11 different lanthanide ions, Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) in thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. They have also investigated the possibility to improve the overall energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Yb{sup 3+} with a second Ln{sup 3+}, in order to enhance down conversion. The films were grown at a substrate temperature of 300 °C, using the Ln(thd){sub 3}/O{sub 3} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O precursor pairs. The focus of the work is to explore the energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} ions, and the energy transfer between Ln{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions, which could lead to efficient down conversion. The samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence. All films were amorphous as deposited, and the samples have been annealed at 600, 800, and 1000 °C in order to investigate the correlation between the crystallinity and luminescence. The lanthanum titanium oxide samples showed a weak and broad emission centered at 540 nm, which was absent in all the other samples, indicating energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} in all other lanthanide samples. In the amorphous phase, all samples, apart from La, Tb, and Tm, showed a typical f-f emission when excited by a 325 nm HeCd laser. None of the samples showed any luminescence after annealing at 1000 °C due to the formation of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Samples containing Nd, Sm, and Eu show a change in emission spectrum when annealed at 800 °C compared to the as-deposited samples, indicating that the smaller lanthanides crystallize in a different manner than the larger

  6. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; ...

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substratemore » temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.« less

  7. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Eres, Gyula

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substrate temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.

  8. Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is gaining attention as a thin film deposition method, uniquely suitable for depositing uniform and conformal films on complex three-dimensional topographies. The deposition of a film of a given material by ALD relies on the successive, separated, and self-terminating gas-solid reactions of typically two gaseous reactants. Hundreds of ALD chemistries have been found for depositing a variety of materials during the past decades, mostly for inorganic materials but lately also for organic and inorganic-organic hybrid compounds. One factor that often dictates the properties of ALD films in actual applications is the crystallinity of the grown film: Is the material amorphous or, if it is crystalline, which phase(s) is (are) present. In this thematic review, we first describe the basics of ALD, summarize the two-reactant ALD processes to grow inorganic materials developed to-date, updating the information of an earlier review on ALD [R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005)], and give an overview of the status of processing ternary compounds by ALD. We then proceed to analyze the published experimental data for information on the crystallinity and phase of inorganic materials deposited by ALD from different reactants at different temperatures. The data are collected for films in their as-deposited state and tabulated for easy reference. Case studies are presented to illustrate the effect of different process parameters on crystallinity for representative materials: aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, zinc oxide, titanium nitride, zinc zulfide, and ruthenium. Finally, we discuss the general trends in the development of film crystallinity as function of ALD process parameters. The authors hope that this review will help newcomers to ALD to familiarize themselves with the complex world of crystalline ALD films and, at the same time, serve for the expert as a handbook-type reference source on ALD processes and film crystallinity.

  9. Study of carrier recombination transient characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN dependent on layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubas, E. Čeponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Jelmakas, E.; Juršėnas, S.; Kadys, A.; Malinauskas, T.; Tekorius, A.; Vitta, P.

    2013-11-15

    The MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers of different thickness have been examined in order to clarify a role of surface recombination, to separate an impact of radiative and non-radiative recombination and disorder factors. The microwave probed –photoconductivity (MW-PC) and spectrally resolved photo-luminescence (PL) transients were simultaneously recorded under ultraviolet (UV) light 354 nm pulsed 500 ps excitation. The MW-PC transients exhibited the carrier decay components associated with carrier decay within micro-crystals and the disordered structure on the periphery areas surrounding crystalline columns. Three PL bands were resolved within PL spectrum, namely, the exciton ascribed UV-PL band edge for hν>3.3 eV, blue B-PL band for 2.5 < hν < 3.0 eV and yellow Y-PL band with hν < 2.4 eV. It has been obtained that intensity of UV-PL band increases with excitation density, while intensity of B-PL band is nearly invariant. However, intensity of the Y-PL increases with reduction of the excitation density. The Y-PL can be associated with trapping centers. A reduction of UV excitation density leads to a decrease of the relative amplitude of the asymptotic component within the MW-PC transients and to an increase of the amplitude as well as duration of the yellow spectral band (Y-PL) asymptotic component. Fractional index α with values 0.5 < α < 0.8 was evaluated for the stretched-exponent component which fits the experimental transients determined by the disordered structure ascribed to the periphery areas surrounding the crystalline columns.

  10. Incorporation of La in epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO3-buffered Si (001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong Q.; Karako, Christine M.; Bruley, John; Frank, Martin M.; Narayanan, Vijay; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2014-06-01

    Strontium titanate, SrTiO3 (STO), thin films incorporated with lanthanum are grown on Si (001) substrates at a thickness range of 5-25 nm. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to grow the LaxSr1-xTiO3 (La:STO) films after buffering the Si (001) substrate with four-unit-cells of STO deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. The crystalline structure and orientation of the La:STO films are confirmed via reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The low temperature ALD growth (˜225 °C) and post-deposition annealing at 550 °C for 5 min maintains an abrupt interface between Si (001) and the crystalline oxide. Higher annealing temperatures (650 °C) show more complete La activation with film resistivities of ˜2.0 × 10-2 Ω cm for 20-nm-thick La:STO (x ˜ 0.15); however, the STO-Si interface is slightly degraded due to the increased annealing temperature. To demonstrate the selective incorporation of lanthanum by ALD, a layered heterostructure is grown with an undoped STO layer sandwiched between two conductive La:STO layers. Based on this work, an epitaxial oxide stack centered on La:STO and BaTiO3 integrated with Si is envisioned as a material candidate for a ferroelectric field-effect transistor.

  11. Band lineup in GaAs(1-x)Sbx/GaAs strained-layer multiple quantum wells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, G.; Agarwala, S.; Huang, D.; Chyi, J.; Morkoc, H.

    1988-01-01

    GaAs(1-x)Sbx/GaAs strained-layer multiple quantum wells have been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and characterized by room-temperature photoreflectance (PR). The PR spectra denote that high-quality layers can be grown in the GaAs(1-x)Sbx/GaAs system. The method for determining the band offset Q(vh) is discussed in this strained-layer system.

  12. Nanocrystallized Cu2Se grown on electroless Cu coated p-type Si using electrochemical atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; He, Wenya; Chen, Xiang-yu; Du, Yi; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Yehua; Yang, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    Cuprous selenide (Cu2Se) nanocrystalline thin films are grown onto electroless Cu coating on p-Si (100) substrates using electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD), which includes alternate electrodeposition of Cu and Se atomic layers. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), FTIR, and open-circuit potential (OCP) studies. The results show the higher quality and good photoelectric properties of the Cu2Se film, suggesting that the combination of electroless coating and EC-ALD is an ideal method for deposition of compound semiconductor films on p-Si.

  13. Hydrothermal regimes of the dry active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mamoru; Zhang, Yinsheng; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2006-04-01

    Evaporation and condensation in the soil column clearly influence year-round nonconductive heat transfer dynamics in the dry active layer underlying semiarid permafrost regions. We deduced this from heat flux components quantified using state-of-the-art micrometeorological data sets obtained in dry and moist summers and in winters with various snow cover depths. Vapor moves easily through large pores, some of which connect to the atmosphere, allowing (1) considerable active layer warming driven by pipe-like snowmelt infiltration, and (2) direct vapor linkage between atmosphere and deeper soils. Because of strong adhesive forces, water in the dry active layer evaporates with great difficulty. The fraction of latent heat to total soil heat storage ranged from 26 to 45% in dry and moist summers, respectively. These values are not negligible, despite being smaller than those of arctic wet active layer, in which only freezing and thawing were considered.

  14. Polarity and microstructure in InN thin layers grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, N.; Nakahara, Y.; Amano, H.

    2006-06-01

    Microstructures in InN grown on sapphire (0001) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the growth process. Special attention was paid to the selectivity of the crystal polarity of InN. The InN thin films grown on sapphire after nitridation has a flat surface while those grown on YSZ has hillocks on the surface. The crystal polarity was determined by comparing the experimentally observed intensity distribution in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) disks with those simulated by the Broch-wave method. It was found that the InN grown on the sapphire has a nitrogen-polarity and the one on YSZ has a mixture of In- and N-polarities. The effect of surface-nitridation of sapphire on the growth process is also discussed

  15. Investigation of void formation beneath thin AlN layers by decomposition of sapphire substrates for self-separation of thick AlN layers grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yoshinao; Enatsu, Yuuki; Ishizuki, Masanari; Kubota, Yuki; Tajima, Jumpei; Nagashima, Toru; Murakami, Hisashi; Takada, Kazuya; Koukitu, Akinori

    2010-09-01

    Void formation at the interface between thick AlN layers and (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates was investigated to form a predefined separation point of the thick AlN layers for the preparation of freestanding AlN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). By heating 50-200 nm thick intermediate AlN layers above 1400 °C in a gas flow containing H 2 and NH 3, voids were formed beneath the AlN layers by the decomposition reaction of sapphire with hydrogen diffusing to the interface. The volume of the sapphire decomposed at the interface increased as the temperature and time of the heat treatment was increased and as the thickness of the AlN layer decreased. Thick AlN layers subsequently grown at 1450 °C after the formation of voids beneath the intermediate AlN layer with a thickness of 100 nm or above self-separated from the sapphire substrates during post-growth cooling with the aid of voids. The 79 μm thick freestanding AlN substrate obtained using a 200 nm thick intermediate AlN layer had a flat surface with no pits, high optical transparency at wavelengths above 208.1 nm, and a dislocation density of 1.5×10 8 cm -2.

  16. An insolation activated dust layer on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard; Kelling, Thorben; Koester, Marc; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The illuminated dusty surface of Mars acts like a gas pump. It is driven by thermal creep at low pressure within the soil. In the top soil layer this gas flow has to be sustained by a pressure gradient. This is equivalent to a lifting force on the dust grains. The top layer is therefore under tension which reduces the threshold wind speed for saltation. We carried out laboratory experiments to quantify the thickness of this activated layer. We use basalt with an average particle size of 67 μm. We find a depth of the active layer of 100-200 μm. Scaled to Mars the activation will reduce threshold wind speeds for saltation by about 10%.

  17. Optically active vacancies in GaN grown on Si substrates probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Uedono, Akira Zhang, Yang; Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Palacios, Tomás; Cao, Yu; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2014-02-24

    Native defects in GaN layers grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for GaN layers showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were formed in the layers. Charge transition of the defects due to electron capture was found to occur when the layers were irradiated by photons with energy above 2.71 eV. The concentration of such defects increased after 600–800 °C annealing, but the defects have not been annealed out even at 1000 °C. They were identified as Ga-vacancy-type defects, such as complexes between Ga vacancies and carbon impurities, and the relationship between their charge transition and optical properties were discussed.

  18. Optically active vacancies in GaN grown on Si substrates probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Fujishima, Tatsuya; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Yoshihara, Nakaaki; Ishibashi, Shoji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-02-01

    Native defects in GaN layers grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for GaN layers showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were formed in the layers. Charge transition of the defects due to electron capture was found to occur when the layers were irradiated by photons with energy above 2.71 eV. The concentration of such defects increased after 600-800 °C annealing, but the defects have not been annealed out even at 1000 °C. They were identified as Ga-vacancy-type defects, such as complexes between Ga vacancies and carbon impurities, and the relationship between their charge transition and optical properties were discussed.

  19. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Comparative Metabolic Profiling of In Vitro Cultured and Field Grown Withania somnifera Roots

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1MIR when compared to 1.5MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products. PMID:25874568

  20. X-ray diffraction and ellipsometric studies of zinc sulfide thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikkonen, Markku

    1988-05-01

    The microstructure of ZnS thin films grown by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is investigated using X-ray diffraction and a single-line technique. Crystal structure, preferred orientation, crystallinity, crystallite size, crystallite size distribution, and microstrain are determined. Complex refractive indexes of the films are determined in the wavelength range 400 to 600 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry. A two-layer model is employed, where the uppermost layer takes into account the surface roughness. Density of ZnS thin films is determined using ellipsometry and He(+)-ion backscattering spectrometry. In the first tens of nanometers of an ALE ZnS thin film the crystallinity and void content strongly depend on the substrate properties. Most of the films were grown on soda glass. It is found that after the bottom layer, at the distances from 50 to 100 nm to 300 to 400 nm from the substrate the crystallinity is good, crystallites are large, the specific orientation is strong, the void content is low, and the optical properties resemble those of bulk ZnS. At distances larger than 300 to 400 nm the surface roughness and the void content in the upper parts of the film increase because of the more and more randomly packed large crystallites. Substrate temperature and source materials affect the growth of all parts of the films.

  1. Comparative study of polar and semipolar (112⁻2) InGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Duc V. E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie; Zubialevich, V. Z.; Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J. E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie; Caliebe, M.; Scholtz, F.

    2014-10-21

    InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112⁻2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (≥750°C), the indium content (<15%) of the (112⁻2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750°C, the indium content of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers (15%–26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%–32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112⁻2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380 nm to 580 nm with decreasing growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ≈(50–60) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.

  2. Epitaxial Crystal Silicon Absorber Layers and Solar Cells Grown at 1.8 Microns per Minute: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bobela, D. C.; Teplin, C. W.; Young, D. L.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

    2011-07-01

    We have grown device-quality epitaxial silicon thin films at growth rates up to 1.8 μm/min, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition from silane at substrate temperatures below 750 degrees C. At these rates, which are more than 30 times faster than those used by the amorphous and nanocrystalline Si industry, capital costs for large-scale solar cell production would be dramatically reduced, even for cell absorber layers up to 10 ?m thick. We achieved high growth rates by optimizing the three key parameters: silane flow, depletion, and filament geometry, based on our model developed earlier. Hydrogen coverage of the filament surface likely limits silane decomposition and growth rate at high system pressures. No considerable deterioration in PV device performance is observed when grown at high rate, provided that the epitaxial growth is initiated at low rate. A simple mesa device structure (wafer/epi Si/a-Si(i)/a-Si:H(p)/ITO) with a 2.3 um epitaxial silicon absorber layer was grown at 700 nm/min. The finished device had an open-circuit voltage of 0.424 V without hydrogenation treatment.

  3. Ex Situ Thermal Cycle Annealing of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown HgCdTe/Si Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    during the growth process itself, is an effective means to reduce etch pit den- sity (EPD) and improve overall crystal quality. Subjecting CdTe /Si...results of ex situ thermal cycle annealing (TCA) of molecular beam epitaxy grown mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) on Cd (Se)Te/ Si(211) composite...present the results of ex situ thermal cycle annealing (TCA) of molecular beam epitaxy grown mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) on Cd (Se)Te/ Si(211

  4. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-κ oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselev, Alexander; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2013-12-01

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al2O3 and HfO2 films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al2O3/HfO2 stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  5. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-κ oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-12-09

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  6. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  7. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-07

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  8. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  9. Low-dislocation-density epitatial layers grown by defect filtering by self-assembled layers of spheres

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2013-04-23

    A method for growing low-dislocation-density material atop a layer of the material with an initially higher dislocation density using a monolayer of spheroidal particles to bend and redirect or directly block vertically propagating threading dislocations, thereby enabling growth and coalescence to form a very-low-dislocation-density surface of the material, and the structures made by this method.

  10. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Ultrabarrier Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for the Encapsulation of Printed Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, Anuradha; Singh, Ankit K.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Dindar, Amir; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Kim, Hyungchul; Cullen, David A.; Kippelen, Bernard; Graham, Samuel

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, elastic mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50{degree sign}C/85% RH. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  11. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kim, H.; Cullen, D.; Kippelen, B.; Graham, S.

    2015-08-01

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  12. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Ultrabarrier Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for the Encapsulation of Printed Electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Bulusu, Anuradha; Singh, Ankit K.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; ...

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, elastic mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition.more » We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50{degree sign}C/85% RH. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.« less

  13. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H.; Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B.; Cullen, D.; Graham, S.

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})/hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN{sub x} layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  14. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, D. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.; Bhartiya, S.; Gupta, M.

    2016-01-25

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  15. Reliable thin film encapsulation for organic light emitting diodes grown by low-temperature atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Schneidenbach, D.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Weimann, T.; Hinze, P.; Ammermann, S.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2009-06-01

    We report on highly efficient gas diffusion barriers for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Nanolaminate (NL) structures composed of alternating Al2O3 and ZrO2 sublayers grown by atomic layer deposition at 80 °C are used to realize long-term stable OLED devices. While the brightness of phosphorescent p-i-n OLEDs sealed by a single Al2O3 layer drops to 85% of the initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2 after 1000 h of continuous operation, OLEDs encapsulated with the NL retain more than 95% of their brightness. An extrapolated device lifetime substantially in excess of 10 000 h can be achieved, clearly proving the suitability of the NLs as highly dense and reliable thin film encapsulation of sensitive organic electronic devices.

  16. Structural and optical properties of AgAlTe{sub 2} layers grown on sapphire substrates by closed space sublimation method

    SciTech Connect

    Uruno, A. Usui, A.; Kobayashi, M.

    2014-11-14

    AgAlTe{sub 2} layers were grown on a- and c-plane sapphire substrates using a closed space sublimation method. Grown layers were confirmed to be single phase layers of AgAlTe{sub 2} by X-ray diffraction. AgAlTe{sub 2} layers were grown to have a strong preference for the (112) orientation on both kinds of substrates. The variation in the orientation of grown layers was analyzed in detail using the X-ray diffraction pole figure measurement, which revealed that the AgAlTe{sub 2} had a preferential epitaxial relationship with the c-plane sapphire substrate. The atomic arrangement between the (112) AgAlTe{sub 2} layer and sapphire substrates was compared. It was considered that the high order of the lattice arrangement symmetry probably effectively accommodated the lattice mismatch. The optical properties of the grown layer were also evaluated by transmittance measurements. The bandgap energy was found to be around 2.3 eV, which was in agreement with the theoretical bandgap energy of AgAlTe{sub 2}.

  17. Method and apparatus for stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon grown in silicon nitride ambient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. A.; Wheeler, R. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus for thermally growing stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon is disclosed. A previously etched and baked silicon nitride tube placed in a furnace is used to grow the silicon dioxide. First, pure oxygen is allowed to flow through the tube to initially coat the inside surface of the tube with a thin layer of silicon dioxide. After the tube is coated with the thin layer of silicon dioxide, the silicon is oxidized thermally in a normal fashion. If the tube becomes contaminated, the silicon dioxide is etched off thereby exposing clean silicon nitride and then the inside of the tube is recoated with silicon dioxide. As is disclosed, the silicon nitride tube can also be used as the ambient for the pyrolytic decomposition of silane and ammonia to form thin layers of clean silicon nitride.

  18. Effects of Annealing Ambient on the Characteristics of LaAlO3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Fei, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xing-Yao; Wang, Yong-Te

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effects of different annealing ambients on the physical and electrical properties of LaAlO3 films grown by atomic layer deposition. Post-grown rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out at 600 °C for 1 min in vacuum, N2, and O2, respectively. It was found that the chemical bonding states at the interfacial layers (ILs) between LaAlO3 films and Si substrate were affected by the different annealing ambients. The formation of IL was enhanced during the RTA process, resulting in the decrease of accumulation capacitance, especially in O2 ambient. Furthermore, based on the capacitance-voltage characteristics of LaAlO3/Si MIS capacitors, positive V FB shifting tendency could be observed, indicating the decrease of positive oxide charges. Meanwhile, both trapped charge density and interface trap density showed decreased trends after annealing treatments. In addition, RTA process in various gaseous ambients can reduce the gate leakage current due to the enhancement of valence band offset and the reduction of defects in the LaAlO3/Si structure in varying degrees.

  19. Effects of Annealing Ambient on the Characteristics of LaAlO3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lu; Liu, Hong-xia; Wang, Xing; Fei, Chen-xi; Feng, Xing-yao; Wang, Yong-te

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of different annealing ambients on the physical and electrical properties of LaAlO3 films grown by atomic layer deposition. Post-grown rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out at 600 °C for 1 min in vacuum, N2, and O2, respectively. It was found that the chemical bonding states at the interfacial layers (ILs) between LaAlO3 films and Si substrate were affected by the different annealing ambients. The formation of IL was enhanced during the RTA process, resulting in the decrease of accumulation capacitance, especially in O2 ambient. Furthermore, based on the capacitance-voltage characteristics of LaAlO3/Si MIS capacitors, positive V FB shifting tendency could be observed, indicating the decrease of positive oxide charges. Meanwhile, both trapped charge density and interface trap density showed decreased trends after annealing treatments. In addition, RTA process in various gaseous ambients can reduce the gate leakage current due to the enhancement of valence band offset and the reduction of defects in the LaAlO3/Si structure in varying degrees.

  20. Large thermoelectricity via variable range hopping in chemical vapor deposition grown single-layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Schmidt, Hennrik; Amara, Kiran Kumar; Xu, Xiangfan; Eda, Goki; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-05-14

    Ultrathin layers of semiconducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offer significant prospects in future electronic and optoelectronic applications. Although an increasing number of experiments bring light into the electronic transport properties of these crystals, their thermoelectric properties are much less known. In particular, thermoelectricity in chemical vapor deposition grown MoS2, which is more practical for wafer-scale applications, still remains unexplored. Here, for the first time, we investigate these properties in grown single layer MoS2. Microfabricated heaters and thermometers are used to measure both electrical conductivity and thermopower. Large values of up to ∼30 mV/K at room temperature are observed, which are much larger than those observed in other two-dimensional crystals and bulk MoS2. The thermopower is strongly dependent on temperature and applied gate voltage with a large enhancement at the vicinity of the conduction band edge. We also show that the Seebeck coefficient follows S ∼ T(1/3), suggesting a two-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism in the system, which is consistent with electrical transport measurements. Our results help to understand the physics behind the electrical and thermal transports in MoS2 and the high thermopower value is of interest to future thermoelectronic research and application.

  1. Influence of defects and indium distribution on emission properties of thick In-rich InGaN layers grown by the DERI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, Darius; Mickevičius, Jūras; Nargelas, Saulius; Vaitkevičius, Augustas; Nanishi, Yasushi; Araki, Tsutomu; Tamulaitis, Gintautas

    2017-02-01

    We report on the spatial variation of optical properties in thick, In-rich InGaN layers, grown by a novel droplet elimination by radical beam irradiation (DERI) technique. The increase of layer thickness causes layer relaxation and results in double-peaked photoluminescence spectra. Spatially resolved measurements show that the defects in the strained sub-layer are distributed inhomogeneously. An increase in the layer thickness results in faster nonradiative recombination due to increasing density of nonradiative recombination centers, as evidenced by time-resolved free carrier absorption, and facilitates larger indium incorporation in the upper part of the layer.

  2. Single-layer CVD-grown graphene decorated with metal nanoparticles as a promising biosensing platform.

    PubMed

    Gutés, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2012-03-15

    A new approach to the development of a single-layer graphene sensor decorated with metal nanoparticles is presented. Chemical vapor deposition is used to grow single layer graphene on copper. Decoration of the single-layer graphene is achieved by electroless deposition of Au nanoparticles using the copper substrate as a source of electrons. Transfer of the decorated single-layer graphene on glassy carbon electrodes offers a sensitive platform for biosensor development. As a proof of concept, 10 units of glucose oxidase were deposited on the surface in a Nafion matrix to stabilize the enzyme as well as to prevent interference from ascorbic acid and uric acid. Amperometric linear response calibration in the μmoll(-1) is obtained. The presented methodology enables highly sensitive platforms for biosensor development, providing a scalable roll-to-roll production with a much more reproducible scheme when compared to the graphene biosensors reported previously based on drop-cast of multi-layer graphene suspensions.

  3. Reduced Cu concentration in CuAl-LPE-grown thin Si layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Asher, S.; Reedy, R.

    1995-08-01

    Cu-Al has been found to be a good solvent system to grow macroscopically smooth Si layers with thicknesses in tens of microns on cast MG-Si substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) at temperatures near 900{degrees}C. This solvent system utilizes Al to ensure good wetting between the solution and substrate by removing silicon native oxides, and employs Cu to control Al doping into the layers. Isotropic growth is achieved because of a high concentration of solute silicon in the solution and the resulting microscopically rough interface. The incorporation of Cu in the Si layers, however, was a concern since Cu is a major solution component and is generally regarded as a bad impurity for silicon devices due to its fast diffusivity and deep energy levels in the band gap. A study by Davis shows that Cu will nonetheless not degrade solar cell performance until above a level of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. This threshold is expected to be even higher for thin layer silicon solar cells owing to the less stringent requirement on minority carrier diffusion length. But to ensure long term stability of solar cells, lower Cu concentrations in the thin layers are still preferred.

  4. Crystal Lattice Defects in MBE Grown Si Layers Heavily Doped with Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Vdovin, V. I.; Denisov, D. V.; Sobolev, N. A.; Gösele, U.

    The main types of crystal structure defects in [Er]>2×1019 doped layers are: (i) spherical Er and (ii) ellipsoidal ErSi precipitates, as well as (iii) ErSi2 platelets on {111} planes. In the sample with [Er]=4x1019, small complexes consisting of tiny Er precipitates and four petals of ErSi2 platelets have been found additionally. The layer with [Er]= 8×1018 cm-3 was defect free. The formation of silicides from a supersaturated solid solution and Er precipitates is accompanied by the emission of vacancies V resulting in the formation of pores, V-V and V-Er complexes.

  5. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  6. Anomalous hexagonal superstructure of aluminum oxide layer grown on NiAl(110) surface.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Pawel; Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Minagawa, Yuto; Yajima, Nami; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    2016-11-11

    A modified method for the fabrication of a highly crystallized layer of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface is reported. The fabrication method involves the multistep selective oxidation of aluminum atoms on a NiAl(110) surface resulting from successive oxygen deposition and annealing. The surface morphology and local electronic structure of the novel aluminum oxide layer were investigated by high-resolution imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. In contrast to the standard fabrication method of aluminum oxide on a NiAl(110) surface, the proposed method produces an atomically flat surface exhibiting a hexagonal superstructure. The superstructure exhibits a slightly distorted hexagonal array of close-packed bright protrusions with a periodicity of 4.5 ± 0.2 nm. Atomically resolved STM imaging of the aluminum oxide layer reveals a hexagonal arrangement of dark contrast spots with a periodicity of 0.27 ± 0.02 nm. On the basis of the atomic structure of the fabricated layer, the formation of α-Al2O3(0001) on the NiAl(110) surface is suggested.

  7. Incorporation of Sb and As in MBE grown GaAsxSb1-x layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; MacFarland, Don; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing interest in low effective mass materials for intersubband devices, mixed As-Sb compounds, like GaAsxSb1-x or AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y, gain more and more attention. The growth of these materials, however, still provides significant challenges due to the complex interaction between As and Sb. In this work, we provide an in-depth study on the incorporation of Sb into the GaAsxSb1-x layers and compare our findings to the present literature on this topic. It is found that both the composition and the crystal quality of GaAsxSb1-x layers are strongly influenced by the growth rate due to the As-for-Sb exchange reaction which takes place at the growing surface, and that high crystal quality can be achieved when the growth is performed under Sb limited conditions.

  8. The Assembling of Poly (3-Octyl-Thiophene) on CVD Grown Single Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanqiu; Yang, Ling; Guo, Zongxia; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-01-01

    The interface between organic semiconductor and graphene electrode, especially the structure of the first few molecular layers at the interface, is crucial for the device properties such as the charge transport in organic field effect transistors. In this work, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the poly (3-octyl-thiophene) (P3OT)-graphene interface. Our results reveal the dynamic assembling of P3OT on single layer graphene. As on other substrates the epitaxial effect plays a role in determining the orientation of the P3OT assembling, however, the inter-thiophene distance along the backbone is consistent with that optimized in vaccum, no compression was observed. Adsorption of P3OT on ripples is weaker due to local curvature, which has been verified both by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory simulation. Scanning tunneling microscopy also reveals that P3OT tends to form hairpin folds when meets a ripple. PMID:26634648

  9. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chaaya, Adib; Alute, Zanda; Erts, Donats; Zalesskaya, Anastasiya; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Rouessac, Vincent; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Miele, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Summary A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors. PMID:24205465

  10. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB2

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Tobias; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; ...

    2017-01-19

    We observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and it's formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. Furthermore, the 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to themore » silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.« less

  11. Metallic atomically-thin layered silicon epitaxially grown on silicene/ZrB 2

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, Tobias G.; Fleurence, Antoine; Warner, Ben; ...

    2017-02-17

    We observe a new two-dimensional (2D) silicon crystal, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and it's formed by depositing additional Si atoms onto spontaneously-formed epitaxial silicene on a ZrB2 thin film. From scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) studies, we find that this atomically-thin layered silicon has distinctly different electronic properties. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) reveals that, in sharp contrast to epitaxial silicene, the layered silicon exhibits significantly enhanced density of states at the Fermi level resulting from newly formed metallic bands. Furthermore, the 2D growth of this material could allow for direct contacting to themore » silicene surface and demonstrates the dramatic changes in electronic structure that can occur by the addition of even a single monolayer amount of material in 2D systems.« less

  12. MOCVD Grown Si-Doped n+ InP Layers for the Subcollector Region in HBTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    with growth Experimental rates -4 A/sec. The dopant gas was 0.5 % silane in hydrogen (concentration - 3.3 x 10-6 m.f. per sccm). To explore the...proportional contact layer we have chosen to show the electrical data as (Constant silane flow) the conductivity, a, and the Hall effect free carrier...charge and pi the electron Silane flow Linearly proportional mobility). Trimethylindium flow Inversely proportional Figure 1 shows the effect of Si-doping

  13. Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics on Bare and Platinum-Modified Palladium Nanofilms, Grown by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD)

    DOE PAGES

    Jagannathan, Kaushik; Benson, David M.; Robinson, David B.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Nanofilms of Pd were grown using an electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD) on 100 nm evaporated Au films on glass. Multiple cycles of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) were used to grow deposits. Each SLRR involved the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu atomic layer, followed by open circuit replacement via redox exchange with tetrachloropalladate, forming a Pd atomic layer: one E-ALD deposition cycle. That cycle was repeated in order to grow deposits of a desired thickness. 5 cycles of Pd deposition were performed on the Au on glass substrates, resulting in the formation of 2.5 monolayers of Pd.more » Those Pd films were then modified with varying coverages of Pt, also formed using SLRR. The amount of Pt was controlled by changing the potential for Cu UPD, and by increasing the number of Pt deposition cycles. Hydrogen absorption was studied using coulometry and cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M H2SO4 as a function of Pt coverage. The presence of even a small fraction of a Pt monolayer dramatically increased the rate of hydrogen desorption. However, this did not reduce the films’ hydrogen storage capacity. The increase in desorption rate in the presence of Pt was over an order of magnitude.« less

  14. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Schreyeck, S; Brunner, K; Kirchner, A; Bass, U; Grauer, S; Schumacher, C; Gould, C; Karczewski, G; Geurts, J; Molenkamp, L W

    2016-04-13

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x = 0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only ≈ 75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  15. Kinetic limitation of chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyeck, S.; Brunner, K.; Kirchner, A.; Bass, U.; Grauer, S.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Karczewski, G.; Geurts, J.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2016-04-01

    We study the chemical ordering in Bi2Te3-x Se x grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. We produce films in the full composition range from x  =  0 to 3, and determine their material properties using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. By fitting the parameters of a kinetic growth model to these results, we obtain a consistent description of growth at a microscopic level. Our main finding is that despite the incorporation of Se in the central layer being much more probable than that of Te, the formation of a fully ordered Te-Bi-Se-Bi-Te layer is prevented by kinetic of the growth process. Indeed, the Se concentration in the central layer of Bi2Te2Se1 reaches a maximum of only  ≈75% even under ideal growth conditions. A second finding of our work is that the intensity ratio of the 0 0 12 and 0 0 6 x-ray reflections serves as an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of the degree of ordering in these films.

  16. Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics on Bare and Platinum-Modified Palladium Nanofilms, Grown by Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (E-ALD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannathan, Kaushik; Benson, David M.; Robinson, David B.; Stickney, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Nanofilms of Pd were grown using an electrochemical form of atomic layer deposition (E-ALD) on 100 nm evaporated Au films on glass. Multiple cycles of surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) were used to grow deposits. Each SLRR involved the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu atomic layer, followed by open circuit replacement via redox exchange with tetrachloropalladate, forming a Pd atomic layer: one E-ALD deposition cycle. That cycle was repeated in order to grow deposits of a desired thickness. 5 cycles of Pd deposition were performed on the Au on glass substrates, resulting in the formation of 2.5 monolayers of Pd. Those Pd films were then modified with varying coverages of Pt, also formed using SLRR. The amount of Pt was controlled by changing the potential for Cu UPD, and by increasing the number of Pt deposition cycles. Hydrogen absorption was studied using coulometry and cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M H2SO4 as a function of Pt coverage. The presence of even a small fraction of a Pt monolayer dramatically increased the rate of hydrogen desorption. However, this did not reduce the films’ hydrogen storage capacity. The increase in desorption rate in the presence of Pt was over an order of magnitude.

  17. Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zheng; Amani, Matin; Najmaei, Sina; ...

    2014-11-18

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted tremendous attention due to its promising applications in high-performance field-effect transistors, phototransistors, spintronic devices, and nonlinear optics. The enhanced photoluminescence effect in monolayer MoS2 was discovered and, as a strong tool, was employed for strain and defect analysis in MoS2. Recently, large-size monolayer MoS2 has been produced by chemical vapor deposition but has not yet been fully explored. Here we systematically characterize chemical vapor deposition grown MoS2 by PL spectroscopy and mapping, and demonstrate non-uniform strain in single-crystalline monolayer MoS2 and strain-induced band gap engineering. We also evaluate the effective strain transferred from polymermore » substrates to MoS2 by three-dimensional finite element analysis. In addition, our work demonstrates that PL mapping can be used as a non-contact approach for quick identification of grain boundaries in MoS2.« less

  18. Layered micro-and nanostructures of pristine silver grown on semiconductor wafers through a galvanic displacement reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2007-01-01

    Silver nanoplates with thicknesses of 50-70 nm and edge lengths ranging from 200 nm to 1 {mu}m have been grown on semiconductor wafers at room temperature through a simple galvanic reaction between an aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3} and n-type GaAs. The as-grown Ag structures have chemically clean surfaces due to no surfactant or coordinating molecules being involved in the synthesis. Electron microscopy characterizations indicate that each Ag plate has rough surfaces and a half-moon morphology with one straight edge and one arclike edge. Systematic studies on varying reaction conditions reveal that the oxide (i.e., Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) layers of GaAs, generated in situ in the reactions, play an important role in assisting the growth of anisotropic nanoplates. The cleanliness of the surfaces of the Ag nanoplates is beneficial to attachment of interesting molecules on their surfaces for various applications, such as plasmonic-enhanced photophysical and photochemical processes and surface-enhanced spectroscopies.

  19. Prodigiosin Induces Autolysins in Actively Grown Bacillus subtilis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Danevčič, Tjaša; Borić Vezjak, Maja; Tabor, Maja; Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Prodigiosin produced by marine bacterium Vibrio ruber DSM 14379 exhibits a potent antimicrobial activity against a broad range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The mechanism of prodigiosin antimicrobial action, however, is not known. In this work, the effect of prodigiosin on Bacillus subtilis growth, cell membrane leakage, and induction of autolysins was studied. Treating B. subtilis with prodigiosin resulted in rapid decline of optical density and increased cell membrane leakage measured by β-galactosidase activity. Cell lysis was initiated immediately after treatment with prodigiosin in the middle exponential phase and was completed within 2 h. Lytic activity of prodigiosin in mutant strains with impaired autolysin genes lytABCD decreased for 80% compared to the wild type strain, while in lytABCDEF mutant strain prodigiosin had no bacteriolytic but only bacteriostatic effect. Fast prodigiosin lytic activity on individual B. subtilis cells was confirmed by a modified comet assay. The results indicate that prodigiosin autolysin induction in B. subtilis is growth phase dependent. PMID:26858704

  20. High quality InAlN single layers lattice-matched to GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.; Estrade, S.

    2011-07-18

    We report on properties of high quality {approx}60 nm thick InAlN layers nearly in-plane lattice-matched to GaN, grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent crystalline quality and low surface roughness are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. High annular dark field observations reveal a periodic in-plane indium content variation (8 nm period), whereas optical measurements evidence certain residual absorption below the band-gap. The indium fluctuation is estimated to be {+-} 1.2% around the nominal 17% indium content via plasmon energy oscillations assessed by electron energy loss spectroscopy with sub-nanometric spatial resolution.

  1. Phase-coherent electron transport in (Zn, Al)O{sub x} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, D. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Ajimsha, R. S.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-11-24

    A clear signature of disorder induced quantum-interference phenomena leading to phase-coherent electron transport was observed in (Zn, Al)O{sub x} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. The degree of static-disorder was tuned by varying the Al concentration through periodic incorporation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sub-monolayer in ZnO. All the films showed small negative magnetoresistance due to magnetic field suppressed weak-localization effect. The temperature dependence of phase-coherence length (l{sub φ}∝T{sup −3/4}), as extracted from the magnetoresistance measurements, indicated electron-electron scattering as the dominant dephasing mechanism. The persistence of quantum-interference at relatively higher temperatures up to 200 K is promising for the realization of ZnO based phase-coherent electron transport devices.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy of crystalline Fe films grown on (001) GaAs substrates using Ge buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hakjoon; Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic anisotropy of Fe films grown on (001) GaAs substrates using Ge buffer layers were investigated by planar Hall effect measurements. In addition to phenomena arising from dominant cubic symmetry of the Fe specimen, the study of angular dependence of magnetization reversal revealed breaking of this symmetry in the form of systematic asymmetric shifts of magnetic hysteresis loops around the <110 > crystallographic directions. We ascribe such symmetry breaking to an admixture of uniaxial anisotropy associated with the [100] direction in the Fe film. To determine the parameters associated with this uniaxial anisotropy, we quantitatively analyze the asymmetric shifts of the hysteresis loop centers from the <110 > directions. Even though the value of these parameters turns out to be relatively small compared to that of the cubic anisotropy (by about two orders of magnitude), they survive up to room temperature.

  3. A platform for large-scale graphene electronics--CVD growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Seong-Yong; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kahng, Se-Jong; Choi, Jae-Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2013-05-21

    Direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-layer graphene on CVD-grown hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film can suggest a large-scale and high-quality graphene/h-BN film hybrid structure with a defect-free interface. This sequentially grown graphene/h-BN film shows better electronic properties than that of graphene/SiO2 or graphene transferred on h-BN film, and suggests a new promising template for graphene device fabrication.

  4. Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Massimo; Das, Chittaranjan; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle) and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems.

  5. Optical anisotropies of Si grown on step-graded SiGe(110) layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Arimoto, K.; Castro-García, R.; Villalobos-Aguilar, O.; Lastras-Martínez, A.; Nakagawa, K.; Sawano, K.; Shiraki, Y.; Usami, N.; Nakajima, K.

    2010-03-01

    Macroreflectance and microreflectance difference spectroscopies have been used to measure the strain induced optical anisotropies of semiconductor structures comprised of strained Si(110) thin films deposited on top of step-graded SiGe virtual substrates. The stress relaxation mechanism mainly occurs by the introduction of microtwin formation, whose fluctuation depends strongly on growth conditions. Correlations of such optical diagnostics with x-ray diffraction measurements and atomic force microscopy images, allow for the in situ study of the strain within both the top Si layer and the SiGe underneath with an spatial resolution of at least 5 μm.

  6. How photocatalytic activity of the MAO-grown TiO 2 nano/micro-porous films is influenced by growth parameters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayati, M. R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2010-04-01

    Pure titania porous layers consisted of anatase and rutile phases, chemically and structurally suitable for catalytic applications, were grown via micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The effect of applied voltage, process time, and electrolyte concentration on surface structure, chemical composition, and especially photocatalytic activity of the layers was investigated. SEM and AFM studies revealed that pore size and surface roughness of the layers increased with the applied voltage, and the electrolyte concentration. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of the layers synthesized at medium applied voltages was significantly higher than that of the layers produced at other voltages. About 90% of methylene blue solution was decomposed after 180 min UV-irradiation on the layers produced in an electrolyte with a concentration of 10 g l -1 at the applied voltage of 450 V.

  7. Near-infrared light absorption by polycrystalline SiSn alloys grown on insulating layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Kato, Motohiro; Yamaha, Takashi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2015-04-27

    High-Sn-content SiSn alloys are strongly desired for the next-generation near-infrared optoelectronics. A polycrystalline growth study has been conducted on amorphous SiSn layers with a Sn-content of 2%–30% deposited on either a substrate of SiO{sub 2} or SiN. Incorporating 30% Sn into Si permits the crystallization of the amorphous layers at annealing temperatures below the melting point of Sn (231.9 °C). Composition analyses indicate that approximately 20% of the Sn atoms are substituted into the Si lattice after solid-phase crystallization at 150–220 °C for 5 h. Correspondingly, the optical absorption edge is red-shifted from 1.12 eV (Si) to 0.83 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)), and the difference between the indirect and direct band gap is significantly reduced from 3.1 eV (Si) to 0.22 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)). These results suggest that with higher substitutional Sn content the SiSn alloys could become a direct band-gap material, which would provide benefits for Si photonics.

  8. Cu2O quantum dots emitting visible light grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of the Cu2O quantum dots (QDs) emitting a controlled wavelength in the visible spectral range prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Cu2O thin film layers formed on the Al2O3 surface showed large density of islands via Volmer-Weber growth mode, which resulting in QD formation. As the number of ALD cycles was increased from 60 to 480, the spatial density and mean diameter of the Cu2O QDs increased systematically from 4.02 × 1011/cm2 to 2.56×1012/cm2 and from 2.1 to 3.2 nm, respectively. The absorption spectral results indicated that the electron energy transition in the Cu2O QDs was a direct process with the optical band gaps decreasing from 2.71 to 2.15 eV with increasing QD size from 2.1 to 3.2 nm because of the quantum confinement effect. The Cu2O QDs showed broad emission peaks composed of multiple elementary emission spectra corresponding to the Cu2O QD ensembles with a different size distribution. As the size of Cu2O QDs decreased, the shoulder peaks at the higher energy side developed due to the quantum confinement effect.

  9. Analysis of scattering mechanisms in zinc oxide films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, Tomasz A. Dybko, Krzysztof; Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Kopalko, Krzysztof; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Guziewicz, Elzbieta

    2015-07-21

    In this work, the analysis of the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of highly crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films obtained by the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method is performed. It is deduced that the most important scattering mechanisms are: scattering by ionized defects (at low temperatures) as well as by phonons (mainly optical ones) at higher temperatures. Nevertheless, the role of grain boundaries in the carrier mobility limitation ought to be included as well. These conclusions are based on theoretical analysis and temperature-dependent Hall mobility measurements. The presented results prove that existing models can explain the mobility behavior in the ALD-ZnO films, being helpful for understanding their transport properties, which are strongly related both to the crystalline quality of deposited ZnO material and defects in its lattice.

  10. Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chittaranjan; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Summary We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle) and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems. PMID:24605275

  11. Low-loss as-grown germanosilicate layers for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Feridun; Aydinli, Atilla; Agan, Sedat

    2003-12-01

    We report on systematic growth and characterization of low-loss germanosilicate layers for use in optical waveguide technology. The films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique using silane, germane, and nitrous oxide as precursor gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the compositional properties of the samples. It was found that addition of germane leads to decreasing of N-H- and O-H-related bonds. The propagation loss values of the planar waveguides were correlated with the decrease in the hydrogen-related bonds of the as-deposited waveguides and resulted in very low values, eliminating the need for high-temperature annealing as is usually done.

  12. Grain size control for CVD-grown single crystal mono- and bi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhengtang

    2015-03-01

    By suppressing the nucleation density during Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) growth, we demonstrate that the large-size single crystal monolayer and bilayer graphene can be synthesized by this method. For single layer, single crystals with diameter up to 5.9 mm, have been successfully obtained by adjusting degree of oxidation during surface treatment step and hydrogen annealing duration during growth, thereby allow us to control nucleation density and consequently to control graphene grains sizes. For bilayer growth, our main strategy is to maximize the duration that is controlled by the absorption-diffusion mechanism. With this method, sub-millimeter size single crystal bilayer graphene is also obtained. Electron transport measurement on those produced graphene has shown carrier mobility that is comparable with that of mechanical exfoliated graphene, indicating the high quality of our graphene sample. This project is supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong SAR (Project Number 623512 and DAG12EG05).

  13. Ag films grown by remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition on different substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Amusan, Akinwumi A. Kalkofen, Bodo; Burte, Edmund P.; Gargouri, Hassan; Wandel, Klaus; Pinnow, Cay; Lisker, Marco

    2016-01-15

    Silver (Ag) layers were deposited by remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PALD) using Ag(fod)(PEt{sub 3}) (fod = 2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluorooctane-3,5-dionato) as precursor and hydrogen plasma on silicon substrate covered with thin films of SiO{sub 2}, TiN, Ti/TiN, Co, Ni, and W at different deposition temperatures from 70  to 200 °C. The deposited silver films were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, four point probe measurement, ellipsometric measurement, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). XPS revealed pure Ag with carbon and oxygen contamination close to the detection limit after 30 s argon sputtering for depositions made at 120 and 200 °C substrate temperatures. However, an oxygen contamination was detected in the Ag film deposited at 70 °C after 12 s argon sputtering. A resistivity of 5.7 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm was obtained for approximately 97 nm Ag film on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The thickness was determined from the SEM cross section on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and also compared with XRF measurements. Polycrystalline cubic Ag reflections were identified from XRD for PALD Ag films deposited at 120 and 200 °C. Compared to W surface, where poor adhesion of the films was found, Co, Ni, TiN, Ti/TiN and SiO{sub 2} surfaces had better adhesion for silver films as revealed by SEM, TEM, and AFM images.

  14. CdTe nBn photodetectors with ZnTe barrier layer grown on InSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhao-Yu; Campbell, Calli M.; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Becker, Jacob J.; Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated an 820 nm cutoff CdTe nBn photodetector with ZnTe barrier layer grown on an InSb substrate. At room temperature, under a bias of -0.1 V, the photodetector shows Johnson and shot noise limited specific detectivity (D*) of 3 × 1013 cm Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 800 nm and 2 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W at 200 nm. The D* is optimized by using a top contact design of ITO/undoped-CdTe. This device not only possesses nBn advantageous characteristics, such as generation-recombination dark current suppression and voltage-bias-addressed two-color photodetection, but also offers features including responsivity enhancements by deep-depletion and by using a heterostructure ZnTe barrier layer. In addition, this device provides a platform to study nBn device physics at room temperature, which will help us to understand more sophisticated properties of infrared nBn photodetectors that may possess a large band-to-band tunneling current at a high voltage bias, because this current is greatly suppressed in the large-bandgap CdTe nBn photodetector.

  15. Structural and optical investigations on seed layer assisted hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods on flat and textured substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayerfrancis, Arokiyadoss; Balaji Bhargav, P.; Ahmed, Nafis; Balaji, C.; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-12-01

    In this article we report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on plain as well as textured fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate using hydrothermal method. Prior to hydrothermal method, AZO seed layer of thickness 5, 10 and 15 nm were deposited on the chosen substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. The as-grown nanorods were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to improve the crystallinity. Morphology and structure of the nanorods was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formation of wurtzite structure was confirmed through x-ray diffraction studies. The optical mode of ZnO, E2 (high) at 434 cm-1 present in the samples was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The seed layer assisted growth of ZnO nanorods were defect free, which is confirmed from the photoluminescence spectra, and the intensity of band to band emission is much greater than the emission from the defects at the deep level.

  16. Characteristics of GaN-based light emitting diodes with different thicknesses of buffer layer grown by HVPE and MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Edwards, Paul R.; Wallace, Michael J.; Martin, Robert W.; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Gu, Erdan; Dawson, Martin D.; Qiu, Zhi-Jun; Jia, Chuanyu; Chen, Zhizhong; Zhang, Guoyi; Zheng, Lirong; Liu, Ran

    2017-02-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated on sapphire substrates with different thicknesses of GaN buffer layer grown by a combination of hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We analyzed the LED efficiency and modulation characteristics with buffer thicknesses of 12 μm and 30 μm. With the buffer thickness increase, cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging shows that the dislocation density in the buffer layer decreases from  ∼1.3  ×  108 cm‑2 to  ∼1.0  ×  108 cm‑2, and Raman spectra suggest that the compressive stress in the quantum wells is partly relaxed, which leads to a large blue shift in the peak emission wavelength of the photoluminescence and electroluminescent spectra. The combined effects of the low dislocation density and stress relaxation lead to improvements in the efficiency of LEDs with the 30 μm GaN buffer, but the electrical-to-optical modulation bandwidth is higher for the LEDs with the 12 μm GaN buffer. A rate equation analysis suggests that defect-related nonradiative recombination can help increase the modulation bandwidth but reduce the LED efficiency at low currents, suggesting that a compromise should be made in the choice of defect density.

  17. Influence of annealing in H atmosphere on the electrical properties of Al2O3 layers grown on p-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.; Langa, S.; Wende, U.; Kaiser, B.; Conrad, H.; Schenk, H.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study the electrical properties of 100 nm and 400 nm alumina films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on p-type Si before and after a post-deposition annealing at 440 °C and after a dc H plasma treatment at different temperatures are investigated. We show that the density of interface states is below 2 × 1010 cm-2 in these samples and this value is significantly lower compared to that reported previously in thinner alumina layers (below 50 nm). The effective minority carrier lifetime τg,eff and the effective surface recombination velocity seff in untreated p-type Si samples with 100 nm and 400 nm aluminum oxide is comparable with those obtained after thermal oxidation of 90 nm SiO2. Both, a post-deposition annealing in forming gas (nitrogen/hydrogen) at elevated temperatures and a dc H-plasma treatment at temperatures close to room temperature lead to the introduction of negatively charged defects in alumina films. The results obtained in samples annealed in different atmospheres at different temperatures or subjected to a dc H plasma treatment allow us to correlate these centers with H-related defects. By comparing with theory we tentatively assign them to negatively charged interstitial H atoms.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of ultrathin niobium nitride films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linzen, S.; Ziegler, M.; Astafiev, O. V.; Schmelz, M.; Hübner, U.; Diegel, M.; Il’ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2017-03-01

    We studied and optimised the properties of ultrathin superconducting niobium nitride films fabricated with a plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process. By adjusting process parameters, the chemical embedding of undesired oxygen into the films was minimised and a film structure consisting of mainly polycrystalline niobium nitride with a small fraction of amorphous niobium oxide and niobium oxo-nitrides were formed. For this composition a critical temperature of 13.8 K and critical current densities of 7 × 106 A cm–2 at 4.2 K were measured on 40 nm thick films. A fundamental correlation between these superconducting properties and the crystal lattice size of the cubic δ-niobium-nitride grains were found. Moreover, the film thickness variation between 40 and 2 nm exhibits a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity at room temperature and reveals a superconductor–insulator-transition in the vicinity of 3 nm film thickness at low temperatures. The thicker films with resistances up to 5 kΩ per square in the normal state turn to the superconducting one at low temperatures. The perfect thickness control and film homogeneity of the PEALD growth make such films extremely promising candidates for developing novel devices on the coherent quantum phase slip effect.

  19. Well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor ZnO, possessing a large exciton binding energy and wide band gap, has received a great deal of attention because it shows great potential for applications in optoelectronics. Precisely controlling the growth of three-dimensional ZnO nanotube structures with a uniform morphology constitutes an important step forward toward integrating ZnO nanostructures into microelectronic devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, featured with self-limiting surface reactions, is an ideal approach to the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures, because it allows for accurate control of the thickness at atomic level and conformal coverage in complex 3D structures. In this work, well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays and networks are prepared by ALD. The morphology, crystallinity and wall thickness of these nanotube structures are examined for different growth conditions. The microstructure of the ZnO nanotubes is investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The high aspect ratio of ZnO nanotubes provides a large specific area which could enhance the kinetics of chemical reactions taking place between the ZnO and its surroundings, making the potential devices more efficient and compact.

  20. Influence of growth temperature on laser molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaN layers grown on c-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Ripudaman; Tyagi, Prashant; Kushvaha, Sunil Singh; Chockalingam, Sreekumar; Yadav, Brajesh Singh; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of growth temperature on the in-plane strain, structural, optical and mechanical properties of heteroepitaxially grown GaN layers on sapphire (0001) substrate by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) technique in the temperature range 500-700 °C. The GaN epitaxial layers are found to have a large in-plane compressive stress of about 1 GPa for low growth temperatures but the strain drastically reduced in the layer grown at 700 °C. The nature of the in-plane strain has been analyzed using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. From AFM, a change in GaN growth mode from grain to island is observed at the high growth temperature above 600 °C. A blue shift of 20-30 meV in near band edge PL emission line has been noticed for the GaN layers containing the large in-plane strain. These observations indicate that the in-plane strain in the GaN layers is dominated by a biaxial strain. Using nanoindentation, it is found that the indentation hardness and Young's modulus of the GaN layers increases with increasing growth temperature. The results disclose the critical role of growth mode in determining the in-plane strain and mechanical properties of the GaN layers grown by LMBE technique.

  1. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  2. Temperature-induced changes in optical properties of thin film TiO2-Al2O3 bi-layer structures grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Rizwan; Saleem, Muhammad Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the optical properties and corresponding temperature-induced changes in highly uniform thin amorphous films and their bi-layer stacks grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The environmentally driven conditions such as temperature, humidity and pressure have a significant influence on optical properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous bi-layer stacked structures of TiO2-Al2O3 and subsequently affect the specific sensitive nature of optical signals from nano-optical devices. Owing to the super hydrophilic behavior and inhibited surface defects in the form of hydrogenated species, the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of ~ 100 nm thick ALD-TiO2 films vary significantly with temperature, which can be used for sensing applications. On the other hand, the TOC of ~ 100 nm thick ALD-Al2O3 amorphous films show a differing behavior with temperature. In this work, we report on reduction of surface defects in ALD-TiO2 films by depositing a number of ultra-thin ALD-Al2O3 films to act as impermeable barrier layers. The designed and fabricated heterostructures of ALD-TiO2/Al2O3 films with varying ALD-Al2O3 thicknesses are exploited to stabilize the central resonance peak of Resonant Waveguide Gratings (RWGs) in thermal environments. The temperature-dependent optical constants of ALD-TiO2/Al2O3 bi-layer films are measured by a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE), covering a wide spectral range 380 <= λ <= 1800 nm at a temperature range from 25 to 105 °C. The Cauchy model is used to design and retrieve refractive indices at these temperatures, measured with three angles of incidence (59°, 67°, and 75°). The optical constants of 100 nm thick ALD-TiO2 and various combinational thicknesses of ALD-Al2O3 films are used to predict TOCs using a polynomial fitting algorithm.

  3. Effect of passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition and sputtering processes on Si quantum dot superlattice to generate high photocurrent for high-efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksudur Rahman, Mohammad; Higo, Akio; Sekhar, Halubai; Erman Syazwan, Mohd; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    The effect of passivation films on a Si quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) was investigated to generate high photocurrent in solar-cell applications. Three types of passivation films, sputter-grown amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), hydrogenated a-SiC (a-SiC:H), and atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (ALD-Al2O3), were used to passivate the Si QDSLs containing a stack of four 4 nm Si nanodisks (NDs) and 2 nm silicon carbide (SiC) films fabricated by neutral beam etching (NBE). Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio typically present in quantum Si-NDs formed in the top-down NBE process, there is a tendency to form larger surface dangling bonds on untreated Si-ND surfaces as well as to have short distance (<10 nm) between high-aspect-ratio nanopillars of stacked 4 nm Si-NDs/2 nm SiC films, which conventionally sputter SiC films cannot uniformly cover. Therefore, we optimized the passivation techniques with an ALD-Al2O3 film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis helped to explain the surface morphology before and after the passivation of the QDSLs. After the completion of the passivation process, the quality of the top surface films of the QDSLs was analyzed from the surface roughness by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, which revealed that ALD-Al2O3 passivated films had the smallest roughness (RMS) of 1.09 nm with respect to sputter-grown a-SiC (RMS: 1.75 nm) and a-SiC:H (RMS: 1.54 nm) films. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) revealed that ALD-Al2O3 passivation decreased the surface-leakage current as a result of proper passivation of side-wall surface defects in the QDSLs. The carrier transport characteristics were extracted from the QDSLs using the photovoltaic (PV) properties of p++/i/n+ solar cells, where the QDSLs consisted of different passivation layers acting as intermediate layers (i-layers) between the high-doping-density p++ Si (1 × 1020 cm-3) and n+ Si (1 × 1019 cm-3) substrates. High-doping-density p++ Si acted as a hole

  4. Influence of high-temperature AlN intermediate layer on the optical properties of MOCVD grown AlGaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Deng; Qiu, Zhi Ren; Liu, Yao; Talwar, Devki N.; Wan, Lingyu; Zhang, Xiong; Mei, Ting; Ferguson, Ian T.; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2017-02-01

    By combining spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and optical transmission (OT) characterization methods we have systematically investigated the influence of AlN intermediate layer and AlN transition layer on the optical properties of AlGaN epilayers grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Most dielectric functions of III-nitrides obtained by different research groups show significant band-tail absorption—which is not anticipated for such a direct band gap material. The dielectric functions are studied for a series of AlGaN/AlN/Al2O3 structures, with a four-layer model taking into account both high temperature grown AlN layer and low temperature grown AlN layer. The results obtained by fitting the optical parameters to experimental data show that the band-tail absorption should originate from the transition layer. AlGaN film without high temperature AlN epilayer exhibited a redshift of band gap around 0.24 eV.

  5. Non-activation ZnO array as a buffering layer to fabricate strongly adhesive metal-organic framework/PVDF hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbin; Meng, Qin; Li, Xiaonian; Zhang, Congyang; Fan, Zheng; Zhang, Guoliang

    2014-09-04

    A non-activation (NA) ZnO array is directly grown on a PVDF hollow fiber membrane. The defect-free MOF layers can be synthesized easily on the NA-ZnO array without any activation procedure. The array and MOF layers are strongly adhered to the hollow fiber membrane. The prepared ZIF membranes exhibit excellent gas separation performances.

  6. Calcium impurity as a source of non-radiative recombination in (In,Ga)N layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. C.; Grandjean, N.; Mates, T. E.; Speck, J. S.

    2016-11-01

    Ca as an unintentional impurity has been investigated in III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is found that Ca originates from the substrate surface, even if careful cleaning and rinsing procedures are applied. The initial Ca surface coverage is ˜1012 cm-2, which is consistent with previous reports on GaAs and silicon wafers. At the onset of growth, the Ca species segregates at the growth front while incorporating at low levels. The incorporation rate is strongly temperature dependent. It is about 0.03% at 820 °C and increases by two orders of magnitude when the temperature is reduced to 600 °C, which is the typical growth temperature for InGaN alloy. Consequently, [Ca] is as high as 1018 cm-3 in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. Such a huge concentration might be detrimental for the efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs) if one considers that Ca is potentially a source of Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. We thus developed a specific growth strategy to reduce [Ca] in the MBE grown LEDs, which consisted of burying Ca in a low temperature InGaN/GaN superlattice (SL) before the growth of the active region. Finally, two LED samples with and without an SL were fabricated. An increase in the output power by one order of magnitude was achieved when Ca was reduced in the LED active region, providing evidence for the role of Ca in the SRH recombination.

  7. Temperature dependence of the crystalline quality of AlN layer grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Wei, Yong O.; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We studied temperature dependence of crystalline quality of AlN layers at 1050-1250 °C with a fine increment step of around 18 °C. The AlN layers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) ω-scans and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At 1050-1068 °C, the templates exhibited poor quality with surface pits and higher XRD (002) and (102) full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) because of insufficient Al atom mobility. At 1086 °C, the surface became smooth suggesting sufficient Al atom mobility. Above 1086 °C, the (102) FWHM and thus edge dislocation density increased with temperatures which may be attributed to the shorter growth mode transition from three-dimension (3D) to two-dimension (2D). Above 1212 °C, surface macro-steps were formed due to the longer diffusion length of Al atoms than the expected step terrace width. The edge dislocation density increased rapidly above 1212 °C, indicating this temperature may be a threshold above which the impact of the transition from 3D to 2D is more significant. The (002) FWHM and thus screw dislocation density were insensitive to the temperature change. This study suggests that high-quality AlN/sapphire templates may be potentially achieved at temperatures as low as 1086 °C which is accessible by most of the III-nitride MOCVD systems.

  8. Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Membranes Coated with Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Titanium Dioxide for Biomedical Applications: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BCA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. The results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic performance in atomic layer deposition grown TiO{sub 2} thin films via hydrogen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sasinska, Alexander; Singh, Trilok; Wang, Shuangzhou; Mathur, Sanjay; Kraehnert, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    The authors report the effect of hydrogen plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition as an effective approach for modifying the photoanode materials in order to enhance their photoelectrochemical performance. Hydrogen plasma treated TiO{sub 2} thin films showed an improved absorption in the visible spectrum probably due to surface reduction. XPS analysis confirmed the formation of Ti{sup 3+} states upon plasma treatment. Hydrogen plasma treatment of TiO{sub 2} films enhanced the measured photocurrent densities by a factor of 8 (1 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.8 V versus normal hydrogen electrode) when compared to untreated TiO{sub 2} (0.12 mA/cm{sup 2}). The enhancement in photocurrent is attributed to the formation of localized electronic states in mid band-gap region, which facilitate efficient separation and transportation of photo excited charge carriers in the UV region of electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. Highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction using crystalline layered three-dimensional molybdenum disulfides grown on graphene film.

    SciTech Connect

    Behranginia, Amirhossein; Asadi, Mohammad; Liu, Cong; Yasaei, Poya; Kumar, Bijandra; Phillips, Patrick; Foroozan, Tara; Waranius, Joseph C.; Kim, Kibum; Abiade, Jeremiah; Klie, Robert F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-01-26

    Electrochemistry is central to applications in the field of energy storage and generation. However, it has advanced far more slowly over the last two decades, mainly because of a lack of suitable and affordable catalysts. Here, we report the synthesis of highly crystalline layered three-dimensional (3D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) catalysts with bare Mo-edge atoms and demonstrate their remarkable performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We found that Mo-edge-terminated 3D MoS2 directly grown on graphene film exhibits a remarkable exchange current density (18.2 mu A cm(-2)) and turnover frequency (>4 S-1) for HER. The obtained exchange current density is 15.2 and 2.3 times higher than that of MoS2/graphene and MoS2/Au catalysts, respectively, both with sulfided Mo-edge atoms. An easily scalable and robust growth process on a wide variety of substrates, along with prolonged stability, suggests that this material is a promising catalyst in energy-related applications.

  11. High-mobility and air-stable single-layer WS2 field-effect transistors sandwiched between chemical vapor deposition-grown hexagonal BN films

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, M Waqas; Iqbal, M Zahir; Khan, M Farooq; Shehzad, M Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Park, Jong Hyun; Hwang, Chanyong; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-01

    An emerging electronic material as one of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), tungsten disulfide (WS2) can be exfoliated as an atomically thin layer and can compensate for the drawback of graphene originating from a gapless band structure. A direct bandgap, which is obtainable in single-layer WS2, is an attractive characteristic for developing optoelectronic devices, as well as field-effect transistors. However, its relatively low mobility and electrical characteristics susceptible to environments remain obstacles for the use of device materials. Here, we demonstrate remarkable improvement in the electrical characteristics of single-layer WS2 field-effect transistor (SL-WS2 FET) using chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown hexagonal BN (h-BN). SL-WS2 FET sandwiched between CVD-grown h-BN films shows unprecedented high mobility of 214 cm2/Vs at room temperature. The mobility of a SL-WS2 FET has been found to be 486 cm2/Vs at 5 K. The ON/OFF ratio of output current is ~107 at room temperature. Apart from an ideal substrate for WS2 FET, CVD-grown h-BN film also provides a protection layer against unwanted influence by gas environments. The h-BN/SL-WS2/h-BN sandwich structure offers a way to develop high-quality durable single-layer TMDCs electronic devices. PMID:26030008

  12. Progress in the Efficiency of Wide-Gap Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Solar Cells Using CIGSe Layers Grown in Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Yamada, Akimasa; Shibata, Hajime; Matsubara, Koji; Yonemura, Minoru; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Hisayuki; Kojima, Takeshi; Niki, Shigeru

    2005-05-01

    Progress in the performance of wide-gap Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells for x values around 0.5 has been demonstrated using CIGSe layers grown in the presence of water vapor. While CIGSe thin films deposited in the presence of water vapor showed variations in electrical properties such as increases in hole carrier density and a consequent enhancement of p-type conductivity, no significant changes in the morphology and growth orientation were observed. Both the open circuit voltages and current densities of the CIGSe solar cells were improved using CIGSe layers grown in water vapor. An 18.1%-efficient cell with an open circuit voltage of 0.744 V, a current density of 32.4 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 0.752 was fabricated from a 1.3 eV-CIGSe (x ˜ 0.48) layer.

  13. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiOx stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O2 and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ˜ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality with long term reliability of ZnO based transparent

  14. Delayed emission from InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by migration-enhanced epitaxy due to carrier localization in a wetting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, C. S.; Jang, Y. D.; Lee, H.; Lee, D.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.

    2013-05-01

    Wetting layer (WL) photoluminescence (PL) at 10 K dominated the PL spectra of low-density quantum dots (QDs) grown by migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE), even at very low excitation powers. Long PL rise time at the ground state (GS) of QDs was observed, when carriers are generated in the WL, indicating suppressed carrier capture from the WL into the QDs. Fluctuations in the WL thickness due to WL thinning in the MEE-grown QDs produced strong localization effects. Temperature dependence of the WL PL intensity and the GS PL rise time agreed well with this interpretation.

  15. In Situ Oxidation of GaN Layer and Its Effect on Structural Properties of Ga2O3 Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Trong Si; Le, Duc Duy; Tran, Duy Khanh; Song, Jung-Hoon; Hong, Soon-Ku

    2017-01-01

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) was used to grow Ga2O3 films on oxidized GaN layers on nitrided sapphire substrates. The GaN layer was grown by PAMBE, and the in situ oxidation of the GaN layer was achieved through exposure to oxygen plasma, which resulted in the formation of monoclinic β-Ga2O3. Crystalline monoclinic β-Ga2O3 films were grown on the GaN layers, with and without oxidation. The orientation relationships were [11overline{2} 0 ] Al2O3//[1overline{1} 00 ] AlN//[1overline{1} 00 ] GaN//[102] β-Ga2O3 and [1overline{1} 00 ] Al2O3//[11overline{2} 0 ] AlN//[11overline{2} 0 ] GaN//[010] β-Ga2O3. The grown β-Ga2O3 films were not single-crystalline but showed rotational domains along the growth direction with three variations, which resulted in six-fold rotational symmetry instead of two-fold rotational symmetry. The surface roughness of the grown β-Ga2O3 film was closely reflected to that of as-grown GaN and oxidized GaN. By analyzing the x-ray omega rocking curves for the on-axis (overline{2} 01 ) and off-axis (002) reflections, it was concluded that rotational domains dominantly affected the crystal quality of the β-Ga2O3 films.

  16. Antioxidant activities of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Tevfik; Türkekul, İbrahim

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and trolox. In total antioxidant (12674.45 μmol α-tocopherol/g of extract), superoxide scavenging (53.74%) and peroxide scavenging activity (45.73%), the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum showed stronger activity patterns than that of references antioxidants. Reducing power, metal chelating activity and free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity was increased with the increasing concentration. The contents of total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene of Sarcodon imbricatum were determined and found to be noteworthy. PMID:20668572

  17. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina Congiu, Mirko Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de; Fernandes, Jéssica Colnaghi Biziak de Figueiredo, Natália Mulato, Marcelo

    2014-03-15

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  18. Effect of AlN buffer layers on the structural and optoelectronic properties of InN/AlN/Sapphire heterostructures grown by MEPA-MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indika, S. M. K.; Seidlitz, Daniel; Fali, Alireza; Cross, Brendan; Abate, Yohannes; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2016-09-01

    This contribution presents results on the structural and optoelectronic properties of InN layers grown on AlN/sapphire (0001) templates by Migration-Enhanced Plasma Assisted Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MEPAMOCVD). The AlN nucleation layer (NL) was varied to assess the physical properties of the InN layers. For ex-situ analysis of the deposited structures, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy have been utilized. The structural and optoelectronic properties are assessed by Raman-E2 high FWHM values, surface roughness, free carrier concentrations, mobility of the free carriers, and high frequency dielectric function. This study focus on optimizing the AlN nucleation layer (e.g. temporal precursor exposure, nitrogen plasma exposure, plasma power and AlN buffer growth temperature) and its effect on the InN layer properties.

  19. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis.

  20. Thickness-Dependent Binding Energy Shift in Few-Layer MoS2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Ruei-San; Chou, Tsu-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yang-Fang; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2016-08-31

    The thickness-dependent surface states of MoS2 thin films grown by the chemical vapor deposition process on the SiO2-Si substrates are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy suggest the thicknesses of MoS2 films to be ranging from 3 to 10 layers. Both the core levels and valence band edges of MoS2 shift downward ∼0.2 eV as the film thickness increases, which can be ascribed to the Fermi level variations resulting from the surface states and bulk defects. Grainy features observed from the atomic force microscopy topographies, and sulfur-vacancy-induced defect states illustrated at the valence band spectra imply the generation of surface states that causes the downward band bending at the n-type MoS2 surface. Bulk defects in thick MoS2 may also influence the Fermi level oppositely compared to the surface states. When Au contacts with our MoS2 thin films, the Fermi level downshifts and the binding energy reduces due to the hole-doping characteristics of Au and easy charge transfer from the surface defect sites of MoS2. The shift of the onset potentials in hydrogen evolution reaction and the evolution of charge-transfer resistances extracted from the impedance measurement also indicate the Fermi level varies with MoS2 film thickness. The tunable Fermi level and the high chemical stability make our MoS2 a potential catalyst. The observed thickness-dependent properties can also be applied to other transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and facilitates the development in the low-dimensional electronic devices and catalysts.

  1. Origins of Ripples in CVD-Grown Few-layered MoS2 Structures under Applied Strain at Atomic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Namburu, Raju R.; Dubey, Madan; Dongare, Avinash M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of the applicability of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) structures, in various electronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices requires a fundamental understanding of the effects of strain on the electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Particularly important is the recent capability to grow large flakes of few-layered structures using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) wherein the top layers are relatively smaller in size than the bottom layers, resulting in the presence of edges/steps across adjacent layers. This paper investigates the strain response of such suspended few-layered structures at the atomic scales using classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations suggest that the suspended CVD-grown structures are able to relax the applied in-plane strain through the nucleation of ripples under both tensile and compressive loading conditions. The presence of terraced edges in these structures is the cause for the nucleation of ripples at the edges that grow towards the center of the structure under applied in-plane strains. The peak amplitudes of ripples observed are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The study provides critical insights into the mechanisms of strain relaxation of suspended few-layered MoS2 structures that determine the interplay between the mechanical response and the electronic properties of CVD-grown structures. PMID:28102351

  2. Anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11–22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using double AlN buffer layers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijuan; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-01-01

    We report the anisotropic structural and optical properties of semi-polar (11–22) GaN grown on m-plane sapphire using a three-step growth method which consisted of a low temperature AlN buffer layer, followed by a high temperature AlN buffer layer and GaN growth. By introducing double AlN buffer layers, we substantially improve the crystal and optical qualities of semi-polar (11–22) GaN, and significantly reduce the density of stacking faults and dislocations. The high resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics of GaN layer are azimuthal dependent. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the majority of dislocations in the GaN epitaxial layer grown on m-sapphire are the mixed-type and the orientation of GaN layer was rotated 58.4° against the substrate. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the PL intensity and wavelength have polarization dependence along parallel and perpendicular to the [1–100] axis (polarization degrees ~ 0.63). The realization of a high polarization semi-polar GaN would be useful to achieve III-nitride based lighting emission device for displays and backlighting. PMID:26861595

  3. Origins of Ripples in CVD-Grown Few-layered MoS2 Structures under Applied Strain at Atomic Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Namburu, Raju R.; Dubey, Madan; Dongare, Avinash M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of the applicability of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) structures, in various electronics, optoelectronics, and flexible devices requires a fundamental understanding of the effects of strain on the electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Particularly important is the recent capability to grow large flakes of few-layered structures using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) wherein the top layers are relatively smaller in size than the bottom layers, resulting in the presence of edges/steps across adjacent layers. This paper investigates the strain response of such suspended few-layered structures at the atomic scales using classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations suggest that the suspended CVD-grown structures are able to relax the applied in-plane strain through the nucleation of ripples under both tensile and compressive loading conditions. The presence of terraced edges in these structures is the cause for the nucleation of ripples at the edges that grow towards the center of the structure under applied in-plane strains. The peak amplitudes of ripples observed are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The study provides critical insights into the mechanisms of strain relaxation of suspended few-layered MoS2 structures that determine the interplay between the mechanical response and the electronic properties of CVD-grown structures.

  4. Growth parameter dependence of structural, electrical and magnetic properties in GaGdN layers grown on GaN(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Mitsuno, Y.; Higashi, K.; Ishimaru, M.; Sakurai, T.; Ohta, H.; Asahi, H.

    2013-09-01

    The growth parameter dependence of structural, electrical and magnetic properties in Gd-doped GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated. The structural and magnetic properties of Gd-doped GaN films grown on GaN templates strongly depend on the MBE growth condition. While Gd-doped GaN grown under relatively high Ga fluxes consist of wurtzite GaGdN layers without Gd-related precipitates, Gd-incorporated GaN films grown under low Ga fluxes contain a lot of nanoparticles ranging from several nm to several tens nm in size. The samples with Gd-related nanoparticles exhibit hysteresis in the magnetization-magnetic field curves at 10 K. The separation between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization-temperature curves is observed at around 30 K. This behavior is understood in terms of super-paramagnetism originating from the ferromagnetic nanoparticles observed in the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images.

  5. High-performance hybrid supercapacitor with 3D hierarchical porous flower-like layered double hydroxide grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luojiang; Hui, Kwun Nam; San Hui, Kwan; Lee, Haiwon

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as electroactive material has been well reported; however, fabricating an LDH electrode with excellent electrochemical performance at high current density remains a challenge. In this paper, we report a 3D hierarchical porous flower-like NiAl-LDH grown on nickel foam (NF) through a liquid-phase deposition method as a high-performance binder-free electrode for energy storage. With large ion-accessible surface area as well as efficient electron and ion transport pathways, the prepared LDH-NF electrode achieves high specific capacity (1250 C g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 401 C g-1 at 50 A g-1) after 5000 cycles of activation at 20 A g-1 and high cycling stability (76.7% retention after another 5000 cycles at 50 A g-1), which is higher than those of most previously reported NiAl-LDH-based materials. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor with LDH-NF as the positive electrode and porous graphene nanosheet coated on NF (GNS-NF) as the negative electrode, delivers high energy density (30.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 800 W kg-1) and long cycle life, which outperforms the other devices reported in the literature. This study shows that the prepared LDH-NF electrode offers great potential in energy storage device applications.

  6. Electrical activation of carbon δ-doped (Al,Ga)As grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Petravić, M.; Jagadish, C.

    1997-04-01

    Carbon δ-doped (Al,Ga)As was grown by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy using trimethylaluminium (TMAl) or trimethylgallium (TMGa) as a doping precursor. The best C δ-doped Al 0.3Ga 0.7As has a peak hole density of 1.6 × 10 19 (1.4 × 10 19 for GaAs) cm -3 with a full hole profile width at half maximum of 85 Å (84 Å for GaAs). For C δ-doped Al 0.3Ga 0.7 As grown at 630°C, the use of TMGa as a doping precursor leads to both the sheet C atom density and the free hole density increasing with an increase in the total TMGa moles introduced during a δ-doping step. As a result, the electrical activation remains almost constant with the change of TMGa moles supplied. The sheet C atom density always increases with increasing supply of TMAl, but approaches its maximum value at an amount of TMAl of 6.4 × 10 -7 mol. The electrical activation reduces from > 90% to < 10% when the supply of TMAl increases from 2.1 × 10 -7 to 8 × 10 -7 mol. Regardless of the doping precursors, the hole density weakly decreases and the C atom density significantly increases with increasing growth temperature. Low growth temperatures are required for high electrical activation. Using optimised growth conditions, C δ-doped pipi doping superlattices with different average hole densities are fabricated to obtain C bulk-doped-like layers.

  7. Correlation between the residual stress and the density of threading dislocations in GaN layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchuk, M.; Röder, C.; Shashev, Y.; Lukin, G.; Motylenko, M.; Kortus, J.; Pätzold, O.; Rafaja, D.

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the residual stress and the density of threading dislocations was investigated in polar GaN layers that were grown by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on three different GaN templates. The first template type was GaN grown on sapphire by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The second template type was a closed GaN nucleation layer grown on sapphire by HVPE. The third template type was a non-closed GaN nucleation layer grown by HVPE, which formed isolated pyramids on the sapphire surface. The residual stress was determined using the combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy and modified sin2 ψ method. The interplanar spacings needed for the sin2 ψ method were obtained from the reciprocal space maps that were measured using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The density of threading dislocations was concluded from the broadening of the reciprocal lattice points that was measured using high-resolution X-ray diffraction as well. The fitting of the reciprocal space maps allowed the character of the threading dislocations to be described quantitatively in terms of the fractions of edge and screw dislocations. It was found that the threading dislocation density increases with increasing compressive residual stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and the residual stress decrease with increasing thickness of the GaN layers. The edge component of the threading dislocations was dominant in all samples. Still, some differences in the character of the dislocations were observed for different templates.

  8. Effect of AlN buffer layer properties on the morphology and polarity of GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, Matt D.; Rourke, Devin M.; Sanford, Norman A.; Bertness, Kris A.; Bright, Victor M.

    2011-09-01

    Low-temperature AlN buffer layers grown via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) were found to significantly affect the subsequent growth morphology of GaN nanowires. The AlN buffer layers exhibited nanowire-like columnar protrusions, with their size, shape, and tilt determined by the AlN V/III flux ratio. GaN nanowires were frequently observed to adopt the structural characteristics of the underlying AlN columns, including the size and the degree of tilt. Piezoresponse force microscopy and polarity-sensitive etching indicate that the AlN films and the protruding columns have a mixed crystallographic polarity. Convergent beam electron diffraction indicates that GaN nanowires are Ga-polar, suggesting that Al-polar columns are nanowire nucleation sites for Ga-polar nanowires. GaN nanowires of low density could be grown on AlN buffers that were predominantly N-polar with isolated Al-polar columns, indicating a high growth rate for Ga-polar nanowires and suppressed growth of N-polar nanowires under typical growth conditions. AlN buffer layers grown under slightly N-rich conditions (V/III flux ratio = 1.0 to 1.3) were found to provide a favorable growth surface for low-density, coalescence-free nanowires.

  9. Light-induced gradual activation of photosystem II in dark-grown Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Stolárik, Tibor; Nosek, Lukáš; Kouřil, Roman; Ilík, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Gymnosperms, unlike angiosperms, are able to synthesize chlorophyll and form photosystems in complete darkness. Photosystem I (PSI) formed under such conditions is fully active, but photosystem II (PSII) is present in its latent form with inactive oxygen evolving complex (OEC). In this work we have studied light-induced gradual changes in PSII function in dark-grown cotyledons of Norway spruce (Picea abies) via the measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence rise, absorption changes at 830 nm, thermoluminescence glow curves (TL) and protein analysis. The results indicate that in dark-grown cotyledons, alternative reductants were able to act as electron donors to PSII with inactive OEC. Illumination of cotyledons for 5 min led to partial activation of PSII, which was accompanied by detectable oxygen evolution, but still a substantial number of PSII centers remained in the so called PSII-Q(B)-non-reducing form. Interestingly, even 24 h long illumination was not sufficient for the full activation of PSII centers. This was evidenced by a weak attachment of PsbP protein and the absence of PsbQ protein in PSII particles, the absence of PSII supercomplexes, the suboptimal maximum yield of PSII photochemistry, the presence of C band in TL curve and also the presence of up-shifted Q band in TL in DCMU-treated cotyledons. This slow light-induced activation of PSII in dark-grown cotyledons could contribute to the prevention of PSII overexcitation before the light-induced increase in PSI/PSII ratio allows effective operation of linear electron flow.

  10. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, François; Auger, François A; Guérin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression.

  11. Microstructures of GaN Buffer Layers Grown on Si(111) Using Rapic Thermal Process Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Bo, Shen; Jian-Min, Zhu; Zhi-Zhong, Chen; Yu-Gang, Zhou; Shi-Yong, Xie; Rong, Zhang; Ping, Han; Shu-Lin, Gu; You-Dou, Zheng; Shu-Sheng, Jiang; Duan, Feng; Z, Huang C.

    2000-03-01

    Microstructures of GaN buffer layers grown on Si (111) substrates using rapid thermal process low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). AFM images show that the islands appear in the GaN buffer layer after annealing at high temperature. Cross-sectional HRTEM micrographs of the buffer region of these samples indicate that there are bunched steps on the surface of the Si substrate and a lot of domains in GaN misorienting each other with small angles. The boundaries of those domains locate near the bunched steps, and the regions of the film on a terrace between steps have the same crystal orientation. An amorphous-like layer, about 3 nm thick, can also be observed between the GaN buffer layer and the Si substrate.

  12. Impact of growth and annealing conditions on the parameters of Ge/Si(001) relaxed layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yurasov, D. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Daniltsev, V. M.; Novikov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.

    2015-11-15

    Influence of the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions on the parameters of relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy via two-stage growth is investigated. The dependences of the threading dislocation density and surface roughness on the Ge layer thickness, annealing temperature and time, and the presence of a hydrogen atmosphere are obtained. As a result of optimization of the growth and annealing conditions, relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers which are thinner than 1 μm with a low threading dislocation density on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup –2} and a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm are obtained.

  13. Interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by MOCVD for use in infrared emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Biefeld, R.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.; Baucom, K.C.

    1995-02-01

    The authors have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). X-ray diffraction was used to determine lattice matching as well as composition and structure of the SLS`s. The presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction for samples grown under non-optimized conditions. Interfacial layers were also identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of interfaces were observed by TEM. The different contrasts observed by TEM could be due to a difference in composition at the interfaces. The width of the x-ray peaks can be explained by a variation of the layer thickness.

  14. Controlling the defects and transition layer in SiO2 films grown on 4H-SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Cho, Sang W.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Suh, Dongchan; Kim, Sunjung; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The structural stability and electrical performance of SiO2 grown on SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation were investigated. To investigate the changes in the electronic structure and electrical characteristics caused by the interfacial reaction between the SiO2 film (thickness ~5 nm) and SiC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electrical measurements were performed. The SiO2 films grown via direct plasma-assisted oxidation at room temperature for 300s exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of silicon oxycarbides (SiOxCy) in the transition layer compared to that of conventionally grown (i.e., thermally grown) SiO2 films. Moreover, the plasma-assisted SiO2 films exhibited enhanced electrical characteristics, such as reduced frequency dispersion, hysteresis, and interface trap density (Dit ≈ 1011 cm‑2 · eV‑1). In particular, stress induced leakage current (SILC) characteristics showed that the generation of defect states can be dramatically suppressed in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures with plasma-assisted oxide layer due to the formation of stable Si-O bonds and the reduced concentrations of SiOxCy species defect states in the transition layer. That is, energetically stable interfacial states of high quality SiO2 on SiC can be obtained by the controlling the formation of SiOxCy through the highly reactive direct plasma-assisted oxidation process.

  15. Controlling the defects and transition layer in SiO2 films grown on 4H-SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Cho, Sang W.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Suh, Dongchan; Kim, Sunjung; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The structural stability and electrical performance of SiO2 grown on SiC via direct plasma-assisted oxidation were investigated. To investigate the changes in the electronic structure and electrical characteristics caused by the interfacial reaction between the SiO2 film (thickness ~5 nm) and SiC, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and electrical measurements were performed. The SiO2 films grown via direct plasma-assisted oxidation at room temperature for 300s exhibited significantly decreased concentrations of silicon oxycarbides (SiOxCy) in the transition layer compared to that of conventionally grown (i.e., thermally grown) SiO2 films. Moreover, the plasma-assisted SiO2 films exhibited enhanced electrical characteristics, such as reduced frequency dispersion, hysteresis, and interface trap density (Dit ≈ 1011 cm−2 · eV−1). In particular, stress induced leakage current (SILC) characteristics showed that the generation of defect states can be dramatically suppressed in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures with plasma-assisted oxide layer due to the formation of stable Si-O bonds and the reduced concentrations of SiOxCy species defect states in the transition layer. That is, energetically stable interfacial states of high quality SiO2 on SiC can be obtained by the controlling the formation of SiOxCy through the highly reactive direct plasma-assisted oxidation process. PMID:27721493

  16. Evaluation of heavy metals, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity of tomatoes grown in toxic muddy soils.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Nicolaus, Barbara; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Marra, Nancy; Caporale, Angelamaria; Popolo, Ada; Saturnino, Carmela

    2015-04-01

    This research studies tomatoes grown in polluted soils to ascertain their phytochemical and nutritive features. Pulp and seeds from tomatoes grown in muddy soils were analyzed for their antioxidant power and their toxicity because of the possibility that heavy metals were present in the soils. An antioxidant assay on methanol extracts was made by using DDPH, while an ABTS [2,2'-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of lipophilic fractions. Results of the antioxidant assay showed that the tomatoes maintained a high level of antioxidant activity especially in the lipophilic fractions which contain the most representative compounds. Cytotoxic activity was performed on HeLa, PDAC, and A375 cell lines by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. Results showed that neither the seeds, nor the pulp, of the extracts was cytotoxic. The presence of heavy metals was evaluated by using spectroscopy of atomic absorption with a graphite oven. Test results show the absence of heavy metals and these results have an interesting scientific role because they provide useful information for promoting food safety.

  17. Small Molecule Thin Film Solar Cells With Active Layers Composed Of Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) And Fullerene (C70)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekuda, Dhananjaya; Rao, K. Mohan; Tolpadi, Amita; Rajendra, B. V.; Chu, C. W.

    2011-07-01

    We have grown organic solar cells through bilayer structure using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C70) as the acceptor. In this article, we demonstrate power conversion efficiency of 1.47% for the bilayered solar cells composed of CuPc and C70. Successful tuning of the thickness of the individual layers was carried out to obtain the optimum solar cell parameters. It has been found that efficiency of the bilayer devices depends primarily on the individual layer thickness and thermal annealing of the devices. Overall, bilayer structure is suitable when the active layers are insoluble in most of the commonly available solvents.

  18. Stretch-grown axons retain the ability to transmit active electrical signals

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Bryan J.; Bonislawski, David P.; Smith, Douglas H.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about extensive nervous system growth after axons reach their targets. Indeed, postnatal animals continue to grow, suggesting that axons are stretched to accommodate the expanding body. We have previously shown that axons can sustain stretch-growth rates reaching 1 cm/day; however, it remained unknown whether the ability to transmit active signals was maintained. Here, stretch-growth did not alter sodium channel activation, inactivation, and recovery or potassium channel activation. In addition, neurons generated normal action potentials that propagated across stretch-grown axons. Surprisingly, Na and K channel density increased due to stretch-growth, which may represent a natural response to preserve the fidelity of neuronal signaling. PMID:16730003

  19. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffermore » layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 108 cm–2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (fT) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.« less

  20. Evaluation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on ZrTi buffer layers with sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J.; Ahn, Shihyun; Lin, Yi -Hsuan; Machuca, Francisco; Weiss, Robert; Welsh, Alex; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.

    2016-09-21

    Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been grown on sapphire substrates, using ZrTi buffer layers to provide in-plane lattice-matching to hexagonal GaN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the quality of the HEMT structure. The XRD 2θ scans showed full-width-at-half-maximum values of 0.16°, 0.07°, and 0.08° for ZrTi alloy, GaN buffer layer, and the entire HEMT structure, respectively. TEM studies of the GaN buffer layer and the AlN/ZrTi/AlN stack showed the importance of growing thin AlN buffer layers on the ZrTi layer prior to growth of the GaN buffer layer. The density of threading dislocations in the GaN channel layer of the HEMT structure was estimated to be in the 108 cm–2 range. The HEMT device exhibited a saturation drain current density of 820 mA/mm, and the channel of the fabricated HEMTs could be well modulated. A cutoff frequency (fT) of 8.9 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 17.3 GHz were achieved for HEMTs with gate dimensions of 1 × 200 μm.

  1. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.

    2017-03-01

    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  2. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  3. Effects of substrate conductivity on cell morphogenesis and proliferation using tailored, atomic layer deposition-grown ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Jin; Jung, Jongjin; Lee, Sujin; Chung, Yoon Jang; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Young Kuk; Lee, You-Seop; Park, Joung Kyu; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be employed as a substrate to explore the effects of electrical conductivity on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphogenesis. ZnO substrates with precisely tunable electrical conductivity were fabricated on glass substrates using ALD deposition. The electrical conductivity of the film increased linearly with increasing duration of the ZnO deposition cycle (thickness), whereas other physical characteristics, such as surface energy and roughness, tended to saturate at a certain value. Differences in conductivity dramatically affected the behavior of SF295 glioblastoma cells grown on ZnO films, with high conductivity (thick) ZnO films causing growth arrest and producing SF295 cell morphologies distinct from those cultured on insulating substrates. Based on simple electrostatic calculations, we propose that cells grown on highly conductive substrates may strongly adhere to the substrate without focal-adhesion complex formation, owing to the enhanced electrostatic interaction between cells and the substrate. Thus, the inactivation of focal adhesions leads to cell proliferation arrest. Taken together, the work presented here confirms that substrates with high conductivity disturb the cell-substrate interaction, producing cascading effects on cellular morphogenesis and disrupting proliferation, and suggests that ALD-grown ZnO offers a single-variable method for uniquely tailoring conductivity. PMID:25897486

  4. Reduction of structural defects in thick 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4° off-axis substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, M.; Ivanov, I. G.; Pedersen, H.; Kordina, O.; Janzén, E.

    2013-06-01

    By carefully controlling the surface chemistry of the chemical vapor deposition process for silicon carbide (SiC), 100 μm thick epitaxial layers with excellent morphology were grown on 4° off-axis SiC substrates at growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h. In order to reduce the formation of step bunching and structural defects, mainly triangular defects, the effect of varying parameters such as growth temperature, C/Si ratio, Cl/Si ratio, Si/H2 ratio, and in situ pre-growth surface etching time are studied. It was found that an in-situ pre growth etch at growth temperature and pressure using 0.6% HCl in hydrogen for 12 min reduced the structural defects by etching preferentially on surface damages of the substrate surface. By then applying a slightly lower growth temperature of 1575 °C, a C/Si ratio of 0.8, and a Cl/Si ratio of 5, 100 μm thick, step-bunch free epitaxial layer with a minimum triangular defect density and excellent morphology could be grown, thus enabling SiC power device structures to be grown on 4° off axis SiC substrates.

  5. High-resolution x-ray diffraction investigation of relaxation and dislocations in SiGe layers grown on (001), (011), and (111) Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhylik, A.; Benediktovich, A.; Ulyanenkov, A.; Guerault, H.; Myronov, M.; Dobbie, A.; Leadley, D. R.; Ulyanenkova, T.

    2011-06-15

    This work presents a detailed characterization, using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, of multilayered Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} heterostructures grown on (001), (011), and (111) Si substrates by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. Reciprocal space mapping has been used to determine both the strain and Ge concentration depth profiles within each layer of the heterostructures after initially determining the crystallographic tilt of all the layers. Both symmetric and asymmetric reciprocal space maps were measured on each sample, and the evaluation was performed simultaneously for the whole data set. The ratio of misfit to threading dislocation densities has been estimated for each individual layer based on an analysis of diffuse x-ray scattering from the defects.

  6. The origin of low water vapor transmission rates through Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolaminate gas-diffusion barriers grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Schmidt, H.; Kowalsky, W.; Riedl, T.; Kahn, A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports on thin film gas-diffusion barriers consisting of Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolaminates (NL) grown by low-temperature (80 °C) atomic layer deposition. We show that reliable barriers with water vapor transmission rates of 3.2×10-4 g/(m2 day), measured at 80 °C and 80% relative humidity, can be realized with very thin layers down to 40 nm. We determine that ZrO2 acts as anticorrosion element in our NL. Furthermore, we demonstrate by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy that an aluminate phase is formed at the interfaces between Al2O3 and ZrO2 sublayers, which additionally improves the gas-diffusion barrier due to a densification of the layer system. These Al2O3/ZrO2 NLs prepared at low temperatures hold considerable promises for application in organic electronics and beyond.

  7. Defects reduction in a-plane AlGaN epi-layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiong; Dai, Qian; Wang, Nan; Wu, Zili; Wang, Shuchang; Cui, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Nonpolar a-plane AlGaN epi-layers were grown on a semi-polar r-plane sapphire substrate with an innovative two-way pulsed-flows metal organic chemical vapor deposition growth technology. A root-mean-square value of 1.79 nm was achieved, and the relative light transmittance of the a-plane AlGaN epi-layer was enhanced by 36.9%. These results reveal that the innovative growth method is able to improve the surface morphology and reduce the defect density in nonpolar a-plane Al x Ga1- x N epi-layers, particularly those with an Al composition greater than 0.5, which are key materials for the fabrication of nonpolar AlGaN-based high light emission efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  8. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mahesh; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Roul, Basanta; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Kalghatgi, A.T.; Krupanidhi, S.B.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.

  9. Pinning properties of Y211 added cold top-seeded YBCO grown on Y2O3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, Bakiye; Duman, Şeyda; Aydıner, Alev

    2016-04-01

    In this study, samples having different composition were prepared with the cold top seeding-melt-growth (TSMG) process by using Nd123 seed. Y2O3 buffer layer was placed to bottom of the pellets consist of Y123: Y211 powder mixtures. Two samples were fabricated in stoichiometric ratios of 1:0 and 1:0.4 labeled as Y0 and Y40, respectively. The Tc onset values of Y0 and Y40 were found to be 93.4 and 93.6 K at 0 T, respectively. The dependence of the effective activation energy U of the flux pinning on the magnetic field and temperature of the sample were determined using the Arrhenius activation energy law from the resistivity curves. The magnetization measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at 30, 50 and 77 K. The critical current densities (J c) for Y0 and Y40 samples were determined to be 5.1×103 and 3.7×103 A/cm2 at 77 K in 0 T, respectively. The normalized pinning force density versus the reduced field was examined at different temperatures to determine the pinning mechanism.

  10. Active unjamming of confluent cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. Motivated by these observations, we have studied a model of dense tissues that combines self-propelled particle models and vertex models of confluent cell layers. In this model, referred to as self-propelled Voronoi (SPV), cells are described as polygons in a Voronoi tessellation with directed noisy cell motility and interactions governed by a shape energy that incorporates the effects of cell volume incompressibility, contractility and cell-cell adhesion. Using this model, we have demonstrated a new density-independent solid-liquid transition in confluent tissues controlled by cell motility and a cell-shape parameter measuring the interplay of cortical tension and cell-cell adhesion. An important insight of this work is that the rigidity and dynamics of cell layers depends sensitively on cell shape. We have also used the SPV model to test a new method developed by our group to determine cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces, hence providing the spatio-temporal distribution of stresses in motile dense tissues. This work was done with Dapeng Bi, Lisa Manning and Xingbo Yang. MCM was supported by NSF-DMR-1305184 and by the Simons Foundation.

  11. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ida, Takashi; Hashizume, Hiroo

    2005-04-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared with {approx}4.76 and {approx}4.64 eV in ITO and FTO films, respectively, which decreases as the FTO particle size increases. The ionization potentials are practically invariant against oxidation and reduction treatments, promising a wide application of the films to transparent conducting oxide electrodes in organic electroluminescent devices and light-emitting devices of high efficiencies.

  12. Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TISSUE CULTURE-RAISED BALLOTA NIGRA L. PLANTS GROWN EX VITRO.

    PubMed

    Makowczyńska, Joanna; Grzegorczyk-KAROLAK, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.

  14. Enhancement of photoluminescence properties in ZnO/AlN bilayer heterostructures grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shang-Bin; Lu, Hong-Liang Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang

    2015-01-15

    The AlN/ZnO bilayer heterostructures were deposited on Si (100) substrate by thermal atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystallinity of polycrystalline ZnO layer is enhanced by amorphous AlN capping layer. Compared with ZnO thin film, ZnO/AlN bilayer with 10.7 nm AlN capping layer exhibits three times enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission from the photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the near band edge emission from the ZnO can be further increased by ∼10 times through rapid thermal annealing at 600 °C. The underlying mechanisms for the enhancement of the NBE emission after coating AlN capping layer and thermal treatment are discussed. These results suggest that coating of a thin AlN layer and sequential thermal treatments can effectively tailor the luminescence properties of ZnO film.

  15. Bioactive compounds, myrosinase activity, and antioxidant capacity of white cabbages grown in different locations of Spain.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Frias, Juana; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2011-04-27

    The influence of two Spanish growing locations with well-differentiated climatic conditions (northern and eastern areas) on the main bioactive compounds, glucosinolates (GLS), total phenolic compounds (TPC), and vitamin C, as well as myrosinase activity and antioxidant capacity in five white cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) cultivars was investigated. Cabbages with the highest concentration of total GLS presented the highest vitamin C level (r = 0.75, P ≤ 0.05) and the lowest antioxidant capacity (r = -0.76, P ≤ 0.05). The cultivars with the highest vitamin C content had the lowest myrosinase activity (r = -0.89, P ≤ 0.05) and antioxidant capacity (r = -0.86, P ≤ 0.05), whereas those with the largest TPC amount showed the highest antioxidant capacity (r = 0.71, P ≤ 0.05). Cabbage cultivars grown in the northern area of Spain with low temperatures and radiation led to higher mean values of myrosinase activity (29.25 U/g dm), TPC (10.0 GAE mg/g dm), and antioxidant capacity (81.6 μmol Trolox/g dm), whereas cultivars grown in the eastern area with high temperature and radiation led to larger mean values of GLS (14.3 μmol/g dm) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/g dm). The results of this investigation provide information regarding the most suitable Spanish growing location to produce white cabbage with an optimized content of health-promoting compounds.

  16. Vibration control through passive constrained layer damping and active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Inman, Daniel J.; Saunders, William R.

    1997-05-01

    To add damping to systems, viscoelastic materials (VEM) are added to structures. In order to enhance the damping effects of the VEM, a constraining layer is attached. When this constraining layer is an active element, the treatment is called active constrained layer damping (ACLD). Recently, the investigation of ACLD treatments has shown it to be an effective method of vibration suppression. In this paper, the treatment of a beam with a separate active element and passive constrained layer (PCLD) element is investigated. A Ritz- Galerkin approach is used to obtain discretized equations of motion. The damping is modeled using the GHM method and the system is analyzed in the time domain. By optimizing on the performance and control effort for both the active and passive case, it is shown that this treatment is capable of lower control effort with more inherent damping, and is therefore a better approach to damp vibration.

  17. Precipitation control and activation enhancement in boron-doped p{sup +}-BaSi{sub 2} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M. Ajmal; Nakamura, K.; Du, W.; Toko, K.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2014-06-23

    Precipitation free boron (B)-doped as-grown p{sup +}-BaSi{sub 2} layer is essential for the BaSi{sub 2} p-n junction solar cells. In this article, B-doped p-BaSi{sub 2} layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates, and the influence of substrate growth temperature (T{sub S}) and B temperature (T{sub B}) in the Knudsen cell crucible were investigated on the formation of B precipitates and the activation efficiency. The hole concentration, p, reached 1.0 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at room temperature for T{sub S} = 600 and T{sub B} = 1550 °C. However, the activation rate of B was only 0.1%. Furthermore, the B precipitates were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When the T{sub S} was raised to 650 °C and the T{sub B} was decreased to 1350 °C, the p reached 6.8 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, and the activation rate increased to more than 20%. No precipitation of B was also confirmed by TEM.

  18. Morphological variations of Mn-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductors thin films grown by succesive ionic layer by adsorption reaction method.

    PubMed

    Balamurali, Subramanian; Chandramohan, Rathinam; Karunakaran, Marimuthu; Mahalingam, Thayan; Parameswaran, Padmanaban; Suryamurthy, Nagamani; Sukumar, Arcod Anandhakrishnan

    2013-07-01

    Transparent conducting Mn-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The deposition conditions have been optimized based on their structure and on the formation of smoothness, adherence, and stoichiometry. The results of the studies by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveal the varieties of structural and morphological modifications feasible with SILAR method. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the ZnO:Mn has wurtzite structure. The interesting morphological variations with dopant concentration are observed and discussed. The films' quality is comparable with those grown with physical methods and is suitable for spintronic applications.

  19. Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ∼35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

  20. Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide and layered metal oxide: highly active visible light photocatalysts with improved chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-09-28

    Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids highly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation are synthesized by self-assembly between oppositely charged 2D nanosheets of Zn-Cr-layered double hydroxide (Zn-Cr-LDH) and layered titanium oxide. The layer-by-layer ordering of two kinds of 2D nanosheets is evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution-transmission electron microscopy. Upon the interstratification process, the original in-plane atomic arrangements and electronic structures of the component nanosheets remain intact. The obtained heterolayered nanohybrids show a strong absorption of visible light and a remarkably depressed photoluminescence signal, indicating an effective electronic coupling between the two component nanosheets. The self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets leads to the formation of highly porous stacking structure, whose porosity is controllable by changing the ratio of layered titanate/Zn-Cr-LDH. The resultant heterolayered nanohybrids are fairly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation with a rate of ∼1.18 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is higher than the O(2) production rate (∼0.67 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) by the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH material, that is, one of the most effective visible light photocatalysts for O(2) production, under the same experimental condition. This result highlights an excellent functionality of the Zn-Cr-LDH-layered titanate nanohybrids as efficient visible light active photocatalysts. Of prime interest is that the chemical stability of the Zn-Cr-LDH is significantly improved upon the hybridization, a result of the protection of the LDH lattice by highly stable titanate layer. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the layer-by-layer-ordered assembly between inorganic 2D nanosheets is quite effective not only in improving the photocatalytic activity of the component semiconductors but also in synthesizing novel porous LDH-based hybrid materials with improved chemical

  1. Effect of the Surface Morphology of Seed and Mask Layers on InP Grown on Si by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junesand, Carl; Hu, Chen; Wang, Zhechao; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Dagur, Pritesh; Pozina, Galia; Hultman, Lars; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    Heteroepitaxy of InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) using a thin seed layer of InP as starting material is investigated, with special attention given to the effect of the surface morphology of the seed and the mask layers on the quality of the ELOG layers. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used to improve the morphological and optical quality of InP grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) using ELOG. Two approaches have been investigated: polishing the InP seed layer on Si before depositing the SiO2 mask and polishing the SiO2 mask after its deposition on the unprocessed seed layer. For polishing the InP (seed)/Si, a two-step process with an aluminum oxide- and sodium hypochlorite-containing slurry as well as a slurry based on sodium hypochlorite mixed with citric acid was used. For SiO2 mask polishing, a slurry with colloidal silica as an abrasive was employed. In both cases, the SiO2 mask was patterned with double line openings and ELOG carried out in an HVPE reactor. Morphology and crystal quality of the resulting ELOG layers were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and room-temperature panchromatic cathodoluminescence (PC-CL) in situ in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that, whereas both polishing approaches result in an ELOG InP layer with good morphology, its surface roughness is lower when the InP (seed)/Si is subjected to CMP prior to deposition of the SiO2 mask, than when only the SiO2 mask is polished. This approach also leads to a decrease in the number of defects generated during coalescence of the ELOG layers.

  2. Structure and electronic properties of Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin single- and multi-layers films grown on Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Calloni, Alberto; Celeri, Matteo; Yivlialin, Rossella; Finazzi, Marco; Bottegoni, Federico; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco

    2016-12-01

    The structure and the electronic properties of thin (1 molecular layer) and thick (20 molecular layers) Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (ZnTPP) films grown on a single metal oxide (MO) layer, namely Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, are shown and discussed. During the first stages of deposition, the ultra-thin MO layer reduces the molecule-substrate interaction enhancing the molecular diffusivity with the respect to other investigated substrates [namely, Si(111), Au(001) and oxygen-free Fe(001)]. On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, ZnTPP molecules form an ordered and stable square-lattice array. The photoemission analysis of the valence bands reveals that all the characteristic features of the molecule are already visible in the 1 monolayer-thick sample spectrum. Similarly, the core level investigation suggests a weak molecule perturbation. The ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O interface represents a prototypical system to investigate the organic film adhesion on ultra-thin MO layers and the processes involved during the film growth.

  3. Surface segregation as a means of gettering Cu in liquid-phase-epitaxy silicon thin layers grown from Al-Cu-Si solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Reedy, R.; Asher, S.; King, D.

    1996-05-01

    The authors demonstrate that, by using the natural surface segregation phenomenon, Cu can be gettered to the surface from the bulk of silicon layers so that its concentrations in the liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) layers are much lower than its solubility at the layer growth temperature and the reported 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} degradation threshold for solar-cell performance. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis indicates that, within a micron-deep sub-surface region, Cu accumulates even in as-grown LPE samples. Slower cooling after growth to room temperature enhances this Cu enrichment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement shows as much as 3.2% Cu in a surface region of about 50 {Angstrom}. More surface-sensitive, ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) analysis further reveals about 7% of Cu at the top surface. These results translate to an areal gettering capacity of about 1.0 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2}, which is higher than the available total-area density of Cu in the layer and substrate (3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} for a uniform 1.2 x 10{sup 17}cm{sup {minus}3} Cu throughout the layer and substrate with a total thickness of 300 {mu}m).

  4. Sporadic Layer es and Siesmic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, Obid; Blokhin, Alexandr; Kalashnikova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    To determine the influence of seismogenic disturbances on the calm state of the iono-sphere and assess the impact of turbulence development in sporadic-E during earthquake prepa-ration period we calculated the variation in the range of semitransparency ∆fES = f0ES - fbES. The study was based primarily on the ionograms obtained by vertical sounding of the ionosphere at Dushanbe at nighttime station from 15 to 29 August 1986. In this time period four successive earthquakes took place, which serves the purpose of this study of the impact of seis-mogenic processes on the intensity of the continuous generation of ionospheric turbulence. Analysis of the results obtained for seismic-ionospheric effects of 1986 earthquakes at station Dushanbe has shown that disturbance of ionospheric parameters during earthquake prepa-ration period displays a pronounced maximum with a duration of t = 1-6 hours. Ionospheric effects associated with the processes of earthquake preparation emerge quite predictably, which verifies seismogenic disturbances in the ionosphere. During the preparation of strong earthquakes, ionograms of vertical sounding produced at station Dushanbe - near the epicenter area - often shown the phenomenon of spreading traces of sporadic Es. It is assumed that the duration of manifestation of seismic ionospheric precursors in Du-shanbe τ = 1 - 6 hours may be associated with deformation processes in the Earth's crust and var-ious faults, as well as dissimilar properties of the environment of the epicentral area. It has been shown that for earthquakes with 4.5 ≤ M ≤ 5.5 1-2 days prior to the event iono-spheric perturbations in the parameters of the sporadic layer Es and an increase in the value of the range of semitransparency Es - ΔfEs were observed, which could lead to turbulence at altitudes of 100-130 km.

  5. Improved color rendering of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes with dual-blue active layers and n-type AlGaN layer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shu-Ti; Yan, Qi-Ang; Shi, Pei-Pei; Niu, Qiao-Li; He, Miao; Li, Guo-Ping; Li, Jun-Rui

    2012-05-01

    An InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) structure and an InGaN/GaN blue-violet LED structure were grown sequentially on the same sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the insertion of an n-type AlGaN layer below the dual blue-emitting active layers showed better spectral stability at the different driving current relative to the traditional p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer. In addition, color rendering index of a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor-converted white LED based on a dual blue-emitting chip with n-type AlGaN reached 91 at 20 mA, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates almost remained at the same point from 5 to 60 mA.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq.) grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Barboza, Thiago José; Ferreira, Andréa Fonseca; de Paula Rosa Ignacio, Ana Claudia; Albarello, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time. PMID:26413061

  7. GaAs Solar Cells Grown by Hydride Vapor-Phase Epitaxy and the Development of GaInP Cladding Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, John; Schulte, Kevin L.; Young, David L.; Haegel, Nancy M.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of high-efficiency III-V photovoltaic devices currently limits them to niche markets. Hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of III-V materials recently reemerged as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional metal- organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of high-efficiency solar cells. Previously, we demonstrated unpassivated HVPEgrown GaAs p-n junctions with good quantum efficiency and high open-circuit voltage (Voc). In this work, we demonstrate the growth of GaInPby HVPE for use as a high-quality surface passivation layer to GaAs solar cells. Solar cells grown with GaInP window layers show significantly improved quantum efficiency compared with unpassivated cells, increasing the short-circuit current (JSC) of these low-cost devices. These results show the potential of low-cost HVPE for the growth of high-quality III-V devices.

  8. Detrimental influence of catalyst seeding on the device properties of CVD-grown 2D layered materials: A case study on MoSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Utama, M. Iqbal Bakti; Lu, Xin; Yuan, Yanwen; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-12-22

    Seed catalyst such as perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid tetrapotassium (PTAS) salt has been used for promoting the growth of atomically thin layered materials in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis. However, the ramifications from the usage of such catalyst are not known comprehensively. Here, we report the influence of PTAS seeding on the transistor device performance from few-layered CVD-grown molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}) flakes. While better repeatability and higher yield can be obtained with the use of PTAS seeds in synthesis, we observed that PTAS-seeded flakes contain particle impurities. Moreover, devices from PTAS-seeded MoSe{sub 2} flakes consistently displayed poorer field-effect mobility, current on-off ratio, and subthreshold swing as compared to unseeded flakes.

  9. Near-infrared emitting In-rich InGaN layers grown directly on Si: Towards the whole composition range

    SciTech Connect

    Aseev, Pavel Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Víctor J.; Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Calleja, Enrique; Morales, Francisco M.; Senichev, Alexander; Lienau, Christoph; and others

    2015-02-16

    The authors report compact and chemically homogeneous In-rich InGaN layers directly grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High structural and optical quality is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence emission in the near-infrared is observed up to room temperature covering the important 1.3 and 1.55 μm telecom wavelength bands. The n-InGaN/p-Si interface is ohmic due to the absence of any insulating buffer layers. This qualitatively extends the application fields of III-nitrides and allows their integration with established Si technology.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Activity of As-Grown, a-Fe2O3 Nanowire Array Electrodes for Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Chernomordik, B. D.; Russell, H. B.; Cvelbar, U.; Jasinski, J. B.; Kumar, V.; Deutsch, T.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2012-05-17

    Undoped hematite nanowire arrays grown using plasma oxidation of iron foils show significant photoactivity ({approx}0.38 mA cm{sup -2} at 1.5 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in 1 M KOH). In contrast, thermally oxidized nanowire arrays grown on iron exhibit no photoactivity due to the formation of a thick (>7 {micro}m Fe{sub 1-x}O) interfacial layer. An atmospheric plasma oxidation process required only a few minutes to synthesize hematite nanowire arrays with a 1-5 {micro}m interfacial layer of magnetite between the nanowire arrays and the iron substrate. An amorphous oxide surface layer on hematite nanowires, if present, is shown to decrease the resulting photoactivity of as-synthesized, plasma grown nanowire arrays. The photocurrent onset potential is improved after removing the amorphous surface on the nanowires using an acid etch. A two-step method involving high temperature nucleation followed by growth at low temperature is shown to produce a highly dense and uniform coverage of nanowire arrays.

  11. Activation Layer Stabilization of High Polarization Photocathodes in Sub-Optimal RF Gun Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory A. Mulhollan

    2010-11-16

    Specific activation recipes for bulk, 100 nm thick MBE grown and high polarization III-V photocathode material have been developed which mitigate the effects of exposure to background gasses. Lifetime data using four representative gasses were acquired for bulk GaAs, 100 nm unstrained GaAs and strained superlattice GaAs/GaAsP, all activated both with Cs and then Cs and Li (bi-alkali). Each photoemitter showed marked resilience improvement when activated using the bi-alkali recipe compared to the standard single alkali recipe. A dual alkali activation system at SLAC was constructed, baked and commissioned with the purpose of performing spin-polarization measurements on electrons emitted from the bi-alkali activated surfaces. An end station at SSRL was configured with the required sources for energy resolved photoemission measurements on the bi-alkali activated and CO2 dosed surfaces. The bi-alkali recipes were successfully implemented at SLAC/SSRL. Measurements at SLAC of the photoelectron spin-polarization from the modified activation surface showed no sign of a change in value compared to the standard activated material, i.e., no ill effects. Analysis of photoemission data indicates that the addition of Li to the activation layer results in a multi-layer structure. The presence of Li in the activation layer also acts as an inhibitor to CO2 absorption, hence better lifetimes in worse vacuum were achieved. The bi-alkali activation has been tested on O2 activated GaAs for comparison with NF3 activated surfaces. Comparable resilience to CO2 exposure was achieved for the O2 activated surface. An RF PECVD amorphous silicon growth system was modified to allow high temperature heat cleaning of GaAs substrates prior to film deposition. Growth versus thickness data were collected. Very thin amorphous silicon germanium layers were optimized to exhibit good behavior as an electron emitter. Growth of the amorphous silicon germanium films on the above substrates was fine tuned

  12. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D.; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol–gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  13. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-03

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 10(7) nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  14. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra

    2014-11-02

    We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholere enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes. The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC.

  15. Structural, electrical and magnetic measurements on oxide layers grown on 316L exposed to liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, Peter; Hofer, Christian; Hlawacek, Gregor; Li, Ning; Maloy, Stuart A.; Teichert, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Fast reactors and spallation neutron sources may use lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant. Its physical, chemical, and irradiation properties make it a safe coolant compared to Na cooled designs. However, LBE is a corrosive medium for most steels and container materials. The present study was performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the austenitic steel 316L (in two different delivery states). Detailed atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses have been performed on the oxide layers to get a better understanding of the corrosion and oxidation mechanisms of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic stainless steel exposed to LBE. The oxide scale formed on the annealed 316L material consisted of multiple layers with different compositions, structures, and properties. The innermost oxide layer maintained the grain structure of what used to be the bulk steel material and shows two phases, while the outermost oxide layer possessed a columnar grain structure.

  16. Atomic Structures of Silicene Layers Grown on Ag(111): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Observations

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer. PMID:23928998

  17. Atomic structures of silicene layers grown on Ag(111): scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy observations.

    PubMed

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer.

  18. Use of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition for shallow boron doping in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkofen, Bodo Amusan, Akinwumi A.; Bukhari, Muhammad S. K.; Burte, Edmund P.; Garke, Bernd; Lisker, Marco; Gargouri, Hassan

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PALD) was carried for growing thin boron oxide films onto silicon aiming at the formation of dopant sources for shallow boron doping of silicon by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A remote capacitively coupled plasma source powered by GaN microwave oscillators was used for generating oxygen plasma in the PALD process with tris(dimethylamido)borane as boron containing precursor. ALD type growth was obtained; growth per cycle was highest with 0.13 nm at room temperature and decreased with higher temperature. The as-deposited films were highly unstable in ambient air and could be protected by capping with in-situ PALD grown antimony oxide films. After 16 weeks of storage in air, degradation of the film stack was observed in an electron microscope. The instability of the boron oxide, caused by moisture uptake, suggests the application of this film for testing moisture barrier properties of capping materials particularly for those grown by ALD. Boron doping of silicon was demonstrated using the uncapped PALD B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for RTA processes without exposing them to air. The boron concentration in the silicon could be varied depending on the source layer thickness for very thin films, which favors the application of ALD for semiconductor doping processes.

  19. Peculiarities of strain relaxation in linearly graded InxGa1-xAs/GaAs(001) metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Baidakova, M. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Komissarova, T. A.; Belyaev, K. G.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of structural, optical and electrical properties of heterostructures with linearly graded InxGa1-xAs metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. The low density of threading dislocations (well below 106 cm-2) in 1-μm-thick In0.3Ga0.7As layers grown atop of the linearly graded InxGa1-xAs/GaAs MBLs has been confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) data demonstrate good agreement between the experimentally measured In step-back and its calculations in the frames of existing models. Combining the XRD reciprocal space maps (RSM) of the structures and the spatially-resolved selective area electron diffraction measurements by cross-sectional TEM in depth-profiled RSM diagrams allowed direct visualization of the strain relaxation dynamics during the MBL growth. Strong effect of the azimuth angle and the value of an unintentional initial miscut of nominally (001) oriented GaAs substrate on the strain relaxation dynamics was observed.

  20. n-VO2/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO2 layer grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minhuan; Bian, Jiming; Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Luo, Yingmin

    2016-12-01

    High quality VO2 films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO2 layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO2/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO2/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO2 over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO2 films was principally composed of V4+ with trace amount of V5+. The design and modulation of the n-VO2/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements.

  1. Effects of Sb incorporation in GaAsSb-capping layer on the optical properties of InAs/GaAs QDs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Alshaibani, S.; Alhamdan, M.; Albrithen, H.; Alyamani, A.; El-Desouki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of antimony incorporation in GaAsSb as a capping layer on the optical properties of InAs quantum dots grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD), photoluminescence (PL) and power dependent PL at 77 K and 300 K have been used for the characterization of the grown samples. Our analysis showed that the emission wavelength increases with Sb content and reaches ∼1.5 μm for Sb concentration of 22%. To achieve this wavelength, a reduction of the growth temperature of the GaAsSb layer from 500 °C to 440 °C was necessary. The wavelength increase is accompanied by a transition from a type I to type II band alignment and a broadening of the PL spectrum to a value of ∼237 nm for an excitation power of 100 mW. This broadening is attributed to the QD size inhomogeneity increase and Sb atoms redistribution during the in-situ annealing during the growth of the barriers at elevated temperature. Our results show the potential of the InAs/GaAsSb system in the development of broadband light sources and super-luminescent light emitting diodes in 1.2-1.5 μm wavelength range.

  2. Diode lasers emitting at 1220 nm with a highly strained GaInAs quantum well and GaAsP compensating layers MOCVD-grown on a GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokurov, D. A. Kapitonov, V. A.; Nikolaev, D. N.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Stankevich, A. L.; Shamakhov, V. V.; Bondarev, A. D.; Vavilova, L. S.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2011-10-15

    Heterostructures with an active region containing a Ga{sub 0.59}In{sub 0.41}As quantum well located between GaAs{sub 1-y}P{sub y} compensating layers were studied using photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was shown that an increase in the phosphorus content in compensating layers makes it possible to obtain unrelaxed heterostructures with wider Ga{sub 0.59}In{sub 0.41}As quantum wells. On the basis of photoluminescence studies, the parameters of such a composite active region were chosen with a view to attaining the longest lasing wavelength possible. Laser heterostructures with a composite active region consisting of a highly strained Ga{sub 0.59}In{sub 0.41}As quantum well located between GaAs{sub 0.85}P{sub 0.15} compensating layers were grown on GaAs substrates by metalloorganic chemical vapor deposition. Stripe mesa-structure laser diodes of 100-{mu}m aperture emitting at 1220 nm were fabricated. The highest emission power of these laser diodes in the continuous-wave regime amounted to 2 W per output mirror.

  3. Longevity of U cells of differentiated yeast colonies grown on respiratory medium depends on active glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Čáp, Michal; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains pass through specific developmental phases when growing on solid respiratory medium. During entry into the so-called alkali phase, in which ammonia signaling is initiated, 2 prominent cell types are formed within the colonies: U cells in upper colony regions, which have a longevity phenotype and activate the expression of a large number of metabolic genes, and L cells in lower regions, which die more quickly and exhibit a starvation phenotype. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the activities of enzymes of central carbon metabolism in lysates of both cell types and determined several fermentation end products, showing that previously reported expression differences are reflected in the different enzymatic capabilities of each cell type. Hence, U cells, despite being grown on respiratory medium, behave as fermenting cells, whereas L cells rely on respiratory metabolism and possess active gluconeogenesis. Using a spectrum of different inhibitors, we showed that glycolysis is essential for the formation, and particularly, the survival of U cells. We also showed that β-1,3-glucans that are released from the cell walls of L cells are the most likely source of carbohydrates for U cells.

  4. Bactericidal activity of N-chlorotaurine against biofilm-forming bacteria grown on metal disks.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, Débora C; Ammann, Christoph G; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Nogler, Michael; Nagl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Many orthopedic surgeons consider surgical irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention as a treatment option for postoperative infections. Usually, saline solution with no added antimicrobial agent is used for irrigation. We investigated the activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) against various biofilm-forming bacteria in vitro and thereby gained significant information on its usability as a soluble and well-tolerated active chlorine compound in orthopedic surgery. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were grown on metal alloy disks and in polystyrene dishes for 48 h. Subsequently, they were incubated for 15 min to 7 h in buffered solutions containing therapeutically applicable concentrations of NCT (1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%; 5.5 to 55 mM) at 37°C. NCT inactivated the biofilm in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disturbance of the biofilm architecture by rupture of the extracellular matrix. Assays with reduction of carboxanilide (XTT) showed inhibition of the metabolism of the bacteria in biofilms. Quantitative cultures confirmed killing of S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on metal alloy disks by NCT. Clinical isolates were slightly more resistant than ATCC type strains, but counts of CFU were reduced at least 10-fold by 1% NCT within 15 min in all cases. NCT showed microbicidal activity against various bacterial strains in biofilms. Whether this can be transferred to the clinical situation should be the aim of future studies.

  5. High-performance ultraviolet photodetectors based on solution-grown ZnS nanobelts sandwiched between graphene layers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonho; Kim, Sang Jin; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Du-Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light photodetectors constructed from solely inorganic semiconductors still remain unsatisfactory because of their low electrical performances. To overcome this limitation, the hybridization is one of the key approaches that have been recently adopted to enhance the photocurrent. High-performance UV photodetectors showing stable on-off switching and excellent spectral selectivity have been fabricated based on the hybrid structure of solution-grown ZnS nanobelts and CVD-grown graphene. Sandwiched structures and multilayer stacking strategies have been applied to expand effective junction between graphene and photoactive ZnS nanobelts. A multiply sandwich-structured photodetector of graphene/ZnS has shown a photocurrent of 0.115 mA under illumination of 1.2 mWcm−2 in air at a bias of 1.0 V, which is higher 107 times than literature values. The multiple-sandwich structure of UV-light sensors with graphene having high conductivity, flexibility, and impermeability is suggested to be beneficial for the facile fabrication of UV photodetectors with extremely efficient performances. PMID:26197784

  6. Strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer and their effect on GaN buffer layer grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Munawar Basha, S.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of strain states of AlN/GaN-stress mitigating layer (SML) on buried crack density and its subsequent influence on the residual stresses in GaN buffer layers grown using ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111) substrate has been investigated. Different stages involved in the formation of buried cracks, which are crack initialization, growth of relaxed AlN layer, and subsequent lateral over growth, are identified using in-situ curvature measurements. While the increase of GaN thickness in AlN/GaN-SML enhanced its compressive strain relaxation and resulted in reduced buried crack spacing, the variation of AlN thickness did not show any effect on the crack spacing. Moreover, the decrease in the crack spacing (or increase in the buried crack density) was found to reduce the residual compression in 1st and 2nd GaN layers of AlN/GaN-SML structure. The higher buried crack density relaxed the compressive strain in 1st GaN layer, which further reduced its ability to compensate the tensile stress generated during substrate cool down, and hence resulted in lower residual compressive stress in 2nd GaN layer.

  7. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  8. Influence of the interface layer on the strain relaxation of ZnSe epitaxial layers grown by MBE on (001)GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, C.; Carlino, E.; Sciacovelli, P.; Tapfer, L.; Sauvage-Simkin, M.; Garreau, Y.; Jedrecy, N.; Véron, M. B.; Pinchaux, R.

    1999-05-01

    ZnSe epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) substrates are investigated by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping and transmission electron microscopy. Our data show that the Zn/Se beam pressure ratio employed during the early stages of the ZnSe growth (2 nm) strongly affects the structural properties of the overgrown stoichiometric epilayer. The different strain status of the interface (tensile and compressive for the Zn-rich and Se-rich interfaces, respectively) is directly involved in the defects evolution mechanism. While the same order of magnitude of 60° dislocations was measured in all the specimens, three orders of magnitude more stacking-faults were measured in samples with a Zn-rich interface with respect to those with a Se-rich interface. In addition, a contraction of the lattice parameter towards the sample surface along the growth direction is observed only in the sample grown with an excess of Se at the interface. This lattice gradient can be explained by the presence of point defects within the II-VI epilayer thickness. The formation of point defects could be favoured by the presence of the Se-rich compressive strained interface.

  9. Effects of ultrathin AlAs interfacial layer on the structure and optical properties of GaInP epilayer grown on germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S. P.; Chen, G. F.; He, W.; Dai, P.; Chen, J. X.; Lu, S. L.; Yang, H.

    2014-10-01

    Structure and optical properties of GaInP epilayer with the ultrathin interfacial layers grown on germanium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), Raman as well as surface morphology measurement. A five angstroms (5 Å) AlAs interfacial layer results in the decrease of PL intensity arising from the emission of [Ge(Ga,In) - V(Ga,In)] complex. With the incorporation of AlAs interfacial layer, an increased ordered degree of GaInP epilayer is observed. On the basis of the combination of step-terrace-reconstruction (STR) mode with the dimer-induced-stress model, a CuPt-B type ordering of GaInP which is related to AlAs reconstruction with 2× periodicity process is proposed to explain this effect. Long range order occurs as a consequence of the minimization of the strain energy with increased interfacial layer thickness from 5 Å to 5 nm.

  10. Influence of High Nitrogen Flux on Crystal Quality of Plasma-Assisted MBE Grown GaN Layers Using Raman Spectroscopy: Part-II

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.; Hussain, I.; Islah u din; Saleemi, F.

    2007-05-09

    We have investigated lattice properties of plasma assisted MBE grown hexagonal GaN layers at varying nitrogen and gallium fluxes using Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman spectra of Ga-rich layers and stoichiometric GaN are similar showing excitation modes at 434 cm-1, 567 cm-1 and 729 cm-1 identified as residual laser line, E{sub 2}{sup H} and A1(LO) mode, respectively. Similarity of Ga-rich and stoichiometric GaN layers is interpreted as the indication of comparable crystal quality of both GaN layers. In contrast, Raman scattering associated with N-rich GaN samples mere exhibit a broad band of excitations in the range of 250-650cm-1 leaving out A1(LO) mode. This typical observation along with intensity distribution of the peaks, is correlated with rough surface, bad crystal quality and high concentration of defects. Based on atomic displacement scheme, the broad band is identified as Ga- vacancies.

  11. Quality-enhanced AlN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire using ZnO buffer layer for SAW applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sulei; Li, Qi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Guangyue; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2017-04-01

    AlN epitaxial films with a thin ZnO buffer layer were successfully deposited on c-sapphire by DC magnetron sputtering for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications. The effect of ZnO buffer layer thickness on structural properties of AlN epitaxial films and the related SAW properties were investigated systematically. The results revealed that a thin ZnO buffer layer can significantly enhance the crystalline quality of AlN films and release the strain in AlN films. The AlN films were epitaxially grown on ZnO buffered-substrate with orientation relationship of (0001) [ 10 1 bar 0 ] AlN//(0001) [ 10 1 bar 0 ] ZnO//(0001) [2 bar 110 ] Al2O3. High frequency SAW devices with a center frequency of 1.4 GHz, a phase velocity of 5600 m/s were achieved on the obtained AlN films. The optimum ZnO buffer layer thickness was found to be 10 nm, resulting in high-quality epitaxial AlN films with a FWHM value of the rocking curve of 0.84°, nearly zero stress and low insertion loss of SAW devices. This work offers an effective approach to achieve high-quality AlN epitaxial films on sapphire substrates for the applications of AlN-based SAW devices.

  12. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  13. In Situ Interferometry of MOCVD-Grown ZnO for Nucleation-Layer-Based Optimization and Nanostructure Formation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biethan, J.-P.; Considine, L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2011-04-01

    A reliable in situ interferometry technique allowed accurate prediction of the change in ZnO morphology during growth on various substrate types. Interferometry results showed that a 40-nm-thick nucleation layer on top of GaN allows growth of smooth and monocrystalline ZnO layers, as also confirmed by x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Studies of ZnO growth on silicon indicated that the surface morphology changes during the high-temperature growth step, resulting in needle-shaped ZnO on top of a thin ZnO initial layer. The observed surface morphology change corresponded to the interferometer signature and allowed identification of nanostructure formation.

  14. Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A.M.; Davis, R.F.

    2010-06-25

    Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

  15. Characterization of Stress Relaxation, Dislocations and Crystallographic Tilt Via X-ray Microdiffraction in GaN (0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Liu, Wenjun; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Roskowski, A. M.; Davis, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses due to lattice mismatch and high densities of threading dislocations and extrinsic stresses resulting from the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion are present in almost all III-Nitride heterostructures. Stress relaxation in the GaN layers occurs in conventional and in pendeo-epitaxial films via the formation of additional misfit dislocations, domain boundaries, elastic strain and wing tilt. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction, high resolution monochromatic X-ray diffraction and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, dislocations, sub-boundaries and crystallographic wing tilt in uncoalesced and coalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which the lateral growth of the wings occurred. The strain and tilt across the stripes increased with the width-to-height ratio. Tilt boundaries formed in the uncoalesced GaN layers at the column/wing interfaces for samples with a large ratio. Sharper tilt boundaries were observed at the interfaces formed by the coalescence of two laterally growing wings. The wings tilted upward during cooling to room temperature for both the uncoalesced and the coalesced GaN layers. It was determined that finite element simulations that account for extrinsic stress relaxation can explain the experimental results for uncoalesced GaN layers. Relaxation of both extrinsic and intrinsic stress components in the coalesced GaN layers contribute to the observed wing tilt and the formation of sub-boundaries.

  16. Genomic features of uncultured methylotrophs in activated-sludge microbiomes grown under different enrichment procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fujinawa, Kazuki; Asai, Yusuke; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Methylotrophs are organisms that are able to grow on C1 compounds as carbon and energy sources. They play important roles in the global carbon cycle and contribute largely to industrial wastewater treatment. To identify and characterize methylotrophs that are involved in methanol degradation in wastewater-treatment plants, methanol-fed activated-sludge (MAS) microbiomes were subjected to phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses, and genomic features of dominant methylotrophs in MAS were compared with those preferentially grown in laboratory enrichment cultures (LECs). These analyses consistently indicate that Hyphomicrobium plays important roles in MAS, while Methylophilus occurred predominantly in LECs. Comparative analyses of bin genomes reconstructed for the Hyphomicrobium and Methylophilus methylotrophs suggest that they have different C1-assimilation pathways. In addition, function-module analyses suggest that their cell-surface structures are different. Comparison of the MAS bin genome with genomes of closely related Hyphomicrobium isolates suggests that genes unnecessary in MAS (for instance, genes for anaerobic respiration) have been lost from the genome of the dominant methylotroph. We suggest that genomic features and coded functions in the MAS bin genome provide us with insights into how this methylotroph adapts to activated-sludge ecosystems. PMID:27221669

  17. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  18. Single Junction InGaP/GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Si Substrates using SiGe Buffer Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringel, S. A.; Carlin, J. A.; Andre, C. L.; Hudait, M. K.; Gonzalez, M.; Wilt, D. M.; Clark, E. B.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Allerman, A.

    2002-01-01

    Single junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells displaying high efficiency and record high open circuit voltage values have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Ge/graded SiGe/Si substrates. Open circuit voltages as high as 980 mV under AM0 conditions have been verified to result from a single GaAs junction, with no evidence of Ge-related sub-cell photoresponse. Current AM0 efficiencies of close to 16% have been measured for a large number of small area cells, whose performance is limited by non-fundamental current losses due to significant surface reflection resulting from greater than 10% front surface metal coverage and wafer handling during the growth sequence for these prototype cells. It is shown that at the material quality currently achieved for GaAs grown on Ge/SiGe/Si substrates, namely a 10 nanosecond minority carrier lifetime that results from complete elimination of anti-phase domains and maintaining a threading dislocation density of approximately 8 x 10(exp 5) per square centimeter, 19-20% AM0 single junction GaAs cells are imminent. Experiments show that the high performance is not degraded for larger area cells, with identical open circuit voltages and higher short circuit current (due to reduced front metal coverage) values being demonstrated, indicating that large area scaling is possible in the near term. Comparison to a simple model indicates that the voltage output of these GaAs on Si cells follows ideal behavior expected for lattice mismatched devices, demonstrating that unaccounted for defects and issues that have plagued other methods to epitaxially integrate III-V cells with Si are resolved using SiGe buffers and proper GaAs nucleation methods. These early results already show the enormous and realistic potential of the virtual SiGe substrate approach for generating high efficiency, lightweight and strong III-V solar cells.

  19. Photoluminescence study on heavily donor and acceptor impurity doped GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, A. Z. M. Touhidul; Jung, D. W.; Noh, J. P.; Otsuka, N.

    2009-05-01

    Gallium arsenide layers doped with high concentrations of Be and Si by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL peaks from doped layers are observed at energies significantly lower than the band-gap of GaAs. The growth and doping conditions suggest that the origin of these peaks is different from that of low energy PL peaks, which were observed in earlier studies and attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. The dependence of the peak energy on the temperature and the annealing is found to differ from that of the peaks attributed to impurity-vacancy complexes. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that the low energy peaks are attributed to short range ordered arrangements of impurity ions. This possibility is examined by calculations of the PL spectra with models of pairs of acceptor and donor delta-doped layers and PL experiments of a superlattice of pairs of Be and Si delta-doped layers.

  20. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients ...

  1. Dependence of source gas mole ratio on crystalline quality of ZnSe layers grown on (100) ZnSe substrates by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodo, T.; Koyama, T.; Yamashita, K.

    1988-10-01

    Single crystalline layers of undoped ZnSe have been grown on (100) ZnSe substrates at 250°C by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using dimethylzinc (DMZ) and hydrogen selenide (H 2Se). The surface morphologies, observed by a Nomarski phase contrast interference microscope, depend on the growth conditions, particularly the source gas mole ratio η M ( ηM=[Se]/[Zn]). The surface morphologies of homoepilayers grown with η M of more than 15 are very rough like polycrystals. However, these layers have the best crystalline quality as determined by a double crystal X-ray diffraction spectrometer (the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (400) diffraction is 33 arc sec). The surface morphologies of layers grown at values of η M between 3 and 15 are excellent as well as those of heteroepilayers (GaAs substrates are used). On the other hand, the crystalline quality becomes worse by reducing η M. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 4.2 K exhibit strong and well-resolved band-edge emissions from the donor bound exciton (hereafter called I x) and the free exciton (hereafter called E x) only for the low mole ratio (η M<10). The FWHM of I x is 0.8 meV which is sharper than that of heteroepilayers. However, the intensity of emissions from deep levels (deep emissions) of homoepilayers measured at 77 K is several times stronger than that of heteroepilayers. In the region of high mole ratio (η M>10), the PL spectra at 4.2 K show two broad lines: I x and the unknown I v (probably donor bound exciton). And the intensity of I x reduces two orders by decreasing the mole ratio from 20 to 3. This indicates that the concentration of donor decreases for the Se-rich condition. From the investigation of PL measurements, the origin of deep emissions is considered to be caused by complexes of Zn vacancies and impurities from the source gases. The dependences of η M on the quality of homoepilayers observed in this work are quite different from those in

  2. Direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene from graphite grown on a nickel foil using polydimethylsiloxane with tunable elasticity and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kwanghyun; Takei, Yusuke; Kim, Sungjin; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-05-01

    We firstly introduce a facile method for the site-specific direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene sheets from cheap and easily enlargeable graphite grown on a Ni foil using an optimized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. By decreasing the PDMS cross-linking time, the PDMS elasticity is reduced to ˜52 kPa, similar to that of a typical gel. As a result of this process, the PDMS becomes more flexible yet remains in a handleable state as a stamp. Furthermore, the PDMS adhesion to a graphite/Ni surface, as measured by the peel strength, increases to ˜5.1 N m-1, which is approximately 17 times greater than that of typical PDMS. These optimized properties allow the PDMS stamp to have improved contact with the graphite/Ni surface, including the graphite wrinkles. This process is verified, and changes in surface morphology are observed using a 3D laser scanning microscope. Under conformal contact, the optimized PDMS stamp demonstrates the site-specific direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene sheets including mono- and bi-layer graphene sheets from the graphite/Ni substrate without the use of special equipment, conditions or chemicals. The number of layers of the exfoliated graphene and its high quality are revealed by the measured Raman spectroscopy. The exfoliation method using tunable elasticity and adhesion of the PDMS stamp can be used not only for cost-effective mass production of defect-less few-layer graphene from the graphite substrate for micro/nano device arrays but also for nano-contact printing of various structures, devices and cells.

  3. Direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene from graphite grown on a nickel foil using polydimethylsiloxane with tunable elasticity and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kwanghyun; Takei, Yusuke; Kim, Sungjin; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-05-24

    We firstly introduce a facile method for the site-specific direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene sheets from cheap and easily enlargeable graphite grown on a Ni foil using an optimized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. By decreasing the PDMS cross-linking time, the PDMS elasticity is reduced to ∼52 kPa, similar to that of a typical gel. As a result of this process, the PDMS becomes more flexible yet remains in a handleable state as a stamp. Furthermore, the PDMS adhesion to a graphite/Ni surface, as measured by the peel strength, increases to ∼5.1 N m⁻¹, which is approximately 17 times greater than that of typical PDMS. These optimized properties allow the PDMS stamp to have improved contact with the graphite/Ni surface, including the graphite wrinkles. This process is verified, and changes in surface morphology are observed using a 3D laser scanning microscope. Under conformal contact, the optimized PDMS stamp demonstrates the site-specific direct physical exfoliation of few-layer graphene sheets including mono- and bi-layer graphene sheets from the graphite/Ni substrate without the use of special equipment, conditions or chemicals. The number of layers of the exfoliated graphene and its high quality are revealed by the measured Raman spectroscopy. The exfoliation method using tunable elasticity and adhesion of the PDMS stamp can be used not only for cost-effective mass production of defect-less few-layer graphene from the graphite substrate for micro/nano device arrays but also for nano-contact printing of various structures, devices and cells.

  4. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  5. Characteristics of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition for silicon nanowire photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Han, Jin-Woo; Seo, Dae-Shik; Kim, Kwang-Young; Baek, Seong-Ho; Jang, Hwan Soo; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-07-01

    We report the structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films deposited on glass by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with various Al2O3 film contents for use as transparent electrodes. Unlike films fabricated by a sputtering method, the diffraction peak position of the films deposited by ALD progressively moved to a higher angle with increasing Al2O3 film content. This indicates that Zn sites were effectively replaced by Al, due to layer-by-layer growth mechanism of ALD process which is based on alternate self-limiting surface chemical reactions. By adjusting the Al2O3 film content, a ZnO:Al film with low electrical resistivity (9.84 x 10(-4) Omega cm) was obtained at an Al2O3 film content of 3.17%, where the Al concentration, carrier mobility, optical transmittance, and bandgap energy were 2.8 wt%, 11.20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 94.23%, and 3.6 eV, respectively. Moreover, the estimated figure of merit value of our best sample was 8.2 m7Omega(-1). These results suggest that ZnO:Al films deposited by ALD could be useful for electronic devices in which especially require 3-dimensional conformal deposition of the transparent electrode and surface passivation.

  6. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  7. Effect of 3C-SiC intermediate layer in GaN—based light emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yi; Tan, Shuxin; Deng, Honghai; Guo, Xinglong; Yin, Haihong; Egawa, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si(111) substrate with and without 3C-SiC intermediate layer (IL). Structural property has been characterized by means of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope measurements. It has been revealed that a significant improvement in crystalline quality of GaN and superlattice epitaxial layers can be achieved by using 3C-SiC as IL. Regarding of electrical and optical characteristics, it is clearly observed that the LEDs with its IL have a smaller leakage current and higher light output power comparing with the LEDs without IL. The better performance of LEDs using 3C-SiC IL can be contributed to both of the improvements in epitaxial layers quality and light extraction efficiency. As a consequence, in terms of optical property, a double enhancement of the light output power and external quantum efficiency has been realized.

  8. Comparison of tungsten films grown by CVD and hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition in a cold-wall reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mengdi Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Wolters, Rob A. M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the authors developed hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition (HWALD) to deposit tungsten (W) with a tungsten filament heated up to 1700–2000 °C. Atomic hydrogen (at-H) was generated by dissociation of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which reacted with WF{sub 6} at the substrate to deposit W. The growth behavior was monitored in real time by an in situ spectroscopic ellipsometer. In this work, the authors compare samples with tungsten grown by either HWALD or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in terms of growth kinetics and properties. For CVD, the samples were made in a mixture of WF{sub 6} and molecular or atomic hydrogen. Resistivity of the WF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} CVD layers was 20 μΩ·cm, whereas for the WF{sub 6}-at-H-CVD layers, it was 28 μΩ·cm. Interestingly, the resistivity was as high as 100 μΩ·cm for the HWALD films, although the tungsten films were 99% pure according to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction reveals that the HWALD W was crystallized as β-W, whereas both CVD films were in the α-W phase.

  9. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-10-15

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x-y}N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01layer stoichiometry was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). RBS shows that indium incorporation decreased continuously with increasing growth temperature due to thermally enhanced dissociation of In-N bonds and for increasing AlN mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM.

  10. Effect of 3C-SiC intermediate layer in GaN—based light emitting diodes grown on Si(111) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youhua; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yi; Tan, Shuxin; Deng, Honghai; Guo, Xinglong; Yin, Haihong; Egawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si(111) substrate with and without 3C-SiC intermediate layer (IL). Structural property has been characterized by means of atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope measurements. It has been revealed that a significant improvement in crystalline quality of GaN and superlattice epitaxial layers can be achieved by using 3C-SiC as IL. Regarding of electrical and optical characteristics, it is clearly observed that the LEDs with its IL have a smaller leakage current and higher light output power comparing with the LEDs without IL. The better performance of LEDs using 3C-SiC IL can be contributed to both of the improvements in epitaxial layers quality and light extraction efficiency. As a consequence, in terms of optical property, a double enhancement of the light output power and external quantum efficiency has been realized.

  11. Electrical and morphological characterization of transfer-printed Au/Ti/TiOx/p+-Si nano- and microstructures with plasma-grown titanium oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Benedikt; Nagel, Robin; Albes, Tim; Haeberle, Tobias; Gagliardi, Alessio; Lugli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Highly-ordered, sub-70 nm-MOS-junctions of Au/Ti/TiOx/p+-Si were efficiently and reliably fabricated by nanotransfer-printing (nTP) over large areas and their functionality was investigated with respect to their application as MOS-devices. First, we used a temperature-enhanced nTP process and integrated the plasma-oxidation of a nm-thin titanium film being e-beam evaporated directly on the stamp before the printing step without affecting the p+-Si substrate. Second, morphological investigations (scanning electron microscopy) of the nanostructures confirm the reliable transfer of Au/Ti/TiOx-pillars of 50 nm, 75 nm, and 100 nm size of superior quality on p+-Si by our transfer protocol. Third, the fabricated nanodevices are also characterized electrically by conductive AFM. Fourth, the results are compared to probe station measurements on identically processed, i.e., transfer-printed μm-MOS-structures including a systematic investigation of the oxide formation. The jV-characteristics of these MOS-junctions demonstrate the electrical functionality as plasma-grown tunneling oxides and the effectivity of the transfer-printing process for their large-scale fabrication. Next, our findings are supported by fits to the jV-curves of the plasma-grown titanium oxide by kinetic-Monte-Carlo simulations. These fits allowed us to determine the dominant conduction mechanisms, the material parameters of the oxides and, in particular, a calibration of the thickness depending on applied plasma time and power. Finally, also a relative dielectric permittivity of 12 was found for such plasma-grown TiOx-layers.

  12. DEFECT SELECTIVE ETCHING OF THICK ALN LAYERS GROWN ON 6H-SIC SEEDS - A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Nyakiti, Luke; Chaudhari, Jharna; Kenik, Edward A; Lu, Peng; Edgar, J H

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the type and densities of defects in AlN crystals grown on 6H-SiC seeds by the sublimation-recombination method were assessed. The positions of the defects in AlN were first identified by defect selective etching (DSE) in molten NaOH-KOH at 400 C for 2 minutes. Etching produced pits of three different sizes: 1.77 m, 2.35 m , and 2.86 m. The etch pits were either aligned together forming a sub-grain boundary or randomly distributed. The smaller etch pits were either isolated or associated with larger etch pits. After preparing crosssections of the pits by the focused ion beam (FIB) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to determine which dislocation type (edge, mixed or screw) produced a specific etch pit sizes. Preliminary TEM bright field and dark field study using different zone axes and diffraction vectors indicates an edge dislocation with a Burgers vector 1/3[1120] is associated with the smallest etch pit size.

  13. Strain and structure heterogeneity in MoS2 atomic layers grown by chemical vapour deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Amani, Matin; Najmaei, Sina; Xu, Quan; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Wu; Yu, Ting; Qiu, Caiyu; Birdwell, A. Glen; Crowne, Frank J.; Vajtai, Robert; Yakobson, Boris I.; Xia, Zhenhai; Dubey, Madan; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lou, Jun

    2014-11-18

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted tremendous attention due to its promising applications in high-performance field-effect transistors, phototransistors, spintronic devices, and nonlinear optics. The enhanced photoluminescence effect in monolayer MoS2 was discovered and, as a strong tool, was employed for strain and defect analysis in MoS2. Recently, large-size monolayer MoS2 has been produced by chemical vapor deposition but has not yet been fully explored. Here we systematically characterize chemical vapor deposition grown MoS2 by PL spectroscopy and mapping, and demonstrate non-uniform strain in single-crystalline monolayer MoS2 and strain-induced band gap engineering. We also evaluate the effective strain transferred from polymer substrates to MoS2 by three-dimensional finite element analysis. In addition, our work demonstrates that PL mapping can be used as a non-contact approach for quick identification of grain boundaries in MoS2.

  14. Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped GaAs from an in situ grown Fe/MgO layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Yun-Hi; Chang, Joonyeon

    2015-09-07

    We study spin accumulation in n-doped GaAs that were electrically injected from Fe via MgO using three-terminal Hanle measurement. The Fe/MgO/GaAs structures were prepared in a cluster molecular beam epitaxy that did not require the breaking of the vacuum. We found the crystal orientation relationship of epitaxial structures Fe[100]//MgO[110]//GaAs[110] without evident defects at the interface. Control of depletion width and interface resistance by means of modulation doping improves spin injection, leading to enhanced spin voltage (ΔV) of 6.3 mV at 10 K and 0.8 mV even at 400 K. The extracted spin lifetime and spin diffusion length of GaAs are 220 ps and 0.77 μm, respectively, at 200 K. MgO tunnel barrier grown in situ with modulation doping at the interface appears to be promising for spin injection into GaAs.

  15. Composition and luminescence of AlInGaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bejtka, K.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E.

    2008-10-01

    A study of AlInGaN epilayers, grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, was performed using spatially resolved x-ray microanalysis and luminescence spectroscopy in order to investigate competition between the incorporation of In, Al, and Ga as a function of the growth temperature in the 565-660 deg. C range and the nominal AlN mole fraction. The samples studied have AlN and InN mole fractions in the ranges of 4%-30% and 0%-16%, respectively. Composition measurements show the effect of decreasing temperature to be an increase in the incorporation of InN, accompanied by a small but discernible decrease in the ratio of GaN to AlN mole fractions. The incorporation of In is also shown to be significantly increased by decreasing the Al mole fraction. Optical emission peaks, observed by cathodoluminescence mapping and by photoluminescence, provide further information on the epilayer compositions as a function of substrate temperature, and the dependencies of peak energy and linewidth are plotted.

  16. Resistive switching and synaptic properties of fully atomic layer deposition grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect

    Matveyev, Yu.; Zenkevich, A.; Egorov, K.; Markeev, A.

    2015-01-28

    Recently proposed novel neural network hardware designs imply the use of memristors as electronic synapses in 3D cross-bar architecture. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the most feasible technique to fabricate such arrays. In this work, we present the results of the detailed investigation of the gradual resistive switching (memristive) effect in nanometer thick fully ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks. The modelling of the I-V curves confirms interface limited trap-assisted-tunneling mechanism along the oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2} in all conduction states. The resistivity of the stack is found to critically depend upon the distance from the interface to the first trap in HfO{sub 2}. The memristive properties of ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices are correlated with the demonstrated neuromorphic functionalities, such as long-term potentiation/depression and spike-timing dependent plasticity, thus indicating their potential as electronic synapses in neuromorphic hardware.

  17. Structure and photoluminescence of the TiO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis-dimethylamino titanium and ozone.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunyan; Liu, Ben; Lei, Zhongxiang; Sun, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 films were grown on silicon substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis-dimethylamino titanium and ozone. Amorphous TiO2 film was deposited at a low substrate temperature of 165°C, and anatase TiO2 film was grown at 250°C. The amorphous TiO2 film crystallizes to anatase TiO2 phase with annealing temperature ranged from 300°C to 1,100°C in N2 atmosphere, while the anatase TiO2 film transforms into rutile phase at a temperature of 1,000°C. Photoluminescence from anatase TiO2 films contains a red band at 600 nm and a green band at around 515 nm. The red band exhibits a strong correlation with defects of the under-coordinated Ti(3+) ions, and the green band shows a close relationship with the oxygen vacancies on (101) oriented anatase crystal surface. A blue shift of the photoluminescence spectra reveals that the defects of under-coordinated Ti(3+) ions transform to surface oxygen vacancies in the anatase TiO2 film annealing at temperature from 800°C to 900°C in N2 atmosphere.

  18. Structural Properties Characterized by the Film Thickness and Annealing Temperature for La2O3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chenxi; Feng, Xingyao; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Yongte

    2017-12-01

    La2O3 films were grown on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition technique with different thickness. Crystallization characteristics of the La2O3 films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing treatments at several annealing temperatures. It was found that the crystallization behaviors of the La2O3 films are affected by the film thickness and annealing temperatures as a relationship with the diffusion of Si substrate. Compared with the amorphous La2O3 films, the crystallized films were observed to be more unstable due to the hygroscopicity of La2O3. Besides, the impacts of crystallization characteristics on the bandgap and refractive index of the La2O3 films were also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively.

  19. Substrate temperature influence on the properties of GaN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Alevli, Mustafa Gungor, Neşe; Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-01-15

    Gallium nitride films were grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using triethylgallium and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma. An optimized recipe for GaN film was developed, and the effect of substrate temperature was studied in both self-limiting growth window and thermal decomposition-limited growth region. With increased substrate temperature, film crystallinity improved, and the optical band edge decreased from 3.60 to 3.52 eV. The refractive index and reflectivity in Reststrahlen band increased with the substrate temperature. Compressive strain is observed for both samples, and the surface roughness is observed to increase with the substrate temperature. Despite these temperature dependent material properties, the chemical composition, E{sub 1}(TO), phonon position, and crystalline phases present in the GaN film were relatively independent from growth temperature.

  20. [Study of luminescence properties of nano-size ZnO embedded in SiO2 layer grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-kai; Zhang, Xi-qing; Yao, Zhi-gang; Teng, Xiao-ying; Wang, Yong-sheng; Huang, Shi-hua

    2006-03-01

    Nano-size ZnO embedded in SiO2 layers were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Absorption spectra and PL spectra were employed to study the optical character of the samples at room temperature. Absorption spectra blue-shifted when the size of nano-meter ZnO decreased, which indicated that quantum size effect became stronger with decreasing the size of ZnO. PL spectra show two peaks at about 387 and 441 nm, respectively. It was concluded that the UV emission originates from the radiative recombination of free-exciton, and the blue emission is due to the electron transition from donor levels of oxygen vacancies to the top of valence band. The origin of the two peaks is demonstrated by time-resolved spectra and luminescence decay curve.

  1. Local Strain, Defects and Crystallographic Tilt in GaN(0001) Layers Grown by Maskless Pendeo-epitaxy from X-ray Microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Einfeldt, S.; Roskovski, A.M.; Davis, R.F.

    2010-07-13

    Polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction, high-resolution monochromatic x-ray diffraction, and finite element simulations have been used to determine the distribution of strain, defects, and crystallographic tilt in uncoalesced GaN layers grown by maskless pendeo-epitaxy. An important materials parameter was the width-to-height ratio of the etched columns of GaN from which occurred the lateral growth of the wings. Tilt boundaries formed at the column/wing interface for samples with a large ratio. Formation of the tilt boundary can be avoided by using smaller ratios. The strain and tilt across the stripe increased with the width-to-height ratio. The wings were tilted upward at room temperature.

  2. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates by the facile seeding layer assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Mei-rong; Han, Cui-ping; Gu, Xiu-quan; Wang, Yong; Tang, Lu; Tang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The nanorods were selectively grown on the FTO regions which were covered with TiO2 seeding layer. It took 5 h to obtain the compact arrays with the nanorod length of ~2 μm and diameter of ~50 nm. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 NRAs are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 NRAs indicate the good photoelectric conversion ability with an efficiency of 0.22% at a full-wavelength irradiation. A photocurrent density of 0.21 mA/cm2 is observed at 0.7 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). More evidences suggest that the charge transferring resistance is lowered at an irradiation, while the flat-band potential ( V fb) is shifted towards the positive side.

  3. Effect of AlInGaN barrier layers with various TMGa flows on optoelectronic characteristics of near UV light-emitting diodes grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yi-Keng; Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Jiang, Ren-Hao; Chen, Bo-Chun; Fang, Yen-Hsiang; Xuan, Rong; Su, Yan-Kuin; Lin, Chia-Feng; Chen, Jebb-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with quaternary AlInGaN quantum barriers (QBs) are grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The indium mole fraction of AlInGaN QB could be enhanced as we increased the TMG flow rate. Both the wavelength shift in EL spectra and forward voltage at 20 mA current injection were reduced by using AlInGaN QB. Under 100 mA current injection, the LED output power with Al 0.089In 0.035Ga 0.876N QB can be enhanced by 15.9%, compared to LED with GaN QB. It should be attributed to a reduction of lattice mismatch induced polarization mismatch in the active layer.

  4. Broad-Band Photocurrent Enhancement in MoS2 Layers Directly Grown on Light-Trapping Si Nanocone Arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunae; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Yonghun; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Eunah; Nguyen, Trang Thi Thu; Lee, Ju Hyun; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2017-02-22

    There has been growing research interest in realizing optoelectronic devices based on the two-dimensional atomically thin semiconductor MoS2 owing to its distinct physical properties that set it apart from conventional semiconductors. However, there is little optical absorption in these extremely thin MoS2 layers, which presents an obstacle toward applying them for use in high-efficiency light-absorbing devices. We synthesized trilayers of MoS2 directly on SiO2/Si nanocone (NC) arrays using chemical vapor deposition and investigated their photodetection characteristics. The photoresponsivity of the MoS2/NC structure was much higher than that of the flat counterpart across the whole visible wavelength range (for example, it was almost an order of magnitude higher at λ = 532 nm). Strongly concentrated light near the surface that originated from a Fabry-Perot interference in the SiO2 thin layers and a Mie-like resonance caused by the Si NCs boosted the optical absorption in MoS2. Our work demonstrates that MoS2/NC structures could provide a useful means to realize high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  5. Changes of mesophyll and the rubisco activity in pea plants grown in clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamchuk, N. I.

    In earlier research, it was found that microgravity causes alteration of mesophyll cell parameters and dislication at the ultrastructural level (Kordyum et al., 1989, Nedukha et al., 1991, Kordyum, 1997, Adamchuk et al., 2002). Also, destruction of the fine structure of chloroplasts was reported by Abilov et al. (1986), Aliev et al. (1987), Kordyum et al. (1989), and Adamchuk et al. (1999). In addition, Abilov et al. (1986), Aliev et al. (1987), Brown et al. (1993) have discovered the decrease in starch volume. The objective of this work was to compare quantitative ultrastructural parameters of mesophyll cells (including properties of their chloroplasts) and the level of Rubisco activity detected in clinorotated and control plants of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plants were grown for 12 days in the nutritional medium of Hogland on a clinostat (with 2 rev. min-1 speed of rotation) at a temperature of 23-25°C and illumination 230 μ mol per m-2s-1. The comparison of transversal cross-sections of leaves has revealed a significant increase of mesophyll cell volume and intercellular space under experimental conditions. This expansion of mesophyll cells has correlated with an increase of the number of chloroplasts. Essential ultrastructural changes have affected the total volume of thylakoids. Also, the value of the photosynthetic membranes development in the clinorotated plants was higher 17.11 ± 1.94 μ m3 then in control -- 12.65 ± 1.83 μ m3 due to extension of destacking thylakoids. Increase of the volume density of plastoglobuli in the clinorotated plants on the 1.63-fold suggested the effect of either greater accumulation of lipid or acceleration of chloroplasts senescence. Under influence of clinorotation, the partial volume of starch inclusions significantly decreased in the spongy mesophyll chloroplasts -- 10.46 ± 1.80 % to compare with control -- 31.34 ± 2.37 %. However, the clinorotation of plants resulted in an increase of the Rubisco activity. Intensities

  6. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, D. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P. E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.; Das, Gangadhar

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  7. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of AlN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Halit; Bayrak, Turkan; Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited at 200 °C, on p-type silicon substrates utilizing a capacitively coupled hollow-cathode plasma source integrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. The structural properties of AlN were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, by which we confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite single-phase crystalline structure. The films exhibited an optical band edge around ˜5.7 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the AlN films were measured via a spectroscopic ellipsometer. In addition, to investigate the electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties, Al/AlN/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated, and current density-voltage and frequency dependent (7 kHz-5 MHz) dielectric constant measurements (within the strong accumulation region) were performed. A peak of dielectric loss was observed at a frequency of 3 MHz and the Cole-Davidson empirical formula was used to determine the relaxation time. It was concluded that the native point defects such as nitrogen vacancies and DX centers formed with the involvement of Si atoms into the AlN layers might have influenced the electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of the plasma-assisted ALD grown AlN films.

  8. On the microstructure of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, Roland; Einfeldt, Sven; Chierchia, Rosa; Hommel, Detlef; Reitmeier, Zachary J.; Davis, Robert F.; Liu, Quincy K.K.

    2005-04-15

    The microstructural as well as the compositional evolution of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x{approx}0.15) layers grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The epitaxial growth was followed from the early nucleation stage on the substrate to the development of a thick bulk-like film. Phase separation was observed during the early stage of growth; that is, islands of two different shapes formed whose Al mole fractions were about 0.035 and 0.18, respectively. The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N coalesced at a film thickness of about 100 nm with the domains of varying Al content being fully coherent. Such domains were not only found at the film/substrate interface but also further away from the interface. They were arranged in layers that were shifted laterally against each other; that is, Al-deficient domains formed on top of Al-rich domains and vice versa. Increasing the film thickness to more than 100 nm finally led to a homogeneous Al distribution. Finite-element simulations were performed to calculate the strain distribution in these inhomogeneous systems. They allowed the experimental results to be explained by an interplay of strain minimization in the epitaxial film and growth kinetics.

  9. Brookite TiO2 thin film epitaxially grown on (110) YSZ substrate by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dai-Hong; Kim, Won-Sik; Kim, Sungtae; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-08-13

    Epitaxial brookite TiO2 (B-TiO2) film was deposited on (110) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, and its structural, optical, and gas sensing properties were investigated. As-deposited TiO2 film was a pure brookite and (120) oriented. The determined in-plane orientation relationships were [21̅0]B-TiO2//[1̅10]YSZ and [001]B-TiO2 //[001]YSZ. The B-TiO2 film showed ∼70% transmittance and the optical band gap energy was 3.29 eV. The B-TiO2 film-based gas sensor responded to H2 gas even at room temperature and the highest magnitude of the gas response was determined to be ∼150 toward 1000 ppm of H2/air at 150 °C. In addition, B-TiO2 sensor showed a high selectivity for H2 against CO, EtOH, and NH3.

  10. Morphology, composition and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:Cl thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsyi-En Wen, Chia-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2016-01-15

    Chlorine doped SnO{sub 2} thin films were prepared using atomic layer deposition at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C using SnCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O as the reactants. Composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were examined. Results showed that the as-deposited SnO{sub 2} films all exhibited rutile structure with [O]/[Sn] ratios between 1.35 and 1.40. The electrical conductivity was found independent on [O]/[Sn] ratio but dependent on chlorine doping concentration, grain size, and surface morphology. The 300 °C-deposited film performed a higher electrical conductivity of 315 S/cm due to its higher chlorine doping level, larger grain size, and smoother film surface. The existence of Sn{sup 2+} oxidation state was demonstrated to minimize the effects of chlorine on raising the electrical conductivity of films.

  11. Aluminum Nitride Grown by Atomic Layer Epitaxy Characterized with Real-Time Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Virginia; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter; Robinson, Zachary; Demasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer; Ludwig, Karl; Eddy, Charles

    Aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride are being considered for many applications, and are currently being used commercially for LEDs. These III-nitride films are conventionally deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is underway as it is a fabrication friendly technique for thin films at lower temperatures. AlN deposited with ALE at 500°C have been shown to have good crystallinity, but relatively high carbon and oxygen impurities, and understanding the film deposition mechanism is an ongoing project. Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is sensitive to surface features, making it useful for real time monitoring of deposition processes. AlN was monitored by GISAXS while being deposited with ALE using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen/nitrogen plasma at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source and the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. The GISAXS of AlN ALE at nominally 400°C, 450°C, and 500°C was compared to ex situ characterization with XPS and AFM.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of Ti doped ZnO films grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhixin; Kwack, Won-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jae; Jang, Seung-II; Kim, Hye-Ri; Kim, Jin-Woong; Jung, Kang-Won; Min, Won-Ja; Yu, Kyu-Sang; Park, Sung-Hun; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Jin-Hyock; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ti doped ZnO films were prepared on Corning XG glass substrate by ALD. • The electrical properties and optical properties were systematically investigated. • An optimized Ti doped ZnO films had low resistivity and excellent optical transmittance. - Abstract: Titanium doped zinc oxide (Ti doped ZnO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition methods at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. The Ti content in Ti doped ZnO films was varied from 5.08 at.% to 15.02 at.%. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of the Ti doped ZnO films had degraded with increasing Ti content. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructural evolution of the Ti doped ZnO films, showing that both the grain size and crystallinity reduced with increasing Ti content. The electrical resistivity of the Ti doped ZnO films showed a minimum value of 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with the Ti content of 6.20 at.%. Furthermore, the Ti doped ZnO films exhibited excellent transmittance.

  13. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yaowei; Liu, Hao; Sheng, Ouyang; Liu, Zhichao; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Liming

    2011-08-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO2/Al2O3 films at 110° C and 280° C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO2/Al2O3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47J/cm2 and 6.5±0.46J/cm2 at 110° C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110° C are notably better than 280° C.

  14. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of low- loss as-grown germanosilicate layers for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Feridun; Agan, Sedat; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    We report on systematic growth and characterization of low-loss germanosilicate layers for use in optical waveguides. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique was used to grow the films using silane, germane and nitrous oxide as precursor gases. Chemical composition was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. N-H bond concentration of the films decreased from 0.43x1022 cm-3 down to below 0.06x1022 cm-3, by a factor of seven as the GeH4 flow rate increased from 0 to 70 sccm. A simultaneous decrease of O-H related bonds was also observed by a factor of 10 in the same germane flow range. The measured TE rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=632.8 nm were found to increase from are 0.20 +/- 0.02 to 6.46 +/- 0.04 dB/cm as the germane flow rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=1550 nm were found to decrease from 0.32 +/- 0.03 down to 0.14 +/- 0.06 dB/cm for the same samples leading to the lowest values reported so far in the literature, eliminating the need for high temperature annealing as is usually done for these materials to be used in waveguide devices.

  15. Plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride mask layers grown by low-temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in SF{sub 6} based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Perros, Alexander; Bosund, Markus; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Sainiemi, Lauri; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri

    2012-01-15

    The plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited by low-temperature, 200 deg. C, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated for reactive ion etch (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etch (ICP-RIE) systems using various mixtures of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} under different etch conditions. During RIE, the film exhibits good mask properties with etch rates below 10r nm/min. For ICP-RIE processes, the film exhibits exceptionally low etch rates in the subnanometer region with lower platen power. The AlN film's removal occurred through physical mechanisms; consequently, rf power and chamber pressure were the most significant parameters in PEALD AlN film removal because the film was inert to the SF{sub x}{sup +} and O{sup +} chemistries. The etch experiments showed the film to be a resilient masking material. This makes it an attractive candidate for use as an etch mask in demanding SF{sub 6} based plasma etch applications, such as through-wafer etching, or when oxide films are not suitable.

  16. Local and Sustained Activity of Doxycycline Delivered with Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong; Gould, David J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-04-11

    Achieving localized delivery of small molecule drugs has the potential to increase efficacy and reduce off target and side effects associated with systemic distribution. Herein, we explore the potential use of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled microcapsules for the delivery of doxycycline. Absorbance of doxycycline onto core dextran sulfate of preassembled microcapsules provides an efficient method to load both synthetic and biodegradable microcapsules with the drug. Application of an outer layer lipid coat enhances the sustained in vitro release of doxycycline from both microcapsule types. To monitor doxycycline delivery in a biological system, C2C12 mouse myoblasts are engineered to express EGFP under the control of the optimized components of the tetracycline regulated gene expression system. Microcapsules are not toxic to these cells, and upon delivery to the cells, EGFP is more efficiently induced in those cells that contain engulfed microcapsules and monitored EGFP expression clearly demonstrates that synthetic microcapsules with a DPPC coat are the most efficient for sustain intracellular delivery. Doxycycline released from microcapsules also displayed sustained activity in an antimicrobial growth inhibition assay compared with doxycycline solution. This study reveals the potential for LbL microcapsules in small molecule drug delivery and their feasible use for achieving prolonged doxycycline activity.

  17. Defect study in molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films with activated and unactivated arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Izhnin, I. I.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Fitsych, O. I.; Pociask-Bialy, M.; Sheregii, E.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2014-04-28

    A defect study was performed on molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films in situ doped with arsenic. Doping was performed from either effusion cell or cracker cell, and studied were both as-grown samples and samples subjected to arsenic activation annealing. Electrical properties of the films were investigated with the use of ion milling as a means of “stirring” defects in the material. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the most efficient incorporation of electrically active arsenic occurs at the cracking zone temperature of 700 °C. Interaction between arsenic and tellurium during the growth was observed and is discussed in the paper.

  18. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  19. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  20. GABA-A receptor antagonists increase firing, bursting and synchrony of spontaneous activity in neuronal networks grown on microelectrode arrays: a step towards chemical "fingerprinting"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of effects on spontaneous network activity in neurons grown on MEAs is a proposed method to screen chemicals for potential neurotoxicity. In addition, differential effects on network activity (chemical "fingerprints") could be used to classify chemical modes of action....

  1. 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates using InAlAs/GaAs dislocation filter layers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingchu; Chen, Siming; Wu, Jiang; Jiang, Qi; Dorogan, Vitaliy G; Benamara, Mourad; Mazur, Yuriy I; Salamo, Gregory J; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2014-05-19

    We compare InAlAs/GaAs and InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) as dislocation filter layers for 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser structures directly grown on Si substrates. InAlAs/GaAs SLSs are found to be more effective than InGaAs/GaAs SLSs in blocking the propagation of threading dislocations generated at the interface between the GaAs buffer layer and the Si substrate. Room-temperature lasing at ~1.27 μm with a threshold current density of 194 A/cm(2) and output power of ~77 mW has been demonstrated for broad-area lasers grown on Si substrates using InAlAs/GaAs dislocation filter layers.

  2. Critical tensile and compressive strains for cracking of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; George, Steven M.

    2011-04-01

    Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a model ALD system and Al2O3 ALD films are excellent gas diffusion barrier on polymers. However, little is known about the response of Al2O3 ALD films to strain and the potential film cracking that would restrict the utility of gas diffusion barrier films. To understand the mechanical limitations of Al2O3 ALD films, the critical strains at which the Al2O3 ALD films will crack were determined for both tensile and compressive strains. The tensile strain measurements were obtained using a fluorescent tagging technique to image the cracks. The results showed that the critical tensile strain is higher for thinner thicknesses of the Al2O3 ALD film on heat-stabilized polyethylene naphthalate (HSPEN) substrates. A low critical tensile strain of 0.52% was measured for a film thickness of 80 nm. The critical tensile strain increased to 2.4% at a film thickness of 5 nm. In accordance with fracture mechanics modeling, the critical tensile strains and the saturation crack densities scaled as (1/h)1/2 where h is the Al2O3 ALD film thickness. The fracture toughness for cracking, KIC, of the Al2O3 ALD film was also determined to be KIC = 2.30 MPa m1/2. Thinner Al2O3 ALD film thicknesses also had higher critical strains for cracking from compressive strains. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that Al2O3 ALD films with thicknesses of 30-50 nm on Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrates cracked at a critical compressive strain of ˜1.0%. The critical compressive strain increased to ˜2.0% at a film thickness of ˜20 nm. A comparison of the critical tensile strains on HSPEN substrates and critical compressive strains on Teflon FEP substrates revealed some similarities. The critical strain was ˜1.0% for film thicknesses of 30-50 nm for both tensile and compressive strains. The critical compressive strain then increased more rapidly than the critical tensile strain for thinner films with thicknesses

  3. Spatio-temporal modeling of Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touyz, J.; Apanasovich, T. V.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic Regions are experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental and climate change. The active layer (the uppermost layer of soil between the atmosphere and permafrost that freezes in winter and thaws in summer) is sensitive to both climate and environmental changes and plays an important role in the functioning of Arctic ecosystems, planning, and economic activities. Knowledge about spatio-temporal variability of ALT is crucial for environmental and engineering applications. The objective of this study is to provide the methodology to model and estimate spatio-temporal variation in the active layer thickness (ALT) at several sites located in the Circumpolar region spanning the Alaska North Slope, and to demonstrate its use in spatio-temporal interpolation as well as time-forward prediction. In our data analysis we estimate a parametric trend and examine residuals for the presence of spatial and temporal dependence. We propose models that provide a description of residual space-time variability in ALT. Formulations that take into account interaction among spatial and temporal components are also developed. Moreover, we compare our models to naive models in which residual spatio-temporal and temporal correlations are not considered. The predicted root mean squared and absolute errors are significantly reduced when our approach is employed. While the methodology is developed in the context of ALT, it can also be applied to model and predict other environmental variables which use similar spatio-temporal sampling designs.

  4. Comparative study of photocatalytic activities of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod on Si(001) wafer and FTO glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yang, Sena; Kim, Yeonwoo; Kim, Namdong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Kim, Hyun Sung; Lee, Hangil

    2015-09-01

    ZnO nanorods have been grown on Si(001) wafer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for 1 and 4 h with the hydrothermal methods. The morphologies and photocatalytic activities of the ZnO nanorods were found to depend on the substrates. We investigated their properties by using spectroscopic analysis and demonstrated that the shape of nanorod and the ratios of external defects can be controlled by varying the substrates. Our experiments revealed that the nanorods grown on Si(001) have a single-crystalline wurtzite structure with (002) facets and that the number of surface oxygen defects increases with their length as the growth time increases. The nanorods grown on Si(001) have different facets, in particular wider (002) facets, and a higher ratio of the oxygen defect than the nanorods on FTO glass substrate. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities with respect to 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) of these nanorods were investigated with high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES). We demonstrated that their photocatalytic activity is influenced by the ratios of surface oxygen defects, which varies with the substrate surface.

  5. Vibration control of cylindrical shells using active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Manas C.; Chen, Tung-Huei; Baz, Amr M.

    1997-05-01

    The fundamentals of controlling the structural vibration of cylindrical shells treated with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments are presented. The effectiveness of the ACLD treatments in enhancing the damping characteristics of thin cylindrical shells is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. A finite element model (FEM) is developed to describe the dynamic interaction between the shells and the ACLD treatments. The FEM is used to predict the natural frequencies and the modal loss factors of shells which are partially treated with patches of the ACLD treatments. The predictions of the FEM are validated experimentally using stainless steel cylinders which are 20.32 cm in diameter, 30.4 cm in length and 0.05 cm in thickness. The cylinders are treated with ACLD patches of different configurations in order to target single or multi-modes of lobar vibrations. The ACLD patches used are made of DYAD 606 visco-elastic layer which is sandwiched between two layers of PVDF piezo-electric films. Vibration attenuations of 85% are obtained with maximum control voltage of 40 volts. Such attenuations are attributed to the effectiveness of the ACLD treatment in increasing the modal damping ratios by about a factor of four over those of conventional passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) treatments. The obtained results suggest the potential of the ACLD treatments in controlling the vibration of cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  6. Typology of nonlinear activity waves in a layered neural continuum.

    PubMed

    Koch, Paul; Leisman, Gerry

    2006-04-01

    Neural tissue, a medium containing electro-chemical energy, can amplify small increments in cellular activity. The growing disturbance, measured as the fraction of active cells, manifests as propagating waves. In a layered geometry with a time delay in synaptic signals between the layers, the delay is instrumental in determining the amplified wavelengths. The growth of the waves is limited by the finite number of neural cells in a given region of the continuum. As wave growth saturates, the resulting activity patterns in space and time show a variety of forms, ranging from regular monochromatic waves to highly irregular mixtures of different spatial frequencies. The type of wave configuration is determined by a number of parameters, including alertness and synaptic conditioning as well as delay. For all cases studied, using numerical solution of the nonlinear Wilson-Cowan (1973) equations, there is an interval in delay in which the wave mixing occurs. As delay increases through this interval, during a series of consecutive waves propagating through a continuum region, the activity within that region changes from a single-frequency to a multiple-frequency pattern and back again. The diverse spatio-temporal patterns give a more concrete form to several metaphors advanced over the years to attempt an explanation of cognitive phenomena: Activity waves embody the "holographic memory" (Pribram, 1991); wave mixing provides a plausible cause of the competition called "neural Darwinism" (Edelman, 1988); finally the consecutive generation of growing neural waves can explain the discontinuousness of "psychological time" (Stroud, 1955).

  7. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Mondia whitei Adventitious Roots and Ex vitro-Grown Somatic Embryogenic-Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities. Adventitious roots derived from 2.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments and ex vitro-grown plants derived from meta-topolin riboside and IAA treatments gave the best AChE and antibacterial activities. The in vitro-established M. whitei and ex vitro biomass have comparable ability to function as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and antibacterial agents, and can be used as potent bioresources in traditional medicine. PMID:27752244

  8. Catalytically active single-atom niobium in graphitic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Liu, Chunjing; Huang, Hao; Xue, Fanghong; Dong, Xinglong; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2013-05-01

    Carbides of groups IV through VI (Ti, V and Cr groups) have long been proposed as substitutes for noble metal-based electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, their catalytic activity has been extremely limited because of the low density and stability of catalytically active sites. Here we report the excellent performance of a niobium-carbon structure for catalysing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. A large number of single niobium atoms and ultra small clusters trapped in graphitic layers are directly identified using state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. This structure not only enhances the overall conductivity for accelerating the exchange of ions and electrons, but it suppresses the chemical/thermal coarsening of the active particles. Experimental results coupled with theory calculations reveal that the single niobium atoms incorporated within the graphitic layers produce a redistribution of d-band electrons and become surprisingly active for O2 adsorption and dissociation, and also exhibit high stability.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-06-07

    In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  10. Properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/ZnO dielectric films grown at low temperature for RF MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Cari F.; Del Rio, Frank W.; George, Steven M.; Bright, Victor M.

    2005-01-01

    Al2O3/ZnO alloy films were grown at 100°C using atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. It has been previously established that the resistivity of these films can be tuned over a wide range by varying the amount of Zn in the film. Al2O3/ZnO ALD alloy films can therefore be designed with a dielectric constant high enough to provide a large down-state capacitance and a resistivity low enough to promote the dissipation of trapped charges. The material and electrical properties of the Al2O3/ZnO ALD films were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), nanoindentation, and mercury probe measurements. Chemical analysis using AES confirmed the presence of both Al and Zn in the alloys. The nanoindentation measurements were used to calculate the Young's modulus and hardness of the films. Pure Al2O3 ALD was determined to have a modulus between 150 and 155 GPa and a hardness of ~8 GPa, while the results for pure ZnO ALD indicated a modulus between 120 and 140 GPa and a hardness of ~5 GPa. An Al2O3/ZnO ALD alloy displayed a modulus of 140-145 GPa, which falls between the two pure films, and a hardness of ~8 GPa, which is similar to the pure Al2O3 film. The dielectric constants of the ALD films were calculated from the mercury probe measurements and were determined to be around 6.8. These properties indicate that the Al2O3/ZnO ALD films can be engineered as a property specific dielectric layer for RF MEMS devices.

  11. Influences of annealing on structural and compositional properties of Al2O3 thin films grown on 4H-SiC by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Li-Xin; Zhang, Feng; Shen, Zhan-Wei; Yan, Guo-Guo; Liu, Xing-Fang; Zhao, Wan-Shun; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guo-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Annealing effects on structural and compositional performances of Al2O3 thin films on 4H-SiC substrates are studied comprehensively. The Al2O3 films are grown by atomic layer deposition through using trimethylaluminum and H2O as precursors at 300 °C, and annealed at various temperatures in ambient N2 for 1 min. The Al2O3 film transits from amorphous phase to crystalline phase as annealing temperature increases from 750 °C to 768 °C. The refractive index increases with annealing temperature rising, which indicates that densification occurs during annealing. The densification and grain formation of the film upon annealing are due to crystallization which is relative with second-nearest-neighbor coordination variation according to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the binding energies of Al 2p and O 1s increase together during crystallization, separations between Al 2p and O 1s are identical between as-deposited and annealed sample, which suggests that the nearest-neighbour coordination is similar. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61474113, 61574140, and 61274007), and the Beijing Nova Program, China (Grant No. xx2016071), and the CAEP Microsystem and THz Science and Technology Foundation (Grant No. CAEPMT201502).

  12. Cooperative transition of electronic states of antisite As defects in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambri Mohamed, Mohd; Tien Lam, Pham; Bae, K. W.; Otsuka, N.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic properties resulting from localized spins associated with antisite arsenic ions AsGa+ in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) layers were studied by measuring the magnetization of lift-off samples. With fast cooling, the magnetization of samples at 1.8 K becomes significantly lower than that expected from Curie-type paramagnetism in the range of the applied field to 7 T, and a transition from low magnetization to the magnetization of paramagnetism occurs upon the heating of samples to 4.5 K. With slow cooling, on the other hand, samples have a paramagnetic temperature dependence throughout the measurement-temperature range. The magnetization was found to decrease monotonically when a sample was kept at a fixed low temperature. These observations are explained by the cooperative transition of electron states of AsGa defects, which is closely related to the normal-metastable state transition of EL2 defects in semi-insulating GaAs. The results of the magnetization measurements in the present study suggest that AsGa+ ions are spontaneously displaced at low temperature without photoexcitation in Be-doped LT-GaAs. The similarity of the transition observed in this system to the normal-metastable state transition of the EL2 defect was also suggested by first-principle calculations of the electron state of an AsGa defect with a doped Be atom.

  13. In-rich Al x In1-x N grown by RF-sputtering on sapphire: from closely-packed columnar to high-surface quality compact layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Cascajero, A.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Monteagudo-Lerma, L.; Monroy, E.; Taylor-Shaw, E.; Martin, R. W.; González-Herráez, M.; Naranjo, F. B.

    2017-02-01

    The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of In-rich Al x In1-x N (0  <  x  <  0.39) layers grown by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering on sapphire are investigated as a function of the deposition parameters. The RF power applied to the aluminum target (0 W-150 W) and substrate temperature (300 °C-550 °C) are varied. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that all samples have a wurtzite crystallographic structure oriented with the c-axis along the growth direction. The aluminum composition is tuned by changing the power applied to the aluminum target while keeping the power applied to the indium target fixed at 40 W. When increasing the Al content from 0 to 0.39, the room-temperature optical band gap is observed to blue-shift from 1.76 eV to 2.0  eV, strongly influenced by the Burstein-Moss effect. Increasing the substrate temperature, results in an evolution of the morphology from closely-packed columnar to compact. For a substrate temperature of 500 °C and RF power for Al of 150 W, compact Al0.39In0.61N films with a smooth surface (root-mean-square surface roughness below 1 nm) are produced.

  14. Impact of post-deposition annealing on interfacial chemical bonding states between AlGaN and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Gang; Arulkumaran, Subramaniam; Ng, Geok Ing; Li, Yang; Ang, Kian Siong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhi Hong

    2015-03-02

    The effect of post-deposition annealing on chemical bonding states at interface between Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N and ZrO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that both of Al-O/Al 2p and Ga-O/Ga 3d area ratio decrease at annealing temperatures lower than 500 °C, which could be attributed to “clean up” effect of ALD-ZrO{sub 2} on AlGaN. Compared to Ga spectra, a much larger decrease in Al-O/Al 2p ratio at a smaller take-off angle θ is observed, which indicates higher effectiveness of the passivation of Al-O bond than Ga-O bond through “clean up” effect near the interface. However, degradation of ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface quality due to re-oxidation at higher annealing temperature (>500 °C) is also found. The XPS spectra clearly reveal that Al atoms at ZrO{sub 2}/AlGaN interface are easier to get oxidized as compared with Ga atoms.

  15. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H{sub 2}O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi E-mail: qs4a-hriw@asahi-net.or.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-07

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H{sub 2}O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D{sub 2}O instead of H{sub 2}O in the ALD and found that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH{sub 3} groups than the high-temperature film. This CH{sub 3} is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H{sub 2}O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H{sub 2}O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D{sub 2}O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D{sub 2}O-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are smaller than those of H{sub 2}O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of

  16. Active Constrained Layer Damping of Thin Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAY, M. C.; OH, J.; BAZ, A.

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of the active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatments in enhancing the damping characteristics of thin cylindrical shells is presented. A finite element model (FEM) is developed to describe the dynamic interaction between the shells and the ACLD treatments. Experiments are performed to verify the numerical predictions. The obtained results suggest the potential of the ACLD treatments in controlling the vibration of cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  17. Studies of electrically and recombination active centers in undoped GaN grown by OMVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A.Y.; Shin, M.; Skowronski, M.; Greve, D.W.; Govorkov, A.V.; Smirnov, N.B.

    1997-12-31

    Deep centers were studied in GaN samples grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Electron traps 0.2 eV and 0.5 eV below conduction band edge and 0.25 eV and 0.5-0.85 eV above the valence band edge were detected by means of deep levels transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoelectron relaxation spectroscopy (PERS) and thermally simulated current spectroscopy (TSC). The photoconductivity at low temperature is shown to be persistent and the magnitude of photosensitivity is dependent on the way the samples are grown. Microcathodoluminescence (MCL) and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate that the density of deep recombination centers near the dislocation walls between the misoriented GaN domains is lower than inside the domains. Spatially resolved PERS measurements show that the concentration of the 0.85 eV level is higher in the low angle grain boundary regions that produce bright contrast in EBIC and MCL.

  18. Optical activity of transparent polymer layers characterized by spectral means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosutchi, Andreea Irina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Breaban, Iuliana; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2015-06-01

    The method based on the channeled spectrum, validated for inorganic optical active layers, is used now to determine the optical activity of some transparent polymer solutions in different solvents. The circular birefringence, the dispersion parameter and the specific rotation were estimated in the visible range by using the measurements of wavelengths in the channeled spectra of Hydroxypropyl cellulose in water, methanol and acetic acid. The experiments showed the specific rotation dependence on the polymer concentration and also on the solvent nature. The decrease of the specific rotation in the visible range with the increase in wavelength was evidenced. The method has some advantages as the rapidity of the experiments and the large spectral range in which it can be applied. One disadvantage is the fact that the channeled spectrum does not allow to establish the rotation sense of the electric field intensity.

  19. Antiferro-ferromagnetic transition in ultrathin Ni(OH)2 layer grown on graphene surface and observation of interlayer exchange coupling in Ni(OH)2/graphene/Ni(OH)2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Shatabda; Mathan Kumar, E.; Thapa, Ranjit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2017-01-01

    The major limitation of using graphene as a potential spacer element in interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) might be due to destruction of ferromagnetism as a result of the charge transfer effect at the interface if a transition metal based ferromagnetic layer is grown on the graphene surface. To overcome this problem, we have used the antiferromagnetic Ni(OH)2 layer grown on the graphene surface to convert it ferromagnetic due to the charge transfer effect. By growing thin layers of Ni(OH)2 on both sides of the graphene surface, strong antiferromagnetic IEC with ultra-low coercivity (7 Oe) is observed. By lowering the nickel content, an ultrathin layer of Ni(OH)2 is grown on either side of graphene and shows complete ferromagnetism with a giant coercivity of 4154 Oe. Ab initio calculations have been done to substantiate this kind of charge transfer effect at the interface of Ni(OH)2 and graphene. Magnetotransport of the composite material is also investigated to understand the role of IEC in transport properties.

  20. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  1. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  2. As-Received, Ozone Cleaned and Ar+ Sputtered Surfaces of Hafnium Oxide Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition and Studied by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Herman, Jacob A.; Wallace, Robert; Baer, Donald R.

    2012-06-27

    In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was performed on 47 nm thick hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films grown by atomic layer deposition using TEMA-Hf/H{sub 2}O at 250 C substrate temperature. HfO{sub 2} is currently being studied as a possible replacement for Silicon Oxide (SiO{sub 2}) as a gate dielectric in electronics transistors. XPS spectra were collected on a Physical Electronics Quantum 2000 Scanning ESCA Microprobe using a monochromatic Al K{sub a} X-ray (1486.7 eV) excitation source. The sample was analyzed under the following conditions: as received, after UV irradiation for five minutes, and after sputter cleaning with 2 kV Ar{sup +} ions for 180 seconds. Survey scans showed carbon, oxygen, and hafnium as the major species in the film, while the only minor species of argon and carbide was detected after sputtering. Adventitious carbon initially composed approximately 18.6 AT% of the surface, but after UV cleaning it was reduced to 2.4 AT%. This demonstrated that that the majority of carbon was due to adventitious carbon. However, after 2 kV Ar{sup +} sputtering there was still only trace amounts of carbon at {approx}1 AT%, Some of this trace carbon is now in the form of a carbide due to the interaction with Ar{sup +} used for sputter cleaning. Furthermore, the stoiciometric ratio of oxygen and hafnium is consistent with a high quality HfO{sub 2} film.

  3. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (∼8 Ω/□), high transmittance (∼81% at 550 nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  4. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  5. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  6. Active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Roberto; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Pregesbauer, Michael; Bockheim, James

    2013-04-01

    International attention on the climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade, intense modelling of climate scenarios were carried out by scientific investigations searching the sources and trends of these changes. The cryosphere and its energy flux became the focus of many investigations, being recognised as a key element for the understanding of future trends. The active layer and permafrost are key components of the terrestrial cryosphere due to their role in energy flux regulation and high sensitivity to climate change (Kane et al., 2001; Smith and Brown, 2009). Compared with other regions of the globe, our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially in relation to its thermal state and evolution, its physical properties, links to pedogenesis, hydrology, geomorphic dynamics and response to global change (Bockheim, 1995, Bockheim et al., 2008). The active layer monitoring site was installed in the summer of 2008, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) arranged in a vertical array (Turbic Eutric Cryosol 600 m asl, 10.5 cm, 32.5 cm, 67.5 cm and 83.5 cm). King George Island experiences a cold moist maritime climate characterized by mean annual air temperatures of -2°C and mean summer air temperatures above 0°C for up to four months (Rakusa-Suszczewski et al., 1993, Wen et al., 1994). Ferron et al., (2004) found great variability when analysing data from 1947 to1995 and identified cycles of 5.3 years of colder conditions followed by 9.6 years of warmer conditions. All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from March 1st 2008 until November 30th 2012. Meteorological data for Fildes was obtained from the near by stations. We calculated the thawing days, freezing days; thawing degree days and freezing degree days; all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). The active lawyer thickness was calculated as the 0 °C depth by extrapolating the thermal gradient from the two

  7. Deep levels in a-plane, high Mg-content Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Guer, Emre; Tabares, G.; Hierro, A.; Chauveau, J. M.

    2012-12-15

    Deep level defects in n-type unintentionally doped a-plane Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire were fully characterized using deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) and related methods. Four compositions of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O were examined with x = 0.31, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.56 together with a control ZnO sample. DLOS measurements revealed the presence of five deep levels in each Mg-containing sample, having energy levels of E{sub c} - 1.4 eV, 2.1 eV, 2.6 V, and E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV. For all Mg compositions, the activation energies of the first three states were constant with respect to the conduction band edge, whereas the latter two revealed constant activation energies with respect to the valence band edge. In contrast to the ternary materials, only three levels, at E{sub c} - 2.1 eV, E{sub v} + 0.3 eV, and 0.6 eV, were observed for the ZnO control sample in this systematically grown series of samples. Substantially higher concentrations of the deep levels at E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and E{sub c} - 2.1 eV were observed in ZnO compared to the Mg alloyed samples. Moreover, there is a general invariance of trap concentration of the E{sub v} + 0.3 eV and 0.6 eV levels on Mg content, while at least and order of magnitude dependency of the E{sub c} - 1.4 eV and E{sub c} - 2.6 eV levels in Mg alloyed samples.

  8. Evaluation by quantitative image analysis of anticancer drug activity on multicellular spheroids grown in 3D matrices

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aurélie; Russo, Adrien; Vidal, Guillaume; Demange, Elise; Pannetier, Pauline; Souguir, Zied; Lagarde, Jean-Michel; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological evaluation of anticancer drugs using 3D in vitro models provides invaluable information for predicting in vivo activity. Artificial matrices are currently available that scale up and increase the power of such 3D models. The aim of the present study was to propose an efficient and robust imaging and analysis pipeline to assess with quantitative parameters the efficacy of a particular cytotoxic drug. HCT116 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell multispheres were grown in a 3D physiological hyaluronic acid matrix. 3D microscopy was performed with structured illumination, whereas image processing and feature extraction were performed with custom analysis tools. This procedure makes it possible to automatically detect spheres in a large volume of matrix in 96-well plates. It was used to evaluate drug efficacy in HCT116 spheres treated with different concentrations of topotecan, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor. Following automatic detection and quantification, changes in cluster size distribution with a topotecan concentration-dependent increase of small clusters according to drug cytotoxicity were observed. Quantitative image analysis is thus an effective means to evaluate and quantify the cytotoxic and cytostatic activities of anticancer drugs on 3D multicellular models grown in a physiological matrix. PMID:28105152

  9. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Sarah A.; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 at rates of 5–36 fmol H2 cell−1 h−1 on 0.5% (wt vol−1) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol−1) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol−1) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on 0.1–10% (wt vol−1) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L−1. Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different

  10. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Sarah A; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) at rates of 5-36 fmol H2 cell(-1) h(-1) on 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol(-1)) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on 0.1-10% (wt vol(-1)) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L(-1). Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different growth

  11. Characterization of cathode keeper wear by surface layer activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the erosion rates of the discharge cathode keeper in a 30 cm NSTAR configuration ion thruster were measured using a technique known as Surface Layer Activation (SLA). This diagnostic technique involves producing a radioactive tracer in a given surface by bombardment with high energy ions. The decrease in activity of the tracer material may be monitored as the surface is subjected to wear processes and correlated to a depth calibration curve, yielding the eroded depth. Analysis of the activities was achieved through a gamma spectroscopy system. The primary objectives of this investigation were to reproduce erosion data observed in previous wear studies in order to validate the technique, and to determine the effect of different engine operating parameters on erosion rate. The erosion profile at the TH 15 (23 kw) setting observed during the 8200 hour Life Demonstration Test (LDT) was reproduced. The maximum keeper erosion rate at this setting was determined to be 0.085 pm/hr. Testing at the TH 8 (1.4 kw) setting demonstrated lower erosion rates than TH 15, along with a different wear profile. Varying the keeper voltage was shown to have a significant effect on the erosion, with a positive bias with respect to cathode potential decreasing the erosion rate significantly. Accurate measurements were achieved after operating times of only 40 to 70 hours, a significant improvement over other erosion diagnostic methods.

  12. Oxygen Uptake and Hydrogen-Stimulated Nitrogenase Activity from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571 Grown in a Succinate-Limited Chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Allen, George C.; Grimm, Daniel T.; Elkan, Gerald H.

    1991-01-01

    Succinate-limited continuous cultures of an Azorhizobium caulinodans strain were grown on ammonia or nitrogen gas as a nitrogen source. Ammonia-grown cells became oxygen limited at 1.7 μM dissolved oxygen, whereas nitrogen-fixing cells remained succinate limited even at dissolved oxygen concentrations as low as 0.9 μM. Nitrogen-fixing cells tolerated dissolved oxygen concentrations as high as 41 μM. Succinate-dependent oxygen uptake rates of cells from the different steady states ranged from 178 to 236 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 and were not affected by varying chemostat-dissolved oxygen concentration or nitrogen source. When equimolar concentrations of succinate and β-hydroxybutyrate were combined, oxygen uptake rates were greater than when either substrate was used alone. Azide could also used alone as a respiratory substrate regardless of nitrogen source; however, when azide was added following succinate additions, oxygen uptake was inhibited in ammonia-grown cells and stimulated in nitrogen-fixing cells. Use of 25 mM succinate in the chemostat resevoir at a dilution rate of 0.1 h−1 resulted in high levels of background respiration and nitrogenase activity, indicating that the cells were not energy limited. Lowering the reservoir succinate to 5 mM imposed energy limitation. Maximum succinate-dependent nitrogenase activity was 1,741 nmol of C2H4h−1 mg (dry weight)−1, and maximum hydrogen-dependent nitrogenase activity was 949 nmol of C2H4 h−1 mg (dry weight)−1. However, when concentration of 5% (vol/vol) hydrogen or greater were combined with succinate, nitrogenase activity decreased by 35% in comparison to when succinate was used alone. Substitution of argon for nitrogen in the chemostat inflow gas resulted in “washout,” proving that ORS571 can grow on N2 and that there was not a nitrogen source in the medium that could substitute. PMID:16348585

  13. Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Jit, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) core–shell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type 〈100〉 planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377 nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378 nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550 nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance (<3%) in the visible wavelength region compared to Si/ZnO heterojunctions (>20%). The current–voltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunction devices, the

  14. Activity and lifetime of urease immobilized using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly on silicon microchannels.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Scott R; Elmore, Bill B; Palmer, James D

    2005-01-01

    Urease has been immobilized and layered onto the walls of manufactured silicon microchannels. Enzyme immobilization was performed using layer-by-layer nano self-assembly. Alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, with enzyme layers "encased" between them, were deposited onto the walls of the silicon microchannels. The polycations used were polyethylenimine (PEI), polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA), and polyallylamine (PAH). The polyanions used were polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS). The activity of the immobilized enzyme was tested by pumping a 1 g/L urea solution through the microchannels at various flow rates. Effluent concentration was measured using an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer by monitoring the absorbance of a pH sensitive dye. The architecture of PEI/PSS/PEI/urease/PEI with single and multiple layers of enzyme demonstrated superior performance over the PDDA and PAH architectures. The precursor layer of PEI/PSS demonstrably improved the performance of the reactor. Conversion rates of 70% were achieved at a residence time of 26 s, on d 1 of operation, and >50% at 51 s, on d 15 with a six-layer PEI/urease architecture.

  15. Antifungal activities of the leaves of three Pistacia species grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kordali, S; Cakir, A; Zengin, H; Duru, M E

    2003-02-01

    The crude extracts obtained from the leaves of Pistacia vera, Pistacia terebinthus and Pistacia lentiscus were tested for antifungal activities against three pathogenic agricultural fungi, Phythium ultimum, Rhizoctania solani and Fusarium sambucinum. The extracts significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum and R. solani. However, the antifungal activity was not observed against F. sambucinum.

  16. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods.

  17. Microbial diversity in European alpine permafrost and active layers.

    PubMed

    Frey, Beat; Rime, Thomas; Phillips, Marcia; Stierli, Beat; Hajdas, Irka; Widmer, Franco; Hartmann, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Permafrost represents a largely understudied genetic resource. Thawing of permafrost with global warming will not only promote microbial carbon turnover with direct feedback on greenhouse gases, but also unlock an unknown microbial diversity. Pioneering metagenomic efforts have shed light on the permafrost microbiome in polar regions, but temperate mountain permafrost is largely understudied. We applied a unique experimental design coupled to high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal markers to characterize the microbiota at the long-term alpine permafrost study site 'Muot-da-Barba-Peider' in eastern Switzerland with an approximate radiocarbon age of 12 000 years. Compared to the active layers, the permafrost community was more diverse and enriched with members of the superphylum Patescibacteria (OD1, TM7, GN02 and OP11). These understudied phyla with no cultured representatives proposedly feature small streamlined genomes with reduced metabolic capabilities, adaptations to anaerobic fermentative metabolisms and potential ectosymbiotic lifestyles. The permafrost microbiota was also enriched with yeasts and lichenized fungi known to harbour various structural and functional adaptation mechanisms to survive under extreme sub-zero conditions. These data yield an unprecedented view on microbial life in temperate mountain permafrost, which is increasingly important for understanding the biological dynamics of permafrost in order to anticipate potential ecological trajectories in a warming world.

  18. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  19. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil`s physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  20. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, L.D.; Kane, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The hydrology of the active layer of a watershed is described. In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. Significant runoff events are few. Convective storms covering relatively small areas on the North Slope of Alaska can produce significant small-scale events in a small watershed scale,but these events are rapidly attenuated outside the basin. Data collection began in August 1984. We have continuously monitored the hydrologic, the meteorologic, and the soil's physical conditions. Information was collected through implementation of four snowmelt runoff plots and measurements of essential microclimate parameters. Soil moisture and temperature profiles were measured adjacent to each snowmelt runoff plot, and heat flux is collected adjacent to one of these plots. Meteorological parameters were measured locally. The water content of the snowpack prior to snowmelt was measured throughout the watershed and measured daily adjacent to each plot during snowmelt. The stream draining the basin was measured regularly during the spring melt event to provide information on watershed runoff rates and the volume of snowmelt.

  1. Chemotyping of diverse Eucalyptus species grown in Egypt and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of its respective essential oils.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ashmawy, Nader A; Elansary, Hosam O; El-Settawy, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa and Eucalyptus gomphocephala grown in northern Egypt was analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods) and antioxidant activities (2,2'-diphenypicrylhydrazyl) were examined. The main oils constituents were 1,8-cineole (21.75%), β-pinene (20.51%) and methyleugenol (6.10%) in E. camaldulensis; spathulenol (37.46%), p-cymene (17.20%) and crypton (8.88%) in E. gomphocephala; spathulenol (18.37%), p-cymene (19.38%) and crypton (16.91%) in E. camaldulensis var. obtusa. The essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus spp. exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The values of total antioxidant activity were 70 ± 3.13%, 50 ± 3.34% and 84 ± 4.64% for E. camaldulensis, E. camaldulensis var. obtusa and E. gomphocephala, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity value of 84 ± 4.64% could be attributed to the high amount of spathulenol (37.46%).

  2. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in cultivated and wild edible fruits grown in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565

  3. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  4. Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

    2010-01-01

    The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 mug Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.

  5. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing.

  6. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  7. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Boerhavia elegans (choisy) grown in Baluchestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751

  8. The effect of nucleation layer thickness on the structural evolution and crystal quality of bulk GaN grown by a two-step process on cone-patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Lin; Zhai, Guangmei; Mei, Fuhong; Jia, Wei; Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-05-01

    The role of nucleation layer thickness on the GaN crystal quality grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was explored. The morphologies of epitaxial GaN at different growth stages were investigated by a series of growth interruption in detail. After 10- and 15-min three-dimensional growth, the nucleation sites are very important for the bulk GaN crystal quality. They have a close relationship with the nucleation layer thickness, as confirmed through the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Nucleation sites formed mainly on patterns are bad for bulk GaN crystal quality and nucleation sites formed mainly in the trenches of PSS mounds are good for bulk GaN crystal quality, as proved by X-ray diffraction analysis. Nucleation layer thickness can effectively control the nucleation sites and thus determine the crystal quality of bulk GaN.

  9. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-02-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis.

  10. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in different species of apples grown in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eustolia; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    Natural oleoresins rich in lycopene were obtained from two varieties of tomato (Zedona and Gironda) and their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant and antimutagenic capacity) was evaluated. Both oleoresins had a high content of lycopene, 58.33+/-1.67 mg/g (Zedona) and 63.97+/-0.80 mg/g (Gironda). The antioxidant activity (AA) of the oleoresins by beta-carotene method were 56.4-74.5% (Zedona) and 51-72.8% (Gironda), while when using the free radical stable 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antiradical activity (ARA) was determined to be 18.2-32.7% (Zedona) and 16.6-26.7% (Gironda) for the concentrations tested that of 200-400 microM equivalents of lycopene. The antimutagenic activity of the oleoresins was tested against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the microsuspension assay, both varieties had a very high antimutagenic potential against AFB1 (60-66%).These results suggest the NCRT can be taken advantage to obtaining rich oleoresin in lycopene with a nutraceutical value.

  12. Parallel determination of enzyme activities and in vivo fluxes in Brassica napus embryos grown on organic or inorganic nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Junker, Björn H; Lonien, Joachim; Heady, Lindsey E; Rogers, Alistair; Schwender, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    After the completion of the genomic sequencing of model organisms, numerous post-genomic studies, integrating transcriptome and metabolome data, are aimed at developing a more complete understanding of cell physiology. Here, we measure in vivo metabolic fluxes by steady state labeling, and in parallel, the activity of enzymes in central metabolism in cultured developing embryos of Brassica napus. Embryos were grown on either the amino acids glutamine and alanine as an organic nitrogen source, or on ammonium nitrate as an inorganic nitrogen source. The type of nitrogen made available to developing embryos caused substantial differences in fluxes associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including flux reversion. The changes observed in enzyme activity were not consistent with our estimates of metabolic flux. Furthermore, most extractable enzyme activities are in large surplus relative to the requirements for the observed in vivo fluxes. The results demonstrate that in this model system the metabolic response of central metabolism to changes in environmental conditions can be achieved largely without regulatory reprogramming of the enzyme machinery.

  13. Phenolic substance characterization and chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities of 11 lentils grown in the northern United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2010-02-10

    Chemical and cellular antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles of 11 lentil cultivars grown in the cool northern parts of the United States were investigated. Individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanins, were further quantitatively investigated by HPLC. Cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC) were evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader. Cultivar Morton exhibited the highest individual flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and total flavonoids, as well as the highest antioxidant properties (PRSC and CAA) among all lentils tested. Five phenolic acids of the benzoic types and their derivates (gallic, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and protocatechualdehyde) and four phenolic acids of the cinnamic type (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, and sinapic acid) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Two flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and one flavone (luteolin) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Among all phenolic compounds detected, sinapic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, and (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the predominant flavonoids. These results showed that different phenotype lentils possessed considerable variations in their individual phenolic compounds, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and total flavonoids significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Cellular antioxidant assay significantly correlated with chemical antioxidant assay ORAC. The results from this study could be very interesting for breeding programs to improve lentils for use as functional foods.

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Three Melaleuca Species Grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Amri, Ismail; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Bassem, Jamoussi; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Reverchon, Ernesto; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2%) characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%), while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms. PMID:23443119

  15. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Mengxue; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Ziwen

    2017-02-01

    Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs) as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH) alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS) substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  16. Modeling active constrained-layer damping using Golla-Hughes-McTavish approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Saunders, William R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1995-05-01

    Viscoelastic material (VEM) adds damping to structures. In order to enhance the damping effects of the viscoelastic material, a constraining layer is attached. If this constraining layer is a piezoelectric patch, the system is said to have active constrained layer damping (ACLD). In this paper, the damping effects due to viscoelastic material which has an active constraining layer is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) damping method. The piezoelectric patch and structure are modeled using a Galerkin approach in order to account for the effect of the constraining layer on the beam.

  17. Effect of spacer layer thickness on multi-stacked InGaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs (311)B substrate for application to intermediate band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Yasushi; Narahara, Kohei; Tanaka, Hideharu; Kita, Takashi; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the properties of multi-stacked layers of self-organized In0.4Ga0.6As quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (311)B grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We found that a high degree of in-plane ordering of QDs structure with a six-fold symmetry was maintained though the growth has been performed at a higher growth rate than the conventional conditions. The dependence of photoluminescence characteristics on spacer layer thickness showed an increasing degree of electronic coupling between the stacked QDs for thinner spacer layers. The external quantum efficiency for an InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) with a thin spacer layer thickness increased in the longer wavelength range due to additive contribution from QD layers inserted in the intrinsic region. Furthermore, a photocurrent production by 2-step photon absorption has been observed at room temperature for the InGaAs/GaAs QDSC with a spacer layer thickness of 15 nm.

  18. Distribution of Oxygen Vacancies and Gadolinium Dopants in ZrO2-CeO2 Multi-Layer Films Grown on α-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Azad, Samina; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; McCready, David E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Watanabe, M.; Williams, D. B.

    2006-06-15

    Gd-doped ZrO2 and CeO2 multi-layer films were deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen vacancies and Gd dopant distributions were investigated in these multi-layer films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), annular dark-filed imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling. EDS and XPS reveal that Gd concentration in the ZrO2 layer is lower than that in the CeO2 layer. As a result, higher oxygen vacancy concentration exists in CeO2 layers compared to that in ZrO2 layers. In addition, Gd is found to segregate only at the interfaces formed during the deposition of CeO2 layers on ZrO2 layers. On the other hand, the interfaces formed during the deposition of ZrO2 layers on CeO2 layers did not show any Gd segregation. The Gd segregation behavior at the every other interface is believed to be associated with the low solubility of Gd in ZrO2.

  19. High catalytic activity of oriented 2.0.0 copper(I) oxide grown on graphene film

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Ana; Esteve-Adell, Ivan; Blandez, Juan F.; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Álvaro, Mercedes; Candu, Natalia; Coman, Simona M.; Parvulescu, Vasile I.; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles supported on graphene exhibit high catalytic activity for oxidation, reduction and coupling reactions. Here we show that pyrolysis at 900 °C under inert atmosphere of copper(II) nitrate embedded in chitosan films affords 1.1.1 facet-oriented copper nanoplatelets supported on few-layered graphene. Oriented (1.1.1) copper nanoplatelets on graphene undergo spontaneous oxidation to render oriented (2.0.0) copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets on few-layered graphene. These films containing oriented copper(I) oxide exhibit as catalyst turnover numbers that can be three orders of magnitude higher for the Ullmann-type coupling, dehydrogenative coupling of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol and C–N cross-coupling than those of analogous unoriented graphene-supported copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets. PMID:26509224

  20. High catalytic activity of oriented 2.0.0 copper(I) oxide grown on graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Ana; Esteve-Adell, Ivan; Blandez, Juan F.; Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Álvaro, Mercedes; Candu, Natalia; Coman, Simona M.; Parvulescu, Vasile I.; García, Hermenegildo

    2015-10-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles supported on graphene exhibit high catalytic activity for oxidation, reduction and coupling reactions. Here we show that pyrolysis at 900 °C under inert atmosphere of copper(II) nitrate embedded in chitosan films affords 1.1.1 facet-oriented copper nanoplatelets supported on few-layered graphene. Oriented (1.1.1) copper nanoplatelets on graphene undergo spontaneous oxidation to render oriented (2.0.0) copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets on few-layered graphene. These films containing oriented copper(I) oxide exhibit as catalyst turnover numbers that can be three orders of magnitude higher for the Ullmann-type coupling, dehydrogenative coupling of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol and C-N cross-coupling than those of analogous unoriented graphene-supported copper(I) oxide nanoplatelets.

  1. Relationship between dislocation and the visible luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane p-GaN templates by chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroj, Rajendra K.; Dhar, S.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO epitaxial layers are grown on c-plane GaN (p-type)/sapphire substrates using a chemical vapor deposition technique. Structural and luminescence properties of these layers have been studied systematically as a function of various growth parameters. It has been found that high quality ZnO epitaxial layers can indeed be grown on GaN films at certain optimum conditions. It has also been observed that the growth temperature and growth time have distinctly different influences on the screw and edge dislocation densities. While the growth temperature affects the density of edge dislocations more strongly than that of screw dislocations, an increase of growth duration leads to a rapid drop in the density of screw dislocation, whereas the density of edge dislocation hardly changes. Densities of both edge and screw dislocations are found to be minimum at a growth temperature of 500 °C. Interestingly, the defect related visible luminescence intensity also shows a minimum at the same temperature. Our study indeed suggests that the luminescence feature is related to threading edge dislocation. A continuum percolation model, where the defects responsible for visible luminescence are considered to be formed under the influence of the strain field surrounding the threading edge dislocations, is proposed. The theory explains the observed variation of the visible luminescence intensity as a function of the concentration of the dislocations.

  2. Convergent beam electron diffraction study of lattice distortion in InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Q. H.; Fung, K. K.; York, P. K.; Fernandez, G. E.; Eades, J. A.; Coleman, J. J.

    1990-11-01

    The intensities of sidebands in convergent beam electron diffraction reflections from plan-view specimens of strain modulated InGaAs/GaAs superlattices are dependent on the natural lattice mismatch, the ratio of the thicknesses of the superlattice layers, the period (sum of layer thicknesses) of the superlattice, and the g vectors of the reflections. The intensities of kinematic higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections have been calculated from a simple model based on alternate contraction and expansion of lattice spacings of the superlattice layers. An accurate estimate of the In content of InGaAs can be deduced from the elastic strains in the superlattice layers so obtained.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936

  4. Layered-MnO₂ Nanosheet Grown on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Template as a Composite Cathode for Flexible Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchuan; Miao, Xiaofei; Fang, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Sujing; Li, Wei; Feng, Wendou; Chen, Yuanqiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yining

    2016-03-02

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors provide a promising energy-storage alternative for the rapidly growing flexible and wearable electronic industry. Further improving device energy density and developing a cheap flexible current collector are two major challenges in pushing the technology forward. In this work, we synthesize a nitrogen-doped graphene/MnO2 nanosheet (NGMn) composite by a simple hydrothermal method. Nitrogen-doped graphene acts as a template to induce the growth of layered δ-MnO2 and improves the electronic conductivity of the composite. The NGMn composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of about 305 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). We also create a cheap and highly conductive flexible current collector using Scotch tape. Flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated with NGMn cathode, activated carbon anode, and PVA-LiCl gel electrolyte. The device can achieve a high operation voltage of 1.8 V and exhibits a maximum energy density of 3.5 mWh cm(-3) at a power density of 0.019 W cm(-3). Moreover, it retains >90% of its initial capacitance after 1500 cycles. Because of its flexibility, high energy density, and good cycle life, NGMn-based flexible solid state asymmetric supercapacitors have great potential for application in next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  5. Reduced impurities and improved electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 film grown at a low temperature (100 °C) by Al2O3 incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Joo; Byun, Youngchol; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-05-01

    The HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low temperature (100 °C) necessarily has a large amount of residual impurities due to lack of thermal energy for stable ALD reactions such as ligand removal and oxidation, which degrades various properties. However, Al2O3 incorporation into the film significantly decreased the residual impurities despite of a low growth temperature. The decrease in C impurity is attributed to the reduced oxygen vacancies by the incorporated Al2O3 phase or the high reactivity of Al precursor. Consequently, the electronic band structure of the film, and thereby the electrical properties were improved significantly.

  6. Nondestructive Characterization of Residual Threading Dislocation Density in HgCdTe Layers Grown on CdZnTe by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourreau, Y.; Pantzas, K.; Patriarche, G.; Destefanis, V.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based infrared (IR) focal-plane arrays is closely related to the crystalline perfection of the HgCdTe thin film. In this work, Te-rich, (111)B-oriented HgCdTe epilayers grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on CdZnTe substrates have been studied. Surface atomic steps are shown on as-grown MCT materials using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and white-light interferometry (WLI), suggesting step-flow growth. Locally, quasiperfect surface spirals are also evidenced. A demonstration is given that these spirals are related to the emergence of almost pure screw threading dislocations. A nondestructive and quantitative technique to measure the threading dislocation density is proposed. The technique consists of counting the surface spirals on the as-grown MCT surface from images obtained by either AFM or WLI measurements. The benefits and drawbacks of both destructive—chemical etching of HgCdTe dislocations—and nondestructive surface imaging techniques are compared. The nature of defects is also discussed. Finally, state-of-the-art threading dislocation densities in the low 104 cm-2 range are evidenced by both etch pit density (EPD) and surface imaging measurements.

  7. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  8. Identification, stress tolerance, and antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tropically grown fruits and leaves.

    PubMed

    Fessard, Amandine; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Payet, Bertrand; Remize, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    From 6 samples of tropically grown fruits and leaves, 10 lactic acid bacteria belonging Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)5 fingerprinting. Acidification kinetics determined from BHI broth cultures showed genus-related patterns. In particular, Weissella cibaria appeared to act as a potent acidifier. Tolerance of isolates to acid, oxidative, or salt stress was highly variable and strain dependent. Isolate S14 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) growth was not affected by the presence of 0.05% H2O2, while Lactobacillus spp. isolates (S17 and S29) were the most tolerant to pH 4.5. The growth of 4 isolates, S5 (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), S14 and S10 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides), and S27 (W. cibaria), was not affected by 5% NaCl. Nutritional beneficial properties were examined through measurement of antioxidant activities of short-term fermented pineapple juice, such as LDL oxidation and polyphenol content, and through exopolysaccharide formation from sucrose. Two isolates, S14 and S27, increased the antioxidant capacity of pineapple juice. The robust capacity of W. cibaria and of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides for vegetable lactic fermentation aimed to ameliorate food nutritional and functional quality was highlighted.

  9. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, Taha; Sundaram, Suresh; Li, Xin; El Gmili, Youssef; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure to be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.

  10. The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Regmi, Murari; Chisholm, Matthew F; Eres, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

  11. High quality Al0.99Ga0.01N layers on sapphire substrates grown at 1150 °C by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Shota; Yasuda, Toshiki; Hagiwara, Koudai; Koide, Norikatsu; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigated metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growths of AlN layers with trimethylgallium (TMGa) supply on sapphire substrates at 1100-1250 °C. We found that Ga incorporations into the AlN layers contributed to smooth surfaces covered with step terraces at the early stage of the Al(Ga)N growth. In addition, a GaN mole fraction leading to the smooth surfaces was found to be around 2-3% at the beginning of growth. The Ga supply during the AlN layer growth at 1150 °C provided very smooth Al0.99Ga0.01N layers on sapphire substrates.

  12. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Sonam; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Pruthi, Parul; Pruthi, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Methods: A biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain (Bacillus pumilus DSVP18, NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865643) was isolated from motor oil contaminated soil samples. Biochemical characteristics of the purified biosurfactant were determined and its chemical structure was analyzed. Stability studies were performed and biological activity of the biosurfactant was also evaluated. Results: The strain, when grown on modified minimal salt media supplemented with 2% potato peels as the sole carbon source, showed the ability to reduce Surface Tension (ST) value of the medium from 72 to 28.7 mN/m. The isolated biosurfactant (3.2 ± 0.32 g/L) was stable over a wide range of temperatures (20 - 120 ºC), pH (2-12) and salt concentrations (2 - 12%). When characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found to be a lipopeptide in nature, which was further confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass peak 1044.60) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data showed that the isolated biosurfactant at the concentration range of 30 - 35 µg/ml had strong antimicrobial activity when tested against standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae. Conclusions: Potato peels were proved to be potentially useful substrates for biosurfactant production by B. pumilus DSVP18. The strain possessed a

  13. Improved properties of barium strontium titanate thin films grown on copper foils by pulsed laser deposition using a self-buffered layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Ma, B.; Narayanan, M.; Balachandran, U.

    2012-01-01

    Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on copper foils with low-temperature self-buffered layers. The deposition conditions included a low oxygen partial pressure and a temperature of 700 C to crystallize the films without the formation of secondary phases and substrate oxidation. The results from x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the microstructure of the BST films strongly depended on the growth temperature. The use of the self-buffered layer improved the dielectric properties of the deposited BST films. The leakage current density of the BST films on the copper foil was 4.4 x 10{sup -9} A cm{sup -2} and 3.3 x 10{sup -6} A cm{sup -2} with and without the self-buffered layer, respectively. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop for the BST thin film with buffer layer was slim, in contrast to the distorted loop observed for the film without the buffer layer. The permittivity (7 0 0) and dielectric loss tangent (0.013) of the BST film on the copper foil with self-buffered layer at room temperature were comparable to those of the film on metal and single-crystal substrates.

  14. Donor and acceptor levels in ZnO homoepitaxial thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and doped with plasma-activated nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Muret, Pierre; Tainoff, Dimitri; Morhain, Christian; Chauveau, Jean-Michel

    2012-09-17

    Deep level transient spectroscopy of both majority and minority carrier traps is performed in a n-type, nitrogen doped homoepitaxial ZnO layer grown on a m-plane by molecular beam epitaxy. Deep levels, most of them being not detected in undoped ZnO, lie close to the band edges with ionization energies in the range 0.12-0.60 eV. The two hole traps with largest capture cross sections are likely acceptors, 0.19 and 0.48 eV from the valence band edge, able to be ionized below room temperature. These results are compared with theoretical predictions and other experimental data.

  15. AlN and AlGaN layers grown on Si(111) substrate by mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hunsoo; Jeon, Injun; Lee, Gang Seok; Bae, Sung Geun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yu, Young Moon; Honda, Yoshio; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Kim, Suck-Whan

    2017-01-01

    High Al-composition AlGaN and AlN epilayers were grown directly on Si(111) substrate by a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method with a melted mixed source in a graphite boat set in a source zone with high temperatures of T = 700 and 800 °C, respectively. The presence of the Ga material in the mixed source of Ga and Al promoted the growth of AlN and AlGaN epilayers in the growth zone. When the temperature in the source zone was 800 °C, the crystalline quality of the AlN and AlGaN epilayers increased as the ratio of Ga to Al increased, and the optimum mix ratio of Ga to Al for the growth of AlN epilayers was approximately 0.35-0.42, obtained from a numerical fitting analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for these epilayers. It appears that they can be grown directly by our melted-mixed-source HVPE method in a high-temperature source zone.

  16. High quality boron-doped epitaxial layers grown at 200°C from SiF4/H2/Ar gas mixtures for emitter formation in crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léal, Ronan; Haddad, Farah; Poulain, Gilles; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the doping profile in solar cells emitter and front/back surface field is mandatory to reach high efficiencies. In the current state of the art, these doped layers are made by dopant diffusion at around 900°C, which implies potential temperature induced damages in the c-Si absorber and for which a precise control of doping is difficult. An alternative solution based on boron-doped epitaxial silicon layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from 200°C using SiF4/H2/Ar/B2H6 chemistry is reported. The structural properties of the doped and undoped epitaxial layers were assessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The incorporation of boron has been studied via plasma profiling time of flight mass spectrometry (PP-TOFMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. The boron-doped epitaxial layers revealed excellent structural and electrical properties even for high carrier concentrations (>1019cm-3). Sheet resistances between 100 and 130 Ω/sq can been obtained depending on the thickness and the doping concentration, which is within the range of targeted values for emitters in c-Si solar cells. Electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) revealed a uniform doping profile around 3.1019 cm-3 and by comparing with SIMS measurement a doping efficiency around 50% has been found.

  17. Detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs(0.3)Sb(0.7) layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besikci, C.; Choi, Y. H.; Labeyrie, G.; Bigan, E.; Razeghi, M.; Cohen, J. B.; Carsello, J.; Dravid, V. P.

    1994-11-01

    InAs(0.3)Sb(0.7) layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room-temperature electron Hall mobility of 2 x 10(exp 4) sq cm/(V s) has been obtained for a 2-micrometer-thick layer. Low temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n-type behavior for a p-type sample, and the measured carried concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 10(exp 7)/sq cm. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (approximately 1 micrometer) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering.

  18. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO2 seed layer.

  19. Work function variation of MoS{sub 2} atomic layers grown with chemical vapor deposition: The effects of thickness and the adsorption of water/oxygen molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Park, Jeong Young E-mail: jeongypark@kaist.ac.kr; Lee, Jinhwan; Hwang, C. C.; Lee, Changgu E-mail: jeongypark@kaist.ac.kr

    2015-06-22

    The electrical properties of two-dimensional atomic sheets exhibit remarkable dependences on layer thickness and surface chemistry. Here, we investigated the variation of the work function properties of MoS{sub 2} films prepared with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SiO{sub 2} substrates with the number of film layers. Wafer-scale CVD MoS{sub 2} films with 2, 4, and 12 layers were fabricated on SiO{sub 2}, and their properties were evaluated by using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. In accordance with our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, our Kelvin probe force microscopy investigation found that the surface potential of the MoS{sub 2} films increases by ∼0.15 eV when the number of layers is increased from 2 to 12. Photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with in-situ annealing under ultra high vacuum conditions was used to directly demonstrate that this work function shift is associated with the screening effects of oxygen or water molecules adsorbed on the film surface. After annealing, it was found with PES that the surface potential decreases by ∼0.2 eV upon the removal of the adsorbed layers, which confirms that adsorbed species have a role in the variation in the work function.

  20. Layer-by-layer structured polysaccharides-based multilayers on cellulose acetate membrane: Towards better hemocompatibility, antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lincai; Li, Hui; Meng, Yahong

    2017-04-01

    The development of multifunctional cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with enhanced hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities is extremely important for biomedical applications. In this work, significant improvements in hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were achieved via layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of chitosan (CS) and water-soluble heparin-mimicking polysaccharides (i.e., sulfated Cantharellus cibarius polysaccharides, SCP) onto their surface. The surface chemical compositions, growth manner, surface morphologies, and wetting ability of CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes were characterized, respectively. The systematical evaluation of hemocompatibility revealed that CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes significantly improved blood compatibility including resistance to non-specific protein adsorption, suppression of platelet adhesion and activation, prolongation of coagulation times, inhibition of complement activation, as well as reduction in blood hemolysis. Meanwhile, CS/SCP multilayer-modified CA membranes exhibited strong growth inhibition against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as high scavenging abilities against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In summary, the CS/SCP multilayers could confer CA membranes with integrated hemocompatibility and antibacterial and antioxidant activities, which might have great potential application in the biomedical field.

  1. The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1993-12-31

    We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

  2. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ting-Jun; Li, Shu-Sun

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to map the spatial variation of the active layer over the arctic permafrost in terms of two parameters: (i) timing and duration of thaw period and (ii) differential frost heave and thaw settlement of the active layer. To achieve this goal, remote sensing, numerical modeling, and related field measurements are required. Tasks for the University of Colorado team are to: (i) determine the timing of snow disappearance in spring through changes in surface albedo (ii) simulate the freezing and thawing processes of the active layer and (iii) simulate the impact of snow cover on permafrost presence.

  3. Activation of Rhizobium tibeticum with flavonoids enhances nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and growth of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in cobalt-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Khalil; El-enany, Abdel-Wahab El-sadek; Bashandy, Shymaa Ryhan

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the response of activation of Rhizobium tibeticum with mixture of hesperetin and apigenin to improve growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation of fenugreek grown under cobalt (Co) stress. The current study showed that high concentrations of Co-induced noxious effects on rhizobial growth, nod gene expression, nodulation, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, total flavonoid content, and nitrogen fixation. Addition of a mixture of hesperetin and apigenin to growth medium supplemented with different concentrations of Co significantly increased bacterial growth. PAL activity of roots grown hydroponically at 100 mg kg(-1) Co and inoculated with induced R. tibeticum was significantly increased compared with plants receiving uninduced R. tibeticum. Total flavonoid content of root exudates of plants inoculated with activated R. tibeticum was significantly increased compared with inoculated plants with unactivated R. tibeticum or uninoculated plants at variant Co dosages. Application of 50 mg kg(-1) Co significantly increased nodulation, GS, nitrogenase activity, and biomass of plants inoculated with either or uninduced R. tibeticum. The total number and fresh mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, and biomass of plants inoculated with induced cells grown in soil treated with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) Co were significantly increased compared with plants inoculated with uninduced cells. Induced R. tibeticum with flavonoids significantly alleviates the adverse effect of Co on nod gene expression and therefore enhances nitrogen fixation. Induction of R. tibeticum with compatible flavonoids could be of practical importance in augmenting growth and nitrogen fixation of fenugreek grown in a Co-contaminated agroecosystem.

  4. REDUCED LEAKAGE CURRENT AND ENHANCED MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF (Bi,Nd)FeO3 THIN FILMS GROWN ON (Ba,Sr)TiO3 BOTTOM LAYER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. B.; Tang, X. G.; Chen, D. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Xiong, D. P.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2012-09-01

    A multiferroic heterostructure composed of (Bi0.875Nd0.125)FeO3 (BNF) are grown on (Ba0.65Sr0.35)TiO3(BST) buffered Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering. The heterostructure BNF/BST exhibits a quite low leakage current (3.7 × 10-7 A/cm2 at 300 kV/cm) and dielectric loss (0.0036 at 100 kHz) at room temperature. The saturated magnetization and the coercive field of the BST/BNF heterostructure are 37.7 emu/cm3 and 357.6 Oe, respectively. The low leakage current owed to the action of BST in the charge transfer between BNF and the bottom electrode, the coupling reaction between BST and BNF films. And the better crystallization in BNF/BST heterostructure thin film lead to the ferromagnetic properties enhanced.

  5. The interface analysis of GaN grown on 0° off 6H-SiC with an ultra-thin buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zheng; Ohta, Akio; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Lee, Hojun; Olsson, Marc; Ye, Zheng; Deki, Manato; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a growth method by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using a single two-dimensional growth step, resulting in 1.2-µm crack-free GaN directly grown on 6H-SiC substrate. The introduction of Al-treatment prior to the standard GaN growth step resulted in improved surface wetting of gallium on the SiC substrate. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis of the epitaxial interface to the SiC determined that an ultra-thin AlGaN interlayer had formed measuring around 2-3 nm. We expect our growth technique can be applied to the fabrication of GaN/SiC high frequency and high power devices.

  6. Orexin-dependent activation of layer VIb enhances cortical network activity and integration of non-specific thalamocortical inputs.

    PubMed

    Hay, Y Audrey; Andjelic, Sofija; Badr, Sammy; Lambolez, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    Neocortical layer VI is critically involved in thalamocortical activity changes during the sleep/wake cycle. It receives dense projections from thalamic nuclei sensitive to the wake-promoting neuropeptides orexins, and its deepest part, layer VIb, is the only cortical lamina reactive to orexins. This convergence of wake-promoting inputs prompted us to investigate how layer VIb can modulate cortical arousal, using patch-clamp recordings and optogenetics in rat brain slices. We found that the majority of layer VIb neurons were excited by nicotinic agonists and orexin through the activation of nicotinic receptors containing α4-α5-β2 subunits and OX2 receptor, respectively. Specific effects of orexin on layer VIb neurons were potentiated by low nicotine concentrations and we used this paradigm to explore their intracortical projections. Co-application of nicotine and orexin increased the frequency of excitatory post-synaptic currents in the ipsilateral cortex, with maximal effect in infragranular layers and minimal effect in layer IV, as well as in the contralateral cortex. The ability of layer VIb to relay thalamocortical inputs was tested using photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing fibers from the orexin-sensitive rhomboid nucleus in the parietal cortex. Photostimulation induced robust excitatory currents in layer VIa neurons that were not pre-synaptically modulated by orexin, but exhibited a delayed, orexin-dependent, component. Activation of layer VIb by orexin enhanced the reliability and spike-timing precision of layer VIa responses to rhomboid inputs. These results indicate that layer VIb acts as an orexin-gated excitatory feedforward loop that potentiates thalamocortical arousal.

  7. Characterization of vertical Au/β-Ga2O3 single-crystal Schottky photodiodes with MBE-grown high-resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    X, Z. Liu; C, Yue; C, T. Xia; W, L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    High-resistivity β-Ga2O3 thin films were grown on Si-doped n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Vertical-type Schottky diodes were fabricated, and the electrical properties of the Schottky diodes were studied in this letter. The ideality factor and the series resistance of the Schottky diodes were estimated to be about 1.4 and 4.6× 106 Ω. The ionized donor concentration and the spreading voltage in the Schottky diodes region are about 4 × 1018 cm-3 and 7.6 V, respectively. The ultra-violet (UV) photo-sensitivity of the Schottky diodes was demonstrated by a low-pressure mercury lamp illumination. A photoresponsivity of 1.8 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 8.7 × 102% were observed at forward bias voltage of 3.8 V, the proper driving voltage of read-out integrated circuit for UV camera. The gain of the Schottky diode was attributed to the existence of a potential barrier in the i-n junction between the MBE-grown highly resistive β-Ga2O3 thin films and the n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single-crystal substrate. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61223002) the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13111103700), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 2012018530003).

  8. Material properties of pulsed-laser crystallized Si thin films grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia crystallization-induction layers by two-step irradiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Kieu Lien, Mai; Horita, Susumu

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous Si thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers were crystallized widely in solid phase by the two-step method with a pulsed laser, moving the sample stage. The crystalline quality, impurity diffusion, and electrical properties of the crystallized Si films were investigated. It was found that the crystallinity of the Si thin films was improved and their surface was smooth without an incubation layer at the interface, indicating the uniform crystallinity of Si on YSZ. The diffusion of Zr and Y into the Si thin films was as small as or smaller than the order of 1017 atoms/cm3. We evaluated the electrical properties of carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the Si thin films with/without YSZ layers by using the resistivity and AC Hall effect measurements. The temperature and doping concentration dependences were measured for both undoped and P-doped films. It was found that both the undoped and P-doped Si/YSZ/glass films showed higher mobilities and carrier concentrations (and therefore higher conductivities), which indicate a smaller number of defects, than the Si/glass films. This suggested that the Si film crystallized on the YSZ layer is more suitable for application to electronic devices than the Si film on glass.

  9. Comparison of MOVPE grown GaAs, InGaAs and GaAsSb covering layers for different InAs/GaAs quantum dot applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zíková, Markéta; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) heterostructures with different covering layers (CLs) prepared by MOVPE are compared in this work. The recombination energy of a structure covered only by GaAs depends nonlinearly on CL thickness. Experimental data of photoluminescence (PL) were supported by theoretical simulations. These simulations prove that the strain plays a major role in the structures. InGaAs strain reducing layer (SRL) was studied as well. Due to the strain reduction, the recombination energy is decreased, so the structure has longer PL wavelength. By theoretical simulations it was shown that for high content of In in InGaAs covering layer (approximately 45% and more), the heterostructure is type II, which would normally be unreachable for flat layers. For the structure with GaAsSb SRL, the band alignment is highly dependent on the SRL composition. The type I/type II transition occurs for approximately 15% of Sb; this value also slightly depends on the QD size. All structures were also studied by HRTEM to show different behavior of the CLs on the interface with InAs which highly influences the structure quality.

  10. Influence of laser-target interaction regime on composition and properties of surface layers grown by laser treatment of Ti plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavisse, L.; Berger, P.; Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Bourgeois, S.; de Lucas, M. C. Marco

    2009-12-01

    Surface laser treatment of commercially pure titanium plates was performed in air using two different Nd : YAG sources delivering pulses of 5 and 35 ns. The laser fluence conditions were set to obtain with each source either yellow or blue surface layers. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was used to quantify the amount of light elements in the formed layers. Titanium oxinitrides, containing different amounts of oxygen and nitrogen, were mainly found, except in the case of long pulses and high laser fluence, which led to the growth of titanium dioxide. The structure of the layers was studied by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, reflectance spectra showed the transition from a metal-like behaviour to an insulating TiO2-like behaviour as a function of the treatment conditions. Modelling of the laser-target interaction on the basis of the Semak model was performed to understand the different compositions and properties of the layers. Numerical calculations showed that vaporization dominates in the case of short pulses, whereas a liquid-ablation regime is achieved in the case of 35 ns long pulses.

  11. Quantitative Collection and Enzymatic Activity of Glucose Oxidase Nanotubes Fabricated by Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouwei; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Jonas, Alain M

    2015-08-10

    We report on the fabrication of enzyme nanotubes in nanoporous polycarbonate membranes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) alternate assembly of polyethylenimine (PEI) and glucose oxidase (GOX), followed by dissolution of the sacrificial template in CH2Cl2, collection, and final dispersion in water. An adjuvant-assisted filtration methodology is exploited to extract quantitatively the nanotubes without loss of activity and morphology. Different water-soluble CH2Cl2-insoluble adjuvants are tested for maximal enzyme activity and nanotube stability; whereas NaCl disrupts the tubes by screening electrostatic interactions, the high osmotic pressure created by fructose also contributes to loosening the nanotubular structures. These issues are solved when using neutral, high molar mass dextran. The enzymatic activity of intact free nanotubes in water is then quantitatively compared to membrane-embedded nanotubes, showing that the liberated nanotubes have a higher catalytic activity in proportion to their larger exposed surface. Our study thus discloses a robust and general methodology for the fabrication and quantitative collection of enzymatic nanotubes and shows that LbL assembly provides access to efficient enzyme carriers for use as catalytic swarming agents.

  12. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  13. Pervaporation dehydration of ethanol by hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate two-active-layer composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengyun; Zhang, Minhua; Ding, Jianwu; Pan, Fusheng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Li, Yifan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The composite membranes with two-active-layer (a capping layer and an inner layer) were prepared by sequential spin-coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support layer. The SEM showed a mutilayer structure and a distinct interface between the HA layer and the NaAlg layer. The coating sequence of two-active-layer had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. When the operation temperature was 80 °C and water concentration in feed was 10 wt.%, the permeate fluxes of HA/Alg/PAN membrane and Alg/HA/PAN membrane were similar, whereas the separation factor were 1130 and 527, respectively. It was found that the capping layer with higher hydrophilicity and water retention capacity, and the inner layer with higher permselectivity could increase the separation performance of the composite membranes. Meanwhile, effects of operation temperature and water concentration in feed on pervaporation performance as well as membrane properties were studied.

  14. Application of Satellite SAR Imagery in Mapping the Active Layer of Arctic Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Shu-Sun; Romanovsky, V.; Lovick, Joe; Wang, Z.; Peterson, Rorik

    2003-01-01

    A method of mapping the active layer of Arctic permafrost using a combination of conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter and more sophisticated interferometric SAR (INSAR) techniques is proposed. The proposed research is based on the sensitivity of radar backscatter to the freeze and thaw status of the surface soil, and the sensitivity of INSAR techniques to centimeter- to sub-centimeter-level surface differential deformation. The former capability of SAR is investigated for deriving the timing and duration of the thaw period for surface soil of the active layer over permafrost. The latter is investigated for the feasibility of quantitative measurement of frost heaving and thaw settlement of the active layer during the freezing and thawing processes. The resulting knowledge contributes to remote sensing mapping of the active layer dynamics and Arctic land surface hydrology.

  15. Checkerboard pattern of the interlayer coupling between two Co films across Fe/Cu and Cu/Co/Cu spacer layers grown on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. Z.; Won, C. Y.; Rotenberg, E.; Zhao, H. W.; Smith, N. V.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2004-06-01

    Quantum well (QW) states and oscillatory interlayer coupling in Co/Cu/Fe/Co/Cu ( 001 ) are investigated by angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism. We find that the QW states in Cu/Fe/Co/Cu ( 001 ) depend very little on the magnetic state of the fcc Fe films. The interlayer coupling between the Co films across the Cu/Fe spacer layer displays a checkerboard pattern in Fe-Cu thickness plane. The presence of the fcc Fe ferromagnetic live layer at the Cu/Fe interface is shown to be responsible for the checkerboard pattern, which was confirmed by experiments on Co/Cu/Co/Cu/Co/Cu ( 100 ) system.

  16. Preparation of regularly structured nanotubular TiO2 thin films on ITO and their modification with thin ALD-grown layers.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Jere; Kemell, Marianna; Härkönen, Emma; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2012-03-30

    Nanotubular titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by anodization of titanium metal films evaporated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. A facile method to enhance the adhesion of the titanium film to the ITO glass was developed. An optimum thickness of 550 nm for the evaporated titanium was found to keep the film adhered to ITO during the anodization. The films were further modified by growing amorphous titania, alumina and tantala thin films conformally in the nanotubes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The optical, electrical and physical properties of the different structures were compared. It was shown that even 5 nm thin layers can modify the properties of the nanotubular titanium dioxide films.

  17. Preparation of regularly structured nanotubular TiO2 thin films on ITO and their modification with thin ALD-grown layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupala, Jere; Kemell, Marianna; Härkönen, Emma; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2012-03-01

    Nanotubular titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by anodization of titanium metal films evaporated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. A facile method to enhance the adhesion of the titanium film to the ITO glass was developed. An optimum thickness of 550 nm for the evaporated titanium was found to keep the film adhered to ITO during the anodization. The films were further modified by growing amorphous titania, alumina and tantala thin films conformally in the nanotubes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The optical, electrical and physical properties of the different structures were compared. It was shown that even 5 nm thin layers can modify the properties of the nanotubular titanium dioxide films.

  18. Properties of (Ga 0.47In 0.53)As epitaxial layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using alternative arsenic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protzmann, H.; Höhnsdorf, F.; Spika, Z.; Stolz, W.; Göbel, E. O.; Müller, M.; Lorberth, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the use of novel, liquid, organic arsenic precursors as substitutes for the highly toxic hydride gas arsine (AsH 3) in low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE) of (GaIn)As lattice matched on InP has been investigated. The model precursors out of the classes of (alkyl)3- nAsH n ( n = 0,1,2) are tertiarybutyl arsine (TBAs), ditertiarybutyl arsine (DitBAsH) and diethyltertiarybutyl arsine (DEtBAs). The MOVPE growth has been investigated in the temperature range of 570-650°C using {V}/{III} ratios from 2 to 20. The obtained epitaxial layer quality as examined by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution double crystal X-ray diffraction, temperature-dependent van der Pauw-Hall, as well as photoluminescence (PL) measurements, will be compared for the different source molecules. Under optimized conditions almost uncompensated n-type (GaIn)As layers with carrier concentrations below 1 × 10 15 cm -3 and corresponding mobilities above 80 000 cm 2/V · s have been realized. For TBAs and DitBAsH in combination with the corresponding P sources TBP and DitBuPH, respectively, we have worked out a process parameter area for the growth of layers with device quality, as proven by the realization of a pin-detector structure.

  19. Toward DNA electrochemical sensing by free-standing ZnO nanosheets grown on 2D thin-layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Meijing; Kong, Qianqian; Luo, Xiliang; Jiao, Kui

    2017-03-15

    Very recently, the 2-dimensional MoS2 layer as base substrate integrated with other materials has caused people's emerging attention. In this paper, a thin-layered MoS2 was prepared through an ultrasonic exfoliation method from bulk MoS2 and then the free-standing ZnO nanosheet was electrodeposited on the MoS2 scaffold for DNA sensing. The ZnO/MoS2 nanocomposite revealed smooth and vertical nanosheets morphology by scanning electron microscopy, compared with the sole MoS2 and sole ZnO. Importantly, the partially negative charged MoS2 layer is beneficial to the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanosheets under the effect of electrostatic interactions. Classic methylene blue, which possesses different affinities to dsDNA and ssDNA, was adopted as the measure signal to confirm the immobilization and hybridization of DNA on ZnO nanosheets and pursue the optimal synthetic conditions. And the results demonstrated that the free-standing ZnO/MoS2 nanosheets had low detection limit (6.6×10(-16)M) and has a positive influence on DNA immobilization and hybridization.

  20. The origin of low water vapor transmission rates through Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolaminate gas-diffusion barriers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Jens; Schmidt, H.; Kowalsky, W.; Riedl, T.; Kahn, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on thin film gas-diffusion barriers consisting of Al2 O3 /ZrO2 nanolaminates (NL) grown by low-temperature (80 °C) atomic layer deposition. We show that reliable barriers with water vapor transmission rates of 3.2×10-4 g/(m2 day) , measured at 80 °C and 80% relative humidity, can be realized with very thin layers down to 40 nm. We determine that ZrO2 acts as anticorrosion element in our NL. Furthermore, we demonstrate by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy that an aluminate phase is formed at the interfaces between Al2 O3 and ZrO2 sublayers, which additionally improves the gas-diffusion barrier due to a densification of the layer system. These Al2 O3 /ZrO2 NLs prepared at low temperatures hold considerable promises for application in organic electronics and beyond.

  1. Highly-stable and low-state-density Al2O3/GaN interfaces using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneki, Shota; Ohira, Joji; Toiya, Shota; Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Interface characterization was carried out on Al2O3/GaN structures using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates with relatively low dislocation density (<3 × 106 cm-2). The Al2O3 layer was prepared by atomic layer deposition. The as-deposited metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sample showed a significant frequency dispersion and a bump-like feature in capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves at reverse bias, showing high-density interface states in the range of 1012 cm-1 eV-1. On the other hand, excellent C-V characteristics with negligible frequency dispersion were observed from the MOS sample after annealing under a reverse bias at 300 °C in air for 3 h. The reverse-bias-annealed sample showed state densities less than 1 × 1011 cm-1 eV-1 and small shifts of flat-band voltage. In addition, the C-V curve measured at 200 °C remained essentially similar compared with the room-temperature C-V curves. These results indicate that the present process realizes a stable Al2O3/GaN interface with low interface state densities.

  2. Depth heterogeneity of fully aromatic polyamide active layers in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito J; Cahill, David G

    2011-05-15

    We studied the depth heterogeneity of fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layers in commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes by quantifying near-surface (i.e., top 6 nm) and volume-averaged properties of the active layers using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), respectively. Some membranes (e.g., ESPA3 RO) had active layers that were depth homogeneous with respect to the concentration and pK(a) distribution of carboxylic groups, degree of polymer cross-linking, concentration of barium ion probe that associated with ionized carboxylic groups, and steric effects experienced by barium ion. Other membranes (e.g., NF90 NF) had active layers that were depth heterogeneous with respect to the same properties. Our results therefore support the existence of both depth-homogeneous and depth-heterogeneous active layers. It remains to be assessed whether the depth heterogeneity consists of gradually changing properties throughout the active layer depth or of distinct sublayers with different properties.

  3. Densitometric validation and analysis of biomarker β-amyrin in different Acacia species (leaves) grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by high performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Alam, Perwez; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Alharbi, Hattan; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Hussain, Afzal

    2015-07-01

    Biomarker β-amyrin was analyzed in the leaves of four different Acacia species (A. salicina, A. loreta, A. hamulosa and A. tortilis) grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by a validated HPTLC method. The chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using solvents toluene: methanol (9:1, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed TLC plate was derivatized with anisaldehyde and scanned at 520 nm. A sharp peak of β-amyrin was found at Rf=0.58±0.01. The r2 and the linear regression equation for β-amyrin was found to be 0.991 and 19.913X+107.803, respectively in the concentration range of 100-800 ng. The percentage of β-amyrin was found to be maximum 2.70% w/w in A. tortilis, 1.85% w/w in A. loreta and 1.80% w/w in A. hamulosa while it was totally absent in A. salicina. This study conceives maiden reporting of quantification of β-amyrin in four different species of Acacia by validated HPTLC method. The developed method for the analysis of β-amyrin was proved to be reproducible by statistical analysis hence it can be employed for further analysis of β-amyrin in plasma, other biological fluids and in finished products available in the market.

  4. CdS and Cd-Free Buffer Layers on Solution Phase Grown Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1- x)4 :Band Alignments and Electronic Structure Determined with Femtosecond Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Richard; Barkhouse, Aaron; Wang, Wei; Yu, Luo; Shao, Xiaoyan; Mitzi, David; Hiroi, Homare; Sugimoto, Hiroki

    2013-12-02

    The heterojunctions formed between solution phase grown Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1- x)4(CZTS,Se) and a number of important buffer materials including CdS, ZnS, ZnO, and In2S3, were studied using femtosecond ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (fs-UPS) and photovoltage spectroscopy. With this approach we extract the magnitude and direction of the CZTS,Se band bending, locate the Fermi level within the band gaps of absorber and buffer and measure the absorber/buffer band offsets under flatband conditions. We will also discuss two-color pump/probe experiments in which the band bending in the buffer layer can be independently determined. Finally, studies of the bare CZTS,Se surface will be discussed including our observation of mid-gap Fermi level pinning and its relation to Voc limitations and bulk defects.

  5. Annealing study of H2O and O3 grown Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer chemical vapour deposition on n-type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avice, Marc; Grossner, Ulrike; Nilsen, Ola; Christensen, Jens S.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2006-09-01

    Al2O3 has been grown by atomic layer chemical vapour deposition on HF cleaned n-type 4H-SiC using either H2O or O3 as an oxidant. After post-deposition annealing at high temperature (1000°C) in argon atmosphere for different durations (1, 2 and 3 h), bulk and interface properties of the films were studied by capacitance-voltage (CV), current-voltage (IV) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Electrical measurements show a decreasing shift of the flatband voltage indicating a diminution of the negative oxide charges with increasing annealing time. The SIMS measurements reveal accumulation of boron, sodium and potassium at the Al2O3/SiC interface but the accumulation decreases with annealing at 1000°C where also out diffusion of silicon into the Al2O3 film takes place.

  6. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  7. Low-frequency absorption using a two-layer system with active control of input impedance.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Pedro; Fernández, Alejandro; Doutres, Olivier

    2003-12-01

    Broadband noise absorption, including low frequencies, may be obtained by a hybrid passive-active two-layer system. A porous layer in front of an air layer provides passive absorption, at medium and high frequencies. Active control of the input impedance of the two-layer system yields absorption at low frequencies. The active control system can implement either pressure-release or impedance-matching conditions. A simple analytical model based upon plane waves propagating in a tube permits the comparison of both control strategies. The results of this simple model show that the pressure-release condition affords higher absorption than the impedance-matching condition for some combinations of geometrical and material parameters. Experimental results corroborate the good performance of the pressure-release condition under the prescribed geometrical setup.

  8. Activated Transport in the Separate Layers that Form the νT=1 Exciton Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Lok, J. G.; Kraus, S.; Dietsche, W.; von Klitzing, K.; Schuh, D.; Bichler, M.; Tranitz, H.-P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2004-12-01

    We observe the total filling factor νT=1 quantum Hall state in a bilayer two-dimensional electron system with virtually no tunneling. We find thermally activated transport in the balanced system with a monotonic increase of the activation energy with decreasing d/ℓB below 1.65. In the imbalanced system we find activated transport in each of the layers separately, yet the activation energies show a striking asymmetry around the balance point, implying a different excitation spectrum for the separate layers forming the condensed state.

  9. Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhai; Shen, Yanfei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As an emerging metal‐free semiconductor, covalently bonded carbon nitride (CN) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, drawbacks such as a high recombination rate of excited electrons and holes hinder its potential applications. Tailoring the crystallinity of semiconductors is an important way to suppress unwanted charge recombination, but has rarely been applied to CN so far. Herein, a simple method to synthesize CN of high crystallinity by protonation of specific intermediate species during conventional polymerization is reported. Interestingly, the as‐obtained CN exhibited improved photocatalytic activities of up to seven times those of the conventional bulk CN. This approach, with only a slight change to the conventional method, provides a facile way to effectively regulate the crystallinity of bulk CN to improve its photocatalytic activities and sheds light on large‐scale industrial applications of CN with high efficiency for sustainable energy. PMID:27436164

  10. Contribution of S-Layer Proteins to the Mosquitocidal Activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Mariana Claudia; Palomino, María Mercedes; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Lanati, Leonardo; Ruzal, Sandra Mónica; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging the antigenic group H5a5b produce spores with larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. C7, a new isolated strain, which presents similar biochemical characteristics and Bin toxins in their spores as the reference strain 2362, was, however, more active against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. The contribution of the surface layer protein (S-layer) to this behaviour was envisaged since this envelope protein has been implicated in the pathogenicity of several bacilli, and we had previously reported its association to spores. Microscopic observation by immunofluorescence detection with anti S-layer antibody in the spores confirms their attachment. S-layers and BinA and BinB toxins formed high molecular weight multimers in spores as shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot detection. Purified S-layer from both L. sphaericus C7 and 2362 strain cultures was by itself toxic against Culex sp larvae, however, that from C7 strain was also toxic against Aedes aegypti. Synergistic effect between purified S-layer and spore-crystal preparations was observed against Culex sp. and Aedes aegypti larvae. This effect was more evident with the C7 strain. In silico analyses of the S-layer sequence suggest the presence of chitin-binding and hemolytic domains. Both biochemical characteristics were detected for both S-layers strains that must justify their contribution to pathogenicity. PMID:25354162

  11. Exploring active layer thaw depth and water content dynamics with multi-channel GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Gerhards, H.; Westermann, S.; Pan, X.; Boike, J.; Schiwek, P.; Yu, Q.; Roth, K.

    2011-12-01

    In permafrost landscapes, the active layer is the highly dynamic uppermost section of the ground where many important hydrological, biological and geomorphological processes take place. Active layer hydrological processes are controlled by many different factors like thaw depth, soil textural properties, vegetation, and snow cover. These may lead to complex runoff patterns that are difficult to estimate from point measurements in boreholes. New multi-channel GPR systems provide the opportunity to non-invasively estimate reflector depth and average volumetric water content of distinct soil layers over distances ranging from some ten meters up to a few kilometers. Due to the abrupt change in dielectric permittivity between frozen and unfrozen ground, multi-channel GPR is a valuable technique for mapping the depth of the frost table along with the volumetric water content of the active layer without the need of laborious drillings or frost probe measurements. Knowing both values, the total amount of water stored in the active layer can be determined which may be used as an estimate of its latent heat content. Time series of measurements allow spatial monitoring of the progression of the thawing front. Multi-channel GPR thus offers new opportunities for monitoring active layer hydrological processes. This presentation will provide a brief introduction of the multi-channel GPR evaluation technique and will present different applications from several permafrost sites.

  12. The effect of AlN nucleation temperature on inverted pyramid defects in GaN layers grown on 200 mm silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Matthew; Baines, Yannick; Bos, Sandra; Escoffier, René; Garnier, Gennie; Kanyandekwe, Joël; Lebreton, Julie; Vandendaele, William

    2017-04-01

    We have examined 200 mm GaN on silicon wafers, while varying the AlN nucleation temperature, and have found that higher temperatures result in a more convex bow on the wafers. In addition, by performing full wafer defect mapping, we have found that a higher nucleation temperature results in a higher density of inverted pyramid defects, which have previously been found to reduce the breakdown voltage of GaN on silicon layers. We have performed electrical measurements on a wafer with the lowest temperature AlN layer, which is still within our bow specification, and which therefore has the lowest density of inverted pyramid defects. This wafer showed the same leakage current density for both very small and very large test structures (2×10-3 and 18.7 mm2 respectively), with all but one of our large structures maintaining a breakdown voltage greater than 700 V. This is a very promising result for high yield of devices on 200 mm GaN on silicon wafers.

  13. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cariou, R.; Ruggeri, R.; Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mannino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  14. White-light emitting thin film electroluminescent devices with stacked SrS:Ce/CaS:Eu active layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.; Fuyama, Moriaki; Onisawa, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Katsumi; Ando, Masahiko

    1989-12-01

    By stacking blue-green emitting SrS:Ce and red-emitting CaS:Eu active layers, white-light emitting electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated. Luminance improvement and EL characteristics of SrS:Ce and CaS:Eu EL devices were discussed. The electrooptical characteristics of white-light emitting EL devices with stacked SrS:Ce/CaS:Eu active layers were presented. Color changed from blue-green to white by changing the voltage or frequency. Finally, feasibility of multicolor EL devices by using the fabricated white-light emitting EL devices with color filters were discussed. UFpg5523,5527 UFid992922JAP UFttIn situ ac magnetic susceptibility of gadolinium thin films UFauF. H. SalasSUPa),b) and M. Mirabal-GarciaaSUPc) UFloInstitut fuur Atom- und Festkourperphysik, Freie Universitaut Berlin, D-1000 Berlin 33, ufquadFederal Republic of Germany UFsd(Received 27 April 1989; accepted for publication 3 August 1989) UFabWe report measurements of the ac magnetic susceptibility on Gd(0001)/W(110) thin films grown in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were made by using a pickup coil, in which the geometry and the number of turns were optimized. We applied an alternating magnetic field of about 2 Grms at frequencies of 180 and 340 Hz. The growth mode and the deposition rate of the Gd films were determined by performing conventional Auger electron spectroscopy during film growth. In films with thickness larger than 10 nm our technique is sensitive up to 1016 atoms/Grms , which allowed us to study the critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility as the Curie temperature is approached from above, TT+C . A sharp maximum, which may be related to the Hopkinson effect, is observed at a temperature TH 289 K.

  15. Interannual active layer thermal and dynamics evolution at the crater Lake CALM site, Deception Island (Antarctica).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonzalo; Ángel De Pablo, Miguel; Molina, Antonio; Abramov, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Deception Island, is an active strato-volcano on South Shetland Archipelago of Antarctica (62° 55' 0″ S, 60° 37' 0″ W), is a cold region with harsh remote and hostile environmental conditions. The permafrost and active layer existence, and the cold climate conditions together with volcanic material with height water content inside made this region of the Earth a perfect site to study the active layer and permafrost evolution involved in the Circumpolar Active Layer South (CALM-S) program. The active layer is measured in late January or firs february (during the end of the thaw period) at the "Crater Lake" CALM site (62°58'06.7''; 60°40'44.8'') on Deception Island, Antarctica, at the period 2006 to 2014 we obtained a mean annual value of 29,7±2 cm. In this paper, we describe the spatial active layer thickness distribution and report the reduction on the mean thickness between February 2006 and 2014. Below the active layer, permafrost could be also reported (with a mean thickness of 4.5± 0.5 m.) based on the temperature data acquired by sensors installed at different depth inside the soil; three different shallow boreholes was drilled (1.0 m., 1.6 m., 4.5 m. in depth) and we have been registered its temperature gradient at the 2010 to 2013 period. Here we use all those data 1) to describe the thermal behavior of the permafrost at the CALM site, and 2) to describe its evolution (aggradation/degradation) along fourteen years of continuous measurements. We develop this study, to known the thermal behavior of the permafrost and the active layer related with the air/soil interaction being one of the most important factors the snow layer that was measured by the installation of termo-snowmeters with the complement of an automatic digital camera during the 2008 to 2014 period. On the other hand, the pyroclastics soil materials has a very high values of water content then the latent heat in the freezing/thawing process controls the active layer evolution and the

  16. Boosting oxygen reduction/evolution reaction activities with layered perovskite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengjie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhenbao; Shao, Zongping; Ciucci, Francesco

    2016-08-25

    Layered PrBaMn2O5+δ (H-PBM) was simply prepared by annealing pristine Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ in H2. The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction activities are remarkably enhanced by employing H-PBM. The improvement can be ascribed to the introduction of additional oxygen vacancies, an optimized eg filling of Mn ions, and the facile incorporation of oxygen into layered H-PBM.

  17. Superoxide dismutase and total peroxidase activities in relation to drought recovery performance of mycorrhizal shrub seedlings grown in an amended semiarid soil.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Antonio; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Hernández, José Antonio; Carrasco, Lucía; Caravaca, Fuensanta

    2008-05-05

    We studied the effect of inoculation with a mixture of three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, Glomus deserticola (Trappe, Bloss. & Menge) and Glomus mosseae (Nicol & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe) and addition of a composted organic residue on plant growth, nutrient uptake, mycorrhizal colonisation and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and total peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities in shoots of Juniperus oxycedrus seedlings after well-watered, drought and recovery periods. The mycorrhizal inoculation and composted residue addition significantly increased the growth, foliar nutrients (N, P, K) and shoot water content of the plants, independent of the water regime. POX activity in control plants increased during drought (about 250% higher than under well-watered conditions) and returned to initial levels after re-watering. The seedlings inoculated with AM fungi showed the highest values of POX activity, followed by the plants grown in the amended soil, which varied little during the drought and recovery periods. Drought decreased the SOD activity in shoots of both J. oxycedrus seedlings inoculated with AM fungi and those grown with composted residue, but did not affect that of control plants. After re-watering, the SOD activity in mycorrhizal or residue-amended plants increased, showing values similar to control plants.

  18. Changes of alternative oxidase activity, capacity and protein content in leaves of Cucumis sativus wild-type and MSC16 mutant grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ostaszewska, Monika; Galle, Alexander; Flexas, Jaume; Rychter, Anna M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that alternative oxidase (AOX) is biochemically regulated by a sulfhydryl-disulfide system, interaction with alpha-ketoacids, ubiquinone pool redox state and protein content among others. However, there is still scarce information about the in vivo regulation of the AOX. Cucumis sativus wild-type (WT) and MSC16 mutant plants were grown under two different light intensities and were used to analyze the relationship between the amount of leaf AOX protein and its in vivo capacity and activity at night and day periods. WT and MSC16 plants presented lower total respiration (V(t)), cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) activity (v(cyt)) and alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) activity (v(alt)) when grown at low light (LL), although growth light intensity did not change the amount of cytochrome oxidase (COX) nor AOX protein. Changes of v(cyt) related to growing light conditions suggested a substrate availability and energy demand control. On the other hand, the total amount of AOX protein present in the tissue does not play a role in the regulation neither of the capacity nor of the activity of the AOP in vivo. Soluble carbohydrates were directly related to the activity of the AOP. However, although differences in soluble sugar contents mostly regulate the capacity of the AOP at different growth light intensities, additional regulatory mechanisms are necessary to fully explain the observed results.

  19. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Rosikhin, Ahmad Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2015-12-29

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO{sub 2} in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO{sub 2} layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices.

  20. Layer-by-layer carbon nanotube bio-templates for in situ monitoring of the metabolic activity of nitrifying bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Ho, Genevieve; Lynch, Jerome P.; Love, Nancy G.

    2009-03-01

    Despite the wide variety of effective disinfection and wastewater treatment techniques for removing organic and inorganic wastes, pollutants such as nitrogen remain in wastewater effluents. If left untreated, these nitrogenous wastes can adversely impact the environment by promoting the overgrowth of aquatic plants, depleting dissolved oxygen, and causing eutrophication. Although nitrification/denitrification processes are employed during advanced wastewater treatment, effective and efficient operation of these facilities require information of the pH, dissolved oxygen content, among many other parameters, of the wastewater effluent. In this preliminary study, a biocompatible CNT-based nanocomposite is proposed and validated for monitoring the biological metabolic activity of nitrifying bacteria in wastewater effluent environments (i.e., to monitor the nitrification process). Using carbon nanotubes and a pH-sensitive conductive polymer (i.e., poly(aniline) emeraldine base), a layer-by-layer fabrication technique is employed to fabricate a novel thin film pH sensor that changes its electrical properties in response to variations in ambient pH environments. Laboratory studies are conducted to evaluate the proposed nanocomposite's biocompatibility with wastewater effluent environments and its pH sensing performance.

  1. Carbon nanotubes supported cerium dioxide and platinum nanohybrids: Layer-by-layer synthesis and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xinyuan; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Mengdi; Gu, Jialei; Wu, Ping; Sun, Dongmei; Tang, Yawen

    2015-08-01

    We successfully synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported cerium dioxide and platinum (Pt/CeO2/CNTs) nanohybrids via layer-by-layer assembly. The composition, morphology and structure of the as-prepared Pt/CeO2/CNTs nanohybrids are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By comparison of the electrocatalytic properties of the Pt/CeO2/CNTs with the Pt/CNTs, we systematically investigate the promotion effect of CeO2 on the Pt/CeO2/CNTs catalysts towards methanol oxidation. It is found that the introduction of CeO2 not only enhances the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pt/CeO2/CNTs catalyst for methanol oxidation but also minimizes the CO poisoning, probably accounting for the good oxygen carrying capacity of CeO2 and its high stability in acidic solution.

  2. Thermal conductivity of Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Raeisi Fard, Hafez; Hess, Andrew; Pashayi, Kamyar; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Becker, Nicholas; Proslier, Thomas; Pellin, Michael

    2013-11-04

    Cross-plane thermal conductivity of 800, 458, and 110 nm erbium-doped crystalline yttria (Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films deposited via atomic layer deposition was measured using the 3ω method at room temperature. Thermal conductivity results show 16-fold increase in thermal conductivity from 0.49 W m{sup −1}K{sup −1} to 8 W m{sup −1}K{sup −1} upon post deposition annealing, partially due to the suppression of the number of the -OH/H{sub 2}O bonds in the films after annealing. Thermal conductivity of the annealed film was ∼70% lower than undoped bulk single crystal yttria. The cumulative interface thermal resistivity of substrate-Er{sup +3}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-metal heater was determined to be ∼2.5 × 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} K/W.

  3. Low-frequency dielectric properties of intrinsic and Al-doped rutile TiO2 thin films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassmi, M.; Pointet, J.; Gonon, P.; Bsiesy, A.; Vallée, C.; Jomni, F.

    2016-06-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is carried out for intrinsic and aluminum-doped TiO2 rutile films which are deposited on RuO2 by the atomic layer deposition technique. Capacitance and conductance are measured in the 0.1 Hz-100 kHz range, for ac electric fields up to 1 MVrms/cm. Intrinsic films have a much lower dielectric constant than rutile crystals. This is ascribed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which depress polarizability. When Al is substituted for Ti, the dielectric constant further decreases. By considering Al-induced modification of polarizability, a theoretical relationship between the dielectric constant and the Al concentration is proposed. Al doping drastically decreases the loss in the very low frequency part of the spectrum. However, Al doping has almost no effect on the loss at high frequencies. The effect of Al doping on loss is discussed through models of hopping transport implying intrinsic oxygen vacancies and Al related centers. When increasing the ac electric field in the MVrms/cm range, strong voltage non-linearities are evidenced in undoped films. The conductance increases exponentially with the ac field and the capacitance displays negative values (inductive behavior). Hopping barrier lowering is proposed to explain high-field effects. Finally, it is shown that Al doping strongly improves the high-field dielectric behavior.

  4. Laser damage properties of TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-08-20

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm {Phi} samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, the LIDTs were 6.73{+-}0.47 J/cm{sup 2} and 6.5{+-}0.46 J/cm{sup 2} at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  5. Influence of dosing sequence and film thickness on structure and resistivity of Al-ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Evan B. Lad, Robert J.

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited onto amorphous silica substrates using an atomic layer deposition process with diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and deionized water at 200 °C. Three different Al doping sequences were used at a ZnO:Al ratio of 11:1 within the films. A minimum film resistivity of 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was produced using sequential dosing of DEZ, TMA, DEZ, followed by H{sub 2}O for the Al doping step. This “ZAZW” sequence yielded an AZO film resistivity that is independent of film thickness, crystallographic texture, and grain size, as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD). A pseudo-Voigt analysis method yields values for grain sizes that are smaller than those calculated using other XRD methods. Anisotropic grain sizes or variations in crystallographic texture have minimal influence on film resistivity, which suggests that factors other than film texture, such as intragrain scattering, may be important in influencing film resistivity.

  6. Improved crystalline properties of laser molecular beam epitaxy grown SrTiO{sub 3} by rutile TiO{sub 2} layer on hexagonal GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W. B.; Zhu, J.; Chen, H.; Wang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y. R.

    2009-11-15

    Epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films were fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy on bare and TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN(0002), respectively. The whole deposition processes were in situ monitored by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out to study the growth orientation and crystalline quality of STO films. The interfacial characters and epitaxial relationships were also investigated by high revolution transition electron microscope and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). According to the RHEED observation, the lowest epitaxy temperature of STO on TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN was decreased compared with the direct deposited one. The epitaxial relationship was (111)[110]STO//(0002)[1120]GaN in both cases as confirmed by RHEED, XRD, and SAED. The full width at half maximum of omega-scan and PHI-scan of STO on TiO{sub 2} buffered GaN was reduced compared with that deposited on bare GaN, indicating that epitaxial quality of STO film is improved by inserting TiO{sub 2} layer. In summary, the lattice mismatch was reduced by inserting rutile TiO{sub 2}. As a result, the crystalline temperature was reduced and enhanced epitaxial quality of STO thin film was obtained.

  7. Abundance of the Multiheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcB Increases in Outer Biofilm Layers of Electrode-Grown Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Camille S.; LaBelle, Edward V.; Brantley, Susan L.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB) and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA) were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10–20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0–10 µm). In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth. PMID:25090411

  8. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  9. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework. PMID:28322256

  10. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework.

  11. Discrete-Layer Piezoelectric Plate and Shell Models for Active Tip-Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyliger, P. R.; Ramirez, G.; Pei, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop computational tools for the analysis of active-sensory composite structures with added or embedded piezoelectric layers. The targeted application for this class of smart composite laminates and the analytical development is the accomplishment of active tip-clearance control in turbomachinery components. Two distinct theories and analytical models were developed and explored under this contract: (1) a discrete-layer plate theory and corresponding computational models, and (2) a three dimensional general discrete-layer element generated in curvilinear coordinates for modeling laminated composite piezoelectric shells. Both models were developed from the complete electromechanical constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials, and incorporate both displacements and potentials as state variables. This report describes the development and results of these models. The discrete-layer theories imply that the displacement field and electrostatic potential through-the-thickness of the laminate are described over an individual layer rather than as a smeared function over the thickness of the entire plate or shell thickness. This is especially crucial for composites with embedded piezoelectric layers, as the actuating and sensing elements within these layers are poorly represented by effective or smeared properties. Linear Lagrange interpolation polynomials were used to describe the through-thickness laminate behavior. Both analytic and finite element approximations were used in the plane or surface of the structure. In this context, theoretical developments are presented for the discrete-layer plate theory, the discrete-layer shell theory, and the formulation of an exact solution for simply-supported piezoelectric plates. Finally, evaluations and results from a number of separate examples are presented for the static and dynamic analysis of the plate geometry. Comparisons between the different approaches are provided when

  12. Electrical activity, mode of incorporation and distribution coefficient of group V elements in Hg1-xCdxTe grown from tellurium rich liquid phase epitxial growth solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vydyanath, H. R.; Ellsworth, J. A.; Devaney, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Hg1-xCdxTe films were grown liquid phase epitaxially from tellurium rich solutions containing up to 10 at. % of the group V elements P, As, Sb, and Bi. Chemical analysis of the Te growth solutions and the films was carried out in conjunction with extensive Hall effect measurements on the films subsequent to various annealing treatments under Hg rich and Te rich conditions. Despite the presence of a large concentration of the group V elements in the Te source solution, the maximum concentration of these elements incorporated into the liquid phase epitaxially grown Hg1-xCdxTe appears to vary from <1015cm-3 for Bi up to 1017cm-3 for phosphorus and As implying a distribution coefficient varying from <10-5 for Bi up to 10-3 for P at growth temperature of ˜500° C. This low value of the distribution coefficient for group V elements for growths from Te rich solutions contrasts with the moderately high values reported in the literature to date for growth from Hg rich solutions as well as pseudobinary solutions (Bridgman growth). The widely differing distribution coefficients and hence the solubility of the group V elements for Hg rich and Te rich liquid phase epitaxial solutions is explained on the basis that the activity coefficient of the group V elements in Te rich solutions is probably orders of magnitude lower than it is in Hg rich solutions. Finally, the results of the anneals at 200° C under Hg saturated conditions with and without a 500° C Hg saturated preanneal have indicated n to p conversion in many of the films attesting to the amphoteric behavior of the group V elements in LPE grown Hg1-xCdxTe(s) similar to the previously reported behavior of P in bulk grown Hg0.8Cd0.2Te.

  13. Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

  14. Effect of layered composite meta-structures on the optical activity and ellipticity of structural biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, E. H.; Hor, Y. Li; Leong, Eunice S. P.; Liu, Y. J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design layered composite meta-structures to investigate its' effect on the optical activity and circular dichroism (CD). The layered composite meta-structures consist of thin gammadion nanostructure with thickness λ/10, where λ is the incident wavelength. The layered meta-structures are alternate between a dielectric and gold (AU) material. Each layered composite meta-gammadion is arranged together in an array of pitch 700 nm. In the first case, 3 layers of meta-gammadion, with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) configuration are simulated with material properties from optical hand book. There are 3 modes in the CD spectrum, which can be characterized into Bloch CD mode and hybrid CD modes. Compared with the CD spectrum of whole structure of gammadion in gold with same total height, the CD of the MIM layered composite are larger. When the number layer increase to 5, it is observed that the CD is reduced by 30% and there is a red shift in the Bloch CD mode and a slight blue shift in the hybrid CD modes. By further increasing the number of layers to 7, we observed further CD increment and larger wavelength shift in the CD modes. The layered composite meta-gammadion is fabricated using template stripping method. Experimental results also show excellent agreement with the simulation results for CD and wavelength shift. We submerge the layered meta-gammadion into a solution of chiral molecules. The CD spectrum of the meta-gammadion shows a larger wavelength shift compared to pure metal structures. This indicate a more sensitive and robust detection of chiral molecules.

  15. High-performance InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jia-Yong; Pei, Yan-Li; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zi-Min; Hu, Rui-Qin; Cai, Guang-Shuo; Wang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the high performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layers (TCLs) has been demonstrated. The AZO-TCLs were fabricated on the n+-InGaN contact layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using H2O as an oxidizer at temperatures as low as 400 °C without any post-deposition annealing. It shows a high transparency (98%), low resistivity (510-4 Ω·cm), and an epitaxial-like excellent interface on p-GaN with an n+-InGaN contact layer. A forward voltage of 2.82 V @ 20 mA was obtained. Most importantly, the power efficiencies can be markedly improved by 53.8%@20 mA current injection and 39.6%@350 mA current injection compared with conventional LEDs with indium tin oxide TCL (LED-III), and by 28.8%@20 mA current injection and 4.92%@350 mA current injection compared with LEDs with AZO-TCL prepared by MOCVD using O2 as an oxidizer (LED-II), respectively. The results indicate that the AZO-TCL grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer is a promising TCL for a low-cost and high-efficiency GaN-based LED application. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204091, 61404177, 51402366, and U1201254) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015B010132006).

  16. On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuwen Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2014-01-15

    The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600 nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300 °C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8 nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elastic–plastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20 nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11 GPa independent of film thickness.

  17. Possibility of a quasi-liquid layer of As on GaAs substrate grown by MBE as observed by enhancement of Ga desorption at high As pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, K.; Feng, J. M.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Fujita, K.; Ohachi, T.

    2000-06-01

    The As vapor pressure dependence of the Ga desorption rate during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth on GaAs( n11)A ( n=1-4 hereafter) substrates was studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurements at 12 K for undoped AlGaAs/GaAs asymmetric double quantum wells (ADQWs). Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) oscillation measurements on a GaAs(100) surface were also used. Two K-cells of As solid sources (corresponding to beam equivalent pressures (BEPs) of 9.0×10 -6 and 4.5×10 -5 Torr) were used to change the As pressure rapidly. The Ga flux and substrate temperature were kept constant at 0.76 ML/s and 12 K, respectively, while the As flux changed from 7.6 (BEP 9.0×10 -6 Torr) to 32 ML/s (4.5×10 -5 Torr). With increasing As pressure, two separated PL peaks for the wide well (WW) of high index substrates were observed. This peak separation is attributed to a reduced well depth from an increasing Ga desorption rate. The energy differences of the PL peak depending on the off-angle from (111)A to (100) plane indicates an orientation-dependent Ga desorption rate. Moreover, amongst all ( n11)A and (100) planes, the Ga desorption rate was smallest from the (111)A surface. The increase of Ga desorption from the surface at high As pressures probably arose from an increasing coverage with a quasi-liquid layer (QLL).

  18. Structure and electrical properties of Al-doped HfO₂ and ZrO₂ films grown via atomic layer deposition on Mo electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon Woo; Jeon, Woojin; Lee, Woongkyu; An, Cheol Hyun; Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-12-24

    The effects of Al doping in atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 (AHO) and ZrO2 (AZO) films on the evolutions of their crystallographic phases, grain sizes, and electric properties, such as their dielectric constants and leakage current densities, were examined for their applications in high-voltage devices. The film thickness and Al-doping concentration were varied in the ranges of 60-75 nm and 0.5-9.7%, respectively, for AHO and 55-90 nm and 1.0-10.3%, respectively, for AZO. The top and bottom electrodes were sputtered Mo films. The detailed structural and electrical property variations were examined as functions of the Al concentration and film thickness. The AHO films showed a transition from the monoclinic phase (Al concentration up to 1.4%) to the tetragonal/cubic phase (Al concentration 2.0-3.5%), and finally, to the amorphous phase (Al concentration >4.7%), whereas the AZO films remained in the tetragonal/cubic phase up to the Al concentration of 6.4%. For both the AHO and AZO films, the monoclinic and amorphous phases had dielectric constants of 20-25, and the tetragonal/cubic phases had dielectric constants of 30-35. The highest electrical performance levels for the application to the high-voltage charge storage capacitors in flat panel displays were achieved with the 4.7-9.7% Al-doped AHO films and the 2.6% Al-doped AZO films.

  19. Active/Passive Control of Sound Radiation from Panels using Constrained Layer Damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid passive/active noise control system utilizing constrained layer damping and model predictive feedback control is presented. This system is used to control the sound radiation of panels due to broadband disturbances. To facilitate the hybrid system design, a methodology for placement of constrained layer damping which targets selected modes based on their relative radiated sound power is developed. The placement methodology is utilized to determine two constrained layer damping configurations for experimental evaluation of a hybrid system. The first configuration targets the (4,1) panel mode which is not controllable by the piezoelectric control actuator, and the (2,3) and (5,2) panel modes. The second configuration targets the (1,1) and (3,1) modes. The experimental results demonstrate the improved reduction of radiated sound power using the hybrid passive/active control system as compared to the active control system alone.

  20. High transmittance cadmium oxysulfide Cd(S,O) buffer layer grown by triton X-100 mediated chemical bath deposition for thin-film heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballipinar, Faruk; Rastogi, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline 100-190 nm Cd(S,O) n-type semiconductor thin films of high transparency in the visible range are deposited by a surfactant Triton X-100 mediated chemical bath deposition process. The crystalline structure of the films revealed by X-ray diffraction data shows a cubic-CdO phase signified by (111) and (200) planes alongside the (002), (220), and (110) planes from hexagonal-CdS. The invariance of the 2θ position of the (002) CdS diffraction is interpreted in terms of the growth of the composite film essentially by the formation of a dilute interstitial alloy of CdO and CdS. This is confirmed by Raman spectra which, besides the CdS 1LO and 2LO modes at 300 and 600 cm-1, also show Raman lines from CdO at 1098 cm-1 and 952 cm-1 assigned as overtone of 2LO phonon modes and 556 cm-1 due to band crossing between LO and TO modes of CdO. Optical spectra of Cd(S,O) films show a median transmittance of >85% compared to ˜70% for CdS films in the 550-1000 nm wavelength range. The Cd(S,O) films show optical bandgap varying from 2.34 to 2.26 eV with increasing CdO fraction but retain high sub-bandgap transmission and sharp band edge threshold. The Cd(S,O) films thus offer an alternative to the CdS buffer layer in the heterojunction solar cells, which has major shortcoming of poor stability and high sub-bandgap absorption. The photoluminescence spectra of Cd(S,O) films show three green bands, of which one is the near band edge transition at 511.5 nm, the same as in CdS, the second band at 526.0 nm that red shifted from the CdS position is due to shallow donor-acceptor defects arising from structural change due to CdO, and the third band at 543.6 nm (2.28 eV) originates from direct band transition in CdO. The growth mechanism of Cd(S,O) films is described, which invokes that the Triton X-100 molecule modifies the microenvironment around adsorbed [Cd(NH3)4]2+ species, thereby inducing two concurrent reactions, one with SH- species that cause CdS formation and the

  1. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, C. S.; Groza, A.; Iconaru, S. L.; Popa, C. L.; Chapon, P.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Hristu, R.; Stanciu, G. A.; Negrila, C. C.; Ghita, R. V.; Ganciu, M.; Predoi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC—American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells. PMID:26504849

  2. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, C S; Groza, A; Iconaru, S L; Popa, C L; Chapon, P; Chifiriuc, M C; Hristu, R; Stanciu, G A; Negrila, C C; Ghita, R V; Ganciu, M; Predoi, D

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC-American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells.

  3. Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of interband cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Cui, Boya; Vurgaftman, I.; Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Bewley, W. W.; Merritt, C. D.; Abell, J.; Meyer, J. R.; Grayson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The cross-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities of the W-active stages and InAs/AlSb superlattice optical cladding layer of an interband cascade laser (ICL) were characterized for temperatures ranging from 15 K to 324 K. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the active layer is somewhat larger than the cross-plane value at temperatures above about 30 K, while the thermal conductivity tensor becomes nearly isotropic at the lowest temperatures studied. These results will improve ICL performance simulations and guide the optimization of thermal management.

  4. New photocathode using ZnSe substrates with GaAs active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiuguang; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Fuchi, Shingo

    2017-03-01

    GaAs active layers were successfully fabricated on ZnSe substrates using a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy system. As a photocathode, a GaAs active layer shows a high quantum efficiency (QE) of 9% at 532 nm laser light illumination, which is comparable to a QE of 11% from GaAs bulk. In addition, a photoemission current of 10 µA was obtained from this photocathode. One more important point is that this photocathode could realize back-side illumination of 532 nm laser light, and thus its widespread applications are expected in microscopy and accelerator fields.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the temperature dependency in Raman active vibrational modes of molybdenum disulfide atomic layers.

    PubMed

    Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, J

    2013-10-21

    Raman spectroscopy is utilized to quantify the temperature dependency of the vibrational modes in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomic layers. These analyses are essential for understanding the structural properties and phononic behaviors of this two-dimensional (2D) material. We quantitatively analyze the temperature dependent shifts of the Raman peak positions in the temperature range from 300 to 550 K, and find that both planar and out-of-plane characteristic modes are highly sensitive to temperature variations. This temperature dependency is linear and can be fully explained by the first-order temperature coefficient. Using a semi-quantitative model, we evaluate the contributions of the material's thermal expansion and intrinsic temperature effects to this dependency. We reveal that the dominating source of shift in the peak position of planar mode E2g(1) for samples of all thicknesses investigated is the four-phonon process. In addition to the four-phonon process, thermal expansion plays a significant role in the temperature dependency of the out-of-plane mode, A1g. The thickness dependency of the temperature coefficient for MoS2 and a drastic change in behaviors of samples from bi- to single-layered are also demonstrated. We further explore the role of defects in the thermal properties of MoS2 by examining the temperature dependency of Raman modes in CVD-grown samples.

  6. Quality-enhanced In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film grown on GaAs substrate with an ultrathin amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fangliang; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-27

    Using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As layers have been grown on GaAs substrates to act as buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxial growth of In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films. It is revealed that the crystallinity of as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films is strongly affected by the thickness of the large-mismatched amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer. Given an optimized thickness of 2 nm, this amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer can efficiently release the misfit strain between the In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer and the GaAs substrate, trap the threading and misfit dislocations from propagating to the following In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer, and reduce the surface fluctuation of the as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, leading to a high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film with competitive crystallinity to that grown on GaAs substrate using compositionally graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As metamorphic buffer layers. Considering the complexity of the application of the conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As graded buffer layers, this work demonstrates a much simpler approach to achieve high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film on GaAs substrate and, therefore, is of huge potential for the InGaAs-based high-efficiency photovoltaic industry.

  7. Microbial Activity in Active and Upper Permafrost Layers in Axel Heiberg Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Allan, J.; Cheng, K.; Chourey, K.; Hettich, R. L.; Layton, A.; Liu, X.; Murphy, J.; Mykytczuk, N. C.; Phelps, T. J.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Saarunya, G.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Data on microbial communities and their metabolic activity in Arctic wetlands and underlying permafrost sediments is lacking. Samples were collected from different depths of a cryosol (D1, D2) and upper permafrost (D3) at the Axel Heiberg Island in July 2009. Upper cryosol has lower H2O but higher C and N content when compared to deeper horizons including upper permafrost layer. Deep cryosol and upper permafrost contained SO42- (155 and 132 ppm) and NO3- (0.12 and 0.10 ppm), respectively. The phylogenetic analyses of the environmental 16S rRNA genes showed the putative SRB were more abundant in permafrost (8%) than in cryosols, D1 (0.2%) and D2 (1.1%). Putative denitrifying bacteria varied along depth with near 0.1% in D1 and a significant increase in D2 (2.7%) and D3 (2.2%). Methanogens were not detected; methanotrophs were present at low levels in D3 (1%). Two sets of microcosms were set up. Firstly, anaerobic microcosms, amended with 10 mM glucose, sulfate or nitrate, were cultivated at varying temperatures (15o, 6o, and 0o C) for 10 months. Metabolic activity was monitored by measuring CO2 and CH4 every 3 months. A total of 89.5% of the D3-originated microcosms showed higher activity in comparison to cryosols in first 3 months. CH4 was not detected in these microcosms, whereas CO2 production was higher at 15o C or with glucose. Metaproteomics analyses of microcosms with higher levels of CO2 production indicated the presence of stress responsive proteins (e.g. DnaK, GroEL) and proteins essential for energy production and survival under carbon starvation (e.g. F0F1 ATP synthase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase). These proteins have been previously shown to be up-regulated at low temperatures by permafrost bacteria. Metaproteomics data based on the draft sequences indicated the presence of proteins from the genera Bradyrhizobium, Sphingomonas, Lysinibacillus and Methylophilaceae and these bacteria were also detected by pyrosequencing. Secondly, a duplicate set of anaerobic

  8. Photocatalytic activity of layered perovskite-like oxides in practically valuable chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. A.; Zvereva, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    The photocatalytic properties of layered perovskite-like oxides corresponding to the Ruddlesen-Popper, Dion-Jacobson and Aurivillius phases are considered. Of the photocatalytic reactions, the focus is on the reactions of water splitting, hydrogen evolution from aqueous solutions of organic substances and degradation of model organic pollutants. Possibilities to conduct these reactions under UV and visible light in the presence of layered perovskite-like oxides and composite photocatalysts based on them are shown. The specific surface area, band gap energy, particle morphology, cation and anion doping and surface modification are considered as factors that affect the photocatalytic activity. Special attention is paid to the possibilities to enhance the photocatalytic activity by intercalation, ion exchange and exfoliation, which are inherent in this class of compounds. Conclusions are made about the prospects for the use of layered perovskite-like oxides in photocatalysis. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  9. Activation energy of thermal desorption of silicon oxide layers on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enta, Yoshiharu; Osanai, Shodai; Ogasawara, Takahito

    2017-02-01

    Thermal desorption rates of silicon oxide layers, from 20 to 120 nm in thickness, on silicon substrates in vacuum have been accurately obtained from intervals between ring structures formed inside voids on the oxide layers. From the temperature dependence of the desorption rate, the activation energy and frequency factor of the desorption reaction have been derived as a function of the oxide thickness. The obtained values are compared with the previous studies, and as a result, the activation energy is found to be almost constant ( 4 eV) in a wide range of the oxide thickness. The frequency factor decreases as the inverse square of the oxide thickness. The decomposition kinetics of the oxide layer is also discussed from the obtained results.

  10. Activity induces traveling waves, vortices and spatiotemporal chaos in a model actomyosin layer

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the actomyosin cortex in biological cells, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a model describing a contractile active polar fluid sandwiched between two external media. The external media impose frictional forces at the interface with the active fluid. The fluid is driven by a spatially-homogeneous activity measuring the strength of the active stress that is generated by processes consuming a chemical fuel. We observe that as the activity is increased over two orders of magnitude the active polar fluid first shows spontaneous flow transition followed by transition to oscillatory dynamics with traveling waves and traveling vortices in the flow field. In the flow-tumbling regime, the active polar fluid also shows transition to spatiotemporal chaos at sufficiently large activities. These results demonstrate that level of activity alone can be used to tune the operating point of actomyosin layers with qualitatively different spatiotemporal dynamics. PMID:26877263

  11. Epigenetic Salt Accumulation and Water Movement in the Active Layer of Central Yakutia in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, M.; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A.; Fukuda, M.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in Eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity (ECe) of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost, 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1m to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-as well as HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. Higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in alas occurs from spring through the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in alas in comparison to forest is controlled by annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization which has already contributed to change the landscape by hindering the growth of forests.

  12. Epigenetic salt accumulation and water movement in the active layer of central Yakutia in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. M. Larry; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as an alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity ECe of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost: 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1 m, to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, a maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of the alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site, indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. A higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in the alas occurs from spring through into the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in the forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in the alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in the alas in comparison with the forest is controlled by the annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization, which has already contributed to changing the landscape by hindering the growth of forest. Copyright

  13. Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D

    2016-06-22

    The development of thick organic photovoltaics (OPV) could increase absorption in the active layer and ease manufacturing constraints in large-scale solar panel production. However, the efficiencies of most low-bandgap OPVs decrease substantially when the active layers exceed ∼100 nm in thickness (because of low crystallinity and a short exciton diffusion length). Herein, we report the use of solvent additive diphenyl ether (DPE) that facilitates the fabrication of thick (180 nm) active layers and triples the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of conventional thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophene polymer (PTB7)-based OPVs from 1.75 to 6.19%. These results demonstrate a PCE 20% higher than those of conventional (PTB7)-based OPV devices using 1,8-diiodooctane. Morphology studies reveal that DPE promotes the formation of nanofibrillar networks and ordered packing of PTB7 in the active layer that facilitate charge transport over longer distances. We further demonstrate that DPE improves the fill factor and photocurrent collection by enhancing the overall optical absorption, reducing the series resistance, and suppressing bimolecular recombination.

  14. Active Layer and Moisture Measurements for Intensive Site 0 and 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-04-17

    These are measurements of Active Layer Thickness collected along several lines beginning in September, 2011 to the present. The data were collected at several time periods along the Site0 L2 Line, the Site1 AB Line, and an ERT Monitoring Line near Area A in Site1.

  15. Groundwater hydrochemistry in the active layer of the proglacial zone, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Wadham, J.L.; Tranter, M.; Hodgkins, R.; Peters, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    Glacial bulk meltwaters and active-layer groundwaters were sampled from the proglacial zone of Finsterwalderbreen during a single melt season in 1999, in order to determine the geochemical processes that maintain high chemical weathering rates in the proglacial zone of this glacier. Results demonstrate that the principle means of solute acquisition is the weathering of highly reactive moraine and fluvial active-layer sediments by supra-permafrost groundwaters. Active-layer groundwater derives from the thaw of the proglacial snowpack, buried ice and glacial bulk meltwaters. Groundwater evolves by sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. Evaporation- and freeze-concentration of groundwater in summer and winter, respectively produce Mg-Ca-sulphate salts on the proglacial surface. Re-dissolution of these salts in early summer produces groundwaters that are supersaturated with respect to calcite. There is a pronounced spatial pattern to the geochemical evolution of groundwater. Close to the main proglacial channel, active layer sediments are flushed diurnally by bulk meltwaters. Here, Mg-Ca-sulphate deposits become exhausted in the early season and geochemical evolution proceeds by a combination of sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. At greater distances from the channel, the dissolution of Mg-Ca-sulphate salts is a major influence and dilution by the bulk meltwaters is relatively minor. The influence of sulphate salt dissolution decreases during the sampling season, as these salts are exhausted and waters become increasingly routed by subsurface flowpaths. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  17. New First Order Raman-active Modes in Few Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    PubMed Central

    Terrones, H.; Corro, E. Del; Feng, S.; Poumirol, J. M.; Rhodes, D.; Smirnov, D.; Pradhan, N. R.; Lin, Z.; Nguyen, M. A. T.; Elías, A. L.; Mallouk, T. E.; Balicas, L.; Pimenta, M. A.; Terrones, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although the main Raman features of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides are well known for the monolayer and bulk, there are important differences exhibited by few layered systems which have not been fully addressed. WSe2 samples were synthesized and ab-initio calculations carried out. We calculated phonon dispersions and Raman-active modes in layered systems: WSe2, MoSe2, WS2 and MoS2 ranging from monolayers to five-layers and the bulk. First, we confirmed that as the number of layers increase, the E′, E″ and E2g modes shift to lower frequencies, and the A′1 and A1g modes shift to higher frequencies. Second, new high frequency first order A′1 and A1g modes appear, explaining recently reported experimental data for WSe2, MoSe2 and MoS2. Third, splitting of modes around A′1 and A1g is found which explains those observed in MoSe2. Finally, exterior and interior layers possess different vibrational frequencies. Therefore, it is now possible to precisely identify few-layered STMD. PMID:24572993

  18. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  19. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  20. The North American Arctic Transect: Baseline Vegetation and Active Layer Maps for the IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, C.; Walker, D.; Raynolds, M.; Kade, A.; Vonlanthen, C.; Kuss, P.; Daanen, R.

    2006-12-01

    Maps of vegetation and active layer were made at 21 10x10-m grids at 11 localities along an 1800-km bioclimate North American Arctic Transect (NAAT). Locations were chosen in each of the five Arctic bioclimate subzones (Subzones A (cold) to E (warm)) and the northern boreal forest. The primary purpose of the maps was to analyze the relationship of the patchy mosaics of plant communities to patterns of plant biomass, microhabitats, active-layer depth, and snow-accumulation along an arctic bioclimate gradient. Vegetation maps show small patterned-ground features (non-sorted circles, earth hummocks, turf hummocks, and small non-sorted circles). The scale of vegetation patterning decreases with latitude; in subzone A, landscape heterogeneity is best visible at small (decimeter) scales, with major differences in plant communities and biomass associated with the cracks vs. the centers of small non-sorted polygons. Toward the southern end of the gradient (Subzone E), the vegetation within the grids is homogenous tussock tundra with minor variations in plant communities mainly associated with earth hummocks and small non-sorted circles that occur between cottongrass tussocks. Patterns of plant communities in the grids are clearly reflected in maps of active-layer thickness and snow depth. In subzones C and D, well-developed non-sorted circles develop wherever there are peaty soils, creating significant micro-scale gradients in soil temperature and soil moisture, which contribute to large differences in active-layer thickness and to frost heave. Thaw depths, therefore, have the most micro-scale variability in the middle part of the climate gradient where there is maximum contrast in plant cover and biomass between circles and inter-circle areas. This contrast is greatest towards the beginning of summer and decreases as the season progresses. The local topography associated with differential winter heave in the patterned ground features was also reflected in the snow

  1. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  2. Sensitive monitoring of photocarrier densities in the active layer of a photovoltaic device with time-resolved terahertz reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Genki; Matsubara, Eiichi; Nagai, Masaya; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ashida, Masaaki

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the sensitive measurement of photocarriers in an active layer of a GaAs-based photovoltaic device using time-resolved terahertz reflection spectroscopy. We found that the reflection dip caused by Fabry-Pérot interference is strongly affected by the carrier profile in the active layer of the p-i-n structure. The experimental results show that this method is suitable for quantitative evaluation of carrier dynamics in active layers of solar cells under operating conditions.

  3. Oxidant effect of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution on the crystalline characteristics of nanocrystalline ZrO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Nam Khen; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kang, Goru; An, Jong-Ki; Nam, Minwoo; Kim, So Yeon; Park, In-Sung; Yun, Ju-Young

    2017-02-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2 films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition method using CpZr[N(CH3)2]3 (Cp = C5H5) as the metal precursor and La(NO3)3·6H2O solution as the oxygen source. La element in the deposited ZrO2 films could not be detected as its content was below the resolution limit of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The alternative introduction of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution to conventionally used H2O as the oxidant effectively altered the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness of the grown ZrO2 films. Specifically, the crystalline structure of the ZrO2 film changed from a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases to monoclinic phase. The average grain size also increased, and the resulting film surface became rougher. The average grain sizes of the ZrO2 films prepared from La(NO3)3·6H2O solution at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40% were 280, 256, 208, and 200 nm, respectively, whereas that prepared using H2O oxidant was 142 nm. However, the concentration of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution minimally influenced the crystalline characteristics of the nanocrystalline ZrO2 films i.e., the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness except for crystallite size.

  4. Large degree of polarization of photoluminescence caused by anisotropic strain in nonpolar a-plane MgxZn1-xO layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Pan, X H; Chen, W; Chen, S S; Huang, J Y; Ye, Z Z

    2016-10-15

    A large degree of polarization (ρ) of photoluminescence (PL) approximate to 1 is obtained in each nonpolar a-plane MgxZn1-xO layer grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with x=0.01, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively. Anisotropic in-plane strains are selectively introduced by using foreign substrates and doping with different Mg contents, which strongly modify the valence band structures, leading to anisotropic optical properties. A polarized Raman measurement shows that anisotropic in-plane strains along the y and z axes increase with the increasing Mg contents. Polarized PL spectra show that ρ gradually increases to 0.97 with decreasing in-plane strains, resulting from an increasing difference in transition energy (ΔE) between E⊥c and E‖c caused by a lift of the degeneracy of valence band structures. The obtained highly polarized emission is close to linear polarized light, which is desirable in the backlighting of liquid crystal displays.

  5. Mg-compensation effect in GaN buffer layer for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors grown on 4H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kwangse; Lee, Kyeongjae; So, Byeongchan; Heo, Cheon; Lee, Kyungbae; Kwak, Taemyung; Han, Sang-Woo; Cha, Ho-Young; Nam, Okhyun

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the Mg doping effect in the gallium nitride (GaN) buffer layers (BLs) of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown on semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. When the Mg concentration was increased from 3 × 1017 to 8 × 1018 cm-3, the crystal quality slightly deteriorated, whereas electrical properties were significantly changed. The buffer leakage increased approximately 50 times from 0.77 to 39.2 nA at -50 V with the Mg doping concentration. The Mg-compensation effect and electron trapping effect were observed at Mg concentration of 3 × 1017 and 8 × 1018 cm-3, respectively, which were confirmed by an isolation leakage current test and low-temperature photoluminescence. When the BL was compensated, the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and sheet carrier concentration of the HEMTs were 1560 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 5.06 × 1012 cm-2, respectively. As a result, Mg-doped GaN BLs were demonstrated as a candidates of semi-insulating BLs for AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  6. The low-mode approximation for modeling of stellar activity in single-layer and two-layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukhina, Nadezhda; Popova, Helen; Potemina, Ksenia

    The cycles of solar magnetic activity are connected with a solar dynamo that operates in the convective zone. Solar dynamo mechanism is based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of these concepts allows us to get an oscillating solution as a wave of the toroidal field propagating from middle latitudes to the equator. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the solar magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for single and double layer media and contain the meridional flow and thickness of the convection zone of the star. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial and 22-year cycle and existence of the triple cycle (quasi-biennial, 22- and hundred-year cycles). We obtained the different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on the value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the convection zone. We discuss the features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of evolution of the solar and geo magnetic fields. We built batterfly-diagrams for the helicity, the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field for different regimes.

  7. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of small ellipsoidal scatterers. [of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Optically Active Transition Metal Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, S. B.; Kharkwal, Aneeta; Nitu; Kharkwal, Mamta; Sharma, Raghunandan

    2017-01-01

    The acetate intercalated layered double hydroxides of Zn and Mn, have been synthesized by chimie douce method. The materials were characterized by XRD, TGA, CHN, IR, XPS, SEM-EDX and UV-visible spectroscopy. The photoluminescence properties was also studied. The optical properties of layered hydroxides are active transition metal ion dependent, particularly d1-10 system plays an important role. Simultaneously the role of host - guest orientation has been considered the basis of photoluminescence. Acetate ion can be exchanged with iodide and sulphate ions. The decomposed product resulted the pure phase Mn doped zinc oxide are also reported.

  9. Thermal regime of active layer at two lithologically contrasting sites on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula region (AP) represents one of the most rapidly warming parts of our planet in the last 50 years. Despite increasing research activities along both western and eastern sides of AP in last decades, there is still a lot of gaps in our knowledge relating to permafrost, active layer and its thermal and physical properties. This study brings new results of active layer monitoring on James Ross Island, which is the largest island in northern AP. Its northern part, Ulu Peninsula, is the largest ice-free area (more than 200 km2) in the region. Due its large area, we focused this study on sites located in different lithologies, which would affect local thermal regime of active layer. Study site (1) at Abernethy Flats area (41 m a.s.l.) lies ~7 km from northern coast. Lithologically is formed by disintegrated Cretaceous calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Santa Marta Formation. Study site (2) is located at the northern slopes of Berry Hill (56 m a.s.l.), about 0.4 km from northern coastline. Lithology is composed of muddy to intermediate diamictites, tuffaceous siltstones to fine grained sandstones of the Mendel Formation. Data of air temperature at 2 meters above ground and the active layer temperatures at 75 cm deep profiles were obtained from both sites in period 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014. Small differences were found when comparing mean air temperatures and active temperatures at 5 and 75 cm depth in the period 2012-2014. While the mean air temperatures varied between -7.7 °C and -7.0 °C, the mean ground temperatures fluctuated between -6.6 °C and -6.1 °C at 5 cm and -6.9 °C and -6.0 °C at 75 cm at Abernethy Flats and Berry Hill slopes respectively. Even though ground temperature differences along the profiles weren't pronounced during thawing seasons, the maximum active layer thickness was significantly larger at Berry Hill slopes (80 to 82 cm) than at Abernethy Flats (52 to 64 cm). We assume this differences are affected by

  10. Active layer temperature in two Cryosols from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Roberto F. M.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Poelking, Everton L.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; Fernandes Filho, Elpidio I.; Bockheim, James G.

    2012-06-01

    This study presents soil temperature and moisture regimes from March 2008 to January 2009 for two active layer monitoring (CALM-S) sites at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. The monitoring sites were installed during the summer of 2008 and consist of thermistors (accuracy of ± 0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths and one soil moisture probe placed at the bottommost layer at each site (accuracy of ± 2.5%), recording data at hourly intervals in a high capacity datalogger. The active layer thermal regime in the studied period for both soils was typical of periglacial environments, with extreme variation in surface temperature during summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The great majority of the soil temperature readings during the eleven month period was close to 0 °C, resulting in low values of freezing and thawing degree days. Both soils have poor thermal apparent diffusivity but values were higher for the soil from Fildes Peninsula. The different moisture regimes for the studied soils were attributed to soil texture, with the coarser soil presenting much lower water content during all seasons. Differences in water and ice contents may explain the contrasting patterns of freezing of the studied soils, being two-sided for the coarser soil and one-sided for the loamy soil. The temperature profile of the studied soils during the eleven month period indicates that the active layer reached a maximum depth of approximately 92 cm at Potter and 89 cm at Fildes. Longer data sets are needed for more conclusive analysis on active layer behaviour in this part of Antarctica.

  11. Active layer dynamics in three sites with contrasted topography in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    Topography exerts a key role on permafrost distribution in areas where mean annual temperatures are slightly negative. This is the case of low-altitude environments in Maritime Antarctica, namely in the South Shetland Islands, where permafrost is marginal to discontinuous until elevations of 20-40 m asl turning to continuous at higher areas. Consequently, the active layer dynamics is also strongly conditioned by the geomorphological setting. In January 2014 we installed three sites for monitoring the active layer dynamics across the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands) in different geomorphological environments at elevations between 60 and 100 m. The purpose was to examine the role of the topography and microclimatic conditions on the active layer dynamics. At each site a set of loggers was set up to monitor: air temperatures, snow thickness, ground temperatures until 80 cm together with the coupling atmosphere-ground temperatures. During the first year of monitoring the mean annual air temperatures show similar values in the three sites, in all cases slightly below freezing. The snowy conditions during this year in this archipelago have resulted in a late melting of snow, which has also conditioned the duration of frozen conditions in the uppermost soil layers. Topography has a strong influence on snow cover duration, which in turn affects frozen ground conditions. The Domo site is located in a higher position with respect to the central plateau of Byers; here, the wind is stronger and snow cover thinner, which has conditioned a longer thawing season than in the other two sites (Cerro Negro, Escondido). These two sites are located in topographically protected areas favouring snow accumulation. The longer persistence of snow conditions a longer duration of negative temperatures in the active layer of the permafrost. This research was financially supported by the HOLOANTAR project (Portuguese Science Foundation) and the AXA Research Fund.

  12. Layer-specific optogenetic activation of pyramidal neurons causes beta–gamma entrainment of neonatal networks

    PubMed Central

    Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H; Ahlbeck, Joachim; Wolff, Amy; Wiegert, J. Simon; Gee, Christine E.; Oertner, Thomas G.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated activity patterns in the developing brain may contribute to the wiring of neuronal circuits underlying future behavioural requirements. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been difficult to obtain owing to the absence of tools for selective manipulation of oscillations during early development. We established a protocol that combines optogenetics with electrophysiological recordings from neonatal mice in vivo to elucidate the substrate of early network oscillations in the prefrontal cortex. We show that light-induced activation of layer II/III pyramidal neurons that are transfected by in utero electroporation with a high-efficiency channelrhodopsin drives frequency-specific spiking and boosts network oscillations within beta–gamma frequency range. By contrast, activation of layer V/VI pyramidal neurons causes nonspecific network activation. Thus, entrainment of neonatal prefrontal networks in fast rhythms relies on the activation of layer II/III pyramidal neurons. This approach used here may be useful for further interrogation of developing circuits, and their behavioural readout. PMID:28216627

  13. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGES

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; ...

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  14. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  15. Activation of Al2O3 passivation layers on silicon by microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Johannes; Otto, Martin; Sprafke, Alexander N.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2013-11-01

    Thin aluminum oxide layers deposited on silicon by thermal atomic layer deposition can be used to reduce the electronic recombination losses by passivating the silicon surfaces. To activate the full passivation ability of such layers, a post-deposition annealing step at moderate temperatures (≈400 ∘C, duration≈30 min) is required. Such an annealing step is commonly done in an oven in air, nitrogen, or forming gas atmosphere. In this work, we investigate the ability to reduce the duration of the annealing step by heating the silicon wafer with a microwave source. The annealing time is significantly reduced to durations below 1 min while achieving effective minority carrier lifetimes similar or higher to that of conventionally oven-annealed samples.

  16. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology.

  17. Tunable color temperature solid state white light source using flux grown phosphor crystals of Eu3+, Dy3+ and Tb3+ activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, A.; Dutta, P. S.

    2014-11-01

    Solid state light sources with dynamically tunable color temperature in the range of 3000-6000 K with chromaticity coordinates lying on the Planckian black body curve has been designed using mixtures of narrow emissions at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm. These respective emissions lines were generated by individual phosphor crystals of trivalent rare earth (RE3+) species, europium (Eu3+), dysprosium (Dy3+) and terbium (Tb3+) activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide (Ca1-2xNaxMoO4:RE3+x), when excited by near-ultra-violet (NUV) light emitting diode (LED) with emission wavelength of 380 nm. Highly luminescent crystals of these compounds have been grown from molten solutions (flux) of molybdenum (VI) oxide. The flux grown crystals exhibit emission intensity 2-4 times more than phosphor powders of the same compounds synthesized by traditional solid-state reactions. An optimum flux to solute ratio of 2.5 and solute dissolution temperature of 1100 °C resulted in the largest size crystals.

  18. Genes Required for the Anti-fungal Activity of a Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from a Corn Landrace Grown Continuously by Subsistence Farmers Since 1000 BC

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Hanan R.; Ettinger, Cassandra L.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize) landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system. Strain 3A12 represents a unique opportunity to understand the anti-fungal activities of an endophyte associated with a crop variety grown by subsistence farmers since ancient times. Here, microscopy combined with Tn5-mutagenesis demonstrates that the anti-fungal mode of action of 3A12 involves flagella-dependent swarming toward its pathogen target, attachment and biofilm-mediated microcolony formation. The mutant screen revealed that YajQ, a receptor for the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, is a critical signaling system that mediates this endophytic mobility-based defense for its host. Microbes from the traditional seeds of farmers may represent a new frontier in elucidating host–microbe mutualistic interactions. PMID:27757101

  19. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  20. Genes Required for the Anti-fungal Activity of a Bacterial Endophyte Isolated from a Corn Landrace Grown Continuously by Subsistence Farmers Since 1000 BC.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Hanan R; Ettinger, Cassandra L; Eisen, Jonathan A; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize) landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system. Strain 3A12 represents a unique opportunity to understand the anti-fungal activities of an endophyte associated with a crop variety grown by subsistence farmers since ancient times. Here, microscopy combined with Tn5-mutagenesis demonstrates that the anti-fungal mode of action of 3A12 involves flagella-dependent swarming toward its pathogen target, attachment and biofilm-mediated microcolony formation. The mutant screen revealed that YajQ, a receptor for the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, is a critical signaling system that mediates this endophytic mobility-based defense for its host. Microbes from the traditional seeds of farmers may represent a new frontier in elucidating host-microbe mutualistic interactions.

  1. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  2. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  3. Perovskite LaRhO3 as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masao; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-01

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO3 (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t2g and empty eg of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  4. Influence of the Halogen Activation on the Ozone Layer in XXIst Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Igor; Aloyan, Artash; Yermakov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate a possible effect of heterophase chemical reactions (HCR) with participation of reservoir gases (ClONO2, HCl) and sulfate particles of the Junge layer on the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the XXI century, which could be relevant for more accurate predicting a recovery of the ozone layer, taking into account that just these processes were the main cause of the ozone depletion at the end of XXth century. Required for calculating the dynamics of GHR data on the specific volume/surface of the sulfate aerosols in the lower stratosphere were taken from the data of field experiments. Their physico-chemical properties (chemical composition, density, water activity and free protons activity et al.) have been obtained with help of thermodynamic calculations (Atmospheric Inorganic Model, AIM). Altitude concentration profiles of individual gas components, as well as temperature and relative humidity (RH) at a given geographic location and season have been calculated using a two-dimensional model SOCRATES. The calculations have been made for the conditions of June 1995, 2040 and 2080 at 15 km altitude and 50° N latitude. It has been shown that the rate of ozone depletion as a result of processes involving halogen activation for the given conditions in 2040, 2080 is about 35% lower than a corresponding value in 1995 (a year of maximum effect of halogen activation). From this we can conclude that in the XXI century, despite the natural decline of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. processes of halogen activation of the ozone depletion with participation of sulfate aerosols should be taken into account in the calculations of the recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes.

  5. Influence of active layer and support layer surface structures on organic fouling propensity of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-02-03

    In this study, we investigate the influence of surface structure on the fouling propensity of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, we compare membranes fabricated through identical procedures except for the use of different solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, NMP) during phase separation. FO fouling experiments were carried out with a feed solution containing a model organic foulant. The TFC membranes fabricated using NMP (NMP-TFC) had significantly less flux decline (7.47 ± 0.15%) when compared to the membranes fabricated using DMF (DMF-TFC, 12.70 ± 2.62% flux decline). Water flux was also more easily recovered through physical cleaning for the NMP-TFC membrane. To determine the fundamental cause of these differences in fouling propensity, the active and support layers of the membranes were extensively characterized for physical and chemical characteristics relevant to fouling behavior. Polyamide surface roughness was found to dominate all other investigated factors in determining the fouling propensities of our membranes relative to each other. The high roughness polyamide surface of the DMF-TFC membrane was also rich in larger leaf-like structures, whereas the lower roughness NMP-TFC membrane polyamide layer contained more nodular and smaller features. The support layers of the two membrane types were also characterized for their morphological properties, and the relation between support layer surface structure and polyamide active layer formation was discussed. Taken together, our findings indicate that support layer structure has a significant impact on the fouling propensity of the active layer, and this impact should be considered in the design of support layer structures for TFC membranes.

  6. Electrokinetic microactuator arrays for active sublayer control of turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez-Garias, Francisco J.

    2002-09-01

    The present study has been the first to examine the electrokinetic principle as the basis for a new class of microscale actuator arrays for active sublayer control on full scale aeronautical and hydronautical vehicles under realistic operating conditions. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski scalings that govern such electrokinetic actuator arrays show significant performance advantages from their miniaturization to the microscale. The electrokinetic microactuator arrays that are the subject of this study seek to interrupt the bursting process associated with naturally-occurring streamwise sublayer vortices in the turbulent boundary layer. Specific performance requirements for microactuator spacing, flow rate, and frequency response for active sublayer control have been determined from fundamental scaling laws for the streamwise vortical structures in the sublayer of turbulent boundary layers. In view of the inherently local nature of the sublayer dynamics, a general system architecture for microactuator arrays appropriate for active sublayer control has been developed based on the concept of relatively small and independent "unit cells", each with their own sensing, processing, and actuation capability, that greatly simplifies the sensing and processing requirements needed to achieve practical sublayer control. A fundamental three-layer design has been developed for such electrokinetic microactuator arrays, in which electrokinetic flow is induced by an impulsively applied electric field across a center layer, with a bottom layer containing an electrolyte reservoir and a common electrode, and a top layer that containing individual electrodes and lead-outs for each microactuator in the unit cell. Microfabrication techniques have been developed that permit mass production of large numbers of individual electrokinetic microactuators in unit cells on comparatively large-area tiles. Several generations of such electrokinetic microactuator arrays have been built leading to the

  7. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Leaves of Mentha piperita Grown in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenliang; Wang, Huiyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Lianming; Yang, Peiming

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil from leaves of Mentha piperita (MEO) grown in China were investigated. Using GC-MS analysis, the chemical composition of MEO was characterized, showing that it was mainly composed of menthol, menthone and menthy acetate. MEO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in a croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. It could also effectively inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cytotoxic effect was assessed against four human cancer cells. MEO was found to be significantly active against human lung carcinoma SPC-A1, human leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 value of 10.89, 16.16 and 38.76 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, MEO had moderate antioxidant activity. The results of this study may provide an experimental basis for further systematic research, rational development and clinical utilization of peppermint resources.

  8. Remarkable Reproducibility of Enzyme Activity Profiles in Tomato Fruits Grown under Contrasting Environments Provides a Roadmap for Studies of Fruit Metabolism1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Biais, Benoît; Bénard, Camille; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Colombié, Sophie; Prodhomme, Duyên; Ménard, Guillaume; Bernillon, Stéphane; Gehl, Bernadette; Gautier, Hélène; Ballias, Patricia; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Sweetlove, Lee; Génard, Michel; Gibon, Yves

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of the environment on fruit metabolism, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants were grown under contrasting conditions (optimal for commercial, water limited, or shaded production) and locations. Samples were harvested at nine stages of development, and 36 enzyme activities of central metabolism were measured as well as protein, starch, and major metabolites, such as hexoses, sucrose, organic acids, and amino acids. The most remarkable result was the high reproducibility of enzyme activities throughout development, irrespective of conditions or location. Hierarchical clustering of enzyme activities also revealed tight relationships between metabolic pathways and phases of development. Thus, cell division was characterized by high activities of fructokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, indicating ATP production as a priority, whereas cell expansion was characterized by enzymes involved in the lower part of glycolysis, suggesting a metabolic reprogramming to anaplerosis. As expected, enzymes involved in the accumulation of sugars, citrate, and glutamate were strongly increased during ripening. However, a group of enzymes involved in ATP production, which is probably fueled by starch degradation, was also increased. Metabolites levels seemed more sensitive than enzymes to the environment, although such differences tended to decrease at ripening. The integration of enzyme and metabolite data obtained under contrasting growth conditions using principal component analysis suggests that, with the exceptions of alanine amino transferase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenase and malate, there are no links between single enzyme activities and metabolite time courses or levels. PMID:24474652

  9. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  10. Determinants of carbon release from the active layer and permafrost deposits on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leiyi; Liang, Junyi; Qin, Shuqi; Liu, Li; Fang, Kai; Xu, Yunping; Ding, Jinzhi; Li, Fei; Luo, Yiqi; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-10-01

    The sign and magnitude of permafrost carbon (C)-climate feedback are highly uncertain due to the limited understanding of the decomposability of thawing permafrost and relevant mechanistic controls over C release. Here, by combining aerobic incubation with biomarker analysis and a three-pool model, we reveal that C quality (represented by a higher amount of fast cycling C but a lower amount of recalcitrant C compounds) and normalized CO2-C release in permafrost deposits were similar or even higher than those in the active layer, demonstrating a high vulnerability of C in Tibetan upland permafrost. We also illustrate that C quality exerts the most control over CO2-C release from the active layer, whereas soil microbial abundance is more directly associated with CO2-C release after permafrost thaw. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of incorporating microbial properties into Earth System Models when predicting permafrost C dynamics under a changing environment.

  11. Effect of a fluid layer on the sound radiation of a plate and its active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Pan, Jie; Yang, Tiejun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a baffled plate facing a layer of fluid is used to investigate the effects of the radiating environment on the plate's sound radiation and its active control. By varying the thickness of the fluid layer, different radiation environments are presented to the plate, resulting in a variation in the efficiencies and shapes of the radiation modes of the plate. As the design of feed-forward control of the radiated sound power and of feedback control of the vibration velocity or volume velocity is limited by the properties of the secondary control path (an open-loop frequency response function), the performance of the control system may be deteriorated if a controller optimally designed for one radiation environment is used for a different environment. The effects of radiation environment on the properties of the secondary control path and performance of active control are investigated.

  12. Determinants of carbon release from the active layer and permafrost deposits on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leiyi; Liang, Junyi; Qin, Shuqi; Liu, Li; Fang, Kai; Xu, Yunping; Ding, Jinzhi; Li, Fei; Luo, Yiqi; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-10-05

    The sign and magnitude of permafrost carbon (C)-climate feedback are highly uncertain due to the limited understanding of the decomposability of thawing permafrost and relevant mechanistic controls over C release. Here, by combining aerobic incubation with biomarker analysis and a three-pool model, we reveal that C quality (represented by a higher amount of fast cycling C but a lower amount of recalcitrant C compounds) and normalized CO2-C release in permafrost deposits were similar or even higher than those in the active layer, demonstrating a high vulnerability of C in Tibetan upland permafrost. We also illustrate that C quality exerts the most control over CO2-C release from the active layer, whereas soil microbial abundance is more directly associated with CO2-C release after permafrost thaw. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of incorporating microbial properties into Earth System Models when predicting permafrost C dynamics under a changing environment.

  13. Control of the boundary layer separation about an airfoil by active surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip on the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  14. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B. D.; Throckmorton, H. M.; Graham, D. E.; Gu, B.; Hubbard, S. S.; Liang, L.; Wu, Y.; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, E. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-03-01

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  15. Active layer hydrology for Imnavait Creek, Toolik, Alaska. Annual progress report, July 1984--January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1986-12-31

    In the annual hydrologic cycle, snowmelt is the most significant event at Imnavait Creek located near Toolik Lake, Alaska. Precipitation that has accumulated for more than 6 months on the surface melts in a relatively short period of 7 to 10 days once sustained melting occurs. During the ablation period, runoff dominates the hydrologic cycle. Some meltwater goes to rewetting the organic soils in the active layer. The remainder is lost primarily because of evaporation, since transpiration is not a very active process at this time. Following the snowmelt period, evapotranspiration becomes the dominate process, with base flow contributing the other watershed losses. It is important to note that the water initally lost by evapotranspiration entered the organic layer during melt. This water from the snowpack ensures that each year the various plant communities will have sufficient water to start a new summer of growth.

  16. The active layer morphology of organic solar cells probed with grazing incidence scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-12-10

    Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) provides unique insights into the morphology of active materials and thin film layers used in organic photovoltaic devices. With grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) the molecular arrangement of the material is probed. GIWAXS is sensitive to the crystalline parts and allows for the determination of the crystal structure and the orientation of the crystalline regions with respect to the electrodes. With grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) the nano-scale structure inside the films is probed. As GISAXS is sensitive to length scales from nanometers to several hundred nanometers, all relevant length scales of organic solar cells are detectable. After an introduction to GISAXS and GIWAXS, selected examples for application of both techniques to active layer materials are reviewed. The particular focus is on conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT).

  17. MMP Activity in the Hybrid Layer Detected with in situ Zymography

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Nascimento, F.D.; Carrilho, M.; Tersariol, I.; Papa, V.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Dentinal proteases are believed to play an important role in the degradation of hybrid layers (HL). This study investigated the HL gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography and functional enzyme activity assay. The hypotheses were that HLs created by an etch-and-rinse adhesive exhibit active gelatinolytic activity, and MMP-2 and -9 activities in dentin increase during adhesive procedures. Etched-dentin specimens were bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1XT and restored with composite. Adhesive/dentin interface slices were placed on microscope slides, covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin, and observed with a multi-photon confocal microscope after 24 hrs. Human dentin powder aliquots were prepared and assigned to the following treatments: A, untreated; B, etched with 10% phosphoric acid; or C, etched with 10% phosphoric acid and mixed with Scotchbond 1XT. The MMP-2 and -9 activities of extracts of dentin powder were measured with functional enzyme assays. Intense and continuous enzyme activity was detected at the bottom of the HL, while that activity was more irregular in the upper HL. Both acid-etching and subsequent adhesive application significantly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate, for the first time, intrinsic MMP activity in the HL, and intense activation of matrix-bound MMP activity with both etching and adhesive application. PMID:22354448

  18. A Comparison of Active and Passive Methods for Control of Hypersonic Boundary Layers on Airbreathing Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Active and passive methods for control of hypersonic boundary layers have been experimentally examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels on a Hyper-X model. Several configurations for forcing transition using passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition, or blowing, methods were compared in two hypersonic facilities, the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air tunnels. Heat transfer distributions, obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the nominal Mach 7 flight trajectory of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For the passive roughness examination, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The prior passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle that was scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness. For the active jet blowing study, the blowing manifold pressure was systematically varied for each configuration, while monitoring the mass flow, to determine the jet penetration height with schlieren and transition movement with the phosphor system for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested were adequate for providing transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model static pressure or higher.

  19. Acoustic radiation from the submerged circular cylindrical shell treated with active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Li-Yun; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Jing; Jiang, Hong-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method of exploring the circular cylindrical shell treated with active constrained layer damping (i.e., ACLD), combined with the analytical solution of the Helmholtz equation for a point source, a multi-point multipole virtual source simulation method is for the first time proposed for solving the acoustic radiation problem of a submerged ACLD shell. This approach, wherein some virtual point sources are assumed to be evenly distributed on the axial line of the cylindrical shell, and the sound pressure could be written in the form of the sum of the wave functions series with the undetermined coefficients, is demonstrated to be accurate to achieve the radiation acoustic pressure of the pulsating and oscillating spheres respectively. Meanwhile, this approach is proved to be accurate to obtain the radiation acoustic pressure for a stiffened cylindrical shell. Then, the chosen number of the virtual distributed point sources and truncated number of the wave functions series are discussed to achieve the approximate radiation acoustic pressure of an ACLD cylindrical shell. Applying this method, different radiation acoustic pressures of a submerged ACLD cylindrical shell with different boundary conditions, different thickness values of viscoelastic and piezoelectric layer, different feedback gains for the piezoelectric layer and coverage of ACLD are discussed in detail. Results show that a thicker thickness and larger velocity gain for the piezoelectric layer and larger coverage of the ACLD layer can obtain a better damping effect for the whole structure in general. Whereas, laying a thicker viscoelastic layer is not always a better treatment to achieve a better acoustic characteristic. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11162001, 11502056, and 51105083), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2012GXNSFAA053207), the Doctor Foundation of Guangxi

  20. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-04-02

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as β-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit β-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  1. Layer-specificity in the effects of attention and working memory on activity in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    van Kerkoerle, Timo; Self, Matthew W.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal activity in early visual cortex depends on attention shifts but the contribution to working memory has remained unclear. Here, we examine neuronal activity in the different layers of the primary visual cortex (V1) in an attention-demanding and a working memory task. A current-source density analysis reveales top-down inputs in the superficial layers and layer 5, and an increase in neuronal firing rates most pronounced in the superficial and deep layers and weaker in input layer 4. This increased activity is strongest in the attention task but it is also highly reliable during working memory delays. A visual mask erases the V1 memory activity, but it reappeares at a later point in time. These results provide new insights in the laminar circuits involved in the top-down modulation of activity in early visual cortex in the presence and absence of visual stimuli. PMID:28054544

  2. Impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on NMDA spikes in cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Active electrical events play an important role in shaping signal processing in dendrites. As these events are usually associated with an increase in intracellular calcium, they are likely to be under the control of calcium-activated potassium channels. Here, we investigate the impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent spikes, or NMDA spikes, evoked by glutamate iontophoresis onto basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We found that small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) act to reduce NMDA spike amplitude but at the same time, also decrease the iontophoretic current required for their generation. This SK-mediated decrease in NMDA spike threshold was dependent on R-type voltage-gated calcium channels and indicates a counterintuitive, excitatory effect of SK channels on NMDA spike generation, whereas the capacity of SK channels to suppress NMDA spike amplitude is in line with the expected inhibitory action of potassium channels on dendritic excitability. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels had no significant impact on NMDA spikes, indicating that these channels are either absent from basal dendrites or not activated by NMDA spikes. These experiments reveal complex and opposing interactions among NMDA receptors, SK channels, and voltage-gated calcium channels in basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons during NMDA spike generation, which are likely to play an important role in regulating the way these neurons integrate the thousands of synaptic inputs they receive. PMID:26936985

  3. Structural and optical properties of AlxGa1-xN (0.33 ≤ x ≤ 0.79) layers on high-temperature AlN interlayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingjun; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shiying; Tao, Tao; Dai, Jiangping; He, Guotang; Xie, Zili; Xiu, Xiangqian; Chen, Dunjun; Chen, Peng; Han, Ping; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    High-Al-content AlxGa1-xN films with x varying from 0.33 to 0.79 were grown on GaN templates with the high temperature AlN (HT-AlN) interlayer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The best crystalline quality, among these AlxGa1-xN alloys, can be obtained for an AlN mole fraction x = 0.55, where the full-width at half-maximum of the Al0.55Ga0.45N (0002) diffraction peak was measured to be 259 arcsec by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The screw threading dislocation (TDs) density was 2 × 108 cm-2 evaluated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), which agreed with the calculations from Williamson-Hall plots. Moreover, cross-sectional TEM indicated that the HT-AlN interlayer could sufficiently reduce the threading dislocations (TDs) through generation of V trenches in the HT-AlN interlayer, since the TDs propagated along the V trenches, then bent into basal planes and annihilated with other dislocations. The study of optical properties indicated that obvious S-shape of temperature dependence on emission energy was observed for Al0.55Ga0.45N layers, which was attributed to exciton localization with energy (Eloc) ∼14.95 meV at 10 K resulting from potential fluctuation and band tail states. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) curves showed a bi-exponential decay at low temperature. The fast decay time implied the presence of the localized excitons enhancing radiative recombination, while the quite slow one was due to the dominance of trapping mechanisms originating from cation vacancy complexes and the VIII-related complexes.

  4. Organic layer serves as a hotspot of microbial activity and abundance in Arctic tundra soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Jang, Inyoung; Chae, Namyi; Choi, Taejin; Kang, Hojeong

    2013-02-01

    Tundra ecosystem is of importance for its high accumulation of organic carbon and vulnerability to future climate change. Microorganisms play a key role in carbon dynamics of the tundra ecosystem by mineralizing organic carbon. We assessed both ecosystem process rates and community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi in different soil layers (surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil) in an Arctic soil ecosystem located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard during the summer of 2008 by using biochemical and molecular analyses, such as enzymatic assay, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and pyrosequencing. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes showed difference according to soil type. For all three microbial communities, the average gene copy number did not significantly differ between soil types. However, archaeal diversities appeared to differ according to soil type, whereas bacterial and fungal diversity indices did not show any variation. Correlation analysis between biogeochemical and microbial parameters exhibited a discriminating pattern according to microbial or soil types. Analysis of the microbial community structure showed that bacterial and archaeal communities have different profiles with unique phylotypes in terms of soil types. Water content and hydrolytic enzymes were found to be related with the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities, whereas soil organic matter (SOM) and total organic carbon (TOC) were related with bacterial communities. The overall results of this study indicate that microbial enzyme activity were generally higher in the organic layer than in mineral soils and that bacterial and archaeal communities differed between the organic layer and mineral soils in the Arctic region. Compared to mineral soil, peat-covered organic layer may represent a hotspot for secondary productivity and nutrient cycling in this ecosystem.

  5. Multiscale active layer morphologies for organic photovoltaics through self-assembly of nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Gehan, Timothy S; Bag, Monojit; Renna, Lawrence A; Shen, Xiaobo; Algaier, Dana D; Lahti, Paul M; Russell, Thomas P; Venkataraman, Dhandapani

    2014-09-10

    We address here the need for a general strategy to control molecular assembly over multiple length scales. Efficient organic photovoltaics require an active layer comprised of a mesoscale interconnected networks of nanoscale aggregates of semiconductors. We demonstrate a method, using principles of molecular self-assembly and geometric packing, for controlled assembly of semiconductors at the nanoscale and mesoscale. Nanoparticles of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were fabricated with targeted sizes. Nanoparticles containing a blend of both P3HT and PCBM were also fabricated. The active layer morphology was tuned by the changing particle composition, particle radii, and the ratios of P3HT:PCBM particles. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated from these aqueous nanoparticle dispersions with comparable device performance to typical bulk-heterojunction devices. Our strategy opens a revolutionary pathway to study and tune the active layer morphology systematically while exercising control of the component assembly at multiple length scales.

  6. The cerebellar Golgi cell and spatiotemporal organization of granular layer activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Lisa; Prestori, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar granular layer has been suggested to perform a complex spatiotemporal reconfiguration of incoming mossy fiber signals. Central to this role is the inhibitory action exerted by Golgi cells over granule cells: Golgi cells inhibit granule cells through both feedforward and feedback inhibitory loops and generate a broad lateral inhibition that extends beyond the afferent synaptic field. This characteristic connectivity has recently been investigated in great detail and been correlated with specific functional properties of these neurons. These include theta-frequency pacemaking, network entrainment into coherent oscillations and phase resetting. Important advances have also been made in terms of determining the membrane and synaptic properties of the neuron, and clarifying the mechanisms of activation by input bursts. Moreover, voltage sensitive dye imaging and multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings, combined with mathematical simulations based on realistic computational models, have improved our understanding of the impact of Golgi cell activity on granular layer circuit computations. These investigations have highlighted the critical role of Golgi cells in: generating dense clusters of granule cell activity organized in center-surround structures, implementing combinatorial operations on multiple mossy fiber inputs, regulating transmission gain, and cut-off frequency, controlling spike timing and burst transmission, and determining the sign, intensity and duration of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-granule cell relay. This review considers recent advances in the field, highlighting the functional implications of Golgi cells for granular layer network computation and indicating new challenges for cerebellar research. PMID:23730271

  7. Origin of photogenerated carrier recombination at the metal-active layer interface in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan Mamun; Adhikari, Nirmal; Qiao, Qiquan; Bommisetty, Venkat

    2015-11-07

    The role of the metal-active layer interface in photogenerated recombination has been investigated using nanoscale current sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) in as-deposited, pre-annealed and post-annealed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Aluminum (Al) confined post-annealed BHJ solar cells exhibited a significantly improved device efficiency compared to pre-annealed BHJ solar cells having similar photocarrier harvesting ability in the active layer. The nanoscale topography and CS-AFM results indicate a uniform PCBM rich phase at the metal-active layer interface in the post-annealed cells, but PCBM segregation in the pre-annealed cells. These two different annealing processes showed different carrier dynamics revealed using IMPS under various light intensities. The IMPS results suggest reduced photo generated carrier recombination in uniform PCBM rich post-annealed BHJ solar cells. This study reveals the importance of the metal-bend interface in BHJ solar cells in order to obtain efficient charge carrier extraction for high efficiency.

  8. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S.; Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D.; Chazelas, J.

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  9. Bioavailable Carbon and the Relative Degradation State of Organic Matter in Active Layer and Permafrost Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrow, J. D.; Burke, V. J.; Vugteveen, T. W.; Fan, Z.; Hofmann, S. M.; Lederhouse, J. S.; Matamala, R.; Michaelson, G. J.; Mishra, U.; Ping, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The decomposability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in permafrost regions is a key uncertainty in efforts to predict carbon release from thawing permafrost and its impacts. The cold and often wet environment is the dominant factor limiting decomposer activity, and soil organic matter is often preserved in a relatively undecomposed and uncomplexed state. Thus, the impacts of soil warming and permafrost thaw are likely to depend at least initially on the genesis and past history of organic matter degradation before its stabilization in permafrost. We compared the bioavailability and relative degradation state of SOC in active layer and permafrost soils from Arctic tundra in Alaska. To assess readily bioavailable SOC, we quantified salt (0.5 M K2SO4) extractable organic matter (SEOM), which correlates well with carbon mineralization rates in short-term soil incubations. To assess the relative degradation state of SOC, we used particle size fractionation to isolate fibric (coarse) from more degraded (fine) particulate organic matter (POM) and separated mineral-associated organic matter into silt- and clay-sized fractions. On average, bulk SOC concentrations in permafrost were lower than in comparable active layer horizons. Although SEOM represented a very small proportion of the bulk SOC, this proportion was greater in permafrost than in comparable active layer soils. A large proportion of bulk SOC was found in POM for all horizons. Even for mineral soils, about 40% of bulk SOC was in POM pools, indicating that organic matter in both active layer and permafrost mineral soils was relatively undecomposed compared to typical temperate soils. Not surprisingly, organic soils had a greater proportion of POM and mineral soils had greater silt- and clay-sized carbon pools, while cryoturbated soils were intermediate. For organic horizons, permafrost organic matter was generally more degraded than in comparable active layer horizons. However, in mineral and cryoturbated horizons

  10. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-10

    AbstractLignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  11. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation.

  12. Aquaporin functionality in relation to H+-ATPase activity in root cells of Capsicum annuum grown under salinity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ballesta, M. Carmen; Martínez, Vicente; Carvajal, Micaela

    2003-03-01

    As water and nutrient uptake should be related in the response of plants to salinity, the aim of this paper is to establish whether or not aquaporin functionality is related to H+-ATPase activity in root cells of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Thus, H+-ATPase activity was measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from roots and aquaporin functionality was measured using a cell pressure probe in intact roots. Salinity was applied as 60 mM NaCl or 60 mM KCl, to determine which ion (Na+, K+ or Cl-) is producing the effects. We also investigated whether the effects of both salts were ameliorated by Ca2+. Similar results were obtained for cell hydraulic conductivity, Lpc, and H+-ATPase activity, large reductions in the presence at NaCl or KCl and an ameliorative effect of Ca2+. However, fusicoccin (an activator of H+-ATPase) did not alter osmotic water permeability of protoplasts isolated from roots. Addition of Hg2+ inhibited both ATPase and aquaporins, but ATPase also contains Hg-binding sites. Therefore, the results indicate that H+-ATPase and aquaporin activities may not be related in pepper plants.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Cha, Kyu Min; Kim, Si Kwan; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom with anti-inflammatory potential. In the present study, the aim was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mode of action of G. lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) in a mouse model of colitis. It was shown that GLBR suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and decreased the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs. GLBR also inhibited activation of p38, ERK, JNK, MAPKs, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In a mouse model of colitis, colonic mucosal injury was evaluated using macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological testing. Disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, and histological score significantly decreased upon GLBR treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies indicated that DSS activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB in colon tissue, which is attenuated by GLBR extract. These findings suggest that GLBR is protective against colitis via inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation.

  14. Entropy generation in a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator with insulator layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica Guerrero, Ibai; Poncet, Sébastien; Bouchard, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a feasible solution to diminish conduction losses in active magnetic regenerators. Higher performances of these machines are linked to a lower thermal conductivity of the Magneto-Caloric Material (MCM) in the streamwise direction. The concept presented here involves the insertion of insul