On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…
Lawson, Timothy J.
Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)
Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...
For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…
One means to uncover common attitudes toward aging and older adults is to perform content analyses of popular print media forms such as newspapers, magazines, and even greeting cards. This active learning activity involves small groups of undergraduate students replicating, in a limited way, elements of a published research study on the messages conveyed by age-related birthday cards. In the exercise, each group of students is asked to analyze a set of 15 different birthday cards and to share qualitative and quantitative findings with classmates before submitting a written "discussion section" on their results to the instructor. The author demonstrates how this exercise, because it is aligned with key course learning outcomes as well as with coursework preceding and following the activity, is integrated into the overall learning environment of the course. Comments on student findings, the potential benefits of and modifications to the exercise, and the transferability of the exercise to other course contexts are also provided.
Pinder, Jonathan P.
Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…
Hankins, Katherine B.; Yarbrough, Robert A.
University instructors are increasingly drawing on active learning exercises to engender critical thinking skills among students. In this article, we introduce the design and implementation of an active learning exercise about mobility and transportation that we assigned in an introductory human geography class at the University of Georgia. The…
Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth
Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…
Powell, Gary N.
Many colleges and universities and many work organizations have developed courses and programs on gender and diversity in the workplace. This book provides a complete and comprehensive set of instructional materials on these topics. The exercises have been designed for use with graduate and undergraduate students and members of business and…
... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...
Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H.; Usher, Ken C.
The CHROM Web applet has been used to create a new active-learning exercise in which students design a purification scheme for a recombinant protein using ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). To successfully complete the exercise, students are challenged to apply elementary concepts from acid-base chemistry as well as protein and amino acid…
Gross, M Melissa; Wright, Mary C; Anderson, Olivia S
Research on the benefits of visual learning has relied primarily on lecture-based pedagogy, but the potential benefits of combining active learning strategies with visual and verbal materials on learning anatomy has not yet been explored. In this study, the differential effects of text-based and image-based active learning exercises on examination performance were investigated in a functional anatomy course. Each class session was punctuated with an average of 12 text-based and image-based active learning exercises. Participation data from 231 students were compared with their examination performance on 262 questions associated with the in-class exercises. Students also rated the helpfulness and difficulty of the in-class exercises on a survey. Participation in the active learning exercises was positively correlated with examination performance (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). When controlling for other key demographics (gender, underrepresented minority status) and prior grade point average, participation in the image-based exercises was significantly correlated with performance on examination questions associated with image-based exercises (P < 0.001) and text-based exercises (P < 0.01), while participation in text-based exercises was not. Additionally, students reported that the active learning exercises were helpful for seeing images of key ideas (94%) and clarifying key course concepts (80%), and that the image-based exercises were significantly less demanding, less hard and required less effort than text-based exercises (P < 0.05). The findings confirm the positive effect of using images and active learning strategies on student learning, and suggest that integrating them may be especially beneficial for learning anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
Butler, Adam; Phillmann, Kayah-Bah; Smart, Lona
Describes an exercise named CARDS that was used in two sections of an introduction to psychology course. After a concept was presented in lecture, students were asked to respond to a question written on an index card and discuss their answers in groups. Presents the results of the assessment of student learning. (CMK)
Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou
The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…
Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity.
The scholarship of teaching and learning increasingly recognizes that active and dynamic instructional models promote better, more holistic, and lasting educational outcomes. This article summarizes an in-class engaged learning activity based on the popular playing card game, "President". This game requires players to exchange cards with each…
Byun, Chong Hyun Christie
The importance of active learning in the classroom has been well established in the field of Economic education. This paper examines the connection between active learning and performance outcomes in an Economics 101 course. Students participated in single play simultaneous move game with a clear dominant strategy, modeled after the Prisoner's…
Hajizade Ghonsulakandi, Shahnaz; Sheikh, Mahmuod; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Chopani, Samira; Naghdi, Nasser
One of the most important survival mechanisms is learning and memory processes. To emphasize the role of physical exercises and magnesium (Mg) in improvement of cognitive performance, we planned to investigate the effect of Mg and mild compulsive exercise on spatial learning and memory of adult male rats. Accordingly, we divided male Wistar rats into four groups: (I) control, (II) Mg treatment, (III) exercise, and (IV) Mg-exercise in the different dosages of Mg (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mmol/kbw) were injected in the form of gavage during 1 week. Also, 1-week mild running on treadmill was used for exercise treatment. The Morris water maze (MWM) test and open field tool were used to evaluate spatial learning, memory, and motor activity, respectively. Our results clearly showed that 1 mmol/kbw Mg was applied as an effective dosage. Strikingly, 1-week mild exercise on treadmill had no significant effect on spatial motor activity, learning, and memory. Feeding 1 mmol/kbw Mg for a week showed a significant difference in learning and exploration stages. Compared to control animals, these results reveal exercise and Mg simultaneously had effect on learning and reminding. As a consequence, although mild exercise had no effect on motor activity and memory, Mg intake improved spatial learning, memory, and locomotor activity. The Mg feeding could be a promising supplemental treatment in the neurodegenerative disease. It is worthwhile to mention consumption of Mg leads to enhancement of memory, so animals find the hidden platform with the highest velocity.
Catrambone, Richard; Yuasa, Mashiho
This study explored the effects of active learning and types of elaboration on procedure acquisition (writing database queries). Training materials emphasized elaborations of conditions for executing actions versus elaborations of the connection between conditions and actions. In the "active" conditions, participants performed structured exercises…
Carvalho, Helena; West, Crystal A.
Students learn best when they are focused and thinking about the subject at hand. To teach physiology, we must offer opportunities for students to actively participate in class. This approach aids in focusing their attention on the topic and thus generating genuine interest in the mechanisms involved. This study was conducted to determine if…
Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo
The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.
Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie; Armour, Kathleen
One important challenge ahead for sport and exercise pedagogy (SEP) researchers is to consider afresh questions about learning. Learning in the fields of sport, physical activity and physical education (PE) is a particularly complex business. Most existing theories of learning are defined cognitively, yet learning in sport and physical activity…
Marshall, Margaret Cole
Faculty committed to undergraduate education have discovered the need to address teaching strategies that focus on the new generation of students. In teaching an undergraduate course on Nursing the Client with a Mental Illness, the affective domain of learning is used to develop interpersonal competence, self-awareness, and self-reflection. The teaching technique used is an experiential exercise that asks students to create group mandalas using art materials on circular pieces of butcher-block paper. The mandala concept is derived from the Buddhist tradition and means "circle" or "center" in Sanskrit. Carl Jung introduced this technique to the United States and incorporated it into his therapy. As a creative, active learning strategy, the mandalas helped the faculty meet the clinical objectives for the course and the learning needs of a new generation of students. They also helped students learn about Eastern philosophy, group process, self-awareness, and Jungian therapy.
Rainbow-like spectra, produced by reflexive diffraction of white light on a CD, offer a spectacular visual effect as well as an excellent classroom opportunity for students to learn how physics works. In this paper we show that building a coherent qualitative explanation can be a challenging task that requires students to combine gained knowledge…
Planinšič, G.; Corona, A.; Slisko, J.
Rainbow-like spectra, produced by reflexive diffraction of white light on a CD, offer a spectacular visual effect as well as an excellent classroom opportunity for students to learn how physics works. In this paper we show that building a coherent qualitative explanation can be a challenging task that requires students to combine gained knowledge with observations and explorations.
Jacoby, Suzanne H.
Astronomers from the Tucson based National Optical Astronomy Observatories and students in grades K-3 at the Satori School are learning from each other about astronomy and science education. This project is partially funded by a NASA IDEA Grant (Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy). NOAO astronomers are working with the students and teachers over a series of 12 weeks to present basic concepts in planetary and solar astronomy. Each presentation includes a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on active learning exercise. Topics presented include: The Living Solar System, Impacts and Hazards, Comets, Space Resources, The Natural Sun, The Sun as a Clock, Sunspots and Solar Rotation, and Solar Music - Helioseismology. Lessons learned, by students and astronomers, will be presented and printed lesson modules available for distribution.
Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.
Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…
Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...
Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill
In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and…
Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.
We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…
... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...
... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...
Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H
This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.
Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.
This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265
Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers. PMID:28356634
Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu
[Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.
There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms
Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.; Serafica, Reimund C.; Tse, Alice
PURPOSE This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. METHODOLOGIES A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. FINDINGS While focusing on the older adults’ beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults’ engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. IMPLICATIONS Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. PMID:22029767
... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...
Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.
High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…
Canabal Torres, M Y
Vigorous regular exercise is a recommended inclusion in the management of diabetes of persons with diabetes of both types, regardless of age. Benefits can be identified in the physiological (improved cardiovascular fitness, flexibility and muscle toning; in the metabolic and hormonal processes for energy production), as well as psychosocial realms (self-esteem, stress management, socialization opportunities). Considerations of the risks (hyper or hypoglicemia, ketoacidosis, neuropathies or complications os cardiac risks), and contraindications (unplanned weight training in cases with proliferative retinopathy, hypertensión, uncontrolled diabetes) must be part of the exercise prescription and implemmentation. Exercise programs must be fun, varied and comply with exercise physiology principles such as gradual progression in intensity or target heart rate, recommended frequency and duration, regular hydration, and warm-ups and cooling routines. Regular vigorous physical education, sports, regular exercise and active recreational activities can be part of a healthy lifestyle of persons with diabetes.
Tipton, Tom, Ed.
Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)
Hirth, Christopher J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of Exercise Sandals results in a number of positive clinical outcomes. However, little research has been conducted to determine their efficacy objectively. Our purposes were to determine the effect of Exercise Sandals on lower leg electromyography (EMG) during activities in the Exercise Sandals and to compare EMG associated with Exercise Sandals with traditional lower extremity rehabilitation exercises. Design and Setting: Two within-subjects, repeated-measures designs were used to identify differences in lower extremity EMG: (1) between activities with and without Exercise Sandals and (2) between Exercise Sandals activities and traditional rehabilitation activities. All data were collected in the Sports Medicine Research Laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen subjects involved in rehabilitation using Exercise Sandals for at least 2 weeks within the year before data collection. Measurements: Mean EMG amplitudes from the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, soleus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were measured during single-leg stance, side stepping, and “high knees,” all performed with and without the Exercise Sandals, as well as single-leg stance on a foam surface and T-band kicks in the sagittal and frontal planes. Results: Exercise Sandals increased lower leg EMG activity, particularly in the ankle invertors and evertors. Also, activities involving the Exercise Sandals resulted in EMG activity similar to or exceeding that associated with traditional ankle-rehabilitation exercises. Conclusions: These results, coupled with the fact that Exercise Sandals are used in a functional closed kinetic chain manner, suggest that they are an effective means of increasing lower extremity muscle activity. PMID:14608427
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…
Harris, Sean; Ruffin, Elise; Brewer, Wayne
Background Suspension training (ST) has been utilized over exercises performed on a stable surface to train multiple muscle groups simultaneously to increase muscle activation and joint stability. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether ST augments muscle activation compared to similar exercises performed on a stable surface. Study Design Cross-sectional study Methods Twenty-five healthy adults (male: 16; women: 9; BMI: 23.50 ± 2.48 kg/m2) had 16 pre-amplified wireless surface EMG electrodes placed bilaterally on: the pectoralis major (PM), middle deltoid (MD), serratus anterior (SA), obliques (OB), rectus abdominis (RA), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), and middle trapezius/rhomboids (MT). Each participant performed reference isometric exercises (Sorensen test, push-up, sit-up, and inverted row) to establish a baseline muscle contraction. Muscle activation was assessed during the following exercises: ST bridge, ST push-up, ST inverted row, ST plank, floor bridge, floor push-up, floor row, and floor plank. The root mean square (RMS) of each side for every muscle was averaged for data analysis. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each exercise with post-hoc comparisons were performed to compare muscle activation between each ST exercise and its stable surface counterpart. Results MANOVAs for all exercise comparisons showed statistically significant greater muscle activation in at least one muscle group during the ST condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in muscle activation for the following muscles during the plank: OB (p = 0.021); Push-up: PM (p = 0.002), RA (p<0.0001), OB (p = 0.019), MT (p<0.0001), and ES (p = 0.006); Row: MD (p = 0.016), RA (p = 0.059), and OB (p = 0.027); and Bridge: RA (p = 0.013) and ES (p<0.0001). Conclusions Performing ST exercises increases muscle activation of selected muscles when compared to exercises performed on a stable surface. Level of
Researchers have long understood the relationship between exercise and cardiovascular fitness, but now they are looking into the potential of activity as the key to health. Activity is seen by the federal government as a way to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. (Author/MT)
When teaching motor-learning concepts, laboratory experiments can be valuable tools for promoting learning. In certain circumstances, traditional laboratory exercises are often impractical due to facilities, time, or cost. Inexpensive or free applications (apps) that run on mobile devices can serve as useful alternatives. This article details…
Smyrnis, Eleni; Ginns, Paul
Learning from complex instructional materials typically requires sustained attention, but many learners--both children and adults--may find their minds "wandering" when learning. Drama educators have argued that "mirroring" exercises, where students in pairs or groups mirror each other's movements, improve attention; but, to…
García-Capdevila, Sílvia; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David
The effect of long-term voluntary exercise (running wheel) on anxiety-like behaviour (plus maze and open field) and learning and memory processes (object recognition and two-way active avoidance) was examined on Wistar rats. Because major individual differences in running wheel behaviour were observed, the data were analysed considering the exercising animals both as a whole and grouped according to the time spent in the running wheel (low, high, and very-high running). Although some variables related to anxiety-like behaviour seem to reflect an anxiogenic compatible effect, the view of the complete set of variables could be interpreted as an enhancement of defensive and risk assessment behaviours in exercised animals, without major differences depending on the exercise level. Effects on learning and memory processes were dependent on task and level of exercise. Two-way avoidance was not affected either in the acquisition or in the retention session, while the retention of object recognition task was affected. In this latter task, an enhancement in low running subjects and impairment in high and very-high running animals were observed.
Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.
A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…
Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.
Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…
Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro
To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.
Ofli, Ferda; Kurillo, Gregorij; Obdržálek, Štěpán; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha
Although the positive effects of exercise on the well-being and quality of independent living for older adults are well-accepted, many elderly individuals lack access to exercise facilities, or the skills and motivation to perform exercise at home. To provide a more engaging environment that promotes physical activity, various fitness applications have been proposed. Many of the available products, however, are geared toward a younger population and are not appropriate or engaging for an older population. To address these issues, we developed an automated interactive exercise coaching system using the Microsoft Kinect. The coaching system guides users through a series of video exercises, tracks and measures their movements, provides real-time feedback, and records their performance over time. Our system consists of exercises to improve balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance, with the aim of reducing fall risk and improving performance of daily activities. In this paper, we report on the development of the exercise system, discuss the results of our recent field pilot study with six independently-living elderly individuals, and highlight the lessons learned relating to the in-home system setup, user tracking, feedback, and exercise performance evaluation. PMID:25594988
Ofli, Ferda; Kurillo, Gregorij; Obdržálek, Štěpán; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Jimison, Holly Brugge; Pavel, Misha
Although the positive effects of exercise on the well-being and quality of independent living for older adults are well accepted, many elderly individuals lack access to exercise facilities, or the skills and motivation to perform exercise at home. To provide a more engaging environment that promotes physical activity, various fitness applications have been proposed. Many of the available products, however, are geared toward a younger population and are not appropriate or engaging for an older population. To address these issues, we developed an automated interactive exercise coaching system using the Microsoft Kinect. The coaching system guides users through a series of video exercises, tracks and measures their movements, provides real-time feedback, and records their performance over time. Our system consists of exercises to improve balance, flexibility, strength, and endurance, with the aim of reducing fall risk and improving performance of daily activities. In this paper, we report on the development of the exercise system, discuss the results of our recent field pilot study with six independently living elderly individuals, and highlight the lessons learned relating to the in-home system setup, user tracking, feedback, and exercise performance evaluation.
Dishman, R K; Sallis, J F; Orenstein, D R
Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:3920714
Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.
This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.
Pearlman, Sarah; Rebelein, Robert P.
In this article, the authors outline a classroom exercise involving goldsmiths designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of how banks create money. This concept is important to macroeconomics and money and banking courses, yet students frequently struggle with it, largely due to the nonphysical nature of deposits and reserves.…
... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...
Caravaca, Juan; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Bataller, Manuel; Serrano, Antonio J; Such-Miquel, Luis; Vila-Francés, Joan; Guerrero, Juan F
This work presents the application of machine learning techniques to analyse the influence of physical exercise in the physiological properties of the heart, during ventricular fibrillation. To this end, different kinds of classifiers (linear and neural models) are used to classify between trained and sedentary rabbit hearts. The use of those classifiers in combination with a wrapper feature selection algorithm allows to extract knowledge about the most relevant features in the problem. The obtained results show that neural models outperform linear classifiers (better performance indices and a better dimensionality reduction). The most relevant features to describe the benefits of physical exercise are those related to myocardial heterogeneity, mean activation rate and activation complexity.
Ahmadiasl, Nasser; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Hänninen, Osmo
The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of exercise on learning and memory, long-term potentiation and levels of epinephrine in the rat hippocampus. Treadmill trained (one hour at 17 m·min-1 for 10 days) and corresponding control rats went through spatial learning process on a Morris water maze for 8 days. The time to reach the platform (latency), the length of swim path, and the swim speed were used for the evaluation of spatial learning. Our results showed that physical activity produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning, with a decreased path length (p<0.05) and latency (p<0.05) to the platform in Morris water maze, without affecting the swim speed. Furthermore, the levels of the epinephrine were significantly increased (p<0.05) in hippocampus of the exercised rats. In conclusion our findings suggest that the enhanced learning by exercise may be mediated through the activation of adrenoceptors in the hippocampus and epinephrine may play an important role in potentiation of learning. PMID:24627662
... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...
Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather
In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.
International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.
This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…
Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.
1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.
Hsiao, Kuei-Fang; Chen, Nian-Shing; Huang, Shih-Yu
Because of a shortage of physical exercise, concerns about adolescents have recently been raised in Taiwan. In educational environments where student exercise has been limited by scheduling constraints and the lack of physical exercise has become a vital problem, "learning while exercising" may be part of a possible solution. This study…
Abolfazl, Rahimi; Monireh, Anoosheh; Fazlollah, Ahmadi; Mahshid, Foroughan
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of elderly Iranians regarding exercise. Sixteen healthy elderly people participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in 2009 in Tehran, Iran. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the participants' experiences and perceptions regarding physical activity. Five main categories were studied: 1). kinds of exercise activities, 2). common activities, 3). engaging in reasonable activities, 4). barriers to physical activity, and 5). effects of exercising on life. Distinctive themes within each of the categories were identified. The findings of this study show the current perceptions regarding physical activity and exercise in elderly Iranians.
Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)
Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…
Pugh, Greg L.
The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…
number of corresponding things, for some Shakespeare comparisons are as follows: Patrick H. Winston - 34- Notes HA HA JU OT TA MAcbeth 199 HAmlet 110...rules to end up in the middle level of the class hierarchy. On working with Shakespeare , a system would learn some things about nobles, less about people...Matcher Performance on Shakespeare Precis One curious sort of robust behavior was observed in the matcher: it gives the same relative results even as
Praag, Henriette van; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H.
Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging. PMID:16177036
Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn
Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…
Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M
A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients.
to define what the professional and personal liability of private health care providers is for Table 1. Participants in Pale Horse Tabletop Planning...Lessons Learned Lessons Learned: The “Pale Horse ” Bioterrorism Response Exercise Col. David Jarrett, MD, FACEP The city of San Antonio, Texas, and...Editorial, see p. 98 And I looked, and behold, a pale horse : and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. Book of Revelation 6:8 I n
Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656
Linton, Debra L; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a "lecture" course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises.
... Healthy Eat Healthy and Get Active Get Active Exercise Activity Calculator How many calories will your activity ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News and Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals ...
Cetinkaya, Caner; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Gencoglu, Celal; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Uysal, Nazan
It is already known that regular aerobic exercise during adolescent period improves learning and memory in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on learning, memory functioning and IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 is known to have positive effects on cognitive functions in adolescent rats. Exercise group was separated into two different groups. First half was run on a treadmill for 30 min per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0° slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. The second half was given free access to a running wheel (diameter 11.5 cm) which was connected to a digital counter and run on a treadmill for 6 weeks. Learning and memory functioning were found to be positively correlated with the exercise activity. Findings suggest increased neuron density in CA1 hippocampal region and dentate gyrus. Increased IGF-1 level was detected in hippocampus and blood serum, while IGF-1 level in liver tissue did not change with exercise activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that learning and memory functioning were positively affected by voluntary and involuntary physical exercise which correlated increased hippocampal activity and elevated IGF-1 levels in adolescent rats.
Health and Physical Readiness Program. Questionnaires included self-report measures of the frequency and duration of 10 common exercise activities and... exercise behavior was assessed as the estimated frequency and duration of participation in each of ten types of physical activity . The recall method of...acceptable 6 method in the present study (3). The physical activities were aerobic dance/ exercise class, baseball, basketball, bicycling, calisthenics
Chauvenet, B; Bé, M-M; Amiot, M-N; Bobin, C; Lépy, M-C; Branger, T; Lanièce, I; Luca, A; Sahagia, M; Wätjen, A C; Kossert, K; Ott, O; Nähle, O; Dryák, P; Sochorovà, J; Kovar, P; Auerbach, P; Altzitzoglou, T; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Iwahara, A; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; da Silva, C J; Johansson, L; Stroak, A; Bailat, C; Nedjadi, Y; Spring, P
An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of (124)Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4pibeta-gamma coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4pigamma counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.
Brümmer, V; Schneider, S; Strüder, H K; Askew, C D
While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre-to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in using brain-imaging methods during complex whole-body movements like cycling, it is unclear to what extent the activity in specific brain areas is altered with incremental exercise intensity over time. Latterly, active electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes combined with source localization methods allow for the assessment of brain activity, measured as EEG current density, within specific cortical regions. The present study aimed to investigate the application of this method during exercise on a cycle ergometer, and to investigate the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the magnitude and location of any changes in electrocortical current density. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test until subjective exhaustion. Current density of the EEG recordings during each test stage, as well as before and after exercise, was determined. Spatial changes in current density were localized using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to three regions of interest; the primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, and were expressed relative to current density within the local lobe. It was demonstrated that the relative current density of the primary motor cortex was intensified with increasing exercise intensity, whereas activity of the primary sensory cortex and that of the prefrontal cortex were not altered with exercise. The results indicate that the combined active EEG/LORETA method allows for the recording of brain cortical activity during complex movements and incremental exercise. These findings indicate that primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity
Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L
Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.
Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L.
Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance. PMID:26557405
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11088 TITLE: Effect of Exercise on Bubble Activity during Diving...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 34-1 Effect of Exercise on Bubble Activity ...York, Ontario M3M 3B9 CANADA Exercise Science Department, Concordia University and Department of Physical Education, McGill University Montreal
Haarmann, Helge; Folle, Jan; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Herrmann, Peter; Heusser, Karsten; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan; Raupach, Tobias
Exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and reduced daily activity are central in COPD patients and closely related to quality of life and prognosis. Studies assessing muscle exercise have revealed an increase in sympathetic outflow as a link to muscle hypoperfusion and exercise limitation. Our primary hypothesis was that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with exercise limitation in COPD. MSNA was evaluated at rest and during dynamic or static handgrip exercise. Additionally, we assessed heart rate, blood pressure, CO2 tension, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing frequency. Ergospirometry was performed to evaluate exercise capacity. We assessed MSNA of 14 COPD patients and 8 controls. In patients, MSNA was negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2% pred) (r = -0.597; p = 0.040). During dynamic or static handgrip exercise, patients exhibited a significant increase in MSNA, which was not observed in the control group. The increase in MSNA during dynamic handgrip was highly negatively correlated with peak exercise capacity in Watts (w) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) (r = -0.853; p = 0.002 and r = -0.881; p = 0.002, respectively). Our study reveals an association between increased MSNA and limited exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found an increased sympathetic response to moderate physical exercise (handgrip), which may contribute to exercise intolerance in COPD.
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…
Singelis, Theodore M., Ed.
This book is a resource for teachers that contains 28 exercises and planned activities designed by individual authors that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. The exercises and activities are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in such classes as cross-cultural psychology,…
Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.
Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…
Hrenya, Christine M.
Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…
Phipps, Linda R.
An introductory, nonscience-majors chemistry course was converted to a Web-based course. The differences in student populations, teaching strategies, laboratory methods, and learning outcomes are described. Practical information is also given on the use of software and other online technology to implement course conversion. (Contains 2 tables.)
Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela
Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.
Segal, Sabrina K.; Cotman, Carl W.; Cahill, Lawrence F.
Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population. PMID:22914593
Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F
Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.
Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.
This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions--a control group, a group that exercised for…
Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873
Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A
The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.
Elmer, Steven J; Carter, Kathryn R; Armga, Austin J; Carter, Jason R
In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning on student performance and perceptions in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory. Using a randomized, crossover design, four laboratory topics were delivered in either a blended or traditional format. For blended laboratories, content was offloaded to self-paced video demonstrations (∼15 min). Laboratory section 1 (n = 16) completed blended laboratories for 1) neuromuscular power and 2) blood lactate, whereas section 2 (n = 17) completed blended laboratories for 1) maximal O2 consumption and 2) muscle electromyography. Both sections completed the same assignments (scored in a blinded manner using a standardized rubric) and practicum exams (evaluated by two independent investigators). Pre- and postcourse surveys were used to assess student perceptions. Most students (∼79%) watched videos for both blended laboratories. Assignment scores did not differ between blended and traditional laboratories (P = 0.62) or between sections (P = 0.91). Practicum scores did not differ between sections (both P > 0.05). At the end of the course, students' perceived value of the blended format increased (P < 0.01) and a greater percentage of students agreed that learning key foundational content through video demonstrations before class greatly enhanced their learning of course material compared with a preassigned reading (94% vs. 78%, P < 0.01). Blended exercise physiology laboratories provided an alternative method for delivering content that was favorably perceived by students and did not compromise student performance.
Rogow, D. L.; McDonald, W.; Bresler, M. R.
An inquiry based learning exercise was designed for an upper division advanced inorganic laboratory course that meets one of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The content goals of this exercise were evaluation of whether a given solid state structure was previously known by using powder X-ray diffraction data, and understanding how the diffraction pattern relates to the crystal structure of the compound in question. The scientific process goals included searching a database to match the patterns and preparing data for oral presentations. The goals of the exercise were addressed via an activity allowing students to utilize real X-ray powder diffraction data to search and match with known structures in a database (International Crystal Structure Database) and to give an oral presentation. After students found their structures in the database, they prepared oral presentations justifying their choice for the match and their reasoning through structural analysis of the X-ray data. Students learned about X-ray diffraction theory in an inquiry type environment and gained valuable experience and confidence in presenting their findings using strong reasoning and communication skills. Assessment was implemented during active facilitation throughout the activity and during the final oral presentations.
Taubert, Marco; Villringer, Arno; Lehmann, Nico
Endurance exercise improves cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function and may also increase the information processing capacities of the brain. Animal and human research from the past decade demonstrated widespread exercise effects on brain structure and function at the systems-, cellular-, and molecular level of brain organization. These neurobiological mechanisms may explain the well-established positive influence of exercise on performance in various behavioral domains but also its contribution to improved skill learning and neuroplasticity. With respect to the latter, only few empirical and theoretical studies are available to date. The aim of this review is (i) to summarize the existing neurobiological and behavioral evidence arguing for endurance exercise-induced improvements in motor learning and (ii) to develop hypotheses about the mechanistic link between exercise and improved learning. We identify major knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by future research projects to advance our understanding of how exercise should be organized to optimize motor learning. PMID:26834602
Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…
Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt
Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…
von Heider, Molly
The range of games, rhymes, songs, and exercises for children collected in this book are based on Rudolf Steiner's educational philosophy and are designed to lay the foundation for sound later learning. The book's chapters are: (1) "Learning Aids"; (2) "The Early Years"; (3) "Foot Exercises: Kindergarten or Class I, 5-7…
Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.
Motoba, Toshio; An, Hiroshi; Ozasa, Toshihiro; Masutani, Yasuhiro; Mori, Koji; Yasutomi, Masanori; Yoshida, Haruyuki
“Creative Exercise” is one of the most important articles in the course of technology educations at the universities and the colleges. In this paper, some trials for the creative exercises developed in Osaka Electro-Communication University are introduced ; those are (1) exercises in “Creative Design Engineering”, (2) studies and educations on robots, (3) executive plan of rescue-robot contest, and (4) supporting system for application for the qualifying examinations. Their results and effectiveness are also discussed.
Hajisoltani, Razieh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas A; Ghaderdoost, Behshid; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Fereshteh
Although it is well established that voluntary exercise can improve cognitive functions, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Glucocorticoids play an important role in learning and memory functions. This study addressed whether the glucocorticoid system would play a role in the exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory. Intact rats or those that were either adrenalectomized or daily given the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 10 days. Control animals were kept sedentary for this period. After this period, they were trained and tested on a water-maze spatial task using three-trial per day for 5 consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial two days later. Exercise increased plasma corticosterone levels, as assessed after this 10-day period. Both adrenalectomy and metyrapone slightly reduced running-wheel activity. Adrenalectomy reduced the plasma corticosterone levels to almost zero whereas metyrapone selectively blocked the exercise-induced increase in corticosterone levels. Exercise significantly improved performance during both training and retention of the water-maze task whereas this effect was absent in both adrenalectomized and metyrapone-treated rats. These findings indicate that the glucocorticoid system play a crucial role in the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions in rats.
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.
When distance learning supported by digital technologies was introduced in firefighter training in Sweden some years ago, training exercise instructors accustomed to face-to-face teaching in the field had to adapt their professional roles to an electronic landscape with a number of new opportunities and constraints. Based on activity theory and…
Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.
Wang, Zhou; Holschneider, Daniel; Beeler, Jeff; Petzinger, Giselle M.
Abstract Exercise and physical activity are fundamental components of a lifestyle essential in maintaining a healthy brain. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult brain maintains a high degree of plasticity and activity is essential for homeostasis throughout life. Plasticity is not lost even in the context of a neurodegenerative disorder, but could be maladaptive thus promoting disease onset and progression. A major breakthrough in treating brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease is to drive neuroplasticity in a direction to improve motor and cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this short review is to present the evidence from our laboratories that supports neuroplasticity as a potential therapeutic target in treating brain disorders. We consider that the enhancement of motor recovery in both animal models of dopamine depletion and in patients with Parkinson’s disease is optimized when cognitive circuits are engaged; in other words, the brain is engaged in a learning modality. Therefore, we propose that to be effective in treating Parkinson’s disease, physical therapy must employ both skill-based exercise (to drive specific circuits) and aerobic exercise (to drive the expression of molecules required to strengthen synaptic connections) components to select those neuronal circuits, such as the corticostriatal pathway, necessary to restore proper motor and cognitive behaviors. In the wide spectrum of different forms of exercise, learning as the fundamental modality likely links interventions used to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease and may be necessary to drive beneficial neuroplasticity resulting in symptomatic improvement and possible disease modification. PMID:28149392
Berger, Bruce K.
Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…
Basha, P Mahaboob; Sujitha, N S
In previous studies, we investigated a link between high fluoride exposure and functional IQ deficits in rats. This study is an extension conducted to explore the combined influence of physical exercise and temperature stress on the learning ability and memory in rats and to assess whether any positive modulation could be attenuated due to exercise regimen subjected to F-toxicated animals at different temperatures. Accumulation of ingested fluoride resulted significant inhibition in acetylcholinesterase activity (P < 0.05), plasma cortisol levels (P < 0.05), and impaired the acquisition, performance, latency time, and retention in fluoride-exposed animals. Fluoride-toxicated rats took more number of sessions during the learning phase [F (5, 35) = 19.065; P < 0.05] and post hoc analysis on the number of correct choices revealed that there was a significant effect of treatments [F (5, 30) = 15.763; P < 0.05]; sessions [F (8, 240) = 58.698; P < 0.05]; and also significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 1.583; P < 0.05]. The latency data also revealed a significant difference between groups [F (5, 30) = 28.085; P < 0.05]; time = [F (8, 240) = 136.314; P < 0.05]; and there was a significant difference in the interactions [F (40, 240) = 2.090; P < 0.05]. In order to ascertain if interdependence between fluoride concentrations and the foregoing free radical parameters, respective correlation coefficients were calculated and results clearly emphasize the positive role of exercise in the promotion of cognitive functions by decreasing fluoride levels in rat hippocampus. A significant recovery in cognitive function was noticed in all the exercised animals due to reduced burden of brain oxidative stress. In comparison to exercise regimens performed at different temperatures, high (35 °C) and low temperatures (20 °C) led to a slower acquisition and poor retention of the task when compared to
Akhavan, Maziar M; Emami-Abarghoie, Mitra; Sadighi-Moghaddam, Bizhan; Safari, Manouchehr; Yousefi, Yasaman; Rashidy-Pour, Ali
The beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on brain functions such as improvement in learning and memory are well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of hippocampal angiotensin II receptors in voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rat. In order to block the hippocampal angiotension II receptors, the animals received a single injection of latex microbeads for delivery of [Sar1 Thr8]-Angiotensin II into the hippocampus. The animals were exposed to five consecutive nights of exercise and then their learning and memory were tested on the Morris water maze (MWM) task using a two-trial-per-day for five consecutive days. A probe trial was performed 2 days after the last training day. Our results showed that hippocampal angiotensin II receptor blockade reversed the exercise-induced improvement in learning and memory in rat.
Ducote, Richard L.
Describes Collin County Community College's commitment to an active/experiential learning philosophy and the role of the college's learning resources center (LRC) in promoting learner-centered education and lab experiences throughout the curriculum. Discusses the LRC's Alternative Learning Center, which uses computers and other technology to…
Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki
A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.
Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung
[Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms. PMID:28174480
[Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22-32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise.
[Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise. PMID:26957774
Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A
Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383
Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A
Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.
Libby, R.A.; Davis, C.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.
In a September 1993 address to the United Nations General Assembly, President Clinton announced a new nonproliferation and export control policy that established a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The new policy proposed that the US undertake a comprehensive approach to the growing accumulation of fissile material. One of the key elements was for the US to support a special nuclear materials (SNM) multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards. This policy is often referred to as the President`s Cutoff Initiative or the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). Because both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and foreign reprocessing facilities similar to PUREX will likely to be inspected under a FMCT, the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Negotiations and Analysis Division (DOE/NN-41) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to perform an information gathering exercise, the PUREX Exercise, using the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant located on the Hanford Site in Washington State. PUREX is a former production reactor fuel reprocessing plant currently undergoing a transition to a ``decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) ready`` mode. The PUREX Exercise was conducted March 29--30, 1994, to examine aspects of the imposition of several possible cutoff regimes and to study verification of non-production of SNM for nuclear weapons purposes or outside of safeguards. A follow-up activity to further examine various additional verification regimes was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on May 10, 1994.
Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael
Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.
Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred
Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…
Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad
This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures…
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.
A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…
Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…
Rustigan, Carol J.
In a study at California State University, Sacramento, the effects of color light and relaxation exercise therapy were investigated with 16 students (ages 23 to 48) with learning disabilities. Therapy consisted of either 20 sessions viewing color light through a Lumatron instrument or 20 sessions listening to relaxation exercise tapes. Diagnostic…
Bhatti, P. T.; McClellan, J. H.
This paper presents an introductory signal processing laboratory and examines this laboratory exercise in the context of problem-based learning (PBL). Centered in a real-world application, a cochlear implant, the exercise challenged students to demonstrate a working software-based signal processor. Partnering in groups of two or three, second-year…
Gronlund, Wayne R.; And Others
Researchers at the Coast Guard Academy have designed and tested a series of exercises for assessing the development of intellectual skills in an interdisciplinary context and providing career-related motivation for continued learning. These exercises are based on realistic situations that cadets might encounter as commissioned officers in the…
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare lumbar paraspinal muscle activity during trunk extension exercises on two lumbar extension machines with different types of pelvic stabilization mechanisms. Thirteen healthy male (n = 9) and female (n = 4) volunteers aged 21-24 (22.6 +/- 1.4) were recruited in a university setting. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally from the L3-4 paraspinal region during trunk extension exercises performed on two different exercise machines. One machine, the MedX, has a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism. The other machine, the Cybex, has a relatively simple pelvic stabilization mechanism. There was no significant difference between lumbar paraspinal electromyographic activity during trunk extension on the MedX compared to the Cybex dynamic variable resistance trunk extension machine. These results suggest that a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism does not significantly enhance the level of activation of the lumbar paraspinal muscles during lumbar extension exercises. Thus, a less expensive trunk extension machine with a less sophisticated pelvic stabilization mechanism, such as the Cybex, can be used to train the lumbar paraspinal muscles. This is important to rehabilitation clinicians because these machines are often more readily available and easier for patients to use. Further research is warranted to determine the applicability of these findings to a patient population.
Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…
Glesener, G. B.
Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and
Johnson, Margaret (Peg)
Details the active-learning approach to teaching cellular respiration in an introductory, one-semester course for nonmajors. Focuses on a laboratory exercise designed to answer the question of what happens to food when eaten. Contains 19 references. (DDR)
Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).
Summerfield, Liane M.
This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…
Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Köhler, Stefanie; Puta, Christian; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen
Strong evidence indicates that regular aerobic training induces beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The present controlled fMRI study was designed to investigate the impact of a short-term intense aerobic exercise on the pattern of functional activation during the retrieval of learned pair-associates in 17 young and healthy male adults compared to 17 matched control subjects. We further aimed to relate putative changes in hippocampal activation to postulated changes in the exercised-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The supervised exercise program was performed on a bicycle ergometer and lasted six weeks, with three aerobic sessions per week. We found profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects indicated by the target parameter 'individual anaerobic threshold'. Significant improvements in the cognitive performance were detected in the exercise group, but also in the control group. We observed significant differences in the activation pattern of the left anterior hippocampus during the pair-associates task after the intervention. We could also show a significant positive correlation between changes in exercise-induced BDNF and left anterior hippocampal activation. Moreover, we observed the brain's motor network to be significantly stronger activated after the exercise intervention. Thus, our results suggest BDNF dependent activation changes of the hippocampus in addition to previously described structural changes after exercise.
Linton, Debra L.; Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.
We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between…
Joseph, M Selvan; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Aiguo; Bhatia, Harsharan S; Cruz, Rusvelda; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando
Given that the spinal cord is capable of learning sensorimotor tasks and that dietary interventions can influence learning involving supraspinal centers, we asked whether the presence of omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the curry spice curcumin (Cur) by themselves or in combination with voluntary exercise could affect spinal cord learning in adult spinal mice. Using an instrumental learning paradigm to assess spinal learning we observed that mice fed a diet containing DHA/Cur performed better in the spinal learning paradigm than mice fed a diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The enhanced performance was accompanied by increases in the mRNA levels of molecular markers of learning, i.e., BDNF, CREB, CaMKII, and syntaxin 3. Concurrent exposure to exercise was complementary to the dietary treatment effects on spinal learning. The diet containing DHA/Cur resulted in higher levels of DHA and lower levels of omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) in the spinal cord than the diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The level of spinal learning was inversely related to the ratio of AA:DHA. These results emphasize the capacity of select dietary factors and exercise to foster spinal cord learning. Given the non-invasiveness and safety of the modulation of diet and exercise, these interventions should be considered in light of their potential to enhance relearning of sensorimotor tasks during rehabilitative training paradigms after a spinal cord injury.
Modell, H I
Most students have spent the majority of their school career in passive learning environments in which faculty were disseminators of information, and students were required to memorize information or use specified algorithms to "solve problems." In an active learning environment, students are encouraged to engage in the process of building and testing their own mental models from information that they are acquiring. In such a learner-centered environment, faculty become facilitators of learning, and students become active participants, engaging in a dialogue with their colleagues and with the instructor. To create a successful active learning environment, both faculty and students must make adjustments to what has been their respective "traditional" roles in the classroom. For the instructor who is committed to promoting active learning, the challenge lies in helping students understand the necessity of becoming active colleagues in learning. This process can be facilitated if the curriculum includes exercises to direct students' attention to a number of issues that impact their learning. This paper describes four such exercises designed to help students form appropriate course expectations, recognize the need for seeking clarification when communicating, recognize the role of personal experience in building mental models, and become familiar with study aids for building formal models.
Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred
To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.
Daikoku, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yuji; Futagami, Hiroko; Tarumoto, Nagayoshi; Yasuda, Hideki
In real-world auditory environments, humans are exposed to overlapping auditory information such as those made by human voices and musical instruments even during routine physical activities such as walking and cycling. The present study investigated how concurrent physical exercise affects performance of incidental and intentional learning of overlapping auditory streams, and whether physical fitness modulates the performances of learning. Participants were grouped with 11 participants with lower and higher fitness each, based on their Vo2max value. They were presented simultaneous auditory sequences with a distinct statistical regularity each other (i.e. statistical learning), while they were pedaling on the bike and seating on a bike at rest. In experiment 1, they were instructed to attend to one of the two sequences and ignore to the other sequence. In experiment 2, they were instructed to attend to both of the two sequences. After exposure to the sequences, learning effects were evaluated by familiarity test. In the experiment 1, performance of statistical learning of ignored sequences during concurrent pedaling could be higher in the participants with high than low physical fitness, whereas in attended sequence, there was no significant difference in performance of statistical learning between high than low physical fitness. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of physical fitness on learning while resting. In the experiment 2, the both participants with high and low physical fitness could perform intentional statistical learning of two simultaneous sequences in the both exercise and rest sessions. The improvement in physical fitness might facilitate incidental but not intentional statistical learning of simultaneous auditory sequences during concurrent physical exercise.
This article presents the results from a large nationwide survey completed in 2016 that investigated the physical health and wellbeing of people living with stomas in the UK. In particular, the survey looked at physical activity and exercise, general attitudes and opinions about exercise, whether or not advice about physical activity had been received and other general questions about parastomal hernia and quality of life. There were 2631 respondents making it one of the largest known surveys to date. The findings were concerning yet unsurprising, highlighting a trend toward inactivity after stoma surgery and a fear of exercise in general. People also seem to have poor knowledge about appropriate activities, with many suggesting that the fear of developing a parastomal hernia is a major barrier to activity. Unsurprisingly, those who have a stoma owing to cancer seem to fare worse, reporting even lower levels of physical activity and worse quality of life compared to those with other conditions. This indicates that people who have a combination of a cancer diagnosis and also a stoma may need more specific or additional support in the longer term. The most concerning finding, however, was that the majority of patients could not recall being given any advice about exercise or physical activity by their nurse or surgeon. While this survey presents some initial findings, it raises questions for further research and work. It also highlights a significantly neglected area in both research and support for stoma patients and the health professionals caring for them.
Hatch, J. Amos
"Learning as a subversive activity" is about working with public school students to debunk the shallow conception that achievement equals learning. That means exposing the power relations that keep in place such a narrow definition of what counts and exploring the implications of those powerful forces for students' lives and for society at large.…
Hall, Eric E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Petruzzello, Steven J
Previous research using the model proposed by Davidson has shown that resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry can predict affective responses to aerobic exercise at moderate intensities. Specifically, greater relative left frontal activity has been shown to predict positive affect (i.e., energy) following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if resting frontal EEG asymmetry would predict affective responses following strenuous exercise. Thirty participants (13 women, 17 men) completed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. EEG was recorded prior to exercise. Affect was measured by the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List prior to the graded exercise test, immediately following, 10 and 20-min following exercise. Greater relative left frontal activity predicted tiredness and calmness during recovery from exercise, but not tension or energy. Tiredness and calmness following exercise covaried, suggesting that tiredness following exercise might not have been linked with displeasure. These findings offer further support for the link between EEG asymmetry and affective responses to exercise.
Algar, W. Russ; Krull, Ulrich J.
In our upper-year instrumental analytical chemistry course, we have developed "cut-and-paste" exercises where students "build" models of analytical instruments from individual schematic images of components. These exercises encourage active learning by students. Instead of trying to memorize diagrams, students are required to think deeply about…
Dietz, John R.; Stevenson, Frazier T.
In this article, the authors describe an active learning exercise which has been used to replace some lecture hours in the renal portion of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum for first-year medical students. The exercise takes place in a large auditorium with ~150 students. The authors, who are faculty members, lead the discussions,…
Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.
Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor
Weiss, B.H.; Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. . Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )
The second Federal Field Exercise (FFE-2) was held in conjunction with the 1988 full participation exercise at the Zion nuclear power plant. This three-day exercise focused on the evaluation of the Federal Response plan and the numerous interfaces of the Federal agencies with the offsite authorities and the utility. Because of the many unique aspects of this exercise and the large number of participants, the planning effort for this exercise was considerably more involved than routine exercises. This paper provides a discussion of the process of developing such an exercise (i.e., the decisions, organization, resources, documents, and staffing that were necessary) plus the lessons learned from the FFE-2 that might be applied to other emergency response exercises.
Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…
Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison
"Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural…
Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.
Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
The research reported in this article investigated the dynamics of a water exercise class with older adults in Zagreb, Croatia. It focused on 3 classes of older swimmers at a community exercise center. A total of 105 participants were asked to complete a short questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on demographics, use of free time, and…
Beaumont, Ellen S.; Rowe, Graham; Mikhaylov, Natalie S.
We describe a classroom exercise to allow students to explore foraging strategies in higher vertebrates. The exercise includes an initial interactive session in which students act as predators and are guided through foraging simulations, and a subsequent student-led session where classmates are employed as experimental subjects. Students rated the…
Gabrielsson, Jonas; Tell, Joakim; Politis, Diamanto
Recent calls to close the rigour-relevance gap in business school education have suggested incorporating principles and ideas from action learning in small business management education. In this paper we discuss how business simulation exercises can be used as a platform to trigger students' learning by providing them with a platform where they…
Iron is a trace mineral used by the body in many physiological processes that are essential for athletic performance. However, it is common that an athlete's iron stores are compromised via several well-established exercise-related mechanisms such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Recently, however, a new mechanism for athletics-induced iron deficiency has been proposed, involving the influence of physical activity on the post-exercise hepcidin response. Hepcidin is a liver-produced hormone that regulates iron metabolism in the gut and macrophages. This hormone has become the focus of recent investigations into altered iron metabolism in athletes, and may be a mitigating factor implicated in athletics-induced iron deficiency. This review attempts to summarize and disseminate the collective knowledge currently held regarding exercise and hepcidin expression, in addition to suggesting the direction for future research in this area.
Yin, M M; Wang, W; Sun, J; Liu, S; Liu, X L; Niu, Y M; Yuan, H R; Yang, F Y; Fu, L
Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that parents can shape their offspring's development. Recently, it has been shown that maternal exercise during pregnancy benefits the progeny's brain function. However, little is known regarding the influence of paternal exercise on their offspring's phenotype. In this study we attempt to determine the effects of 6 weeks paternal treadmill exercise on spatial learning and memory and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in their male offspring. Sibling males were divided into two groups: the control (C) and the exercise group (E). The mice in the E group were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 5 days per week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise, the male mouse was mated with its sibling female. After weaning, male pups underwent behavioral assessment (Open field and Morris water maze tests). Immunohistochemistry staining, real time-PCR and western blot were performed to determine hippocampal BDNF and reelin expression of the male pups after behavior tasks. Our results showed that paternal treadmill exercise improved the spatial learning and memory capability of male pups, which was accompanied by significantly increased expression of BDNF and reelin, as compared to those of C group. Our results provide novel evidence that paternal treadmill exercise can enhance the brain functions of their F1 male offspring.
Cliatt, Katherine H.
This learning activity guide and instructor's manual provide information and exercises for an exploratory activity in accounting. Instructional objectives covered in the guide are for the students to learn (1) reasons for studying accounting and related job descriptions, (2) definitions for accounting terms, (3) the accounting equation, (4) how to…
Vanderthommen, Marc; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe
The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. Key points Three sets of submaximal isometric contractions at 60%, 55% and 50% of MVC induced an early fatigue without DOMS but did not lead to exhaustion. In comparison with passive recovery, active and electrostimulated recovery did not lead to significantly higher MVC torques 24h after the exercise bout. No significant differences were
Phillips, Edward M; Kennedy, Mary A
The current epidemic of sedentary behavior is a serious public health issue that requires the attention of the medical community. Although the benefits of physical activity are well established, research indicates that Americans are not heeding the message, and new strategies are warranted to bring about change in this arena. The health care community can and should play a key role in this movement. Patients respect their physicians as credible sources of information and look to them for health-related guidance. Unfortunately, many physicians are not talking to their patients about physical activity and are missing a unique opportunity to raise awareness about its benefits. Exercise needs to be discussed as a serious form of treatment, similar to medication, and should be thoughtfully prescribed to every patient. Physicians need to be familiar with the level of exercise necessary to achieve health benefits as defined by the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Furthermore, they should be competent in their ability to identify a patient's level of risk for starting or increasing exercise and provide guidance on the frequency, intensity, time, and type of activity necessary to safely elicit maximal health benefits. These basic competencies can be easily understood by physicians and incorporated into their practices. Resources have been established to help support physicians in this process. Physiatrists are uniquely positioned to lead the effort for change in this area because they are well-established proponents of exercise and are trained to prescribe therapeutic exercise to address the complex medical issues of their patients. This skill-set should be used for every patient in an effort to reduce the widespread prevalence of the "chronic disease" physical inactivity.
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E
Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life.
Sibbernsen, Kendra J.
One of the long-standing general undergraduate education requirements common to many colleges and universities is a science course with a laboratory experience component. One of the objectives frequently included in the description of most of these courses is that a student will understand the nature and processes of scientific inquiry. However, recent research has shown that learners in traditional undergraduate science laboratory environments are not developing a sufficiently meaningful understanding of scientific inquiry. Recently, astronomy laboratory activities have been developed that intentionally scaffold a student from guided activities to open inquiry ones and preliminary results show that these laboratories are successful for supporting students to understand the nature of scientific inquiry (Slater, S., Slater, T. F., & Shaner, 2008). This mixed-method quasi-experimental study was designed to determine how students in an undergraduate astronomy laboratory increase their understanding of inquiry working in relative isolation compared to working in small collaborative learning groups. The introductory astronomy laboratory students in the study generally increased their understanding of scientific inquiry over the course of the semester and this held true similarly for students working in groups and students working individually in the laboratories. This was determined by the examining the change in responses from the pretest to the posttest administration of the Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI) survey, the increase in scores on laboratory exercises, and observations from the instructor. Because the study was successful in determining that individuals in the astronomy laboratory do as well at understanding inquiry as those who complete their exercises in small groups, it would be appropriate to offer these inquiry-based exercises in an online format.
... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...
Thangarajan, Rajesh; Rai, Kiranmai. S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Vivek
Background Gestational infections induced inflammation (GIII) is a cause of various postnatal neurological deficits in developing countries. Such intra uterine insults could result in persistent learning-memory disabilities. There are no studies elucidating the efficacy of adolescence exercise on spatial learning- memory abilities of young adult rats pre-exposed to inflammatory insult during fetal life. Aims and Objectives The present study addresses the efficacy of physical (running) exercise during adolescent period in attenuating spatial memory deficits induced by exposure to GIII in rats. Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar dams were randomly divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, injected intra peritoneally (i.p) with saline (0.5ml) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5mg/kg) on alternate days from gestation day 14 (GD 14) till delivery. After parturition, pups were divided into 3 groups (n=6/group) a) Sham control and LPS group divided into 2 subgroups- b) LPS and c) LPS exercise group. Running exercise was given only to LPS exercise group during postnatal days (PNDs) 30 to 60 (15min/day). Spatial learning and memory performance was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM), on postnatal day 61 to 67 in all groups. Results Young rats pre-exposed to GIII and subjected to running exercise through juvenile period displayed significant decrease in latency to reach escape platform and spent significant duration in target quadrant in MWM test, compared to age matched LPS group. Results of the current study demonstrated that exercise through juvenile/adolescent period effectively mitigates gestational inflammation-induced cognitive deficits in young adult rats. Conclusion Inflammation during gestation impairs offspring’s spatial memory and learning abilities. Whereas, early postnatal physical exercise attenuates, to higher extent, cognitive impairment resulted from exposure to LPS induced inflammation during intrauterine growth period. PMID:26266117
Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina
This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.
Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh
The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…
Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert
The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…
Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc
In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P < 0.001). In both the fed and the fasted states, LC3bII protein level and LC3bII/I were decreased after LI and HI (P < 0.05), while p62/SQSTM1 was decreased only 1 h after HI (P < 0.05), indicating an increased autophagic flux after HI. The autophagic transcriptional program was also activated, as evidenced by the increased level of LC3b, p62/SQSTM1, GabarapL1, and Cathepsin L mRNAs observed after HI but not after LI. The increased autophagic flux after HI exercise could be due to increased AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) activity, as both AMPKα(Thr172) and ACC(Ser79) had a higher phosphorylation state after HI (P < 0.001). In summary, the most effective strategy to activate autophagy in human skeletal muscle seems to rely on exercise intensity more than diet.
Ebrahimi, Shima; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas A; Akhavan, Maziar M
The beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on brain functions such as improvement in learning and memory are well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the beta-adrenergic system in voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rat. In order to block the beta-adrenergic receptors, the animals were received propranolol (a beta-blocker), or nadolol (a peripherally acting beta-blocker) before each night of five consecutive nights of exercise. Then their learning and memory were tested on the water maze task using a two-trials-per-day for 5 consecutive days. A probe trial was performed 2 days after the last training day. Our results showed that propranolol, but not nadolol reversed the exercise-induced improvement in learning and memory in rat. Our findings indicate that central beta-adrenergic receptors play an important role in mediating the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on learning and memory.
Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.
Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…
Texas Child Care, 1996
Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)
Hedayatpour, N; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Falla, D
Contracting the knee flexor muscles immediately before a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension increases the maximal force that the extensor muscles can exert. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon can be impaired by muscle fiber damage following eccentric exercise [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)]. This study investigates the effect of eccentric exercise and DOMS on knee extension MVC immediately following a reciprocal-resisted knee flexion contraction. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the knee extensors and flexors of 12 healthy men during knee extension MVCs performed in a reciprocal (maximal knee extension preceded by resisted knee flexion), and nonreciprocal condition (preceded by relaxation of the knee flexors). At baseline, knee extension MVC force was greater during the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001), whereas immediately after, 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise, the MVC force was not different between conditions. Similarly, at baseline, the EMG amplitude of the quadriceps during the MVC was larger for the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001). However, immediately after, 24 and 48 h postexercise the EMG amplitude was similar between conditions. In conclusion, eccentric exercise abolished the facilitation of force production for the knee extensors, which normally occurs when maximum knee extension is preceded by activation of the knee flexors.
Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Popova, Julia; Fomina, Elena; Jacubowski, Amrei; Meeusen, Romain; Strüder, Heiko K
With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined conditions in the MARS500 habitat located in Moscow. Despite the possibility to mimic the condition of space travel, this study allowed for experimental conditions under very reliable and traceable conditions. As exercise is widely discussed to have a positive impact on neuro-cognitive performance, this study aimed to test the effect of different exercise protocol (endurance/strength orientated) on brain cortical activity and cognitive performance. Brain cortical activity was recorded using a 16 channel EEG before and after exercise across the 520 days of confinement. Cognitive performance was assessed using three commercially available brain games. Following the theory of transient hypofrontality, results show a significant decrease of frontal brain cortical activity after exercise (p<.05) which was most expressed after endurance orientated protocols. Cognitive performance was improved following running sessions on an active treadmill (p<.05). Results let us assume that not exercise per se acts as a neuro-enhancer. It is more likely that a general defocusing caused by an immersion into exercise is necessary to improve cognitive performance.
Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita
Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely
Senchina, David S
Student researchers in physiology courses often interact with human subjects in classroom research but may be unfamiliar with the professional ethics of experimenter-subject interactions. This communication describes experiences related to an interactive video used in exercise science and general biology courses to help students become aware of, sensitive to, and comfortable with implementing professional ethics into their own thinking and behavior as researchers before entering the laboratory. The activity consisted of a filmed exercise physiology experiment complemented with interactive question sheets followed by small- and large-group discussion and culminating with individual student reflections. Student written responses from multiple courses indicated that students were able to 1) identify and consider the ethics of experimenter-subject interactions from the movie, 2) generalize broader ideas of professional ethics from those observations, and 3) consider their observations in terms of future experiments they would be conducting personally and how they should interact with human subjects. A majority of students indicated a positive reaction to the video and identified specific aspects they appreciated. It is hoped that this report will encourage other instructors to consider the use of interactive videos in the teaching and learning of professional ethics related to their courses.
Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M
Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.
Timmerman, John E.; Morris, R. Franklin, Jr.
Team-based learning (TBL) is an approach that builds on both the case method and problem-based learning and has been widely adopted in the sciences and healthcare disciplines. In recent years business disciplines have also discovered the value of this approach. One of the key characteristics of the team-based learning approach consists of…
Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte
A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197
Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann
Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS) AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to...
Kong, Yong-soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-won
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771
Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval
Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.
There is a surprising lack of systematic research evaluating the effects of reading exercises for young deaf children. Therefore, for this article, two computer-based exercises were developed and learning effects were determined by posttests. One (spelling oriented) exercise was to select the correct word among three orthographically similar alternatives that corresponds to a drawing or a sign (digital video). The other (meaning oriented) exercise was to select the correct sign or picture among three alternatives that corresponds to a written word. Eleven deaf Dutch children with a mean age of 7 years 10 months participated in the study. A first question was whether in single-word exercises the meaning or the spelling of a word should be emphasized. A second question was whether there was any effect of using drawings or signs to refer to the meaning of the word. The results reveal that emphasizing the word spelling is most effective for learning to read for deaf children and the findings also suggest that drawings are more efficient in the current exercises.
Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.
Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808
Karns, Gary L.
The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…
Wahl, Patrick; Brixius, Klara; Bloch, Wilhelm
A number of publications have provided evidence that exercise and physical activity are linked to the activation, mobilization, and differentiation of various types of stem cells. Exercise may improve organ regeneration and function. This review summarizes mechanisms by which exercise contributes to stem cell-induced regeneration in the cardiovascular and the skeletal muscle system. In addition, it discusses whether exercise may improve and support stem cell transplantation in situations of cardiovascular disease or muscular dystrophy.
Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Bond, Vernon; Meyers, Dewey G
Introduction An aerobic exercise (Ex) augments neurogenesis and may ameliorate learning and memory deficits in the rat Kainic Acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy in the short-term but whether it reverses learning and memory deficits after a substantial period of delay remains unclear. Aim This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic Ex attenuates the learning and memory deficits associated with kainate seizures in the long-term. Materials and Methods A total of 60 rats were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an Ex intervention consisting of a 30 days period of daily swimming for 15 min, immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) or after a 60 days period of normal activity (delayed exposure). We evaluated spatial learning on a T-maze test, expressed as percentage of correct responses. We evaluated memory on a passive-avoidance test, expressed as time spent in a compartment in which the rats were previously exposed to an aversive stimulus. Results Ex increases the percentage of correct responses, percentage bias, and number of alternations, associated with the T-maze testing for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Ex decreased the time exposed to the aversive stimulus in the smaller compartment of the two-compartment passive-avoidance test, also for the normal control, sham-operated control and kainate-lesioned animals after both immediate and delayed exposures to Ex. Conclusion These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may attenuate the learning and memory deficits, even if the exercise treatment is delayed. PMID:28050361
Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin
When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…
Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate active-learning exercises requiring the integration and application of pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics knowledge of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Design Two team-based case study exercises, one evaluating a patient with osteoarthritis and the second, a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, were developed, incorporating material and questions from pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The learning assignments were implemented in a required pharmacotherapy module. Assessment Student learning was evaluated using performance on the team-based case study exercises and on 2 examinations. A standard student course evaluation was used to assess students' impressions of the learning activity. The mean student grades for the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis activities were 9.1 and 8.9, respectively, on a 10-point scale. The majority of students indicated that the learning exercises were more than adequate to excellent in helping students learn. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was successful in teaching pharmacy students the knowledge needed to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21088724
Aird, H. M.
An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises
The increased emphasis on active learning in essentially all disciplines is proving beneficial in terms of a student's depth of learning, retention, and completion of challenging courses. Formats labeled flipped, hybrid and blended facilitate face-to-face active learning. To be effective, students need to absorb a significant fraction of the course material prior to class, e.g., using online lectures and reading assignments. Getting students to assimilate and at least partially understand this material prior to class can be extremely difficult. As an aid to achieving this preparation as well as enhancing depth of understanding, we find the use of software programs such as Mathematica®or MatLab®, very helpful. We have written several Mathematica®applications and student exercises for use in a blended format two semester E&M course. Formats include tutorials, simulations, graded and non-graded quizzes, walk-through problems, exploration and interpretation exercises, and numerical solutions of complex problems. A good portion of this activity involves student-written code. We will discuss the efficacy of these applications, their role in promoting active learning, and the range of possible uses of this basic scheme in other classes.
In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…
Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic
An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item
Naumann, Fiona; Moore, Keri; Mildon, Sally; Jones, Philip
This paper aims to develop a valid method to assess the key competencies of the exercise physiology profession acquired through work-integrated learning (WIL). In order to develop a competency-based assessment, the key professional tasks needed to be identified and the test designed so students' competency in different tasks and settings could be…
Farber, Vanina A.; Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María
This paper reports on an exploratory cross-sectional study of the value of an entrepreneurial learning exercise as a tool for examining the entrepreneurship dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The study used grounded theory to analyse diaries kept by graduate (MBA) students during the "20 Nuevos Soles Project". From the…
Research shows that professional development alone does not provide adequate leadership preparation for teachers, yet many develop into established teacher leaders. The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers learn to exercise informal leadership in the schools and districts where they work. Eight elementary teachers who lived and worked…
Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio
Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the…
Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten
The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.
Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.
An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.
Objective. To design instructional methods that would promote long-term retention of knowledge of antimicrobial pharmacology, particularly the spectrum of activity for antimicrobial agents, in pharmacy students. Design. An active-learning approach was used to teach selected sessions in a required antimicrobial pharmacology course. Students were expected to review key concepts from the course reader prior to the in-class sessions. During class, brief concept reviews were followed by active-learning exercises, including a novel schematic method for learning antimicrobial spectrum of activity (“flower diagrams”). Assessment. At the beginning of the next quarter (approximately 10 weeks after the in-class sessions), 360 students (three yearly cohorts) completed a low-stakes multiple-choice examination on the concepts in antimicrobial spectrum of activity. When data for students was pooled across years, the mean number of correct items was 75.3% for the items that tested content delivered with the active-learning method vs 70.4% for items that tested content delivered via traditional lecture (mean difference 4.9%). Instructor ratings on student evaluations of the active-learning approach were high (mean scores 4.5-4.8 on a 5-point scale) and student comments were positive about the active-learning approach and flower diagrams. Conclusion. An active-learning approach led to modestly higher scores in a test of long-term retention of pharmacology knowledge and was well-received by students. PMID:28381885
Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar
Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.
Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, You-Mi; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong; Ha, Jonglin; Chung, Yong-Rak
Huntington's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and characterized as involuntary movement. Quinolinic acid has been used to produce an animal model of Huntington's disease. In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial-learning ability and motor coordination focusing on the apoptosis in the hippocampus was investigated using quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Huntington's disease was induced by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (2 μL of 100 nmol) using stereotaxic instrument. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 14 days. Spatial learning ability and motor coordination were determined by radial 8-arm maze test and rota-rod test. Immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and western blot for Bax and Bcl-2 were also conducted for the detection of apoptosis. In the present results, spatial learning ability and motor coordination were deteriorated by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid. In contrast, treadmill exercise exerted ameliorating effect on quinolinic acid-induced deterioration of spatial learning ability and motor coordination. Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus was de-creased and expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the hippocampus were increased in the quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats. Treadmill exercise increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased expressions of casepase-3 and Bax in the Huntington's disease rats. The present results showed that treadmill exercise might ameliorate quinolinic acid-induced loss of spatial learning ability and motor coordination by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus.
Nairn, Brian C; Sutherland, Chad A; Drake, Janessa D M
Nairn, BC, Sutherland, CA, and Drake, JDM. Motion and muscle activity are affected by instability location during a squat exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 677-685, 2017-Squat exercise training using instability devices has become increasingly popular for a multitude of reasons. Many devices generate instability at the feet and provide a bottom-up perturbation; however, the effect of a top-down instability device during a squat remains unclear. To induce instability at the upper body, a water-filled cylinder called the Attitube was used. This study analyzed the effects of instability location (top-down, bottom-up, and no instability) during a squat exercise in terms of kinematics and muscle activation. Ten male participants were instrumented with 75 reflective markers to track kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and the Bar/Attitube, and electromyography was recorded from 12 muscles bilaterally. Squats were performed with an Olympic bar on a stable surface, an Olympic bar on a BOSU ball (BALL, bottom-up), and the Attitube on solid ground (TUBE, top-down). The TUBE showed up to 1.5 times reduction in erector spinae activation and up to 1.5 times less trunk flexion while being performed at a slower velocity. There was also higher abdominal activation in the TUBE, with up to 2.8 times greater oblique activation compared with the stable condition. The BALL increased ankle eversion and knee flexion with higher muscle activation in gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and quadriceps. Overall, changing the location of instability during a squat changed the motion and muscle activation patterns of the trunk and lower extremities. This provides information for future research into rehabilitation, learning proper squat technique, and for specific training scenarios.
Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie
DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.
Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús
The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.
Herrmann, D; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W
Physical activity and exercise are important determinants for metabolic and cardiovascular health. They also play an important role for bone health in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. This review summarizes results from observational and intervention studies which evaluated the association between physical activity/exercise and bone health in different life course stages. In childhood and adolescence, physical activity and exercise induce improved bone accrual. In adulthood, mainly in postmenopausal women, long-term exercise programs reduce age-related bone loss. Especially weight-bearing activities seem to have an important osteogenic effect. Children and adolescent show a higher bone accrual until 5 years after cessation of an exercise program compared to their peers, who do not participate in an exercise program. In contrast, adults who quit exercising have a higher decrease in bone stiffness compared to adults who never exercised. This effect was particularly seen in postmenopausal women. Continuous physical activity and exercise over the life course and the implementation of exercise programs in schools and community-based intervention programs can help prevent or even reduce osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. Due to the lack of prospective longitudinal studies, the supposed long-term sustainable protective effect of physical activity and exercise in childhood and adolescent on bone health in later adulthood is not well established.
The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.
Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.
Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.
Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059
Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.
Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…
Kennard, John A; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S
In this study we compared two types of forced exercise-a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that 5 weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 rpm speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, 5 weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning.
Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S
The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.
Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises.
Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435
Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.
The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…
The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.
Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching
Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…
Escamilla, Rafael F; Yamashiro, Kyle; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R
, posterior tilt and ER. The serratus anterior also helps stabilize the medial border and inferior angle of the scapular, preventing scapular IR (winging) and anterior tilt. If normal scapular movements are disrupted by abnormal scapular muscle firing patterns, weakness, fatigue, or injury, the shoulder complex functions less efficiency and injury risk increases. Scapula position and humeral rotation can affect injury risk during humeral elevation. Compared with scapular protraction, scapular retraction has been shown to both increase subacromial space width and enhance supraspinatus force production during humeral elevation. Moreover, scapular IR and scapular anterior tilt, both of which decrease subacromial space width and increase impingement risk, are greater when performing scaption with IR ('empty can') compared with scaption with ER ('full can'). There are several exercises in the literature that exhibit high to very high activity from the rotator cuff, deltoids and scapular muscles, such as prone horizontal abduction at 100 degrees abduction with ER, flexion and abduction with ER, 'full can' and 'empty can', D1 and D2 diagonal pattern flexion and extension, ER and IR at 0 degrees and 90 degrees abduction, standing extension from 90-0 degrees , a variety of weight-bearing upper extremity exercises, such as the push-up, standing scapular dynamic hug, forward scapular punch, and rowing type exercises. Supraspinatus activity is similar between 'empty can' and 'full can' exercises, although the 'full can' results in less risk of subacromial impingement. Infraspinatus and subscapularis activity have generally been reported to be higher in the 'full can' compared with the 'empty can', while posterior deltoid activity has been reported to be higher in the 'empty can' than the 'full can'.
McKell, Lynn J.; Hansen, Gary; Albrecht, Conan
The assessment of learning objectives has become an important element in the improvement and accreditation of academic programs, including information systems (IS). Indirect assessments have been common in these endeavors, but direct assessments have been sparse. In the first semester at Brigham Young University (BYU), IS students take four…
Elmer, Steven J.; Carter, Kathryn R.; Armga, Austin J.; Carter, Jason R.
In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning…
Allcock, Sarah J.; Hulme, Julie A.
Differentiation of teaching is encouraged to accommodate student diversity. This study investigated whether using learning styles as a basis for differentiation improved A-level student performance, compared to differentiation on the basis of academic ability. Matched classes of A-level psychology students participated. In one class, learning…
Pilán, Ildikó; Volodina, Elena; Johansson, Richard
In our study we investigated second and foreign language (L2) sentence readability, an area little explored so far in the case of several languages, including Swedish. The outcome of our research consists of two methods for sentence selection from native language corpora based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML)…
Clark, Timothy S.; Kent, Brian M.
Forecasting the outputs of dynamic systems develops a richer understanding of relevant inputs and their interrelationships than merely observing them ex post. Academic business simulations foster students' development of this critical competency, but learning outcomes can be significantly augmented with relatively simple, complementary exercises…
Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )
To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).
Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa
Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.
Bailey, Don; And Others
Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…
Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija
The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…
Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities dealing with energy. Concepts about energy are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, demonstrations, worksheet exercises and individual…
Grace, Laurian; Hescham, Sarah; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A
Adverse life events occurring in early development can result in long-term effects on behavioural, physiological and cognitive processes. In particular, perinatal stressors impair neurogenesis in the hippocampus which consequently impairs memory formation. Exercise has previously been shown to have antidepressant effects and to increase cognitive functioning by increasing neurogenesis and neurotrophins in the hippocampus. The current study examined the effects of maternal separation, which has been shown to model anxiety in animals, and the effects of exercise on learning and memory. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, maternally separated / non-runners, maternally separated / runners, non-separated / runners and non-separated / non-runners. Maternal separation occurred from postnatal day 2 (P2) to 14 (P14) for 3 h per day. Exercised rats were given voluntary access to individual running wheels attached to their cages from P29 to P49. Behavioural testing (Morris water maze (MWM) and object recognition tests) took place from P49 to P63. Maternally separated rats showed no significant difference in anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze and the open field compared to the normally reared controls. However, rats that were allowed voluntary access to running wheels showed increased levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze and in the open field. Maternal separation did not have any effect on memory performance in the MWM or the object recognition tasks. Exercise increased spatial learning and memory in the MWM with the exercised rats displaying a decreased latency in locating the hidden platform than the non-exercised rats. The exercised rats spent significantly less time exploring the most recently encountered object in the temporal order task in comparison to the non-exercised controls, therefore showing improved temporal recognition memory. All groups performed the same on the other recognition tasks, with all rats showing intact
Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.
Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614
Brown, Giles H.
Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)
Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.
In this study we compared two types of forced exercise—a low impact paradigm to minimize stress, which included speeds up to 10 m/min and a stressful high impact paradigm, with speeds up to 21 m/min. 150 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the low impact, high impact, or sedentary control conditions and were tested on the rotorod and Morris water maze (MWM) as indices of motor learning and spatial memory. We found that five weeks of stressful high speed forced exercise led to significant improvement in rotorod performance, as high impact runners outperformed both low impact runners and controls at 15 and 25 RPM speeds. These differences were the result of improved physical fitness due to exercise and likely do not reflect enhanced learning in these mice. In the MWM, five weeks of stressful high impact exercise led to significant impairment in spatial memory acquisition compared to low impact runners and controls. Low impact exercise for 10 weeks significantly improved retention of spatial memory compared to high impact exercise. Results suggested that these two paradigms produced different effects of forced exercise on learning and memory. The low impact paradigm led to some improvements, whereas the stressful high impact program caused significant impairment. Comparison of these two paradigms begins to address the window between the beneficial and detrimental effects of forced exercise, and have suggested a boundary of exercise intensity that leads to impairment in learning. PMID:22402029
Liceaga, Andrea M.; Ballard, Tameshia S.; Skura, Brent J.
A modified problem-based learning (PBL) exercise was implemented in a food science Dairy Products course, which had previously been taught in the traditional lecture and laboratory format only. The first 10 wk of the course consisted of weekly lectures and laboratory exercises. During the remaining 3 wk, students were presented with a case study…
Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.
Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…
Fisher, Bruce; And Others
This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning…
Seetharaman, Mahadevan; Musier-Forsyth, Karin
Three journal articles on nucleic acid antisense modification strategies were assigned to 12 students as part of an active learning "jigsaw" exercise for a graduate-level chemistry course on nucleic acids. Each student was required to read one of the three articles. This assignment was preceded by an hour-long lecture on the basic concepts in antisense antigene technology. On the day of the jigsaw, the students with the same article (three groups of four students) discussed their article briefly, and then formed four new groups where no one had read the same article. Each student spent about five minutes teaching his or her article to the other group members, using specific questions provided to guide the discussion. This exercise laid the foundation for bringing the discussion to the entire class, where most of the students actively participated. To test the students' comprehension of the reading materials, a problem set was designed that required not only an understanding of the three articles, but also application of the concepts learned. The effectiveness of this active learning strategy and its applicability to other topics are discussed in this article.
Soares, Antonio H G; Oliveira, Tiago P; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Farah, Breno Q; Lima, Aluísio H R A; Cucato, Gabriel G; Cardoso, Crivaldo G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active recovery on autonomic and haemodynamic responses after exercise in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young male individuals underwent two experimental sessions: exercise with active recovery (AR) and exercise with passive recovery (PR). The exercise sessions comprised three phases: warm-up (5 min), exercise phase (cycle ergometer, 30 min, intensity between 60 and 70% of the heart rate reserve) and recovery (5 min). In the AR, the subjects remained cycling in the recovery phase at intensity between 30% and 35% of heart rate reserve, while in the PR, the subjects stopped the exercise after finishing the exercise phase. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and over the 30 min after the interventions. There were no differences for systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and rate pressure product between active and passive recovery sessions. Also, all heart rate variability parameters changed similarly after exercise with passive or active recovery sessions. In summary, exercise with active recovery does not affect the autonomic and haemodynamic responses after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in healthy young male individuals.
Cheng, Y; Macera, C; Addy, C; Sy, F; Wieland, D; Blair, S
Background: Exercise is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease. Objective: To explore the role of physical activity in maintaining cardiac and respiratory function in healthy people. Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill test (MTT), and respiratory function was tested by spirometry. The cross sectional study included data from 24 536 healthy persons who were examined at the Cooper Clinic between 1971 and 1995; the longitudinal study included data from 5707 healthy persons who had an initial visit between 1971 and 1995 and a subsequent visit during the next five years. All participants were aged 25–55 years and completed a cardiorespiratory test and a medical questionnaire. Results: In the cross sectional study, after controlling for covariates, being active and not being a recent smoker were associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function in both men and women. In the follow up study, persons who remained or became active had better MTT than persons who remained or became sedentary. Men who remained active had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) than the other groups. Smoking was related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function. Conclusions: Physical activity and non-smoking or smoking cessation is associated with maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Change in physical activity habits is associated with change in cardiorespiratory fitness, but respiratory function contributed little to this association during a five year follow up. PMID:14665592
Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen
A new experiential exercise affords marketing students the opportunity to learn to design service environments. The exercise is appropriate for a variety of marketing courses and is especially beneficial in teaching services marketing because the proposed activity complements two other exercises widely used in this course. Service journal and…
Critchley, Duncan J; Pierson, Zoe; Battersby, Gemma
Pilates training is said to increase Transversus abdominis (TrA) and Obliquus internus (OI) activation during exercise and functional activities. 34 Pain-free health club members with no Pilates experience, mean (SD) age 30(7) years, were randomised to Pilates mat exercises or strength training. Participants exercised unsupervised twice-weekly for eight weeks. TrA and OI thickness (a proxy for muscle activity at the low-medium efforts of our exercises) were measured with ultrasound pre- and post-training during Pilates exercises 'Imprint' (an abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre) and 'Hundreds A' (lying supine, arms slightly raised, hips and knees flexed to 90°) and 'Hundreds B' (as A, with neck flexion) and functional postures sitting and standing. Pilates participants had increased TrA thickness in Hundreds A [all values mean (SD) mm]: 3.7(1.3) pre-intervention, 4.7(1.1) post-intervention (P = 0.007); and decreased OI muscle thickness during Imprint: 11.7(2.8) pre-intervention, 10.8(3.5) post-intervention (P = 0.008). Strength training participants had greater OI thickness during Imprint (P = 0.014), Hundreds A (P = 0.018) and Hundreds B (P = 0.004) than Pilates participants post-intervention. There were no changes in muscle thickness at rest or during functional postures. Pilates training appears to increase TrA activity but only when performing Pilates exercises. Further research is required into Pilates in clinical populations and how to increase deep abdominal activation during functional activities.
Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)
Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Taplin, Craig E; Riddell, Michael C
Regular physical activity (PA) for youth with diabetes improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone health, insulin sensitivity, and psychosocial well-being. However many youth with diabetes or pre-diabetes fail to meet minimum PA guidelines and a large percentage of youth with diabetes are overweight or obese. Active youth with type 1 diabetes tend to have lower HbA1c levels and reduced insulin needs, whereas activity in adolescents at-risk for type 2 diabetes improves various measures of metabolism and body composition. Insulin and nutrient adjustments for exercise in type 1 diabetes is complex because of varied responses to exercise type and because of the different times of day that exercise is performed. This review highlights the benefits of exercise and the established barriers to exercise participation in the pediatric diabetes population. A new exercise management algorithm for insulin and carbohydrate intake strategies for active youth with type 1 diabetes is presented.
Wegner, M S; Whaley, M H; Glass, S C; Kasper, M J; Woodall, M T
Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are common exercise intensity regulatory strategies, however, some individuals are unable to use these strategies effectively. Alternative or conjunctive strategies may aid in the transition to self-guided programs. The purpose of the present study was to examine the value of a brief, field-based exercise intensity learning trial on self-regulation of intensity during a weeklong exercise program. Forty-two males were randomly assigned to either a paced learning trial (P) or non-paced control (NP), and then one of three intensity feedback groups: HR, HR + RPE, or no feedback (CONT). The paced trial consisted of an 800-m trial at 75 % of maximal heart rate reserve (MHRR) on day one. Subjects then completed four 800-m trials each day for four days and received feedback on deviation from target HR (THR) after each 800-m trial. Four-way MANOVA (pacing x feedback x trials x days) was used to assess the influence of the learning trial on THR deviation scores across the week. The pacing x feedback x trials interaction was significant (Pillai's Trace = 0.36, approximately F (6,70) = 2.56, p = 0.03) and thus, the influence of the learning trial was assessed within feedback group. There were no significant differences in THR deviation scores for P vs. NP within the HR or HR + RPE feedback groups. However, P was significantly more accurate then NP (p < 0.05) within the CONT feedback groups during each trial averaged across the week (T (1) = - 2.6 vs. 5.3; T (2) = 2.6 vs. 14.2; T (3) = 4.6 vs. 16.2; T (4) = 5.3 vs. 20.5 beats . min (-1)). These results demonstrate that a brief intensity learning trial, in the absence of HR or HR+RPE feedback, provided for accurate self-regulation of vigorous exercise training. These results would support the efficacy of a brief intensity learning trial within the context of transitioning an individual to a self-guided exercise program.
Seo, KyoChul; Hwan, Park Seung; Park, KwangYong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients’ respiratory muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] All experimental subjects performed exercises five times per week for four weeks. Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assign to an experimental group of 15 patients and a control group of 15 patients. The experimental group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes and the control group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and auto-med exercise for 15 minutes. The activation levels of respiratory muscles were measured before and after the experiment using MP 150WSW to obtain the results of the experiment. [Results] In the present study, when the pulmonary functions of the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment were compared, whereas the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections. In the verification of intergroup differences between the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] The respiratory rehabilitation exercise is considered to be capable of inducing positive effects on stroke patients’ respiratory muscles through diaphragm breathing exercise and lip puckering breathing exercise. PMID:28356632
Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo
[Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.
Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014
Levine, James A; McCrady, Shelly K; Boyne, Sandra; Smith, Joanne; Cargill, Kathryn; Forrester, Terrence
With evidence that urbanisation is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, this article compares daily physical activity between rural and urban dwellers. Specifically, it examines habitual daily activity levels, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and energy expenditure in agricultural and urban Jamaicans and urban North Americans. Ambulation was 60 per cent greater in rural Jamaicans than in the urban dwellers (4675 ± 2261 versus 2940 ± 1120 ambulation-attributed arbitrary units (AU)/day; P = 0.001). Levels of ambulation in lean urban Jamaicans were similar to those in lean urban North Americans, whereas obese urban dwellers walked less than their lean urban counterparts (2198 ± 516 versus 2793 ± 774 AU/day; P = 0.01). The data with respect to daily sitting mirrored the walking data; obese Americans sat for almost four hours more each day than rural Jamaicans (562 ± 78 versus 336 ± 68 minutes/day; P < 0.001). Urbanisation is associated with low levels of daily activity and NEAT.
Saadati, Hakimeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Nazeri, Masoud; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Sheibani, Vahid
Inadequate sleep is a common problem in modern societies. It has been previously shown that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions of female rats following paradoxical sleep deprivation. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present study. The exercise protocol was 4 weeks of treadmill running. The multiple platform method was applied for the induction of 72h paradoxical sleep deprivation and the cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM). Plasma corticosterone level was evaluated in separate groups of study. ANOVA and repeated measures were used to analyze the data and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Throughout the investigation, significant learning impairment was observed in sleep-deprived OVX rats compared to the intact and the other OVX groups. Short term memory impairment was observed in both sleep-deprived OVX and intact groups. Physical exercise alleviated the PSD-induced learning and memory impairments in both intact and OVX groups. Corticosterone levels were not statistically significant among the different groups. The results of our study confirmed the negative effects of PSD on cognitive functions in female rats and regular physical exercise seems to protect rats from these effects. Further studies are suggested to be carried out in order to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms, and also to evaluate the possible interactions between sex hormones and PSD-induced cognitive impairments.
Dorée, Suzanne Ingrid
How can we teach inquiry? In this paper, I offer practical techniques for teaching inquiry effectively using activities built from routine textbook exercises with minimal advanced preparation, including rephrasing exercises as questions, creating activities that inspire students to make conjectures, and asking for counterexamples to reasonable,…
Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann
This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…
Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula
This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…
Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia
This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…
Heisel, Marsel A.
This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…
Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn
This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…
Nybo, Lars; May, Michael
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P < 0.05), and 65 ± 5% students in the I-based course searched for additional literature before experimentation compared with only 2 ± 1% students in the traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P < 0.05) average score on the quantitative test (45 ± 3%) compared with students in the traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course.
Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts
Sagae, Sara Cristina; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Raineki, Charlis; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Marques da Silva, Ana Carla
Obesity is an epidemic disease most commonly caused by a combination of increased energy intake and lack of physical activity. The cholinergic system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, physical exercise promotes a reduction of fat pads and body mass by increasing energy expenditure, but also influences the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between physical exercise (swimming) and central cholinergic activity in rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG, a model for obesity) during infancy. Our results show that MSG treatment is able to induce obesity in male and female rats. Specifically, MSG-treated rats presented a reduced body mass and nasoanal length, and increased perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads in relation to the body mass. Physical exercise was able to reduce body mass in both male and female rats, but did not change the fat pads in MSG-treated rats. Increased food intake was only seen in MSG-treated females submitted to exercise. Cholinergic activity was increased in the cortex of MSG-treated females and physical exercise was able to reduce this activity. Thalamic cholinergic activity was higher in sedentary MSG-treated females and exercised MSG-treated males. Hypothalamic cholinergic activity was higher in male and female MSG-treated rats, and was not reduced by exercise in the 2 sexes. Taken together, these results show that MSG treatment and physical exercise have different effects in the cholinergic activity of males and females.
Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino
This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267
Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364
Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae
[Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340
Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward
Contamination is commonly overlooked in randomized trials. The present study examined contamination (minutes of aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions) within an active control condition in a 6-month randomized exercise trial for older adults. We hypothesized that outside aerobic activity would be greater in the control condition compared to the intervention conditions. Participants (mean age = 65.06 years, 66.2% female) were randomly assigned to: Dance (n = 50), Walking, (n = 108), or Strength/Stretching/Stability (SSS; n = 48). Dance and Walking represented the experimental conditions and SSS the control condition. Participants attended exercise sessions three times weekly for 24 weeks. Participants recorded their physical activity outside of class on a weekly home log. Group assignment and covariates (age, gender, body mass index, exercise session intensity and enjoyment, and program adherence) were examined as predictors of weekly aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions. Participants who returned zero home logs were removed from the dataset (final N = 195). Out-of-class aerobic activity was lowest in the Walking group. Significant effects of gender, group, enjoyment, and intensity on out-of-class weekly aerobic activity were observed, all p<0.003. Higher perceived enjoyment of exercise sessions was associated with more out-of-class aerobic activity, while higher perceived intensity was associated with less out-of-class aerobic activity. A group x intensity interaction, p = 0.002, indicated that group differences in out-of-class aerobic activity were evident only among those with lower intensity perceptions. Walkers may have perceived exercise sessions as sufficient weekly exercise, while the Dance and SSS groups may have perceived the sessions as necessary, but insufficient. The lower aerobic intensity Dancers attributed to exercise sessions and non-aerobic nature of SSS may partially explain contamination observed in this study. Further
Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier
The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786
Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S
A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data evaluation by
Discusses the use of a computer simulation program in teaching the concepts of spectrophotometry. Introduces several parts of the program and program usage. Presents an assessment activity to evaluate students' mastery of material. Concludes with the advantages of this approach to the student and to the assessor. (ASK)
Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio
Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.
Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Rian E.
Background Most children in the United States receive far less physical activity (PA) than is optimal. In rural, under resourced areas of Appalachian Kentucky, physical inactivity rates are significantly higher than national levels. We sought to understand children’s perceptions of PA, with the goal of developing culturally appropriate programming to increase PA. Methods During 11 focus groups, we explored perspectives on PA among 63 Appalachian children, ages 8–17. Sessions were tape recorded, transcribed, content analyzed, and subjected to verification procedures. Results Several perspectives on PA emerged among these rural Appalachian youth, including the clear distinction between PA (viewed as positive) and exercise (viewed as negative) and an emphasis on time and resource factors as barriers to adequate PA. Additional PA determinants expressed in the focus groups are similar to those of other populations. We include children’s recommendations for appealing PA programs. Conclusions Appalachian and other rural residents contend with the loss of rural health advantages (due to declines in farming/other occupational and avocational transitions). At the same time, Appalachian residents have not benefitted from urban PA facilitators (sidewalks, recreational facilities, clubs and organized leisure activities). Addressing low PA levels requires extensive community input and creative programming. PMID:22397810
Dimitrov, Stoyan; Hulteng, Elaine; Hong, Suzi
Regular exercise is shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects, yet the effects of acute exercise on cellular inflammatory responses and its mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that sympathoadrenergic activation during a single bout of exercise has a suppressive effect on monocytic cytokine production mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (AR). We investigated the effects of 20-min moderate (65-70% VO2 peak) exercise-induced catecholamine production on LPS-stimulated TNF production by monocytes in 47 healthy volunteers and determined AR subtypes involved. We also examined the effects of β-agonist isoproterenol and endogenous β- and α-agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine, and receptor-subtype-specific β- and α-antagonists on TNF production in a series of in vitro investigations. LPS-stimulated TNF production by peripheral blood monocytes was determined intracellularly by flow cytometry, using an intracellular protein transport inhibitor. Percent TNF-producing monocytes and per-cell TNF production with and without LPS was suppressed by exercise with moderate to large effects, which was reversed by a β2-AR antagonist in spite that plasma TNF levels did not change. This inhibitory response in TNF production by exercise was mirrored by β-AR agonists in an agonist-specific and dose-dependent manner in vitro: similar isoproterenol (EC50=2.1-4.7×10(-10)M) and epinephrine (EC50=4.4-10×10(-10)M) potency and higher norepinephrine concentrations (EC50=2.6-4.3×10(-8)M) needed for the effects. Importantly, epinephrine levels observed during acute exercise in vivo significantly inhibited TNF production in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the AR agonists was abolished by β2-, but not by β1- or α-AR blockers. We conclude that the downregulation of monocytic TNF production during acute exercise is mediated by elevated epinephrine levels through β2-ARs. Decreased inflammatory responses during acute exercise may protect against chronic conditions with low
Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia
Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…
Gravani, Maria N.
The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…
Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S
The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF.
Liberatore, Matthew W.
The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…
Xin, Huaibo; Kempland, Monica; Blankson, Faustina H.
The study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated, hybrid, and online learning modalities among undergraduate students in a public institution so as to determine the adaptability and replicability of these three learning modalities. This is a quasi-experimental study. A total of 103 undergraduate exercise science majors participated…
Seelye, H. Ned, Ed.
The need for new approaches, methods, and techniques in cross-cultural training and intercultural education is paramount. This collection of more than 30 exercises and activities aims to help begin a regular flow of materials into the stream of resources available to professionals in the intercultural field. The emphasis in the collection's first…
Semmler, J G
It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.
Oga, Toru; Nishimura, Koichi; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Hajiro, Takashi; Mishima, Michiaki
Dyspnoea measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be broadly divided into two categories: those that assess breathlessness during exercise, and those that assess breathlessness during daily activities. We investigated the relationships between dyspnoea at the end of exercise and during daily activities with clinical measurements and mortality in COPD patients. We examined 143 male outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. The peak Borg score at the end of progressive cycle ergometry was used for the assessment of peak dyspnoea rating during exercise, and the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) score was used for dyspnoea with activities of daily living. Relationships between these dyspnoea ratings with other clinical measurements of pulmonary function, exercise indices, health status and psychological status were then investigated. In addition, their relationship with the 5-year mortality of COPD patients was also analyzed to examine their predictive ability. Although the BDI score was significantly correlated with airflow limitation, diffusing capacity, exercise indices, health status and psychological status, the Borg score at the end of exercise had non-existent or only weak correlations with them. The BDI score was strongly significantly correlated with mortality, whereas the Borg score was not. Dyspnoea during daily activities was more significantly correlated with objective and subjective measurements of COPD than dyspnoea at the end of exercise. In addition, the former was more predictive of mortality. Dyspnoea with activities of daily living is considered to be a better measurement for evaluating the disease severity of COPD than peak dyspnoea during exercise.
Mochizuki, Akito Azumane; Sudo, Michiko Mochizuki; Kirino, Eiji; Itoh, Kenji
The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person coordination exercises evokes more sophisticated brain activation than viewing one-person coordination exercises. Thirty Japanese college students served as subjects. There were two sessions in this study: the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and the social ability session. In the fMRI session, the subjects were instructed to imagine they were performing coordination exercises. Also, we examined the social abilities from the viewpoint of empathising. Empathising was measured by self-reports on the Systemising, Empathy and Autism Spectrum Quotients (SQ, EQ and AQ). Regarding brain activation, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation was significant in specific areas such as the left cuneus (Brodmann area: BA 17) when the subjects imagined they were performing exercises involving two persons, as compared with the cases when they imagined they were performing exercises involving only one person. The fMRI results showed that exercises done by two persons require more sophisticated communication than those done by one person. Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that those with more autistic traits may undergo difficulties in the exercises done by two persons, especially in the case of playing a role as a follower.
Faes, Camille; Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Connes, Philippe; Hivert, Ludovic; Danho, Clotaire; Bogui, Pascal; Martin, Cyril; Pialoux, Vincent
Very few studies have investigated the effects of exercise on the biological parameters involved in vaso-occlusive events in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The aim of this study was to test how a mild-moderate endurance exercise modulates oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial activation in SCA patients and healthy individuals. Eleven patients with SCA and 15 healthy subjects completed a 20-min duration submaximal cycling exercise at ≈45 Watts. Plasma markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, endothelial activation and nitric oxide bioavailability were investigated before and after the exercise. Nitric oxide levels, anti-oxidant capacity, soluble (s)E-selectin and sP-selectin did not change in response to this exercise. Except for the malondialdehyde levels, which increased in the two groups, the other markers of oxidative stress remained unchanged in both groups in response to exercise. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels were increased at the end of exercise in both groups. sL-selectin decreased and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 increased with exercise in SCA patients only. The present data suggest that patients with SCA may undertake mild-moderate physical activities without any acute clinical complications, but care should be taken because oxidative stress and endothelial activation significantly increased in some patients.
Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali
Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.
Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek
Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…
A lesson structure for one-time bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions based on an active learning technique was developed. Active learning is discussed, and the "jigsaw method" is described. BI sessions presented to junior- and senior-level college students are examined, and considerations for librarians wishing to incorporate active…
Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)
Uysal, N; Kiray, M; Sisman, A R; Baykara, B; Aksu, I; Dayi, A; Gencoglu, C; Evren, M; Buyuk, E; Cetin, F; Acikgoz, O
It is known that regular aerobic exercise enhances cognitive functions and increases blood insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. People living in urban areas spend most of their time indoors and indoor air quality can affect health. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise in poor and good air quality environments on hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons, anxiety, and spatial learning and memory in adolescent mice. Poor air quality impaired spatial learning and memory; exercise did not affect learning or memory impairment. Exercise in a good air quality environment improved spatial learning and memory. Poor air quality increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and PFC. Both exercised and sedentary groups living in a poor air quality environment had lower serum IGF-1 levels than those living in a good air quality environment. Living in a poor air quality environment has negative effects on the hippocampus, PFC and blood IGF-1 levels in adolescent mice, but exercise did not alter the negative effects of poor air quality.
Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro
Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532
Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung
Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570
Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro
Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.
Thompson, Dylan; Karpe, Fredrik; Lafontan, Max; Frayn, Keith
Physical activity and exercise are key components of energy expenditure and therefore of energy balance. Changes in energy balance alter fat mass. It is therefore reasonable to ask: What are the links between physical activity and adipose tissue function? There are many complexities. Physical activity is a multifaceted behavior of which exercise is just one component. Physical activity influences adipose tissue both acutely and in the longer term. A single bout of exercise stimulates adipose tissue blood flow and fat mobilization, resulting in delivery of fatty acids to skeletal muscles at a rate well-matched to metabolic requirements, except perhaps in vigorous intensity exercise. The stimuli include adrenergic and other circulating factors. There is a period following an exercise bout when fatty acids are directed away from adipose tissue to other tissues such as skeletal muscle, reducing dietary fat storage in adipose. With chronic exercise (training), there are changes in adipose tissue physiology, particularly an enhanced fat mobilization during acute exercise. It is difficult, however, to distinguish chronic "structural" changes from those associated with the last exercise bout. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of training per se and negative energy balance. Epidemiological observations support the idea that physically active people have relatively low fat mass, and intervention studies tend to show that exercise training reduces fat mass. A much-discussed effect of exercise versus calorie restriction in preferentially reducing visceral fat is not borne out by meta-analyses. We conclude that, in addition to the regulation of fat mass, physical activity may contribute to metabolic health through beneficial dynamic changes within adipose tissue in response to each activity bout.
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.
Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.
Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Robey, Elisa; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, Hugh; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J
The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation. Eight middle-aged (53.5 ± 1.6 years) male participants took part in four 30 min experimental interventions (aerobic AE, resistance RE, combined aerobic/resistance exercise CARE, or no-exercise NE), in random order. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after each intervention, and incubated with one of three agonists of physiologically/clinically relevant pathways of platelet activation (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 TRAP, arachidonic acid AA, and cross-linked collagen-related peptide xCRP). In the presence of AA, TRAP, and xCRP, both RE and CARE evoked increases in MPAs immediately post-exercise (P < 0.01), whereas only AA significantly increased MPAs immediately after AE (P < 0.01). These increases in platelet activation post-exercise were transient, as responses approached pre-exercise levels by 1 h. These are the first data to suggest that exercise involving a resistance component in humans may transiently increase platelet-mediated thrombotic risk more than aerobic modalities.
Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus
Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…
Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.
Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…
Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject's hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.
Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.
Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.
Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…
Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject’s hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735
Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando
Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.
Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert
Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.
Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara E C; Durning, Steven J
Medical school education has traditionally been driven by single discipline teaching and assessment. Newer medical school curricula often implement an organ-based approach that fosters integration of basic science and clinical disciplines. Concept maps are widely used in education. Through diagrammatic depiction of a variety of concepts and their specific connections with other ideas, concept maps provide a unique perspective into learning and performance that can complement other assessment methods commonly used in medical schools. In this innovation, we describe using concepts maps as a vehicle for a modified a classic Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise. Modifications to traditional TBL in our innovation included replacing an individual assessment using multiple-choice questions with concept maps as well as combining the group assessment and application exercise whereby teams created concept maps. These modifications were made to further assess understanding of content across the Fundamentals module (the introductory module of the preclerkship curriculum). While preliminary, student performance and feedback from faculty and students support the use of concept maps in TBL. Our findings suggest concept maps can provide a unique means of determining assessment of learning and generating feedback to students. Concept maps can also demonstrate knowledge acquisition, organization of prior and new knowledge, and synthesis of that knowledge across disciplines in a unique way providing an additional means of assessment in addition to traditional multiple-choice questions.
Purpose: High order leadership, problem solving skills, and the capacity for innovation in new markets, and technologically complex and multidimensional contexts, are the new set of skills that are most valued by companies and employers alike. Business simulation exercises are one way of enhancing these skills. This article aims to examine the…
Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.
Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555
O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875
Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki
Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key Points Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Abdominal bracing should be
... find out what exercises are appropriate for you. Strength training Strength training includes the use of free weights, resistance ... with people with osteoporosis can help you develop strength-training routines. Proper form and technique are crucial ...
Ribisl, Paul M.
If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…
Cusi, K J; Pratipanawatr, T; Koval, J; Printz, R; Ardehali, H; Granner, D K; Defronzo, R A; Mandarino, L J
Glucose phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase, is the first committed step in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the isoform that is present in muscle and is regulated by insulin and muscle contraction. Glucose phosphorylation and HKII expression are both reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. A single bout of exercise increases HKII mRNA and activity in muscle from healthy subjects. The present study was performed to determine if a moderate exercise increases HKII mRNA expression and activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 hours after a single bout of cycle ergometer exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. HKII mRNA and activity and glycogen synthase activity were determined in the muscle biopsies. Exercise increased HKII mRNA in obese and diabetic subjects by 1.67 +/- 0.34 and 1.87 +/- 0.26-fold, respectively (P <.05 for both). Exercise did not significantly increase HKI mRNA. When HKII mRNA increases were compared with the 2.26 +/- 0.36-fold increase in HKII mRNA previously reported for healthy lean subjects, no statistically significant differences were found. In contrast to the increase in HKII activity observed after exercise by lean healthy controls, exercise did not increase HKII activity in obese nondiabetic or diabetic subjects. Exercise increased glycogen synthase activity (GS(0.1) and GS(FV)) significantly in both obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic patients. The present results indicate that there is a posttranscriptional defect in the response of HKII expression to exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. This defect may contribute to reduced HKII activity and glucose uptake in these patients.
Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136
Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G
Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.
Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.
Scientific literacy has been defined as the foremost challenge of this decade (AAAS, 2012). The Geological Society of American in its position statement postis that due to the systemic nature of the discipline of earth science, it is the most effective way to engage students in STEM disciplines. Given that the most common place for exposure to earth sciences is at the freshman level for non majors, we decided to transform a freshman introductory geology course to an active, student centered course, using an inquiry based approach. Our focus was to ensure the students saw the earth sciences as broadly applicative field, and not an esoteric science. To achieve this goal, we developed a series of problems that required the students to apply the concepts acquired through their self guided learning into the different topics of the course. This self guided learning took the form of didactic content uploaded into the learning management system (the various elements used to deliver the content were designed video clips, short text based lectures, short formative assessments, discussion boards and other web based discovery exercises) with the class time devoted to problem solving. A comparison of student performance in the active learning classroom vs. a traditional classroom as measured on a geoscience concept inventory (the questions were chosen by a third party who was not teaching either courses) showed that the the students in the active learning classroom scored 10% higher on the average in comparison to the traditional class. In addition to this heightened performance, the students in the active classroom also showed a higher degree of content retention 8 weeks after the semester had ended. This session will share the design process, some exercises and efficacy data collected.
Sakamoto, Kei; Arnolds, David E W; Ekberg, Ingvar; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J
Activation of Akt and deactivation of GSK3 are critical signals regulating a number of cellular processes in multiple systems. Whether physical exercise alters Akt and GSK3 activity in human skeletal muscle is controversial. beta-Catenin, a GSK3 substrate and important Wnt signaling protein that alters gene transcription, has not been investigated in human skeletal muscle. In the present study, eight healthy human subjects performed 30min of cycling exercise at 75% of maximum workload (submaximal) followed by 6 bouts of 60s at 125% maximum workload (maximal). Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle were taken at rest (basal), and within 15s following cessation of the submaximal and maximal exercise bouts. Exercise at both submaximal and maximal intensities significantly increased Akt activity (40% and 110%, respectively). Increases in Akt activity were accompanied by increases in Akt Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation, decreased GSK3alpha activity ( approximately 30% at both intensities), and increased phosphorylation of GSK3alpha Ser(21). Exercise at both intensities also decreased beta-catenin Ser(33/37)Thr(41) phosphorylation (50-60% at both intensities). These results demonstrate that Akt, GSK3, and beta-catenin signaling are regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, and as such identify them as possible molecular mediators of exercise's effect on metabolic and transcriptional processes in skeletal muscle.
McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.
Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.
The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.
Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan
Background There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Objective Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). Methods In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and
Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross
Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.
Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung
This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841
Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung
This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.
Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.
Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of
Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.
Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789
Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi
We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption. The pedometer counts the number of steps. Blood samples for laboratory tests were obtained during the visits. The first examination was conducted at the start of the study and repeated at 2 and 6 months. A significant difference in the decrease in HbA1c level was observed between the two groups at 2 months. The results suggest that the use of activity level monitor that displays information on exercise intensity, in addition to the number of steps, is useful in exercise therapy as it enhances the concept of exercise therapy and promotes lowering of HbA1c in diabetic patients. PMID:27761471
Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A
Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.
Schneider, S; Rouffet, D M; Billaut, F; Strüder, H K
Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5 Wkg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise.
Ramsier, R. D.
Describes an approach to incorporate active learning strategies into the first semester of a university-level introductory physics course. Combines cooperative and peer-based methods inside the classroom with project-based learning outside the classroom in an attempt to develop students' transferable skills as well as improving their understanding…
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…
Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.
This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…
Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.
The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…
Weir, Jennifer Anne
The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.
Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396
Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani
Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a
Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E
Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.
Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas
This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.
Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng
Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.
Johnson, C E; Belfield, P W; Davis, S; Cooke, N J; Spencer, A; Davies, J A
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were measured before and after exercise in nine asthmatic patients and 12 non-asthmatic volunteers. Exercise was preceded by administration in random order of either placebo, salbutamol 200 micrograms, or sodium cromoglycate 2 mg from a pressurised inhaler. In control subjects there were minimal changes in PEF and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin. In the asthmatic patients the typical changes in PEF were seen on exercise; plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin rose significantly in parallel, the rise preceding the fall in PEF. The changes in peak flow and platelet activation induced by exercise were attenuated by prior administration of salbutamol or cromoglycate. These results indicate that exercise induced asthma is associated with a rise in platelet release products similar to that observed in antigen induced asthma. PMID:2943049
In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)
Schneider, Stefan; Askew, Christopher D; Diehl, Julia; Mierau, Andreas; Kleinert, Jens; Abel, Thomas; Carnahan, Heather; Strüder, Heiko K
An increasing number of studies within the recent years connected physical exercise with changes in brain cortical activity. Most of this data (1) refers to aerobic exercise and (2) does not correlate to psychological parameters although it is well known that exercise has a positive effect on mood. In times where health activities play a major role it is increasingly necessary to connect somato-physiological and somatopsychological components of physical activity. This study aimed to find changes in EEG activity and mood after low, preferred and high intensity running. EEG and actual state of mood were recorded before and after exercise. Results showed an effect for the preferred and high intensity velocity in both, EEG and mood. As only the higher frequency areas N18 Hz showed persisting decreases post-exercise we concluded that this might be a sign of outlasting effects of exercise on brain cortical activity which may have influences on general well-being. We could also show that there is a clear relationship between EEG activity and mood reflecting a basic principle of cortical excitation.
FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl
Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305
Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck
[Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players’ balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students. PMID:25729204
Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck
[Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.
Reid, Robert D; Tulloch, Heather; Kocourek, Jana; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Blanchard, Chris M; Riley, Dana L; Pipe, Andrew L
We describe transitions between exercise stages of change in people with coronary artery disease (CAD) over a 6-month period following a CAD-related hospitalization and evaluate constructs from Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, the Ecological Model, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation as correlates of stage transition. Seven hundred eighty-two adults hospitalized with CAD were recruited and administered a baseline survey including assessments of theory-based constructs and exercise stage of change. Mailed surveys were used to gather information concerning exercise stage of change and participation in cardiac rehabilitation 6 months later. Progression from pre-action stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with greater perceived efficacy of exercise to reduce risk of future disease, fewer barriers to exercise, more access to home exercise equipment, and participation in cardiac rehabilitation. Regression from already active stages between baseline and 6 month follow-up was associated with increased perceived susceptibility to a future CAD-related event, fewer intentions to exercise, lower self-efficacy, and more barriers to exercise.
Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef
Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.
Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.
Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L
The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.
Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.
Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.
Negrier, C; Seuser, A; Forsyth, A; Lobet, S; Llinas, A; Rosas, M; Heijnen, L
Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL.
Löllgen, H; Bachl, N
Guidelines for cardiovascular prevention need to be regularly revised and updated. With respect to physical activity and exercise, many studies with practical relevance have been published in recent years. They are concerned with the evidence of physical activity for prevention of many diseases and the spectrum of indications for applying physical activity for prevention, therapy and rehabilitation. Training recommendations have been developed for the prevention of various diseases according to the FITT rule, which stands for frequency, intensity, time (of session) and type of sports followed by a progression in the amount of training. Recent publications show that moderate exercise with an increase in regular activity (e.g. 10,000 steps per day) is a sufficient approach for risk reduction in many diseases. An as yet unresolved problem is the best approach for effective motivation for physical exercise. The prescription of exercise is an important approach for improving the motivation for physical activity; however, prescribing exercise needs basic knowledge in sports physiology and proper training recommendations. Furthermore, population-based interventions for physical activity are urgently needed to implement more physical activity in the daily routine. The current ESC guidelines provide a great deal of new information to be implemented in the prevention in primary care; however, with regard to physical activity, more comprehensive biological data of physical activity should be presented in order to improve physician's knowledge, thus enhancing the fight against inactivity and sedentary lifestyles as one of the most significant risk factors.
Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S
The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Scarlatos, Lori L.; Scarlatos, Tony
Games are widely recognized for their potential to enhance students' learning. Yet they are only rarely used in classrooms because they cannot be modified to meet the needs of a particular class. This article describes a novel approach to creating educational software that addresses this problem: provide an interface specifically for teachers that…
Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent
Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…
Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.
Rasmussen, P; Nielsen, J; Overgaard, M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Gjedde, A; Secher, N H; Petersen, N C
Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to the ability to generate a maximal voluntary contraction and to the transcranial magnetic stimulated force generation. To determine the role of a reduced OCI and in central fatigue, 16 males performed low intensity, maximal intensity and hypoxic cycling exercise. Exercise fatigue was evaluated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced cerebral oxygen delivery 25% and decreased 11+/-4 mmHg (P<0.001) together with OCI (6.2+/-0.7 to 4.8+/-0.5, P<0.001). RPE increased while MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). During maximal exercise declined 8+/-4 mmHg (P<0.05) and OCI to 3.8+/-0.5 (P<0.001). RPE was 18.5, and MVC and voluntary activation were reduced (P<0.05). We observed no signs of muscular fatigue in the elbow flexors and all control MVCs were similar to resting values. Exhaustive exercise provoked cerebral deoxygenation, metabolic changes and indices of fatigue similar to those observed during exercise in hypoxia indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.
Mackenzie, M G; Hamilton, D L; Murray, J T; Baar, K
Resistance-exercise training results in a progressive increase in muscle mass and force production. Following an acute bout of resistance exercise, the rate of protein synthesis increases proportionally with the increase in protein degradation, correlating at 3 h in the starved state. Amino acids taken immediately before or immediately after exercise increase the post-exercise rate of protein synthesis. Therefore a protein that controls protein degradation and amino acid-sensitivity would be a potential candidate for controlling the activation of protein synthesis following resistance exercise. One such candidate is the class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting mutant 34). Vps34 controls both autophagy and amino acid signalling to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70 S6K1 (S6 kinase 1). We have identified a significant increase in mVps34 (mammalian Vps34) activity 3 h after resistance exercise, continuing for at least 6 h, and propose a mechanism whereby mVps34 could act as an internal amino acid sensor to mTOR after resistance exercise.
Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities that deal with plants and animals in nature. Basic concepts are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, worksheet exercises, diagrams,…
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...
Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal
Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients. PMID:27695482
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
Brach, Jennifer S.; Van Swearingen, Jessie M.; Perera, Subashan; Wert, David M.; Studenski, Stephanie
Background Current exercise recommendationsfocus on endurance and strength, but rarely incorporate principles of motor learning. Motor learning exerciseis designed to address neurological aspects of movement. Motor learning exercise has not been evaluated in older adults with subclinical gait dysfunction. Objectives Tocompare motor learning versus standard exercise on measures of mobility and perceived function and disability. Design Single-blind randomized trial. Setting University research center. Participants Olderadults (n=40), mean age 77.1±6.0 years), who had normal walking speed (≥1.0 m/s) and impaired motor skill (Figure of 8 walk time > 8 s). Interventions The motor learning program (ML) incorporated goal-oriented stepping and walking to promote timing and coordination within the phases of the gait cycle. The standard program (S) employed endurance training by treadmill walking.Both included strength training and were offered twice weekly for one hour for 12 weeks. Measurements Primary outcomes included mobility performance (gait efficiency, motor skill in walking, gait speed, and walking endurance)and secondary outcomes included perceived function and disability (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). Results 38 of 40 participants completed the trial (ML, n=18; S, n=20). ML improved more than Sin gait speed (0.13 vs. 0.05 m/s, p=0.008) and motor skill (−2.2 vs. −0.89 s, p<0.0001). Both groups improved in walking endurance (28.3 and 22.9m, but did not differ significantly p=0.14). Changes in gait efficiency and perceived function and disability were not different between the groups (p>0.10). Conclusion In older adults with subclinical gait dysfunction, motor learning exercise improved some parameters of mobility performance more than standard exercise. PMID:24219189
Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M
Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.
Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir
INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.
Exercise and sports activities can afford mechanical stimuli to the bone and joint tissues which are required to maintain the tissue properties. Moreover, physical exercise is an important part of the management of bone and joint morbidities such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. On the other hand, excessive mechanical load involved in exercise and sports activities can be harmful potentially causing overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal tissues. Especially, safety margin for the amount of acceptable mechanical stress is narrow in the elderly due to preexisting musculoskeletal problems. Preparticipation medical checkup and construction of appropriate exercise program based on the physical assessment are mandatory to prevent overload applied to the bone and joint tissues.
Joshi, Maheshkumar P.; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Kathuria, Ravi; Weidner, C. Ken, II
This article examines an attempt to introduce experiential learning methods in a business strategy course. In organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology, experiential teaching methods have been so widely adopted that some authors have suggested dropping the distinction between experiential and traditional teaching. Although…
Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776
Myllymäki, Tero; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Savolainen, Katri; Hokka, Laura; Jakonen, Riikka; Juuti, Tanja; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Kaartinen, Jukka; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Rusko, Heikki
Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily load. Regular physical activity enhances overall sleep quality, but the effects of acute exercise on sleep are not well defined. In sleep hygiene recommendations, intensive exercising is not suggested within the last 3 h before bed time, but this recommendation has not been adequately tested experimentally. Therefore, the effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep were examined by measuring polysomnographic, actigraphic and subjective sleep quality, as well as cardiac autonomic activity. Eleven (seven men, four women) physically fit young adults (VO(2max) 54±8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) , age 26±3 years) were monitored in a sleep laboratory twice in a counterbalanced order: (1) after vigorous late-night exercise; and (2) after a control day without exercise. The incremental cycle ergometer exercise until voluntary exhaustion started at 21:00±00:28 hours, lasted for 35±3 min, and ended 2:13±00:19 hours before bed time. The proportion of non-rapid eye movement sleep was greater after the exercise day than the control day (P<0.01), while no differences were seen in actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. During the whole sleep, no differences were found in heart rate (HR) variability, whereas HR was higher after the exercise day than the control day (54±7 versus 51±7, P<0.01), and especially during the first three sleeping hours. The results indicate that vigorous late-night exercise does not disturb sleep quality. However, it may have effects on cardiac autonomic control of heart during the first sleeping hours.
Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.
Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.
Banas, Jennifer R.; York, Cindy S.
This study explored the impact of authentic learning exercises, as an instructional strategy, on preservice teachers' technology integration self-efficacy and intentions to integrate technology. Also explored was the predictive relationship between change in preservice teachers' technology integration self-efficacy and change in intentions to…
Sukhontapatipak, Chutamas; Srikosamatara, Sompoad
Providing undergraduate biology students with ecological knowledge and environmental awareness is critical for developing professionalism in sustainable development. In addition to the cognitive and psychomotor development, outdoor ecological exercises combining place-based education and experiential learning can stimulate the affective domain of…
Banas, Jennifer R.
Background: Teachers and preservice teachers may neglect intervening into and/or leading efforts to prevent bullying because they the lack confidence to do so. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of authentic learning exercises on health education preservice teachers' self-efficacy to perform bullying prevention…
Scholnick, D A; Gleeson, T T
During recovery from even a brief period of exercise, metabolic rate remains elevated above resting levels for extended periods. The intensity and duration of exercise as well as body temperature and hormone levels can influence this excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). We examined the influence of activity before exercise (ABE), commonly termed warm-up in endotherms, on EPOC in the desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis. The rate of oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels were measured in 11 female D. dorsalis (mass 41.1 +/- 3.0 g; mean +/- s.e.m.) during rest, after two types of ABE and after 5 min of exhaustive exercise followed by 60 min of recovery. ABE was either single (15 s of maximal activity followed by a 27 min pause) or intermittent (twelve 15 s periods of exercise separated by 2 min pauses). Our results indicate that both single and intermittent ABE reduced recovery metabolic rate. EPOC volumes decreased from 0.261 to 0.156 ml of oxygen consumed during 60 min of recovery when lizards were subjected to intermittent ABE. The average cost of activity (net V(O2) during exercise and 60 min of recovery per distance traveled) was almost 40 % greater in lizards that exercised without any prior activity than in lizards that underwent ABE. Blood lactate levels and removal rates were greatest in animals that underwent ABE. These findings may be of particular importance for terrestrial ectotherms that typically use burst locomotion and have a small aerobic scope and a long recovery period.
Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J
Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.
Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio; Takagi, Mineko; Sugawara, Kenichi
In this study, we investigated how ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) activation during unimanual hand movements and hemispheric asymmetry changed after motor skill learning. Eleven right-handed participants preformed a two-ball-rotation motor task with the right and the left hand, separately, in all experimental sessions. Before and after exercise sessions, the degree of ipsilateral M1 activation during brief execution of the motor task was measured as changes in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the thenar and the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nontask hand using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Before exercise, MEPs of the nontask hand were significantly facilitated on both sides during the motor task. After exercise, facilitation of MEPs of the nontask hand during the motor task was significantly reduced for the right hand (thenar: P=0.014, first dorsal interosseous: P=0.022) but not for the left hand. We conclude that ipsilateral M1 activation, associated with a complex motor task, is first symmetrical in both hemispheres. However, on exercise, ipsilateral activation is reduced only in left M1, indicating a stronger learning-dependent modification of motor networks within the left hemisphere.
LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.
Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543
Niemela, Joseph J.
Active learning in optics and photonics (ALOP) is a program of the International Basic Sciences Program at UNESCO, in collaboration with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and supported by SPIE, which is designed to help teachers in the developing world attract and retain students in the physical sciences. Using optics and photonics, it naturally attracts the interest of students and can be implemented using relatively low cost technologies, so that it can be more easily reproduced locally. The active learning methodology is student-centered, meaning the teachers give up the role of lecturer in favor of guiding and facilitating a learning process in which students engage in hands-on activities and active peer-peer discussions, and is shown to effectively enhance basic conceptual understanding of physics.
Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…
Ahmed, Noveera T.
This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…
Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.
Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
Darby, Linda, Ed.
This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting…
Stone, Audrey J.; Wyman, James W.; Blazquez, Ivan N.
Purpose/Background: The RAZOR curl has been introduced as a hamstring exercise. However, modifications to the exercise have been developed which are proposed to utilize some of the muscles of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Thus, it was the purpose of this study to quantitatively examine the modified RAZOR curl using surface electromyography (sEMG), as an exercise that may recruit the trunk muscles of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Methods: Twenty-eight active male and female graduate students (24.2±1.3 years; 174.8±9.9 cm; 74.9±14.9 kg), consented to participate. Dependent variables were muscle activation of trunk musculature (dominant side gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, multifidus, longissimus, lower rectus abdominis, upper rectus abdominis, external obliques) reported as percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) during the exercise while the independent variable was the muscle selected. Results: The multifidus and longissimus demonstrated moderately strong activation (35-50%MVIC) while the upper rectus abdominis demonstrated strong activation (20-35%MVIC) and the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, lower rectus abdominis, and external obliques had minimal activation. Conclusions: These findings allow the practitioner to utilize an exercise that provides a functional training stimulus that activates not only the hamstrings but also some musculature of the trunk muscles of the lumbopelvic-hip complex at strong to moderately strong levels. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22319680
Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores
Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity ("just do it", "be active") hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise.
Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai
Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active. PMID:27195151
Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai
Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active.
Thomas, Renee Ahrens
The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy setting. PMID:17136164
Burnett, Angus F; Wee, Wing K; Xie, Wei; Oh, Paul W; Lim, Julian J H; Tan, Kelvin W W
Although strength and conditioning exercises have been prescribed to enhance performance and prevent injury in sailors, little is known about these exercises in comparison to the demands placed on the sailor's musculature while hiking maximally. Because of the difficulty in collecting hiking-related data on water, a 3-minute maximal hiking test (HM180) has been previously developed for use in the laboratory setting. There were 2 aims of this study. The first aim was to determine whether discriminative validity could be shown for the HM180 test in a group of junior sailors of differing ability level and gender. The second aim was to determine whether differences in muscle activation existed between selected strength and conditioning exercises and the HM180 test. Twenty-nine adolescent boy and girl sailors aged between 14 and 16 years from the Singaporean National Byte Class training squad (n = 12) and the Singapore High Participation Group (n = 17) were recruited for this study. The average levels of normalized muscle activation in selected lower limb and trunk muscles in 4 selected strength and conditioning exercises (leg extension, back squat, and back extension exercises, a 30-second hiking hold) and a maximal 3-minute hiking test (the HM180 test) were quantified. Discriminative validity of the HM180 test was shown, and it was confirmed that the strength and conditioning exercises provide an overload stimulus for the HM180 test. Further, similar levels of muscle activation were found for the vastus lateralis in the leg extension and back squat exercises, and the superficial lumbar multifidus in the back extension and back squat exercises. This study has the potential to inform the design of strength and conditioning programs for junior sailors.
Watt, Matthew J; Howlett, Kirsten F; Febbraio, Mark A; Spriet, Lawrence L; Hargreaves, Mark
To evaluate the role of adrenaline in regulating carbohydrate metabolism during moderate exercise, 10 moderately trained men completed two 20 min exercise bouts at 58 ± 2 % peak pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). On one occasion saline was infused (CON), and on the other adrenaline was infused intravenously for 5 min prior to and throughout exercise (ADR). Glucose kinetics were measured by a primed, continuous infusion of 6,6-[2H]glucose and muscle samples were obtained prior to and at 1 and 20 min of exercise. The infusion of adrenaline elevated (P < 0.01) plasma adrenaline concentrations at rest (pre-infusion, 0.28 ± 0.09; post-infusion, 1.70 ± 0.45 nmol l−1; means ±s.e.m.) and this effect was maintained throughout exercise. Total carbohydrate oxidation increased by 18 % and this effect was due to greater skeletal muscle glycogenolysis (P < 0.05) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activation (P < 0.05, treatment effect). Glucose rate of appearance was not different between trials, but the infusion of adrenaline decreased (P < 0.05, treatment effect) skeletal muscle glucose uptake in ADR. During exercise muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) (P = 0.055, treatment effect) and lactate (P < 0.05) were elevated in ADR compared with CON and no changes were observed for pyruvate, creatine, phosphocreatine, ATP and the calculated free concentrations of ADP and AMP. The data demonstrate that elevated plasma adrenaline levels during moderate exercise in untrained men increase skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown and PDH activation, which results in greater carbohydrate oxidation. The greater muscle glycogenolysis appears to be due to increased glycogen phosphorylase transformation whilst the increased PDH activity cannot be readily explained. Finally, the decreased glucose uptake observed during exercise in ADR is likely to be due to the increased intracellular G-6-P and a subsequent decrease in glucose phosphorylation. PMID:11433007
McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L
1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in
McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L
1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in
Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming
With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…
Singh, I; Quinn, H; Mok, M; Southgate, R J; Turner, A H; Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Hawley, J A
Sedentary and trained men respond differently to the same intensity of exercise, this is probably related to their platelet reactivity and antioxidant capacity. There is growing interest in the utilization of antioxidant-rich plant extracts as dietary food supplements. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of sub maximal exercise on platelet count and differential response of platelet activation in trained and sedentary subjects and to observe if cocoa polyphenols reverse the effect of exercise on platelet function. The practical significance of this study was that many sedentary people engage in occasional strenuous exercise that may predispose them to risk of heart disease. Fasting blood samples were collected from 16 male subjects, pre and post 1-h cycling exercise at 70% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) before and after consumption of cocoa or placebo. Agonist stimulated citrated whole blood was utilized for measuring platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and platelet activation. Baseline platelet count (221 +/- 33 x 10(9)/L) and ATP release (1.4 +/- 0.6 nmol) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise in all subjects. Baseline platelet numbers in the trained were higher (P < 0.05) than in the sedentary (235 +/- 37 vs. 208 +/- 34 x 10(9)/L), where as platelet activation in trained was lower (P < 0.05) than sedentary (51 +/- 6 vs. 59 +/- 5%). Seven days of cocoa polyphenol supplementation had little effect on any of the parameters measured. We conclude that trained subjects show decreased activation of stimulated platelets when compared to the sedentary subjects and short-term cocoa polyphenol supplementation did not decrease platelet activity in response to exercise independent of prior training status.
Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores
Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity (“just do it”, “be active”) hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise. PMID:23606776
Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A
A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.
Gorbet, Nathaniel; Selkow, Noelle M.; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan
Dysfunction of the transverse abdominis (TrA) has been associated with LBP. Several therapeutic exercises are prescribed to help target the TrA. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to capture activation of the TrA during exercise. The purpose was to examine TrA activation during the ADIM and quadruped exercises between healthy and nonsymptomatic LBP patients. We instructed the subjects how to perform the exercises and measured muscle thickness of the TrA at rest and during the exercises using RUSI. This allowed us to calculate TrA activation ratio during these exercises. We found no significant differences between activation ratios of the two groups during either exercise; however TrA activation during the ADIM was higher than the quadruped exercise. These exercises were capable of activating the TrA, which may be in part due to the verbal instruction they received. These exercises could be used during prevention or rehabilitation programs, since the TrA is activated. PMID:22110965
Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A
Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.
Hedrington, Maka S; Tate, Donna B; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N
The aim of this study was to determine whether antecedent stimulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors with the benzodiazepine alprazolam can blunt physiologic responses during next-day moderate (90 min) exercise in healthy man. Thirty-one healthy individuals (16 male/15 female aged 28 ± 1 year, BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were studied during separate, 2-day protocols. Day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or hypoglycemic clamps with or without 1 mg alprazolam given 30 min before a clamp. Day 2 consisted of 90-min euglycemic cycling exercise at 50% VO2max. Despite similar euglycemia (5.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and insulinemia (46 ± 6 pmol/L) during day 2 exercise studies, GABA A activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone responses. Lipolysis (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and endogenous glucose production during exercise were also reduced, and glucose infusion rates were increased following prior euglycemia with alprazolam. Prior hypoglycemia with alprazolam resulted in further reduction of glucagon and cortisol responses during exercise. We conclude that prior activation of GABA A pathways can play a significant role in blunting key autonomous nervous system, neuroendocrine, and metabolic physiologic responses during next-day exercise in healthy man.
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.
The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.
Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung
Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.
Schaser, Allison J.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; Connor, Nadine P.
Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people. PMID:26477376
Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P
Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people.
Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706
Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.
Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028
Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni
This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.
Vanzella, Cláudia; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Odorcyk, Felipe Kawa; Nicola, Fabrício; Kolling, Janaína; Longoni, Aline; Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza; Netto, Carlos Alexandre
Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training. Animals of all ages were assigned to naïve (with no behavioral or exercise training), sedentary (non-exercised, with cognitive training) and exercised (20 min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks and with cognitive training) groups. Cognition was assessed by reference and working memory tasks run in the Morris Water maze; 24 h after last session of behavioral testing, hippocampi were collected for biochemical analysis. Results demonstrated that: (a) a moderate treadmill running exercise prevented spatial learning and memory deficits in aged rats; (b) training in the Water maze increased both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus of mature and aged rats; (c) aged exercised rats displayed an even further increase of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, (d) enzyme activity correlated with memory performance in aged rats. It is suggested that exercise prevents spatial memory deficits in aged rats probably through the activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hippocampus.
Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd
Context : Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective : To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design : Cross-sectional study. Setting : Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants : A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) : Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results : Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions : Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.
Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton
Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…
Background: Understanding individual-differences of those people who do and do not meet physical activity recommendations could inform targets for increasing physical activity. Exercise reinforcement may be one such individual-level determinate, but it is not yet known whether those who meet activi...
Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth
The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank
Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from
Nakamura, Yukiko; Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.
Context: The appropriate resistance intensity to prescribe for shoulder rehabilitative exercise is not completely known. Excessive activation of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles could be counterproductive for scapulohumeral rhythm during humeral elevation. Objective: To identify the effects of different exercise intensities on the scapular muscles during a free-motion “robbery” exercise performed in different degrees of shoulder abduction in seated and standing positions. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Kinesiology Adapted Physical Education Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 15 healthy male college students (age = 20.5 ± 2.2 years, height = 174.5 ± 5.3 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 6.0 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 5 repetitions of a randomized exercise sequence of the robbery exercise in 2 body positions (seated, standing), 2 shoulder-abducted positions (W [20°], 90/90 [90°]) at 3 intensities (0%, 3%, and 7% body weight). Main Outcome Measure(s): Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles of the upper extremity was collected. All EMG activities were normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction of each corresponding muscle (%). Results: The serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, and infraspinatus EMG activities were greater at 7% body weight in the seated position compared with the standing position (P < .05). The EMG activities in all 5 muscles were greater in the 90/90 position than in the W position (P < .05). Conclusions: Scapular muscle activity modulated relative to changes in body posture and resistance intensity. These findings will enable clinicians to prescribe the appropriate level of exercise intensity and positioning during shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:26986055
Kelly, Marie; Jacobs, Dee; Wooten, Mary E.; Edeer, Ayse Ozcan
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were: 1) describe a hierarchy of electromyographic activity production, using percentage maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during prone, quadruped and sitting exercises; and 2) identify optimal recruitment exercises for both lumbar iliocostalis as a global multi-segmental stabilizer and lumbar multifidus as a segmental stabilizer. [Subjects] Twelve healthy volunteers (six male and six female) aged 24 to 45 participated. [Methods] Surface electromyographic activity data were collected bilaterally from lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles during exercises. [Results] Two-way ANOVA showed that prone extension, and prone alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce a statistically significant difference in percent maximum voluntary contraction of lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus bilaterally compared to other exercises. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting exercises produce greater activity in lumbar multifidus muscle than sitting exercises [Conclusion] Prone exercises generate the greatest electromyographic activity and may be the most effective exercises for strengthening both lumbar iliocostalis and lumbar multifidus muscles. Quadruped alternate arm and leg lifting produces electromyographic activity at the recommended percent maximum voluntary contraction for training the lumbar multifidus in its role as a segmental stabilizer and is an effective training exercise for this goal. PMID:27821968
Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.
Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904
Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65 years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8 m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253
MacNeil, Lauren G; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan E; Baker, Steven K; Tarnopolsky, Mark A
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise damages skeletal muscle tissue, activating mechanisms of recovery and remodeling that may be influenced by the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using high density oligonucleotide based microarrays, we screened for differences in mRNA expression caused by E2 and eccentric exercise. After random assignment to 8 days of either placebo (CON) or E2 (EXP), eighteen men performed 150 single-leg eccentric contractions. Muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (BL), following supplementation (PS), +3 hours (3H) and +48 hours (48H) after exercise. Serum E2 concentrations increased significantly with supplementation (P<0.001) but did not affect microarray results. Exercise led to early transcriptional changes in striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation and the downstream transcription factor FOS. Targeted RT-PCR analysis identified concurrent induction of negative regulators of calcineurin signaling RCAN (P<0.001) and HMOX1 (P = 0.009). Protein contents were elevated for RND3 at 3H (P = 0.02) and FOS at 48H (P<0.05). These findings indicate that early RhoA and NFAT signaling and regulation are altered following exercise for muscle remodeling and repair, but are not affected by E2.
Lee, Tae-Sik; Song, Min-Young; Kwon, Yu-Jeong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of back and lower limb muscles in subjects who were performing a squat exercise at different angles of trunk flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects (age 21.1± 1.8 years, height 168.7 ± 8.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 12.3 kg) volunteered. The activation of the erector spinae muscle, rectus femoris muscle, gluteus maximus muscle and biceps femoris muscle was observed while the subjects performed squat exercises with a trunk flexion of 0°, 15°, and 30°. [Results] The erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, and biceps femoris muscle were activated more during the squat exercise with the trunk flexion at 30° than the exercise with the trunk flexion at 0°. The rectus femoris muscle showed a tendency to decrease as the truck flexion increased. [Conclusion] Squat exercise be executed while maintaining an erect trunk posture if one wishes to strengthen the quadriceps muscle while reducing the load on the lower back. PMID:28174462
Lee, Tae-Sik; Song, Min-Young; Kwon, Yu-Jeong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of back and lower limb muscles in subjects who were performing a squat exercise at different angles of trunk flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects (age 21.1± 1.8 years, height 168.7 ± 8.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 12.3 kg) volunteered. The activation of the erector spinae muscle, rectus femoris muscle, gluteus maximus muscle and biceps femoris muscle was observed while the subjects performed squat exercises with a trunk flexion of 0°, 15°, and 30°. [Results] The erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, and biceps femoris muscle were activated more during the squat exercise with the trunk flexion at 30° than the exercise with the trunk flexion at 0°. The rectus femoris muscle showed a tendency to decrease as the truck flexion increased. [Conclusion] Squat exercise be executed while maintaining an erect trunk posture if one wishes to strengthen the quadriceps muscle while reducing the load on the lower back.
Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.
Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.
The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60% VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523
March, Jordon K; Jensen, Kyle C; Porter, Nathan T; Breakwell, Donald P
Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.
March, Jordon K.; Jensen, Kyle C.; Porter, Nathan T.; Breakwell, Donald P.
Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology. PMID:23653759
Discusses the role of movement in brain function for academic learning, examining problems related to children's sedentary lifestyle and highlighting related literature, which includes a study that compared the mental performance of students who were involved in regular continuous activity to that of a group of inactive students and found that…
Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.
An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…
Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza
The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…
Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula
Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…
Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu
This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…
Griffith, John R.
Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
Lin, Chiu-Lan Nina
The utmost goal of foreign language instruction is aimed at helping the learner master the language. At the same time the learner shall become equipped with linguistic, pragmatic and social-linguistic competence. This study was done to explore if review activities in EFL classes should be mandatory for learners to learn the new knowledge. One…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…
A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…
Birdwell, Jonathan; Scott, Ralph; Horley, Edward
This article explores how active citizenship can be encouraged through education and community action. It proposes that service learning and a renewed focus on voluntarism can both promote social cohesion between different ethnic and cultural groups while also fostering among the population a greater understanding of and commitment to civic…
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Donato, Clorinda; And Others
This resource book provides 26 learning activities with background materials for teaching about the Enlightenment. Topics include: (1) "What Was the Enlightenment?"; (2) "An Introduction to the Philosophes"; (3) "Was the Enlightenment a Revolt Against Rationalism?"; (4) "Were the Philosophes Democrats? A…
This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…
Grossman, Gary D.; Richards, Travis
We evaluated students' perceptions and reactions to an active learning Karaoke Video project in both a large (104 student) undergraduate class in Natural History of Georgia and a small graduate seminar in Fish Ecology. Undergraduate responses were evaluated with both questionnaires and triangulation interviews and graduate student responses…
Ichinose, Masashi; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; O'Leary, Donal S; Hammond, Robert L; Coutsos, Matthew; Ichinose, Tomoko; Pallante, Marco; Iellamo, Ferdinando
We have previously shown that spontaneous baroreflex-induced changes in heart rate (HR) do not always translate into changes in cardiac output (CO) at rest. We have also shown that heart failure (HF) decreases this linkage between changes in HR and CO. Whether dynamic exercise and muscle metaboreflex activation (via imposed reductions in hindlimb blood flow) further alter this translation in normal and HF conditions is unknown. We examined these questions using conscious, chronically instrumented dogs before and after pacing-induced HF during mild and moderate dynamic exercise with and without muscle metaboreflex activation. We measured left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), CO, and HR and analyzed the spontaneous HR-LVSP and CO-LVSP relationships. In normal animals, mild exercise significantly decreased HR-LVSP (-3.08 +/- 0.5 vs. -5.14 +/- 0.6 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and CO-LVSP (-134.74 +/- 24.5 vs. -208.6 +/- 22.2 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1); P < 0.05). Moderate exercise further decreased both and, in addition, significantly reduced HR-CO translation (25.9 +/- 2.8% vs. 52.3 +/- 4.2%; P < 0.05). Muscle metaboreflex activation at both workloads decreased HR-LVSP, whereas it had no significant effect on CO-LVSP and the HR-CO translation. HF significantly decreased HR-LVSP, CO-LVSP, and the HR-CO translation in all situations. We conclude that spontaneous baroreflex HR responses do not always cause changes in CO during exercise. Moreover, muscle metaboreflex activation during mild and moderate dynamic exercise reduces this coupling. In addition, in HF the HR-CO translation also significantly decreases during both workloads and decreases even further with muscle metaboreflex activation.
Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P
Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.
Jackman, M L; Gibala, M J; Hultman, E; Graham, T E
We examined the effect of glycogen availability and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCOAD) activity during exercise. Six subjects cycled at approximately 75% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion on three occasions under different preexercise conditions: 1) low muscle glycogen (LOW), 2) low muscle glycogen plus BCAA supplementation (LOW+BCAA), and 3) high muscle glycogen (CON). The LOW trial was performed first, followed by the other two conditions in random order, and biopsies for all trials were obtained at rest, after 15 min of exercise (15 min), and at the point of exhaustion during the LOW trial (49 min). BCOAD activity was not different among the three conditions at rest; however, at 15 min BCOAD activity was higher (P < or = 0.05) for the LOW (31 +/- 5%) and LOW+BCAA (43 +/- 11%) conditions compared with CON (12 +/- 1%). BCOAD activity at 49 min was not different from respective values at 15 min for any condition. These data indicate that BCOAD is rapidly activated during submaximal exercise under conditions associated with low carbohydrate availability. However, there was no relationship between BCOAD activity and glycogen concentration or net glycogenolysis, which suggests that factors other than glycogen availability are important for BCOAD regulation during exercise in humans.
Moradi, Saleh; Nima, Ali A.; Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Background: Performance monitoring might have an adverse influence on call center agents' well-being. We investigate how performance, over a 6-month period, is related to agents' perceptions of their learning climate, character strengths, well-being (subjective and psychological), and physical activity. Method: Agents (N = 135) self-reported perception of the learning climate (Learning Climate Questionnaire), character strengths (Values In Action Inventory Short Version), well-being (Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Version), and how often/intensively they engaged in physical activity. Performance, “time on the phone,” was monitored for 6 consecutive months by the same system handling the calls. Results: Performance was positively related to having opportunities to develop, the character strengths clusters of Wisdom and Knowledge (e.g., curiosity for learning, perspective) and Temperance (e.g., having self-control, being prudent, humble, and modest), and exercise frequency. Performance was negatively related to the sense of autonomy and responsibility, contentedness, the character strengths clusters of Humanity and Love (e.g., helping others, cooperation) and Justice (e.g., affiliation, fairness, leadership), positive affect, life satisfaction and exercise Intensity. Conclusion: Call centers may need to create opportunities to develop to increase agents' performance and focus on individual differences in the recruitment and selection of agents to prevent future shortcomings or worker dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, performance measurement in call centers may need to include other aspects that are more attuned with different character strengths. After all, allowing individuals to put their strengths at work should empower the individual and at the end the organization itself. Finally, physical activity enhancement programs might offer considerable positive work outcomes. PMID:25002853
Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M
This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time.
Fournier, Paul A.; Fairchild, Timothy J.; Ferreira, Luis D.; Bräu, Lambert
Glycogen plays a major role in supporting the energy demands of skeletal muscles during high intensity exercise. Despite its importance, the amount of glycogen stored in skeletal muscles is so small that a large fraction of it can be depleted in response to a single bout of high intensity exercise. For this reason, it is generally recommended to ingest food after exercise to replenish rapidly muscle glycogen stores, otherwise one’s ability to engage in high intensity activity might be compromised. But what if food is not available? It is now well established that, even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. This is facilitated, in part, by the transient dephosphorylation-mediated activation of glycogen synthase and inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase. There is also evidence that muscle glycogen synthesis occurs even under conditions conducive to an increased oxidation of lactate post-exercise, such as during active recovery from high intensity exercise. Indeed, although during active recovery glycogen resynthesis is impaired in skeletal muscle as a whole because of increased lactate oxidation, muscle glycogen stores are replenished in Type IIa and IIb fibers while being broken down in Type I fibers of active muscles. This unique ability of Type II fibers to replenish their glycogen stores during exercise should not come as a surprise given the advantages in maintaining adequate muscle glycogen stores in those fibers that play a major role in fight or flight responses. Key Points Even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. During active recovery from exercise, skeletal muscles rich in type II fibers replenish part of their glycogen stores even in the absence of food intake. Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis in the
Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo
Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.
Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal
The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy.
Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Martin, Julio; Martin, Fernando; Flandez, Jorge; Colado, Juan C
Literature that provides progression models based on core muscle activity and postural manipulations is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the core muscle activity in a series of balance exercises with different stability levels and additional elastic resistance. A descriptive study of electromyography (EMG) was performed with forty-four healthy subjects that completed 12 exercises in a random order. Exercises were performed unipedally or bipedally with or without elastic tubing as resistance on various unstable (uncontrolled multiaxial and uniaxial movement) and stable surfaces. Surface EMG on the lumbar multífidus spinae (LM), thoracic multífidus spinae (TM), lumbar erector spinae (LE), thoracic erector spinae (TE) and gluteus maximus (GM), on the dominant side of the body were collected to quantify the amount of muscle activity and were expressed as a % of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Significant differences (p<.001) were found between exercises. The three unipedal standing exercises with additional elastic resistance generated the greatest EMG values, ranging from 19% MVIC to 30% MVIC. Postural manipulations with additional elastic resistance and/or unstable devices increase core muscle activity. An adequate exercise progression based on global core EMG could start with seated positions, progressing to bipedal standing stance (i.e., from either multiaxial or stable surface to uniaxial surface). Following this, unipedal standing positions may be performed (i.e., from either multiaxial or stable surface to uniaxial surface) and finally, elastic resistance must be added in order to increase EMG levels (i.e., from stable surface progressing to any of the used unstable surfaces).
Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo
Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483
You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Lee, Jeongmin; Chun, Jiyeon; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin
Ferulic acid derived from Pseudosasa japonica leaves, which possessed antioxidative potentials with DPPH- (54%) and ABTs- (65%) radical scavenging activities, and lipid-peroxidation inhibitory activity (71%), was orally administered to mice for 12 days in order to investigate its effects on exercise endurance capacity and alterations of antioxidant defense systems. Exhaustive swimming time was increased in the ferulic acid-supplemented group compared with the control group on days 6 and 12 (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). When the mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, a high decrease (53%) was shown in the control group, but no change was found in the ferulic acid-treated group. The administration of ferulic acid significantly protected the depletion of enzymatic- and non enzymatic-antioxidants due to exhaustive exercise. Also, lipid-peroxidation levels decreased in the ferulic acid-treated group compared with the non exercised- and control-groups. These results suggest that ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves has a chronic effect on endurance exercise capacity, which is attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant potentials.
Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F
The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Vella, Luke; Markworth, James F.; Peake, Jonathan M.; Snow, Rod J.; Cameron‐Smith, David; Russell, Aaron P.
Abstract Resistance exercise triggers a subclinical inflammatory response that plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration. Nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) is a stress signalling transcription factor that regulates acute and chronic states of inflammation. The classical NF‐κB pathway regulates the early activation of post‐exercise inflammation; however there remains scope for this complex transcription factor to play a more detailed role in post‐exercise muscle recovery. Sixteen volunteers completed a bout of lower body resistance exercise with the ingestion of three 400 mg doses of ibuprofen or a placebo control. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained prior to exercise and at 0, 3 and 24 h post‐exercise and analysed for key markers of NF‐κB activity. Phosphorylated p65 protein expression and p65 inflammatory target genes were elevated immediately post‐exercise independent of the two treatments. These changes did not translate to an increase in p65 DNA binding activity. NF‐κB p50 protein expression and NF‐κB p50 binding activity were lower than pre‐exercise at 0 and 3 h post‐exercise, but were elevated at 24 h post‐exercise. These findings provide novel evidence that two distinct NF‐κB pathways are active in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. The initial wave of activity involving p65 resembles the classical pathway and is associated with the onset of an acute inflammatory response. The second wave of NF‐κB activity comprises the p50 subunit, which has been previously shown to resolve an acute inflammatory program. The current study showed no effect of the ibuprofen treatment on markers of the NF‐κB pathway, however examination of the within group effects of the exercise protocol suggests that this pathway warrants further research. PMID:25344476
Weigel, Fred K; Bonica, Mark
As educators strive toward improving student learning outcomes, many find it difficult to instill their students with a deep understanding of the material the instructors share. One challenge lies in how to provide the material with a meaningful and engaging method that maximizes student understanding and synthesis. By following a simple strategy involving Active Learning across the 3 primary domains of Bloom's Taxonomy (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), instructors can dramatically improve the quality of the lesson and help students retain and understand the information. By applying our strategy, instructors can engage their students at a deeper level and may even find themselves enjoying the process more.
Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru
We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.
Dishman, Rod K; Thom, Nathaniel J; Puetz, Timothy W; O'Connor, Patrick J; Clementz, Brett A
We previously reported that 6 weeks of exercise training had positive effects on feelings of vigor and fatigue among college students who reported persistent fatigue. Here we examined whether transient mood changes after single sessions of exercise would mimic those chronic effects and whether they would be related to changes in brain activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG). Feelings of vigor were higher after both low- and moderate-intensity exercise during Weeks 1, 3, and 6 compared to a control condition. Feelings of fatigue were lower after low-intensity exercise during Weeks 3 and 6. Posterior theta activity accounted for about half the changes in vigor. Studies that manipulate mood, EEG activity, or both during exercise are needed to determine whether EEG changes after exercise are causally linked with mood.
Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora
There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…
Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…
Stambuk, Boris U.
Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)
Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (P<0.05). The results of this study show that the core stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia.
Rosipal, Nicole C; Mingle, Lindsay; Smith, Janet; Morris, G Stephen
This pilot study sought to examine the exercise behavior and preferences among adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Eighteen patients aged 19 to 25 years were recruited to engage in unsupervised exercise activities lasting at least 60 minutes/week during hospitalization for HSCT. Enrolled patients had access to standard exercise activities (walking, resistance training, and basketball) and active video gaming equipment. Physical function (6-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Up-and-Go test) and quality of life (Behavioral, Affective, and Somatic Experiences Scale) were assessed at different time points during admission. Participants exercised an average of 76% of the days during admission and spent an average of 36.5 minutes per day exercising. The Nintendo Wii was the preferred active video gaming equipment, but standard exercises accounted for 73% of all exercise time. Neither functional capacity nor quality of life improved. Results suggest that AYAs voluntarily exercise during HSCT admission, prefer to use standard exercise activities, and may require supervision in order to derive maximum benefits from their efforts. These results provide guidance for developing rehabilitation interventions for AYA HSCT recipients.
Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh
Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.
Sanchez, C. A.; Ruddell, B. L.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.
Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.
Van Proeyen, K; De Bock, K; Hespel, P
Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO received a carbohydrate-rich breakfast before each training session, as well as ingested carbohydrates during exercise. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period, subjects performed a 2 h constant-load exercise bout (~70% of pretest VO(2peak)) while ingesting carbohydrates (1 g/kg h(-1)). A muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately before and after the test, and after 4 h of recovery. Compared with pretest, in the posttest basal eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was elevated in CHO (P < 0.05), but not in F. In the pretest, exercise increased the degree of eEF2 phosphorylation about twofold (P < 0.05), and values returned to baseline within the 4 h recovery period in each group. However, in the posttest dephosphorylation of eEF2 was negated after recovery in CHO, but not in F. Independent of the dietary condition training enhanced the basal phosphorylation status of Phospholamban at Thr(17), 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), and Acetyl CoA carboxylase β (ACCβ), and abolished the exercise-induced increase of AMPKα and ACCβ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, training in the fasted state, compared with identical training with ample carbohydrate intake, facilitates post-exercise dephosphorylation of eEF2. This may contribute to rapid re-activation of muscle protein translation following endurance exercise.
Malmborg, Julia; Bremander, Ann; Olsson, M Charlotte; Bergman, Stefan
Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services.
Williams, Paul T.
Background: Public health policies for preventing obesityneed guidelines for active individuals who are at risk due to exerciserecidivism. Methods: Changes in adiposity were compared to the runningdistances at baseline and follow-up in men and women whose reportedexercise increased (N=4,632 and 1,953, respectively) or decreased (17,280and 5,970, respectively) during 7.7 years of follow-up. Results: PerDelta km/wk, decreases in running distance caused over four-fold greaterweight gain between 0-8 km/wk (slope+-SE, males: -0.068+ -0.005 kg/m2,females: -0.080+-0.01 kg/m2) than between 32-48 km/wk (-0.017+-0.002 and-0.010+-0.005 kg/m2, respectively). In contrast, increases in runningdistance produced the smallest weight losses between 0-8 km/wk andstatistically significant weight loss only above 16 km/wk in males and 32km/wk in females. Above 32 km/wk (30 kcal/kg) in men and 16 km/wk (15kcal/kg) in women, weight loss from increasing exercise was equal to orgreater than weight gained with decreasing exercise, otherwise weightgain exceeded weight loss. Substantial weight gain occurred in runnerswho quit running, which would be mostly retained with resumed activity.Conclusion: Public health recommendations should warn against the risksof irreversible weight gain with exercise cessation. Weight gained due toreductions in exercise below 30 kcal/kg in men and 15 kcal/kg in womenmay not be reversed by resuming prior activity. Current IOM guidelines(i.e., maintain total energy expenditure at 160 percent of basal) agreewith the men s exercise threshold for symmetric weight change withchanging exercise levels.
Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A
Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNFα, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNFα and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation.
Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.
In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…
Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn
The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…
Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid
The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…
Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj
The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…
Costa, F; Biaggioni, I
Isometric exercise increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This exercise pressor reflex is partly mediated by metabolic products activating muscle afferents (metaboreceptors). Whereas adenosine is a known inhibitory neuromodulator, there is increasing evidence that it activates afferent nerves. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that adenosine stimulates muscle afferents and participates in the exercise pressor reflex in healthy volunteers. Intraarterial administration of adenosine into the forearm, during venous occlusion to prevent systemic effects, mimicked the response to exercise, increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, lower limb microneurography) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at all doses studied (2, 3, and 4 mg). Heart rate increased only with the highest dose. Intrabrachial adenosine (4 mg) increased MSNA by 96 +/- 25% (n = 6, P < 0.01) and MABP by 12 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.01). Adenosine produced forearm discomfort, but equivalent painful stimuli (forearm ischemia and cold exposure) increased MSNA significantly less than adenosine. Furthermore, adenosine receptor antagonism with intrabrachial theophylline (1 microgram/ml forearm per min) blocked the increase in MSNA (92 +/- 15% vs. 28 +/- 6%, n = 7, P < 0.01) and MABP (38 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 4 mmHg, P = 0.01) produced by isometric handgrip (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in the infused arm, but not the contralateral arm. Theophylline did not prevent the increase in heart rate produced by handgrip, a response mediated more by central command than muscle afferent activation. We propose that endogenous adenosine contributes to the activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex in humans. PMID:8163667
Head, S I; Arber, M B
The fact that humans possess fast- and slow-twitch muscle in the ratio of ∼50% has profound implications for designing exercise training strategies for power and endurance activities. With the growth of exercise and sport science courses, we have seen the need to develop an undergraduate student laboratory that demonstrates the basic properties of fast- and slow-twitch mammalian skeletal muscle. This laboratory illustrates the major differences in contractile properties and fatigue profiles exhibited by the two muscle types. Students compare and contrast twitch kinetics, fused tetanus characteristics, force-frequency relationships, and fatigue properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Examples of results collected by students during class are used to illustrate the type of data collected and analysis performed. During the laboratory, students are encouraged to connect factual information from their skeletal muscle lectures to their laboratory findings. This enables student learning in an active fashion; in particular, the isolated muscle preparation demonstrates that much of what makes muscle fast or slow is myogenic and not the product of the nervous or circulatory systems. This has far-reaching implications for motor control and exercise behavior and therefore is a crucial element in exercise science, with its focus on power and endurance sport activities. To measure student satisfaction with this active learning technique, a questionnaire was administered after the laboratory; 96% of the comments were positive in their support of active versus passive learning strategies.
Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M
To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle
Metz, Michael J.
Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615
Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel
Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839
King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.
Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to
Kang, Min-Hyeok; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jae-Seop
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of shoulder flexion loaded by an elastic tubing band during squat exercises, by assessing electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. [Subjects] In total, 17 healthy males were recruited. [Methods] Participants performed squat exercises with and without shoulder flexion loaded by a tubing band. Gluteal muscle activities during the downward and upward phases of the squat exercises were recorded using a surface electromyography (EMG) system. The mean electromyographic activities of the gluteal muscles during squat exercises with and without loaded shoulder flexion were compared using the paired t-test. [Results] Electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were greater in both the upward and downward phases of the squat with loaded shoulder flexion. [Conclusions] The combination of squat and loaded shoulder flexion can be an effective exercise for increasing gluteal muscle activity.
... in both children and adults. Research indicates that physical activity is important because it promotes: general health through cardiovascular fitness mental alertness weight control improved sleep quality ...
Zumwalt, Ann C; Lufler, Rebecca S; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt
Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its relevance to the study of radiology. Laboratory exercises were developed using inexpensive materials in the form of hands-on stations designed for use by students working together in small groups. Station exercises include model building, exploring relevant radiological imaging, and practicing clinical techniques. Students are encouraged to move from abstract conceptualization of the anatomy using models to applying knowledge to living tissues by using a portable ultrasound to explore superficial anatomy on each other. Stations are designed to integrate knowledge and reemphasize concepts in different contexts, so that upon completion students have a reinforced understanding of the three-dimensional anatomy of the region in question, the appearance of the anatomy on radiological images, and an appreciation of the relevance of the anatomy to radiological procedures.
Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Fadel, Paul J
Blood flow to active skeletal muscle increases markedly during dynamic exercise. However, despite the massive capacity of skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate, arterial blood pressure is well maintained. Sympathetic nerve activity is elevated with increased intensity of dynamic exercise, and is essential for redistribution of cardiac output to active skeletal muscle and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. In addition, aside from the sympathetic nervous system, evidence from human studies is now emerging that supports roles for non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways that become active during exercise and contribute to vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y and adenosine triphosphate are neurotransmitters that are co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals capable of producing vasoconstriction. Likewise, plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increase during dynamic exercise, particularly at higher intensities. Ang II and ET-1 have both been shown to be important vasoconstrictor pathways for restraint of blood flow in active skeletal muscle and the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during exercise. Indeed, although both adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstriction can be attenuated in exercising muscle with greater intensity of exercise, with the higher volume of blood flow, the active skeletal muscle vasculature remains capable of contributing importantly to the maintenance of blood pressure. In this brief review we provide an update on skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise with an emphasis on adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways and their potential capacity to offset vasodilation and aid in the regulation of blood pressure.
Hoffman, Elizabeth A.
Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)
Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly lower plasma MDA concentrations than the control group. In addition, the exercise group had significantly higher plasma SOD activity than the control group. [Conclusions] Hatha yoga exercise improves flexibility, muscle tone and strength, balance, and joint function. Our findings indicate that regular and continuous yoga exercise effectively improved body composition, decrease plasma MDA concentration, and increase plasma SOD activity in female patients with shoulder pain. PMID:26311934
Ben, Juliana; Soares, Flávia Mahatma Schneider; Cechetti, Fernanda; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Bonan, Carla Denise; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza
Hormone deficiency following ovariectomy causes activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that has been related to cognitive deficits in experimental animals. Considering that physical exercise presents neuroprotector effects, we decide to investigate whether exercise training would affect enzyme activation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as adenosine nucleotide hydrolysis in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Female adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: sham (submitted to surgery without removal of the ovaries), exercise, ovariectomized (Ovx) and Ovx plus exercise. Thirty days after surgery, animals were submitted to one month of exercise training, three times per week. After, rats were euthanized, blood serum was collected and hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Data demonstrated that exercise reversed the activation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy decreased AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex and did not alter adenine nucleotides hydrolysis in blood serum. Exercise per se decreased ADP and AMP hydrolysis in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, AMP hydrolysis in blood serum was increased by exercise in ovariectomized adult rats. Present data support that physical exercise might have beneficial effects and constitute a therapeutic alternative to hormone replacement therapy for estrogen deprivation.
Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Eui-Ryong; Jung, In-Gui; Seo, Eun-Young; Oh, Jae-Seop
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise on the abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy young men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor the activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), the internal oblique (IO), and the external oblique (EO) muscles. The participants performed three types of plank exercise; the standard plank exercise, the plank exercise with bilateral isometric hip adduction, and the plank exercise with unilateral isometric hip adduction. All abdominal muscle activity was significantly increased during the plank exercise combined with the bilateral and unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the standard plank exercise (p<0.05). Bilateral IO, EO, and left RA muscle activity was significantly increased during the unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the bilateral isometric hip adduction (p<0.05). These findings suggest that additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise could be a useful method to enhance abdominal muscle activity. In particular, the unilateral isometric hip adduction is a more beneficial exercise than the bilateral isometric hip adduction.
Yano, T; Yunoki, T; Matsuura, R; Arimitsu, T; Kimura, T
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of change in blood volume in skin plus active muscle on heart rate drift during moderate exercise and heavy exercise for 30 min. Total hemoglobin concentration (Total Hb) in the vastus lateralis muscle plus its skin was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Total Hb significantly increased and remained stable from 20 min in moderate exercise and from 10 min in heavy exercise. Heart rate (HR) rapidly increased until 3 min and showed a steady state in moderate exercise. HR at 30 min was significantly higher than that at 3 min in moderate exercise. HR rapidly increased until 3 min and then gradually but significantly increased in heavy exercise. Increase in total Hb was not significantly related with HR after 3 min of exercise when HR was around 120 beats per min in moderate exercise. Increase in total Hb was significantly related with HR from 3 min to 10 min in the heavy exercise (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.959 to 0.702). It is concluded that an increase in the blood volume in skin plus active muscle is not simply associated with HR drift.
Koes, David Ryan; Baumgartner, Matthew P.; Camacho, Carlos J.
We describe a general methodology for designing an empirical scoring function and provide smina, a version of AutoDock Vina specially optimized to support high-throughput scoring and user-specified custom scoring functions. Using our general method, the unique capabilities of smina, a set of default interaction terms from AutoDock Vina, and the CSAR (Community Structure-Activity Resource) 2010 dataset, we created a custom scoring function and evaluated it in the context of the CSAR 2011 benchmarking exercise. We find that our custom scoring function does a better job sampling low RMSD poses when crossdocking compared to the default AutoDock Vina scoring function. The design and application of our method and scoring function reveal several insights into possible improvements and the remaining challenges when scoring and ranking putative ligands. PMID:23379370
Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; Beelen, Milou; McKay, Bryon R; Parise, Gianni; Kadi, Fawzi; van Loon, Luc J C
Skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) content has been reported to increase following a single bout of exercise. Data on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and/or SC activation status are presently lacking. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of a single bout of exercise on muscle fibre type-specific SC content and activation status following subsequent overnight recovery. Eight healthy men (age, 20 ± 1 years) performed a single bout of combined endurance- and resistance-type exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected before and immediately after exercise, and following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery. Muscle fibre type-specific SC and myonuclear content and SC activation status were determined by immunohistochemical analyses. Satellite cell activation status was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for both Delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) and Ki-67. Muscle fibre size and fibre area per nucleus were greater in type II compared with type I muscle fibres (P < 0.05). At baseline, no differences were observed in the percentage of SCs staining positive for DLK1 and/or Ki67 between fibre types. No significant changes were observed in SC content following 9 h of postexercise, overnight recovery; however, the percentage of DLK1-positive SCs increased significantly during overnight recovery, from 22 ± 5 to 41 ± 5% and from 24 ± 6 to 51 ± 9% in the type I and II muscle fibres, respectively. No changes were observed in the percentage of Ki-67-positive SCs. A single bout of exercise activates both type I and II skeletal muscle fibre SCs within a single night of postexercise recovery, preceding the subsequent increase in SC content.
Calatayud, Joaquin; Martin, Fernando; Colado, Juan C; Benítez, Josep C; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L
High training intensity is important for efficient strength gains. Although battle rope training is metabolically demanding, no studies have quantified intensity of muscle activity during this type of training. This study analyzes muscle activity during unilateral alternating waves vs. bilateral waves of battle rope training. Twenty-one volunteers participated in a repeated-measures study on 2 different occasions. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the anterior deltoid (AD), external oblique (OBLIQ), lumbar erector spinae (LUMB), and gluteus medius (GM) during bilateral waves and unilateral waves and were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results showed that muscle activity ranged from 51%MVIC to 73%MVIC for AD, OBLIQ, and LUMB, whereas GM muscle activity was only 14-18%MVIC. OBLIQ activation was significantly greater (20%MVIC; p = 0.02) with the unilateral waves compared with the bilateral waves, whereas LUMB signal was significantly higher (16%MVIC; p = 0.001) with the bilateral waves compared with the unilateral waves. In conclusion, both wave movements can be used to provide moderate to high levels of muscle activity in the AD, OBLIQ, and LUMB. Fitness practitioners aiming for higher OBLIQ activity should perform unilateral waves, whereas the bilateral variation of the movement can be used for higher LUMB activity.
Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J
The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Svensson, Martina; Lexell, Jan; Deierborg, Tomas
Physical exercise is a cornerstone in the management of many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia, and stroke. However, much of its beneficial effects on improving motor functions and cognition as well as decreasing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are not yet well understood. The obvious limitations of studying the protective mechanisms behind exercise, for example, brain plasticity and neurodegeneration, could be overcome by generating novel animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the beneficial effects of exercise performed in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders and how the results from animal studies can be used in clinical settings. From preclinical studies, the positive effects of exercise have been related to increased levels of neurotrophic factors, elevated expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated microglia. It is clear that parameters influencing the effect of exercise, such as intensity, still remain to be investigated in animal studies in order to find the optimal program that can be translated into exercise interventions for patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E
We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning.
A technique is described to measure calcium content by in vivo neutron activation analysis of the trunk and upper thighs. In postmenopausal women, estrogen and calcium or fluoride reversed osteoporosis.
Hoier, B; Walker, M; Passos, M; Walker, P J; Green, A; Bangsbo, J; Askew, C D; Hellsten, Y
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients.
Hartwich, Doreen; Dear, William E; Waterfall, Jessica L; Fisher, James P
We sought to determine whether the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) is a potential mechanism for the decrease in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) during exercise in humans. In protocol 1, 15 male subjects (22 ± 1 years) performed steady-state leg cycling at low (26 ± 4 W) and moderate workloads (105 ± 7 W), under free-flow conditions and with partial flow restriction (bilateral thigh cuff inflation at 100 mmHg) to evoke muscle metaboreflex activation during exercise. In protocol 2, rhythmic handgrip exercise at 35% maximum voluntary contraction was performed with progressive upper arm cuff inflation (0, 80, 100 and 120 mmHg) to elicit graded metaboreflex activation. Both protocols were followed by post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) to isolate the muscle metaboreflex. Leg cycling-induced increases in HR and mean BP were augmented by partial flow restriction (P < 0.05 vs. free flow), while HR and mean BP both remained elevated during PEI (P < 0.05 vs. rest). Leg cycling evoked an intensity-dependent decrease in cBRS (16 ± 2, 7 ± 1 and 2 ± 0.2 ms mmHg(-1) at rest, low and moderate workloads, respectively; P < 0.05), which was further reduced with partial flow restriction (by -2.6 ± 0.8 and -0.4 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1) at low and moderate workloads). cBRS remained suppressed during PEI following leg cycling with partial flow restriction (4 ± 1 ms mmHg(-1); P < 0.05 vs. rest). cBRS was unchanged during handgrip under free-flow conditions, handgrip with partial flow restriction and PEI following handgrip (P > 0.05 vs. rest). These data indicate that the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) decreases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness during leg cycling exercise in humans.
Hoier, B.; Walker, M.; Passos, M.; Walker, P. J.; Green, A.; Bangsbo, J.; Askew, C. D.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients. PMID:24157526
Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline
This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…