Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented through online…
Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael
Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.
Describes an active learning strategy used in a college ethics course to direct students into exploring multiple perspectives in case studies. The technique expands on collaborative learning methods by adding role-playing and reflective writing. The technique has been successful in a journalism ethics course and is adaptable to any field in which…
Kuczma, R. M.
Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…
Felder, Richard M.
Five chemical engineering courses were taught to a cohort of students in consecutive semesters using an instructional model based on active, inductive, and cooperative learning and other methods designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. The results suggest that the approach enhances understanding and promotes the development of a variety of interpersonal and thinking skills, and that while it may initially provoke resistance from some students, the resistance can be overcome if the methods are implemented with care. With suitable modifications for content differences, the model may be equally effective for chemistry instruction.
Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy; Sinclair, Christine M.
Peer Instruction (PI) is an evidence based pedagogy commonly used in undergraduate physics instruction. When asked questions designed to test conceptual understanding, it has been observed that the proportion of students choosing the correct answer increases following peer discussion; however, relatively little is known about what takes place during these discussions or how they are beneficial to the processes of learning physics [M. C. James and S. Willoughby, Am. J. Phys. 79, 123 (2011)]. In this paper a framework for analyzing PI discussions developed through the lens of the "resources model" [D. Hammer, Am. J. Phys. 64, 1316 (1996); D. Hammer et al., Information Age Publishing (2005)] is proposed. A central hypothesis for this framework is that the dialogue with peers plays a crucial role in activating appropriate cognitive resources, enabling the students to see the problem differently, and therefore to answer the questions correctly. This framework is used to gain greater insights into the PI discussions of first year undergraduate physics students at the University of Edinburgh, UK, which were recorded using Livescribe Smartpens. Analysis of the dialogues revealed three different types of resource activation corresponding to increasing cognitive grain size. These were activation of knowledge elements, activation of linkages between knowledge elements, and activation of control structures (epistemic games and epistemological frames). Three case studies are examined to illustrate the role that peer dialogue plays in the activation of these cognitive resources in a PI session. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.
Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.
Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…
Roelle, Julian; Lehmkuhl, Nina; Beyer, Martin-Uwe; Berthold, Kirsten
In 2 experiments we examined the role of (a) specificity, (b) the type of targeted learning activities, and (c) learners' prior knowledge for the effects of relevance instructions on learning from instructional explanations. In Experiment 1, we recruited novices regarding the topic of atomic structure (N = 80) and found that "specific"…
Ross, Alanna; Furno, Christine
This paper describes an exploratory study investigating the impact of problem-based learning and clicker technology as active learning strategies at the American University of Sharjah Library, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Studies compared traditional and active learning classes. The present article maps the successes and challenges of these unique…
Kuczma, R. M.
Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…
Robinson, Michael A.
Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.
Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy; Sinclair, Christine M.
Peer Instruction (PI) is an evidence based pedagogy commonly used in undergraduate physics instruction. When asked questions designed to test conceptual understanding, it has been observed that the proportion of students choosing the correct answer increases following peer discussion; however, relatively little is known about what takes place…
Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten
Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive
Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten
Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive
Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman
Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of 'acids and bases'. Sample The sample of this study was 45 high-school students (average age 17 years) from two different classes, which were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) and control groups (n = 25), in a high school in Turkey. Design and methods A pre-test consisting of 25 items was applied to both experimental and control groups before the treatment in order to identify student prerequisite knowledge about their proficiency for learning 'acids and bases'. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the pre-test scores for groups and no significant difference was found between experimental (ME = 40.14) and control groups (MC = 41.92) in terms of mean scores (F 1,43 = 2.66, p > 0.05). The experimental group was taught using an active-learning curriculum developed by the authors and the control group was taught using traditional course content based on teacher-centered instruction. After the implementation, 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' scores were collected for both groups. Results ANOVA results showed that students' 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' post-test scores differed significantly in terms of groups (F 1,43 = 102.53; p < 0.05). Additionally, in this study 54 misconceptions, 14 of them not reported in the literature before, were observed in the following terms: 'acid and base theories'; 'metal and non-metal oxides'; 'acid and base strengths'; 'neutralization'; 'pH and pOH'; 'hydrolysis'; 'acid-base equilibrium'; 'buffers'; 'indicators'; and 'titration'. Based on the achievement test and individual interview results, it was found that high-school students in the experimental group had fewer misconceptions and understood the
von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C
Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement.
Detlor, Brian; Booker, Lorne; Serenko, Alexander; Julien, Heidi
This study investigates the merits of employing active learning strategies in the delivery of information literacy instruction (ILI). Traditional approaches to the teaching of information literacy skills--where students are passive recipients of the information they receive--are challenged. Rather, methods that encourage students to actively…
Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.
This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory.
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman
Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this study was…
Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing
Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…
Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong
This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…
Lewis, Elizabeth; Baker, Dale; Watts, Nievita Bueno; Lang, Michael
In this article we describe current educational research underlying a comprehensive model for building a scientific classroom discourse community. We offer a professional development activity for a school-based professional learning community, providing specific science instructional strategies within this interactive teaching model. This design…
Samsudin, Achmad; Suhandi, Andi; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kaniawati, Ida; Costu, Bayram
The aim of this study was to develop an Active Learning Based-Interactive Conceptual Instruction (ALBICI) model through PDEODE*E tasks (stands for Predict, Discuss, Explain, Observe, Discuss, Explore, and Explain) for promoting conceptual change and investigating its effectiveness of pre-service physics teachers' understanding on electric field…
Stahl, Robert J.; Webster, Nancy Comstock
The purposes of the paper are to discuss use of a concept formation model in art education and to suggest ways in which teachers might plan and develop art instructional activities consistent with the model. Based upon a social studies model designed along the lines of Robert Gagne's learning theory, the art education model utilizes rule, concept,…
Zarraonandia, Telmo; Francese, Rita; Passero, Ignazio; Diaz, Paloma; Tortora, Genoveffa
Despite several researchers reporting evidence that 3D Virtual Worlds can be used to effectively support educational processes in recent years, the integration of this technology in real learning processes is not as commonplace as in other educational technologies. Instructional designers have to balance the cost associated with the development of…
Wiley, Ann L.
This self-instructional module includes learner objectives, text, practice exercises and answer sheets addressing developments in research on learning environments and why instructional technologists should take the lead in applying the resulting knowledge to the design of training areas. Favorable learning environments are described in general…
Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min
The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…
Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.
An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…
Kuczma, R. M.
Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to time, space, and matter are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Besides the unit on introduction to individualized learning, 11 major topics are incorporated into three other units: (1) observation of the physical world, (2) space and exploration for environmental…
Schumaker, Jean B.
One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…
Young, Michael F.
Discusses the design of situated learning and the ecological psychology of situated cognition. Topics addressed include the teacher's role; teacher training; anchored instruction; transfer skills; the meaning of learning; apprenticeships; and the Jasper Series, a macrocontext designed to investigate the issues of situated learning. (46 references)…
Investigated the potential of incorporating learning strategy instruction into hypermedia learning materials in a high school computer class. Discusses results of a six-week intervention where the experimental group participated in learning strategy training in conjunction with hypermedia computer networking lessons and reports results of pre- and…
Reusable learning objects are an approach that is receiving a significant amount of attention in distance-based and online education (see Reports # 11, 40, and 46 in this series). They have the potential to provide cost-effective, personalised instruction with a short development time. Instructional design principles, however, must play an…
Ahmed Abdelaziz, Hamdy
The objective of this paper was to develop a four dimensions dynamic model for designing instructional activities appropriate to electronic and virtual learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning theories in order to help online learners to build and acquire…
Campbell, Roy Franklin
The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…
Merrill, M. David
Discusses design requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the following learner-centered instructional development tools: information containers; authoring systems; templates, models, or widgets; learning-oriented instructional development tools; and adaptive learning-oriented systems. (AEF)
Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.
This resource handbook, which is designed for use by instructors of courses in advanced marketing, consists of a duty/task list with referenced resources, a duty/task list with learning activities, and a list of resources. Included in each list are materials dealing with the following topics: communication in marketing, economics in marketing,…
THARP, CHARLES D.
A DESCRIPTION OF THE INCEPTION, OBJECTIVES, OPERATION, EQUIPMENT, AND PERSONNEL OF THE LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES CENTER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI IS GIVEN. FACULTY COMMITTEES WERE APPOINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI TO WORK OUT THE PHILOSOPHY OF A NEW DIVISION WITHIN THE UNIVERSITY WHICH WOULD MEET THE PROBLEMS OF THE INADEQUACY OF…
Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.
Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.
Han, In Sook
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentials and effects of an embodied instructional model in abstract concept learning. This embodied instructional process included haptic augmented educational simulation as an instructional tool to provide perceptual experiences as well as further instruction to activate those previous…
Teaching in a way that is responsive to students' science ideas creates opportunities for meaningful, rigorous sense-making in a way that traditional science teaching does not. In this study, the researcher, as a visiting teacher, taught the same three-week circuits unit to one fourth grade class and two fifth grade classes from a responsive teaching stance. The teachers' attention to and incorporation of students' science ideas shifted unit trajectories and uniquely shaped the ongoing learning activity within whole-group discourse. A unit-level analysis of the frequency and category of science concepts present in whole-group discourse shows that all three classes discussed the same science concepts by the end of the unit; however, when these ideas presented themselves within whole group discourse differed across time, even though students were engaged in the same lessons. Tensions and dilemmas of responsive science teaching are discussed.
McDonald, Ellen Jean Baird
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects on achievement and attitude of a method of teaching using multi-media self-instructional learning activity packages, with the conventional method of teaching by lecture and discussion. The subjects were 126 community college students enrolled in remedial English classes. Two instructors…
Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Drake, Michael; Sherley, Brenda
This paper builds from a prior study into the teaching and learning of basic number facts in New Zealand. It reports the changes in practice of one teacher that were brought about by her reflection on the effectiveness of her teaching and learning programme. It details how this teacher created a process which helped make the learning of basic…
Stewart, Michelle Velez
Traditionally, learning is provided in a unidirectional manner from instructor to learner. This practice can be limiting to all individuals involved in the learning process. To develop quality instructional materials, the learning team can participate in instructional design and development (ID) as partners. This article discusses a proposed…
Rieber, Lloyd P.; Hannafin, Michael J.
Describes study designed to examine the effects of textual and/or computer animated orienting strategies and practice on rule-using and problem-solving skills of elementary school students using computer-assisted instruction. Four different versions of a lesson based on Isaac Newton's Law of Motion are described, and results are analyzed. (28…
Setyorini, Dyna; Churiyah, Madziatul
This study aims to produce instructional media of petty cash fund with Borland Delphi 7.0 application in the Finance Administration subject, Managing Petty Cash Fund material in class XII APK in Vocational High School (SMK) Negeri 1 Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. This study used "Research and Development" (R&D) design procedures…
Bustang, B.; Zulkardi, Z.; Darmawijoyo, H.; Dolk, Maarten; van Eerde, Dolly
This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study's context is employing the current reform movement adopting "Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia" (an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education).…
McDonald, Jason K.; Yanchar, Stephen C.; Osguthorpe, Russell T.
This article reports a theoretical examination of several parallels between contemporary instructional technology (as manifest in one of its most current manifestations, online learning) and one of its direct predecessors, programmed instruction. We place particular focus on the underlying assumptions of the two movements. Our analysis suggests…
Nursing education classes are classifiable into three types: lectures, classroom practice, and clinical practice. In this study, we implemented a class that incorporated elements of active learning, including clickers, minutes papers, quizzes, and group work and presentation, in the subject of "epidemiology", which is often positioned in the field of nursing informatics and which is usually taught in conventional knowledge-transmission style lectures, to help students understand knowledge and achieve seven class goals. Results revealed that the average scores of the class achievement (five levels of evaluation) were 3.6-3.9, which was good overall. The highest average score of the evaluation of teaching materials by students (five levels of evaluation) was 4.6 for quizzes, followed by 4.2 for announcement of test statistics, 4.1 for clickers, and 4.0 for news presentation related to epidemiology. We regard these as useful tools for students to increase their motivation. One problem with the class was that it took time to organize the class: creation of tests, class preparation and marking, such as things to be returned and distribution of clickers, and writing comments on small papers. PMID:27332214
Lee, Hee Seung; Anderson, Abraham; Betts, Shawn; Anderson, John R.
Contradictory evidence has been reported on the effects of discovery learning approach and the role of instructional explanations. By manipulating the presence of instruction (verbal explanation) and transparency of problem structures, we investigated how effects of instructional explanations differed depending on the transparency of problem…
McInerney, Jody R.
A quasi-experimental mixed methods action research study was conducted at a K-12 virtual charter school with 103 high school chemistry students to investigate the relationship between participation in online synchronous lessons, student understanding of chemistry concepts and success on laboratory assignments. The study examined the impact of different instructional strategies on student success on chemistry labs as defined by lab completion rates, lab performance and concept understanding. The data show students who participated in the synchronous lessons were more successful in labs than those who did not. Different instructional strategies yielded different levels of student engagement and information gathered about student learning during synchronous lessons.
Wildman, Terry M.; Burton, John K.
Examines the need for integrating assumptions about learning processes with the decisions typically made when designing instructional systems. The relationships between learning theory and instructional design are discussed, and suggestions offered for improving the design process. Extensive references are included. (Author/BK)
Grabinger, Scott; Aplin, Cary; Ponnappa-Brenner, Gitanjali
To meet the goal of "preparing people for an ever-changing world", instructional programs need to apply strategies that focus on the development of critical thinking, problem solving, research, and lifelong learning. Those goals require a sociocultural approach to instruction emphasizing learning from experience and discourse. Sociocultural…
Mtetwa, D. K. J.
Current renewed interest in the epistemological, socio-cultural, and educational aspects of indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) has also had some impact on research and practice in the area of mathematics education. Located in the intersection of culture, mathematics, and classroom learning, this position article proposes that the socio-cultural…
Chapman, Debra Laier
Advances in technology and changes in educational strategies have resulted in the integration of technology into the classroom. Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way to provide student-centered active-learning instructional material to students. MMITs are common in introductory computer applications courses based on…
Reid, D. Kim
Cooperative learning arrangements for students with learning disabilities are discussed. Cooperative learning appears to be as effective as teacher-led instruction because it replicates natural learning contexts, enhances self-efficacy, provides level-appropriate information processing models, and addresses the specific needs of such students.…
For more than twenty years, researchers in the University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group (UMd-PERG) have been developing a theoretical framework for trying to understand how students think about and learn physics - Resources. The Resources Framework provides tools for interpreting how our students respond to our instruction. What may appear on the surface to be serious misconceptions can turn out to have a subtler explanation once one takes into account the roles played in student thinking by (1) experiential knowledge, (2) the dynamic character of their cognitive responses, (3) epistemological assumptions and expectations, (4) framing of the activity along multiple dimensions. The Resources Framework also provides tools to help us understand what knowledge our students bring into our classes and how they use that knowledge to interpret what they are learning. What we have learned in this research has powerful implications for instruction, especially in service courses where an expert is charged with teaching a discipline to students from a different discipline, such as when physicists teach physics to biologists or engineers. For more than a decade, the UMd-PERG and our collaborators have been studying how life science students respond to physics instruction. We have found many surprising results by listening carefully to what students say: Often, ``student errors'' turn out to be failures of communication between teacher and student. Many common practices turn out to be counterproductive and misleading. I will give examples from NEXUS/Physics, an introductory physics class for life science students, and I will suggest implications for instruction and curriculum development. Support gratefully acknowledged for multiple NSF grants.
Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender
Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. PMID:25698730
Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender
Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors.
Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.
Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537
Alfieri, Louis; Brooks, Patricia J.; Aldrich, Naomi J.; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.
Discovery learning approaches to education have recently come under scrutiny (Tobias & Duffy, 2009), with many studies indicating limitations to discovery learning practices. Therefore, 2 meta-analyses were conducted using a sample of 164 studies: The 1st examined the effects of unassisted discovery learning versus explicit instruction, and the…
The main focus of current discussions within the standardization process of learning technology is on economical opportunities and technical aspects of learning objects. There has been little discussion about the instructional or didactical issues. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a taxonomy of learning objects for the facilitation of…
This paper describes efforts made by the faculty at Santa Fe Community College (Florida) to provide a learning-centered instructional environment for students in an introductory statistics class. Innovation in instruction has been stressed as institutions switch from "teacher-centered classrooms" to "student-centered classrooms." The incorporation…
Wilson, Michael S.
Discusses cultural discontinuities that affect learning effectiveness revealed by the increase in globalization of distance education. Considers the theoretical basis of such discontinuities, describes a study of West African extension students and print-based instructional materials, and suggests implications for instruction and research as well…
LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…
Lunenburg, Frederick C.; Irby, Beverly J.
Teacher behavior research has shown that teacher behaviors, as well as specific teaching strategies, make a difference with regard to student achievement. Ten durable instructional strategies are discussed: set induction, stimulus variation, reinforcement, questioning, recognizing attending behavior, lecturing or direct instruction, planned…
Allen, David; Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas
Instructional rounds is a professional learning practice for supporting school and district leaders' understanding of the instructional core, the interaction among curricular content, instruction, and student learning, which is a foundation for instructional leadership practices. This article examines instructional rounds visits within a network…
The purpose of the study was to compare 2D and 3D visual presentation styles, both still frame and animation, on subjects' brain activity measured by the amplitude of EEG alpha wave and on their recall to see if alpha power and recall differ significantly by depth and movement of visual presentation style and by spatial intelligence. In addition,…
With the increasing use of instructional designers as pedagogical experts for eLearning activities within institutions of higher education, it is important we learn as much as possible about designing and developing effective instructional design across the disciplines. When instructional designers are employed as pedagogical experts but not…
Alwi, Asmidah; McKay, Elspeth
The use of multimedia instructions for online learning has become very common particularly with the advances of the Internet technology. Consequently museums around the world utilize such information and communications technology (ICT) tools in order to provide richer learning experiences for their visitors. This paper discusses a study that…
Van Metre, Dale
This paper discusses several principles of learning and presents a simple model for economics instructional development at the college level. The author's hypothesis is that economics teachers do not adequately define their teaching goals and do not select the components of the learning system on the bases of sound criteria. (Author/RM)
Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Arellano, Adele R.
Discusses two dimensions of equity within small-group learning--access and equitable relations--describing complex instruction (CI) as an approach that lets educators address these issues. CI teachers use cooperative learning to teach at high academic levels in diverse classrooms. The paper describes CI in action, achievement results in CI…
Hornung, Owen J.; Morasky, Robert L.
Based on the assumption that learning difficulty in programed instruction is related to completion time and program response error-rates, an attempt was made to demonstrate that deletion of knowledge of results (KR) and first example (E) in the Rule-Example-Positive/Negative Example teaching frame paradigm would increase learning difficulty. Four…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, learning disabled junior high school students learned definitions of 14 vocabulary words either according to a pictorial mnemonic strategy (the "keyword method") or via principles of direct instruction. Results showed that the keyword method was substantially more effective even when keyword students were required to generate…
Abbey, Sharon M.
Describes some of the writing stimuli used to help middle school teacher candidates with their own un-learning as they gain more confidence and insight about authentic writing. Encourages teachers to trust the process and muster the courage they will eventually need to model literacy in their own classrooms. (SG)
Kozma, Robert B.
Faculty members can use information about six components of the learning situation to increase student learning. The nature, function, and interrelationships of the following elements are described: instructor, content, medium, student, evaluation, environment, and implementation. (Editor/LBH)
Eysink, Tessa H. S.; de Jong, Ton; Berthold, Kirsten; Kolloffel, Bas; Opfermann, Maria; Wouters, Pieter
In this study, the authors compared four multimedia learning arrangements differing in instructional approach on effectiveness and efficiency for learning: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry learning. The approaches all advocate learners' active attitude toward the learning…
Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre
Computer games can be considered complex learning environments in which players require instructional support to engage in cognitive processes such as selecting and actively organizing/integrating new information. We used meta-analytical techniques to test if instructional support enhances learning in game-based learning (k = 107, N[subscript adj]…
Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche
By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…
Yanchar, Stephen C.; Hawkley, Melissa N.
This qualitative study explored the nature of informal learning in professional instructional designers' everyday work activities. Based on intensive interviews with six full-time practitioners, and using a hermeneutic form of data analysis, this study produced seven themes concerning the practices, tensions, and ironies associated with this…
Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.
Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…
The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile…
Wilson, Jay R.; Schwier, Richard A.
Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006). Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and…
We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.
Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun
In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…
Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Goodwin, Marilyn; Bryant, Brian R.; Higgins, Kellie
A review of six articles (1978-present) on vocabulary interventions involving secondary students with learning disabilities found interventions fall into four areas: computer-assisted instruction, fluency-building vocabulary practice activities, mnemonic strategy instruction, and concept enhancement instruction. Overall, positive results were…
Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena
In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.
Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M; Libera, Marilia; Tan, Mingshen
The current research assessed the effects of verbal instruction on affective and expectancy learning during repeated contingency reversals (Experiment 1) and during extinction (Experiment 2) in a picture-picture paradigm. Affective and expectancy learning displayed contingency reversal and extinction, but changes were slower for affective learning. Instructions facilitated reversal and extinction of expectancy learning but did not impact on affective learning. These findings suggest a differential susceptibility of affective and expectancy learning to verbal instruction and question previous reports that verbal instructions can accelerate the extinction of non-prepared fear learning in humans. PMID:19945093
Blum, H. Timothy; Yocom, Dorothy Jean
This article provides guidelines for designing effective instructional games for all students, including students with disabilities or other special learning needs. The benefits of instructional games, including student motivation and the ability of games to facilitate individualized instruction, are discussed. Sample instructional games,…
Educational Technology, Research and Development, 1992
Discusses the Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, a video-based instructional macrocontext for complex mathematics problem generation and solving. A theoretical framework of assumptions about goals, learning, instruction, and learning materials is provided. Design features and typical teaching activities are described. Three teaching models…
Freund, Lisa A.
Learning-disabled students deficient in classification and categorization require specific instruction in these skills. Use of a classification/categorization instructional model improved the questioning strategies of 60 learning-disabled students, aged 10 to 12. The use of similar models is discussed as a basis for instruction in science, social…
Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.
Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in 1 of 4 learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies,…
Describes four major models of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social constructivism. Discusses situated cognition; differences between learning theories and instructional approaches; and how computer-mediated technologies can be integrated with learning theories. (LRW)
Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel
Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…
"You Know I Hate It when People Half Ass Things": A Case Study of a High School Science Student and the Role of Pre-Instructional Activities, Goal Orientation, and Self-Efficacy in Learning with Simulations
Helms, Samuel Arthur
This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance…
Comparative Effects of Traditional- versus Contract Activity Packaged- versus Programmed Learning-Sequenced versus Tactual-Instructional Presentations of Course Content on the Achievement and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students in a Private Metropolitan College
This research was conducted to determine the effects of traditional instruction versus Contract Activity Packaged (CAP) versus Programmed Sequenced Learning (PLS) versus Tactual Resources (TR) on the achievement and attitudes of 32 second-year undergraduate teacher education majors enrolled in two classes of a required child-study course at a…
Hoffman, Alan, Ed.; Moon, Jeannette B., Ed.
Designed to assist secondary teachers and school systems in classroom instruction, in staff development workshops, and in curriculum design, this manual contains classroom and resource materials that have proven useful in teaching legal education. Although developed specifically for educators in Georgia, the activities can easily be used by…
Sztajn, Paola; Confrey, Jere; Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia
In this article, we propose a theoretical connection between research on learning and research on teaching through recent research on students' learning trajectories (LTs). We define learning trajectory based instruction (LTBI) as teaching that uses students' LTs as the basis for instructional decisions. We use mathematics as the context for our…
Argues that the most important component in effective bibliographic instruction is the learning styles of students. The discussion examines learning styles, in general, and Kolb's theory of experiential learning, in particular. The use of Kolb's theory in a freshman library instruction program is described and evaluated. (10 references) (CLB)
Landrum, Timothy J.; McDuffie, Kimberly A.
The concept of learning styles has tremendous logical and intuitive appeal, and educators' desire to focus on learning styles is understandable. Recently, a growing emphasis on differentiated instruction may have further increased teachers' tendency to look at learning styles as an instructionally relevant variable when individualizing instruction…
Krug, Samuel E.
Findings of a study that examined how effectively instructional leadership and instructional climate predict student learning outcomes are presented in this paper. Surveys to determine principals' self-perceptions and teachers' perceptions of instructional climate were completed by 72 principals and 1,523 teachers. Achievement results for 9,415…
Han, In Sook
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentials and effects of an embodied instructional model in abstract concept learning. This embodied instructional process included haptic augmented educational simulation as an instructional tool to provide perceptual experiences as well as further instruction to activate those previous experiences with perceptual simulation. In order to verify the effectiveness of this instructional model, haptic augmented simulation with three different haptic levels (force and kinesthetic, kinesthetic, and non-haptic) and instructional materials (narrative and expository) were developed and their effectiveness tested. 220 fifth grade students were recruited to participate in the study from three elementary schools located in lower SES neighborhoods in Bronx, New York. The study was conducted for three consecutive weeks in regular class periods. The data was analyzed using ANCOVA, ANOVA, and MANOVA. The result indicates that haptic augmented simulations, both the force and kinesthetic and the kinesthetic simulations, was more effective than the non-haptic simulation in providing perceptual experiences and helping elementary students to create multimodal representations about machines' movements. However, in most cases, force feedback was needed to construct a fully loaded multimodal representation that could be activated when the instruction with less sensory modalities was being given. In addition, the force and kinesthetic simulation was effective in providing cognitive grounding to comprehend a new learning content based on the multimodal representation created with enhanced force feedback. Regarding the instruction type, it was found that the narrative and the expository instructions did not make any difference in activating previous perceptual experiences. These findings suggest that it is important to help students to make a solid cognitive ground with perceptual anchor. Also, sequential abstraction process would deepen
McLoone, Barbara B.; And Others
Effects of two types of memory strategy instruction--mnemonic or directed rehearsal--on the vocabulary acquisition of 60 seventh and eighth grade learning disabled students were compared. Among results were that subjects instructed in the mnemonic method significantly outperformed subjects instructed in the direct rehearsal strategy. (Author/DB)
Holden, Jolly T.; Westfall, Philip J.-L.
Increasingly, educators and trainers are challenged within their respective organizations to provide for the efficient distribution of instructional content using instructional media. The appropriate selection of instructional media to support distance learning is not intuitive and does not occur as a matter of personal preference. On the…
Yung-Bin, Benjamin Lee
This study was conducted to test the effect of learning styles and instructional advisement on subjects' achievement test performance, frequency in viewing embedded, elaborated information, time on task, and frequency in receiving instructional advisement in a hypermedia instructional system. In the first of two sessions, a screening test was…
Rand, Angela Doucet
Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…
Lim, Cher Ping
Several studies have shown the complexities that teachers faced when planning for instruction in technology enhanced learning environments (TELE). Although classroom-oriented instructional development (ID) models have the potential to help teachers think and plan for effective instruction with technology, teachers are often reluctant to use these…
Tuller, Betty; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Olvera, Dianne; Steinberg, Fred; Scott Kelso, J. A.
Teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have difficulty with fine-motor coordination, which may relate to the novelty of the task or the lack of "self-talk" to mediate action. In this study, we required two teenagers with NLD and two control group teenagers to touch the thumb of each hand firmly and accurately to the fingertips of the…
Eckhardt, Marc; Urhahne, Detlef; Conrad, Olaf; Harms, Ute
The study examined the effects of two different instructional interventions as support for scientific discovery learning using computer simulations. In two well-known categories of difficulty, data interpretation and self-regulation, instructional interventions for learning with computer simulations on the topic "ecosystem water" were developed…
Clark, Cynthia; Zhang, Shaoan; Strudler, Neal
Transfer of instructional technology knowledge for student-centered learning by teacher candidates is investigated in this study. Using the transfer of learning theoretical framework, a mixed methods research design was employed to investigate whether secondary teacher candidates were able to transfer the instructional technology knowledge for…
Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.
As a growing number of students with learning disabilities (LD) receive science instruction in general education settings, students with LD continue to perform significantly lower than their non-disabled peers. The shift from textbook-driven instruction to inquiry-based approaches to science learning supports students who struggle with reading.…
Kay, Robin; Knaack, Liesel; Muirhead, Bill
To date, limited research has been done examining and evaluating the instructional wrap for using learning objects effectively. The current study examined instructional strategies used by 15 teachers to integrate learning objects into 30 secondary school classrooms (510 students). Four key areas were examined: preparation time, purpose for using a…
Beck, Leland; Chizhik, Alexander
Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1…
Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from worked examples, observational learning, and analogical reasoning. This theory has descriptive and prescriptive elements. The descriptive subtheory deals with (a) the relevance and effectiveness of examples, (b) phases of skill acquisition, and (c) learning processes. The prescriptive subtheory proposes instructional principles that make full exploitation of the potential of example-based learning possible.
Hooper, Simon; Hannafin, Michael J.
Guidelines presented for the design of instruction using interactive technologies are based on theory and research in learning, instruction, and/or media development. Also explained is a meta-model, ROPES, which highlights retrieval of information, orienting activities, presentation, encoding in the cognitive structure, and the sequencing of…
Barron, Ann E.; Ivers, Karen S.
This book's overall purpose is to improve the instruction process through appropriate integration of technology via the Internet. It is designed to aid K-12 teachers who are interested in tapping the Internet for instructional purposes by demystifying the technology and providing relevant, interdisciplinary, and easy-to-implement activities for…
Matthews-Lopez, Joy L.; Lopez-Permouth, Sergio R.; Keck, David
Mediated learning utilizes multimedia-based instructional modules to provide students with individualized access to information in alignment with their individual learning styles (Kinser, Morris, & Hewitt). In contrast with traditional pedagogy, the mission of the instructor in a mediated learning environment is to facilitate learning rather than…
Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…
Although e-learning has improved in quality, reach and learning impact over the past decade, it can be argued that it has not yet lived up to its potential to transform workplace learning. In the drive to increase effectiveness, interest has grown in blended learning, an instructional strategy that combines the use of web-technologies with more…
Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia
In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…
Evans, Karen L.
Even after multiple instructional opportunities, first year college chemistry students are often unable to apply stoichiometry knowledge in equilibrium and acid-base chemistry problem solving. Cognitive research findings suggest that for learning to be meaningful, learners need to actively construct their own knowledge by integrating new information into, and reorganizing, their prior understandings. Scaffolded inquiry in which facts, procedures, and principles are introduced as needed within the context of authentic problem solving may provide the practice and encoding opportunities necessary for construction of a memorable and usable knowledge base. The dynamic and interactive capabilities of online technology may facilitate stoichiometry instruction that promotes this meaningful learning. Entering college freshmen were randomly assigned to either a technology-rich or text-only set of cognitively informed stoichiometry review materials. Analysis of posttest scores revealed a significant but small difference in the performance of the two treatment groups, with the technology-rich group having the advantage. Both SAT and gender, however, explained more of the variability in the scores. Analysis of the posttest scores from the technology-rich treatment group revealed that the degree of interaction with the Virtual Lab simulation was significantly related to posttest performance and subsumed any effect of prior knowledge as measured by SAT scores. Future users of the online course should be encouraged to engage with the problem-solving opportunities provided by the Virtual Lab simulation through either explicit instruction and/or implementation of some level of program control within the course's navigational features.
Danish, Joshua A.
This article reports on a study in which activity theory was used to design, implement, and analyze a 10-week curriculum unit about how honeybees collect nectar with a particular focus on complex systems concepts. Students (n = 42) in a multi-year kindergarten and 1st-grade classroom participated in this study as part of their 10 regular classroom…
Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…
Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann
Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…
This study investigated the effects of a game-like environment on instructional activity design and the use of student mentors on learning outcomes in a middle school general science class. The participants for this study were 165 students, ages 13-14 years old, who were enrolled in 8th grade at a mid-Atlantic middle school. Two research questions were used to conduct the research: 1. Can science content be designed and successfully delivered instructionally using a game-like learning environment? 2. Does the use of student mentors/assistants help direct and maintain the flow of the class away from the technological issues toward the necessary learning outcomes while also increasing the science content understanding acquired by the mentors while also increasing class and student engagement? For this study an introductory biology unit was designed using a game-like curricular structure. Student mentors were utilized in order to aid focus on the content and not the technology. The results indicated that the instructional design of the unit using a game-like environment was successful and students exhibited learning. The mentor students were instrumental in steering their fellow students away from the “Siren’s Call” of the instrument (in this case StarLogo) and enabled increased focus on the content.
Jayanthi, Madhavi; Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott
This guide for teachers is a companion piece to the meta-analysis from the Center on Instruction, "Mathematics Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities or Difficulty Learning Mathematics: A Synthesis of the Intervention Research". Based on the findings of this report, seven effective instructional practices were identified for teaching…
Alvarado, Amy Edmonds; Herr, Patricia R.
This book explores the concept of using everyday objects as a process initiated both by students and teachers, encouraging growth in student observation, inquisitiveness, and reflection in learning. After "Introduction: Welcome to Inquiry-Based Learning using Everyday Objects (Object-Based Inquiry), there are nine chapters in two parts. Part 1,…
Meyen, Edward; Greer, Diana
Instructional planning is an essential skill for teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities and other struggling learners. The authors' frame of reference is based on their experiences in developing and testing mathematic lessons for the Blending Assessment With Instruction Program (BAIP) over a five-year period. The authors…
George, Paul S.; And Others
The learning center is a place for using and storing materials that relate to a special interest or curriculum area. It is a place where the students, after consulting with the teacher, may go to work; where ideas, materials, and activities are presented on a variety of levels of difficulty. Teachers, however, must first decide what the role of…
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E; Maddox, W Todd
Learning nonnative speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is underweighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height, resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension.
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E.; Maddox, W. Todd
Learning non-native speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is under-weighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies, and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension. PMID:26542400
Jones, Beau Fly
This paper offers a detailed discussion of materials developed for the Chicago Mastery Learning Reading with Learning Strategies (CMLR/LS) program, an upper elementary program in which appropriate learning strategy instructions are embedded within the text for each assigned task. Its purpose is to provide researchers and educators with a…
Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia
This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…
Abanikannda, Mutahir Oluwafemi
This study provides a framework for the production of Hypermedia Instructional package. It also assessed the effectiveness of hypermedia instructional mode of delivery on students? performance in Chemistry. This is with a view of improving the learning of Chemistry which may eventually help to improve students? performance. The developmental study…
Parrish, Patrick; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.
The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…
Patchan, Melissa M.; Schunn, Christian D.; Sieg, Wilfried; McLaughlin, Dawn
While online instructional technologies are becoming more popular in higher education, educators' opinions about online learning tend to be generally negative. Furthermore, many studies have failed to systematically examine the features that distinguish one instructional mode from another, which weakens possible explanations for why online…
Tennyson, Robert D.
Presents model of instructional strategy planning that links specific cognitive learning and thinking processes with specific computer-based instructional strategies. Topics discussed include memory systems; types of knowledge; drill and practice; tutorials; task-oriented simulations; problem-oriented simulations; and self directed experiences.…
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…
Yanchar, Stephen C.
Critical discussions within the field of instructional design have addressed the roles and competencies of designers, as well as the nature of design work per se. This article presents an overarching metaphor--namely, instructional design as a journey into the unfamiliar--that views design as a two-fold learning enterprise (i.e., innovative and…
McEneaney, John E.
Instructional technologies critically depend on systematic design, and learning hierarchies are a commonly advocated tool for designing instructional sequences. But hierarchies routinely allow numerous sequences and choosing an optimal sequence remains an unsolved problem. This study explores a simulation-based approach to modeling learning…
Swanson, Elizabeth A.
This article synthesizes previous research studies examining reading instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) through classroom observation methods. An extensive search of the research literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded 21 observation studies. Findings revealed that reading instruction for students with LD is generally of low…
Stafford, Catherine A.; Bowden, Harriet Wood; Sanz, Cristina
Input exposure is essential for nonprimary language learning, but the importance of explicit instruction and corrective feedback continues to be debated. If instruction is required, how might it be optimized in terms of its nature and timing? In this study, 65 Spanish-English bilinguals were introduced to Latin through an interactive computer…
Sobel, Karen; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.
Library instruction serves a critical function in the operation of the contemporary academic library environment. Librarians are asked to provide instruction and information literacy training using a range of tools and modes of delivery. The current literature presents an array of instruments used for assessing student learning and for delivering…
Thoe, Ng Khar
Instructional strategies determine the approaches an educator may take to achieve learning objectives. Research has shown that sets of strategies or instructional models anchored on social constructivist learning theories were found to be effective in enhancing active participation. It is particularly influential and meaningful in many areas of…
Gaschler, Robert; Frensch, Peter A; Cohen, Asher; Wenke, Dorit
How does the way we code and control actions influence automatic skill acquisition processes? Wenke and Frensch (2005) showed that instructions can lead participants to code spatial responses based on color. Here, we tested in 3 experiments to what extent response labeling and instruction-based response coding can determine what is learned in implicit sequence learning. Instructions mapped 4 gray shape stimuli to 1 of the 4 keys each in a serial reaction task, referring to the keys in terms of either their color or their spatial location. In Experiments 1 and 2 we found that people in the color instruction conditions used color for action control and acquired sequence knowledge containing color: They were susceptible to irrelevant stimulus colors at transfer and could transfer color sequence knowledge to a new arrangement of response positions and fingers, whereas participants who had received spatial instructions could not. Implicit sequence learning was thus surprisingly flexible. Depending on whether an arbitrary nonspatial response feature was used or not used to explain the stimulus-response mappings, we either found or did not find evidence that this feature became part of action control and sequence learning. Furthermore, Experiment 3 suggested that response position might become part of the sequence knowledge even if instructions do not emphasize this response feature. Together, the findings suggest that implicit sequence learning is based on action control, which in turn strongly, but not entirely, depends on which response features are used to explain the stimulus-response mappings in the instructions.
Wenke, Dorit; De Houwer, Jan; De Winne, Jeffrey; Liefooghe, Baptist
We compared flanker congruency effects (FCE) for flanker stimuli that were part of merely instructed S-R mappings or S-R mappings that had already been practiced. Four new S-R mappings were instructed before each block of trials. In applied flanker blocks, each instructed stimulus could appear as target and as flanker. In merely instructed flanker blocks, two stimuli only served as targets, whereas the other two exclusively appeared as flankers. Significant FCEs were observed for both flanker conditions even though the instruction-based FCE was (a) smaller than the FCE from applied mappings and (b) decreased with task practice. These results suggest that instructions alone can induce S-R associations that lead to automatic response activation when instructed stimuli appear as flankers. Execution of instructed rules seems to strengthen the instructed associations, leading to increased response conflict. PMID:26511962
This study examines the implications that state educational policies, such as high-stakes testing in English and Proposition 227, have on teaching and learning in primary language instruction for English learners in California. Utilizing cultural-historical activity theory of learning and development, this qualitative case study uncovers the…
Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne
The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…
Lim, Doo H.; Morris, Michael Lane; Yoon, Seung-Won
Among many studies focusing on the effect of learner and instructional variables on learning outcomes, few studies have investigated the learners' study habits and the mediating mechanisms among the learner and instruction variables in their influence on learning satisfaction and outcomes. This study examined differences in learning satisfaction…
Kuczma, R. M.
As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) of the earth-space project, this manual presents self-directed activities especially designed for individualized instruction. Besides an introduction to LAP characteristics, sets of instructions are given in connection with the metric system, the earth's dimensions, indirect evidence for atomic…
Jelovsek, F R; Catanzarite, V A; Price, R D; Stull, R E
The development of computer-aided instructional (CAI) systems suffers from a lack of a cohesive theory of learning--how do students acquire and store knowledge? From studies of computer systems that learn and tutor, we can infer generic activities that appear to be integral parts of the learning process, such as aggregation, clustering, characterization, and storage for later retrieval. Learning is faster and more efficient if the goal of a task is made explicit. Hints should be given with the correct timing in relation to an objective so that students can advance in their own problem-solving strategies with the prerequisites in mind. The general form of a rule should usually be taught first, followed by exceptions and special instances. We review theories of learning associated with CAI that illustrate the classification of different types of knowledge. Rule-based (if-then) knowledge forms are represented in these theories, as are declarative and causal knowledge structures. Extracting the common themes from different classifications of knowledge may help us create better CAI.
Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms.
This study has investigated the effects of learning strategy instruction on conceptual learning, and student satisfactions in an introductory physics course at university level. In this study, pretest-posttest and quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was used. A total of 36 sophomore students majoring in mathematics…
Laurie, Charles T.
The paper reports the highlights of three learning models (behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist), and examines them for the guidance they offer for instruction and learning in shorthand. Included are the theories of Skinner, Gagne, Carroll, Bloom, Wittrock, Ausubel, Bruner, Dember, Nebes, Scriven, Anderson, and Rogers. (Author/AJ)
Schunk, Dale H.; Rice, Jo Mary
A study investigated the effects of goal setting on children's self-efficacy and skillful performance during reading comprehension instruction. Subjects, 17 fourth graders and 16 fifth graders from one elementary school, had regularly received remedial reading comprehension instruction. Subjects were administered a pretest consisting of a…
Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.
Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409
Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming
With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…
Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia
Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…
Jonassen, David H.
Integrates contemporary theories of learning into a theory of learning as activity. Explains ecological psychology, changes in understanding of learning, activity systems and activity theory (including the integration of consciousness and activity), and activity structure; and discusses learning as a cognitive and social process. (LRW)
This research report presents a new teaching and learning model in engineering classes. The proposed learning model is called the CCAILM (constructionist computer aided instructional learning model). This new model was derived from the constructionist learning theory, the media-affects-learning hypothesis and the multiple representation principle.…
Shepard, Clinton L.; Walasek, James B.
This monograph contains a variety of selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Part I presents a brief discussion of the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment operations. Part II, Instructional Units, contains selected portions of existing programs which may be utilized in…
Theories of human development and learning provide an essential framework in which to understand the mechanisms involved in the process of formal instruction as a specific form of teaching and learning in the school setting. The sociocultural theory of development, founded on the works of Lev Vygotsky, espouses the view that social interaction…
This paper focuses on a trend to analyse temporal characteristics of constructs important to learning and instruction. Different researchers have indicated that we should pay more attention to time in our research to enhance explanatory power and increase validity. Constructs formerly viewed as personal traits, such as self-regulated learning and…
Johnson, Scott D.; Aragon, Steven R.
The rapid growth of Web-based instruction has raised many questions about the quality of online courses. This chapter presents a conceptual framework that can guide the development of online courses by providing a holistic perspective on online teaching and learning. Although this framework is based on well-recognized theories of learning and…
DiPietro, Michele; Norman, Marie
Learning theory provides a powerful framework for analyzing instructional consultations and increasing their effectiveness. In this paper, the authors review the main tenets of learning theory, apply them to consultation scenarios, and present a complex case study to show how they can guide analysis and problem solving around challenging…
McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Sung, Andrew N.
Universal Design for Learning is a framework for developing inclusive instructional lesson plans. The effects of introducing Universal Design for Learning Principles and Guidelines in a university teacher education program with pre-service and practicing teachers were explored in a mixed methods approach. The results indicate that the study…
Edwards, Thomas O.
The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…
LSP is an acronym for "Language for Special Purposes." Two distance learning English-for-Special-Purposes (ESP) pilot projects at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) are described to illustrate the type of work to which distance learning might make a contribution. English is the language of instruction at AIT. The first project is a…
Rogowsky, Beth A.; Calhoun, Barbara M.; Tallal, Paula
While it is hypothesized that providing instruction based on individuals' preferred learning styles improves learning (i.e., reading for visual learners and listening for auditory learners, also referred to as the "meshing hypothesis"), after a critical review of the literature Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2008) concluded that…
Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard
Like many rapidly growing industries, advances in video game technology are far outpacing research on its design and effectiveness. Relatively little is understood about how to apply what we know about teaching and learning to optimize game-based learning. For the most part, instructional designers know little about game development and video game…
Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others
This study compared the effectiveness of techniques for teaching cognitive learning strategies. Training was found superior to simple instructions with: (1) the method of loci for serial recall learning; and (2) short-answer test on easy reading material, but not with difficult readings or multiple-choice tests. (Author/RD)
Sayeski, Kristin L.
Difficulty with spelling is a perennial challenge for students with learning disabilities. Several decades of research, however, have identified both fundamental linguistic concepts and instructional approaches that, when understood by a teacher, can be applied to teach students with learning disabilities to spell. In this article, a brief history…
Grabowski, Barbara; McCarthy, Marianne; Koszalka, Tiffany
An analysis and needs assessment was conducted to identify kindergarten through grade 14 (K-14) customer needs with regard to using the World Wide Web (WWW) for instruction and to identify obstacles K-14 teachers face in utilizing NASA Learning Technologies products in the classroom. The needs assessment was conducted as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California and Tne Pennsylvania State University (PSU), University Park, Pennsylvania. The overall project is a multiyear effort to conduct research in the development of teacher training and tools for Web-based science, mathematics and technology instruction and learning.
Kuda Malwathumullage, Chamathca Priyanwada
observations, interviews and questionnaires. An enumerative approach and the constant comparative method were utilized to analyze the data. According to the results obtained, all the participating college professors of this study employed a variety of instructional technologies and learning space features to actively engage their students in classroom activities. Participants were largely influenced by the instructional technology and the learning space features at lesson planning and execution stages whereas this influence was less notable at the student assessment stage. Overall, college professors perceive technology-infused interactive learning environments to be advantageous in terms of enabling flexibility and creativity along with easy facilitation of classroom activities. However, they felt challenged when designing effective classroom activities and preferred continuous professional development support. Overall, college professors' pedagogical decision making process, their perceived benefits and challenges seemed to be interrelated and centered on the learners and the learning process. Primary implication of this study is to implement effective professional development programs for college professors which enable them to familiarize themselves with student-centered pedagogy and effective classroom activity design along with the novel trends in learning space design and instructional technologies. Furthermore, higher education institutions need to devise incentives and recognition measures to appreciate college professors' contributions to advance scholarship of teaching and learning.
Ambrosino, Roberta; Peel, Jennifer
Demonstrating the impact of faculty development activities is difficult and infrequently attempted beyond assessing participant satisfaction. This study examines how faculty development activities affect instructional practices and the impact on student learning and motivation in accordance with Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation. Ten instructors…
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs. PMID:23407658
Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda
This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs.
Brodeur, J. J.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Bagg, J.; Chiappetta-Swanson, C.; Vine, M. M.; Vajoczki, S.
Geospatial literacy -- the ability to conceptualize, capture, analyze and communicate spatial phenomena -- represents an important competency for 21st Century learners in a period of 'Geospatial Revolution'. Though relevant to in-course learning, these skills are often taught externally, placing time and resource pressures on the service providers - commonly libraries - that are relied upon to provide instruction. The emergence of online and blended modes of instruction has presented a potential means of increasing the cost-effectiveness of such activities, by simultaneously reducing instructional costs, expanding the audience for these resources, and addressing student preferences for asynchronous learning and '24-7' access. During 2011 and 2012, McMaster University Library coordinated the development, implementation and assessment of blended learning modules for geospatial literacy instruction in first-year undergraduate Social Science courses. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive mixed-methods approach to assess the efficacy of implementing blended learning modules to replace traditional (face-to-face), library-led, first-year undergraduate geospatial literacy instruction. Focus groups, personal interviews and an online survey were used to assess modules across dimensions of: student use, satisfaction and accessibility requirements (via Universal Instructional Design [UID] principles); instructor and teaching staff perception of pedagogical efficacy and instructional effectiveness; and, administrator cost-benefit assessment of development and implementation. Results showed that both instructors and students identified significant value in using the online modules in a blended-learning setting. Reaffirming assumptions of students' '24/7' learning preferences, over 80% of students reported using the modules on a repeat basis. Students were more likely to use the modules to better understand course content than simply to increase their grade in
Freedman, Ariela M; Echt, Katharina V; Cooper, Hannah L F; Miner, Kathleen R; Parker, Ruth
Health education and behavior change interventions typically pay little attention to the intervention's instructional foundation. Combining the fields of health literacy, cognitive psychology, and adult learning theory, this article provides an integrative scientific approach, called the BEAN (Better Education and iNnovation) model, to creating an instructional foundation based on how individuals acquire knowledge and skills. The article uses a case study example from an adult literacy center's health literacy class to explore how environmental factors and instructional strategies can be applied to health education and behavior change interventions. Data for this case study were derived through 20 hours of classroom observation and qualitative interviews with 21 adult education students and 3 instructors. Results provide practical examples of environmental factors and instructional strategies designed to facilitate learning, such as fostering autonomy, activating prior knowledge, and fostering perspective change. Results also describe the resulting health behavior changes of students attending the health literacy class, such as increased medication adherence and physical activity, improved nutritional habits, and increased question asking of health practitioners. This article serves as a first step to encouraging researchers and educators to consider the importance of drawing on cognitive psychology and theories of adult learning to create a scientifically based instructional foundation for health behavior change programs. Additionally, by drawing on the expertise of adult educators well versed in the science of instructional design, this article also demonstrates that the adult education classroom is an excellent setting for conducting health education and behavior change interventions.
Freedman, Ariela M; Echt, Katharina V; Cooper, Hannah L F; Miner, Kathleen R; Parker, Ruth
Health education and behavior change interventions typically pay little attention to the intervention's instructional foundation. Combining the fields of health literacy, cognitive psychology, and adult learning theory, this article provides an integrative scientific approach, called the BEAN (Better Education and iNnovation) model, to creating an instructional foundation based on how individuals acquire knowledge and skills. The article uses a case study example from an adult literacy center's health literacy class to explore how environmental factors and instructional strategies can be applied to health education and behavior change interventions. Data for this case study were derived through 20 hours of classroom observation and qualitative interviews with 21 adult education students and 3 instructors. Results provide practical examples of environmental factors and instructional strategies designed to facilitate learning, such as fostering autonomy, activating prior knowledge, and fostering perspective change. Results also describe the resulting health behavior changes of students attending the health literacy class, such as increased medication adherence and physical activity, improved nutritional habits, and increased question asking of health practitioners. This article serves as a first step to encouraging researchers and educators to consider the importance of drawing on cognitive psychology and theories of adult learning to create a scientifically based instructional foundation for health behavior change programs. Additionally, by drawing on the expertise of adult educators well versed in the science of instructional design, this article also demonstrates that the adult education classroom is an excellent setting for conducting health education and behavior change interventions. PMID:22453025
Tipton, Tom, Ed.
Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)
Jenkins, John M.; Keefe, James W.
Discusses and classifies nine strategies for personalizing instruction based on levels of interaction and thoughtfulness: Individualized instruction, accelerated learning, style-based instruction, technology-assisted learning, contract learning, authentic pedagogy, guided practice, cooperative learning, and topic study. (Conatains 11 references.)…
Decker, Johannes H.; Lourenco, Frederico S.; Doll, Bradley B.; Hartley, Catherine A.
Throughout our lives, we face the important task of distinguishing rewarding actions from those that are best avoided. Importantly, there are multiple means by which we acquire this information. Through trial and error, we use experiential feedback to evaluate our actions. We also learn which actions are advantageous through explicit instruction from others. Here, we examined whether the influence of these two forms of learning on choice changes across development by placing instruction and experience in competition in a probabilistic-learning task. Whereas inaccurate instruction markedly biased adults’ estimations of a stimulus’s value, children and adolescents were better able to objectively estimate stimulus values through experience. Instructional control of learning is thought to recruit prefrontal–striatal brain circuitry, which continues to mature into adulthood. Our behavioral data suggest that this protracted neurocognitive maturation may cause the motivated actions of children and adolescents to be less influenced by explicit instruction than are those of adults. This absence of a confirmation bias in children and adolescents represents a paradoxical developmental advantage of youth over adults in the unbiased evaluation of actions through positive and negative experience. PMID:25582607
This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…
Following the guidelines given in the "White Book on Intercultural Dialogue," this article reflects on whether the use of the Complex Instruction (CI) model would create the conditions for a more equal dialogue in educational contexts. An ethnographic study was carried out in four Italian primary school classrooms to explore how this…
Fillmore, Lily Wong; And Others
A three-year research project investigated the effects of instructional practices and patterns of language use in bilingual and English-only classrooms on general academic development and the development of English language skills by limited-English-proficient students, especially those skills needed to participate fully in the society's schools.…
Gifted students may exhibit a deficit in ability to follow a sequence of verbal instructions, termed Cognition of SeMantic Systems (CMS). Three types of low-CMS students are described, and counseling strategies are outlined. Achievement of academic success and emotional health calls for teachers to build students' self-esteem and be patient. (JDD)
American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Washington, DC.
This instructional handbook describes a program in which children are taught reading in relation to artistic media. It describes the staff, training, and a typical schedule. Program activities include reading workshops on vocabulary instruction, comprehension, and study skills; art workshops on crafts, puppetry, super 8 film, mixed media,…
Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Philip S. K.
Outlines fruitful areas of information and instructional technology (IIT) in education research: pedagogy of online environments; simulation, visualization, and modeling; mind-tools or cognitive tools; assessment tools; wireless computing; tools for learning communities; tools for project work and authentic tasks; integration of media, tools, and…
Gropper, George L.
A prescription favored in this article calls for the joint use of "learning maps" and "instructional maps." Why then the "Vs." in the title? Simply put, it is a rhetorical device. It calls attention to a key difference between the two. This article explicates the difference. It also informs how alone and in…
Utley, Bonnie L.
An investigation is described during which three dimensions of situated learning (i.e., social interaction, a reliance on authentic activity, and creation of a learning community) were incorporated into the design and implementation of an on-campus course on instructional strategies for students with diverse learning needs. This choice of pedagogy…
Self-regulated learning (SRL) encourages students to learn using metacognition, strategic action, and motivation. This nontraditional approach to education relies on the student's active role in learning and the instructor's facilitatory role in teaching. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of an SRL instructional model the author…
Piyayodilokchai, Hongsiri; Panjaburee, Patcharin; Laosinchai, Parames; Ketpichainarong, Watcharee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip
With the benefit of multimedia and the learning cycle approach in promoting effective active learning, this paper proposed a learning cycle approach-based, multimedia-supplemented instructional unit for Structured Query Language (SQL) for second-year undergraduate students with the aim of enhancing their basic knowledge of SQL and ability to apply…
The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…
The "Direct-instruction Model" favors the use of teacher explanations and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach thinking skills. Using this paradigm, this study incorporates e-learning during an 18-week experimental instruction period that includes 48 preservice teachers. The instructional design in this study emphasizes…
Ford, Michael J.
Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.
Malopinsky, Larissa; Kirkley, Jamie; Stein, Richard; Duffy, Tom
Problem-based learning (PBL) is often promoted in response to the current need to offer authentic and effective professional education. PBL is a curriculum development and instructional system that simultaneously develops both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem…
Loughlin, Catherine E.; Suina, Joseph H.
This book offers both a conceptual framework and practical guidance for arranging the elementary school classroom. It provides examples and drawings of arrangements from real classrooms and information and procedures for providing supportive learning environments. A conceptual overview of the learning environment considers the environment as a…
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Cihak, David F.; Graham, Shannon C.; Retinger, Larryn
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inquiry-based science instruction for five elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). Students participated in a series of inquiry-based activities targeting conceptual and application-based understanding of simple electric circuits, conductors and insulators, parallel circuits, and…
Nguyen, Trien; Trimarchi, Angela; Williams, Julia
In the field of second language acquisition, discipline-specific language instruction is becoming widely known as Content and Language Integrated Learning. This method includes any activity that involves teaching a subject in a second language for the purpose of teaching both the subject content and the language. Research has shown that this two…
Liljestrom, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Pollanen, Sinikka
This design experiment aimed to answer the question of how to mediate the practices of authentic science inquiries in primary education. An instructional approach based on activity theory was designed and carried out with multi-age students in a small village school. An open-ended learning task was offered to the older students. Their task was to…
Thomas, Patrick R.; McKay, Jacinta B.
Changes in conceptualization and measurement of the verbalizer-visualizer dimension led us to re-examine the hypothesis that students learn best when instructional material matches their cognitive style. First-year psychology university students (n = 41) studied information on three personality theories presented in text only, text+picture, or…
Parrish, Patrick E.; Wilson, Brent G.; Dunlap, Joanna C.
This article presents a framework for understanding learning experience as an object for instructional design--as an object for design as well as research and understanding. Compared to traditional behavioral objectives or discrete cognitive skills, the object of experience is more holistic, requiring simultaneous attention to cognition, behavior,…
Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.
High-level comprehension instruction is the focus of the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts. However, it has been a challenge for states to provide the professional development (PD) needed to support teachers' implementation of the CCSS. Professional learning communities (PLC) are a means of providing school-embedded PD to…
Cortright, Ronald N.; Collins, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction…
Denton, David W.
Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…
Thompson, Merton E.; Thompson, Marcia E.
The relationship between field dependence-independence (FDI) and the ability to read and comprehend printed text was examined in this study. The effect of the structure of instructional text on the learning process of individuals at various points on the continuum of FDI was also studied. The following hypotheses were developed: (1) there would be…
Kenny, Richard; Schroeder, Eileen E.
Research on notetaking as a learning strategy and on the related techniques of outlining and concept mapping is reviewed. The effectiveness of these techniques in helping the learner encode new information and their usefulness in interactive multimedia instruction are explored. Research strongly supports an external-storage function of notetaking…
Ceperley, Patricia E.; Hughes, Georgia K.; Mittapalli, Kavita
The purpose of this report is to document the pilot test of the Instruction and Learning Appraisal (ILA) and describe the quality of the ILA process. The ILA process was developed by Edvantia staff who serve as technical assistance providers to schools and districts in the region. Low-performing schools and districts (i.e., those that fail to…
In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…
This article will provide details on the importance of providing structure within an online graduate counseling course in the form of a weekly roadmap tool. There are various instructional tools that may be useful in providing students with differing levels of structure, to meet their learning style preferences for structural stimuli (Cicco,…
Schulz, Renate A., Ed.
This volume consists of the following papers selected from those presented at the 1977 Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages: (1) "Educational Cognitive Style: A Basis for Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction," by Derek N. Nunney; (2) "Discovering Student Learning Styles through Cognitive Style Mapping," by Helen S.…
Duff, Victoria; Islas, M. René
New educator evaluation systems demand a focus on effective teaching and learning while promoting the professional growth of all teachers. By identifying and leveraging the contributions of high-performing teachers as instructional leaders, problem solvers, and decision-makers to lead improvement at the classroom level, the system builds capacity…
Yen, Chiaming; Li, Wu-Jeng
This research presents a Web-based learning and instructional system for Pneumatics. The system includes course material, remote data acquisition modules, and a pneumatic laboratory set. The course material is in the HTML format accompanied with text, still and animated images, simulation programs, and computer aided design tools. The data…
Bassler, Otto C.; And Others
Describes a study to determine the relative effects of formal deductive presentations versus informal inductive presentations and the effect of the number of exercises completed with each learning set on seventh grade students. No reliable difference between the modes of instruction was shown; the number of exercises per set made no significant…
Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others
Three studies were performed to investigate the effects of training versus instructions in the acquisition of cognitive learning strategies. Groups of undergraduate students were taught to use one or more strategies. The amount and type of training differed for each of the experimental groups. Strategies taught included the method of loci,…
Swatridge, L. W.; Vass, B.
This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity investigates resource management and economics. It employs the student-activity approach to inquiry learning by using group work, simulations, and team research reports. Given data about…
Sozcu, Omer Faruk
This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distance…
Smith, D. Richard
Nontraditional instructional activities are defined in this report as those based on new or unconventional forms of education, free of the constraints of time, place, or form which characterize traditional classroom instruction. The several sections of this report detail a variety of approaches to nontraditional instructional activities at Purdue…
Benek-Rivera, Joan; Mathews, Vinitia E.
Nontraditional instructional methods facilitate active learning by students. The "Jeopardy" exercise outlined in this article is based on the popular television game show and is presented as an active learning technique designed to (a) motivate students to actively participate in class and assume more responsibility for learning, (b) provide an…
Presenting a higher education case study from Mexico: "Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey" (ITESM-CCM) College, Mexico city campus, describing faculty best and worst practices using a blended learning approach in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The article comments on conceptual definitions of blended learning,…
Reviews the foundational principles of situated cognition and substantiates its theoretical underpinnings with a transactional worldview; draws connections between situated cognition and problem-based learning; and draws implications from situated cognition and problem-based learning to learning and instruction with technology. Suggests that…
Elen, Jan, Ed.; Clark, Richard, Ed.
What is meant when people say that "learning environments are increasingly complex"? What is known about the cognitive processing that occurs during complex learning? How can educators provide effective instructional support for students who must learn and apply complex knowledge? These questions, and related issues, have fascinated educators and…
Fischer, Frank; Järvelä, Sanna
Recent years have seen a dynamic growth of research communities addressing conditions, processes and outcomes of learning in formal and informal environments. Two of them have markedly advanced the field: The community on research on learning and instruction that has been organized in the European Association for Research on Learning and…
Larson, Mark E.
Human Resource Departments (HRD), especially instructors, are challenged to keep pace with rapidly changing computer software applications and technology. The problem under investigation revealed after instruction of a software application if a particular method of instruction was a predictor of transfer of learning, when other risk factors were…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…
During the 1970s, student-centred instruction—that is, “play orientation in physics education” (Spielorientierter Unterricht)—was at the centre of curriculum development at the Institute of Physics Education in Bremen. During the past decade, we investigated this kind of instruction with a particular focus on students' learning processes using a situated cognition perspective. Our research group at the Institute conducted several empirical studies of physics learning for different age groups. The aim of these case studies was to construct detailed understandings of how individual learning processes unfold. On the basis of these studies, we attempt to design physics lessons more effectively than they have been in the past. This paper exemplifies our approach providing information about the theoretical and methodological frameworks, the main outcomes of our studies; and reflections about the possibilities for “more effective” student-centred instruction.
Perreault, Melanie E; French, Karen E
Considerable evidence supports the motor learning advantage associated with an external focus of attention; however, very few studies have investigated attentional focus effects with children despite individual functional constraints that have the potential to impact use of instructional content. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attentional focus instruction on motor learning in children. Participants (n=42) aged 9-11years were randomly assigned to one of three gender-stratified groups: (1) control, (2) internal focus, or (3) external focus. Following initial instructions and task demonstration, participants performed 100 modified free throws over two days while receiving additional cues respective to their attentional focus condition and returned approximately 48h later to perform 20 additional free throws. Results revealed no significant learning differences between groups. However, responses to retrospective verbal reports suggest that the use of external focus content during practice may have contributed to some participants' superior performance in retention. Future research should continue to examine attentional focus effects across a variety of ages and incorporate retrospective verbal reports in order to examine children's thoughts during attentional focus instruction. PMID:26638048
Perreault, Melanie E; French, Karen E
Considerable evidence supports the motor learning advantage associated with an external focus of attention; however, very few studies have investigated attentional focus effects with children despite individual functional constraints that have the potential to impact use of instructional content. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attentional focus instruction on motor learning in children. Participants (n=42) aged 9-11years were randomly assigned to one of three gender-stratified groups: (1) control, (2) internal focus, or (3) external focus. Following initial instructions and task demonstration, participants performed 100 modified free throws over two days while receiving additional cues respective to their attentional focus condition and returned approximately 48h later to perform 20 additional free throws. Results revealed no significant learning differences between groups. However, responses to retrospective verbal reports suggest that the use of external focus content during practice may have contributed to some participants' superior performance in retention. Future research should continue to examine attentional focus effects across a variety of ages and incorporate retrospective verbal reports in order to examine children's thoughts during attentional focus instruction.
Nguyen, Dat-Dao; Zhang, Yue
This study uses the Learning-Style Inventory--LSI (Smith & Kolb, 1985) to explore to what extent student attitudes toward learning process and outcome of online instruction and Distance Learning are affected by their cognitive styles and learning behaviors. It finds that there are not much statistically significant differences in perceptions on…
Cole, Michael W.; Bagic, Anto; Kass, Robert; Schneider, Walter
The ability to rapidly reconfigure our minds to perform novel tasks is important for adapting to an ever-changing world, yet little is understood about its basis in the brain. Furthermore, it is unclear how this kind of task preparation changes with practice. Previous research suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential when preparing to perform either novel or practiced tasks. Building upon recent evidence that PFC is organized in an anterior-to-posterior hierarchy, we postulated that novel and practiced task preparation would differentiate hierarchically distinct regions within PFC across time. Specifically, we hypothesized and confirmed using functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography with humans that novel task preparation is a bottom-up process that involves lower-level rule representations in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) before a higher-level rule-integrating task representation in anterior PFC (aPFC). In contrast, we identified a complete reversal of this activity pattern during practiced task preparation. Specifically, we found that practiced task preparation is a top-down process that involves a higher-level rule-integrating task representation (recalled from long-term memory) in aPFC before lower-level rule representations in DLPFC. These findings reveal two distinct yet highly inter-related mechanisms for task preparation, one involving task set formation from instructions during rapid instructed task learning and the other involving task set retrieval from long-term memory to facilitate familiar task performance. These two mechanisms demonstrate the exceptional flexibility of human PFC as it rapidly reconfigures cognitive brain networks to implement a wide variety of possible tasks. PMID:20962245
Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa
Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a three-stage AR-embedded instructional process, we conducted an experiment to investigate the influences of individual differences on learning earth science phenomena of "day, night, and seasons" for junior highs. The mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was employed. In the quantitative phase, factors of learning styles and ICT competences were examined alongside with the overall learning achievement. Independent t tests and ANCOVAs were employed to achieve inferential statistics. The results showed that overall learning achievement was significant for the AR-embedded instruction. Nevertheless, neither of the two learner factors exhibited significant effect on learning achievement. In the qualitative phase, we analyzed student interview records, and a wide variation on student's preferred instructional stages were revealed. These findings could provide an alternative rationale for developing ICT-supported instruction, as our three-stage AR-embedded comprehensive e-learning scheme could enhance instruction adaptiveness to disperse the imparities of individual differences between learners.
Taylor, William; And Others
The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…
Lapp, Diane; And Others
This book offers strategies to help educators become increasingly effective in teaching various areas in content area reading and learning. The book includes the following chapters: "Content Area Reading: A Historical Perspective" (E. Dishner and M. Olson); "Content Area Reading: Current State of the Art" (T. Bean and J. Readence); "The Role of…
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
With an increasing number of African American, Asian, and Hispanic students in many California classrooms, this presents a challenge to teachers because all of the students in the classrooms have different learning styles and techniques. However, this offers an opportunity for teachers to experiment on the ingenious teaching methods that will…
Steele, Ray L.
Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Pöllänen, Sinikka
This design experiment aimed to answer the question of how to mediate the practices of authentic science inquiries in primary education. An instructional approach based on activity theory was designed and carried out with multi-age students in a small village school. An open-ended learning task was offered to the older students. Their task was to design and implement instruction about the Ice Age to their younger fellows. The objective was collaborative learning among students, the teacher, and outside domain experts. Mobile phones and GPS technologies were applied as the main technological mediators in the learning process. Technology provided an opportunity to expand the learning environment outside the classroom, including the natural environment. Empirically, the goal was to answer the following questions: What kind of learning project emerged? How did the students' knowledge develop? What kinds of science learning processes, activities, and practices were represented? Multiple and parallel data were collected to achieve this aim. The data analysis revealed that the learning project both challenged the students to develop explanations for the phenomena and generated high quality conceptual and physical models in question. During the learning project, the roles of the community members were shaped, mixed, and integrated. The teacher also repeatedly evaluated and adjusted her behavior. The confidence of the learners in their abilities raised the quality of their learning outcomes. The findings showed that this instructional approach can not only mediate the kind of authentic practices that scientists apply but also make learning more holistic than it has been. Thus, it can be concluded that nature of the task, the tool-integrated collaborative inquiries in the natural environment, and the multiage setting can make learning whole.
The study attempted to measure the impact of diverse instructional methods on individuals whose learning styles tended to fall along a concrete-symbolic continuum as measured by a learning activities questionnaire. Two assumptions were made: (1) those with highly concrete learning styles learn best by direct contact type activities and (2)…
Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Katie; Ihorn, Shasta
Drama for Schools (DFS) is an arts integration professional development program that trains teachers to use drama-based instruction techniques. The DFS strategies aim to connect student learning to their lived experiences in a manner consistent with authentic instruction principles. The focus of this mixed-methods study was on the relationship…
De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem
The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…
There are three types of problem classification: the deterministic, the approximated and the stochastic problems. First, in the deterministic problems the law of the phenomenon and the data are known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the approximated problems, the law of the phenomenon behavior is unknown but the data can be known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the stochastic problems much of the law and the data are unknown in the domain, so in this case the spatial behavior of the data can only be explained with probabilistic laws. This is the most important reason why the students of geo-sciences careers and others related careers need to take courses in advance estimation methods. A good example of this situation is the estimation grades in ore mineral deposit for which the Geostatistics was formalized by G. Matheron in 1962 . Geostatistics is defined as the application of the theory of Random Function to the recognition and estimation of natural phenomenon . Nowadays, Geostatistics is widely used in several fields of earth sciences, for example: Mining, Oil exploration, Environment, Agricultural, Forest and others . It provides a wide variety of tools for spatial data analysis and allows analysing models which are subjected to degrees of uncertainty with the rigor of mathematics and formal statistical analysis . Adequate models for the Kriging interpolator has been developed according to the data behavior; however there are two key steps in applying this interpolator properly: the semivariogram determination and the Kriging neighborhood selection. The main objective of this paper is to present these two elements using an instructive program.
van Someren, Maarten W., Ed.; Reimann, Peter, Ed.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A., Ed.; de Jong, Ton, Ed.
This book addresses questions of multiple representations in human reasoning and learning. Computational approaches to learning with multiple representations are introduced, and the role of multiple representations in teaching is discussed. The following chapters are included in Part I: Multiple Representations in Learning Concepts form Physics…
Lane, Derek R.
The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…
Root, Jon R.; Gall, Meredith D.
A study was conducted to determine whether conventional instruction and mastery-based auto-tutorial instruction interacted with learning characteristics that were found to be instruction-interactive in previous research. Conventional instruction consisted of lecture with discussion and laboratory periods. The mastery-based auto-tutorial…
Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.
The authors investigated whether the amount of instructional guidance affects science learning and self-efficacy. Sixty 9- and 10-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of the following three instructional conditions: (a) guided instruction consisting of examples and student-generated explanations, (b) direct instruction consisting of a…
Peat, D.; And Others
Describes an instructional model, Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), that was developed to translate cognitive psychological theory and research into a practical instructional program. The extent to which SPELT conforms to current instructional design principles is examined, and macro versus micro instructional sequencing…
Holt, Emily A.; Young, Craig; Keetch, Jared; Larsen, Skylar; Mollner, Brayden
Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction). Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students’ critical thinking. We assessed students’ higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cognitive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students’ high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students’ critical thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in student learning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in student learning. PMID:26340659
Holt, Larry Charles; Kysilka, Marcella L.
"Instructional Patterns: Strategies for Maximizing Student Learning" examines instruction from the learners' point of view by showing how instructional patterns can be used to maximize the potential for students to learn. This book explores the interactive patterns that exist in today's classroom and demonstrates how teachers can facilitate the…
Roach, Andrew T.; Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.
"Opportunity to learn" refers to the extent to which teachers dedicate instructional time and content coverage to the intended curriculum using a range of cognitive processes, instructional practices, and grouping formats. This article describes the My Instructional Learning Opportunities Guidance System, a research-based online teacher…
Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…
Verner, Coolie; Davison, Catherine V.
The physiological condition of the adult learner as related to his learning capability is discussed. The design of the instructional process, the selection of learning tasks, the rate at which instruction occurs, and the nature of the instructional setting may all be modified by the instructor to accomodate the variable physiological conditions of…
Linn, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva
"Science Learning and Instruction" describes advances in understanding the nature of science learning and their implications for the design of science instruction. The authors show how design patterns, design principles, and professional development opportunities coalesce to create and sustain effective instruction in each primary scientific…
Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong
In order to effectively utilize the capabilities of virtual reality (VR) in supporting the desired learning outcomes, careful consideration in the design of instruction for VR learning is crucial. In line with this concern, previous work proposed an instructional design model that prescribes instructional methods to guide the design of VR-based…
Gallagher, Kevin P.
This study's focus was to examine the impact of learning style on learning outcomes in an Interactive Multimedia Instruction program (IMI). The literature review emphasizes that incorporating technology alone does not ensure positive gains in an educational initiative. It also identified a number of factors that may influence how students will…
Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean
In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…
Introduction: Since a part of the instruction happens online, a hybrid course has usually been used to solve the problems of space and time. This article explores how students' learning styles influence their learning and satisfaction when certain format of a hybrid course is implemented. Methods: Participants were 122 first-year students at…
In an influential publication in 2009, a group of cognitive psychologists revealed that there was a lack of empirical evidence supporting the concept of learning styles-based instruction and provided guidelines for the type of research design necessary to verify the learning styles hypothesis. This article examined the literature since 2009 to…
DeLuca, Christopher; Klinger, Don; Pyper, Jamie; Woods, Judy
The purpose of this research was to examine the implementation of a professional learning project aimed at building educators' knowledge and skills in assessment for learning (AfL) within two school districts in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, the research examined the value of a two-tier "Instructional Rounds" (IR) professional…
Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas
In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…
Fisher, Mercedes M.
Teachers are responsible for delivering, selecting, and implementing learning activities for their classrooms. They must consider the best approaches to engage their students as well as to meet the school's standards in instruction. Here is a practical how-to book to supplement the social studies curriculum. It places at the teacher's disposal,…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…
Young-Pelton, Cheryl A.; Bushman, Samantha L.
Effectiveness of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention was examined with primary schoolchildren who attended a full-time special education programme for pupils with social emotional and behavioural difficulties and who exhibited inappropriate behaviour during small-group reading instruction. A randomised multiple-probe baseline design was used…
Rieth, Herbert J.; Bryant, Diane P.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Colburn, Linda K.; Hur, Suhng-June; Hartman, Paula; Choi, Hye Sung
A study involving 62 students in two inclusive ninth-grade language arts classes examined the impact of anchored instruction. Results found that as teachers increased the level and length of their questions, students reciprocated by providing higher level and longer responses to questions and asked longer and higher level questions. (Contains…
Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar
Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…
Barhoumi, Chokri; Rossi, Pier Giuseppe
The use of hypertext systems for learning and teaching complex and ill-structured domain of knowledge has been attracting attention in design of instruction. In this context, an experimental research has been conducted to explore the effectiveness of instructional design oriented hypertext systems. Cognitive flexibility hypertext theory is…
Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…
Hawks, J H
The Walker & Avant strategy is used to complete a concept analysis of empowerment. Empowerment is defined as the interpersonal process of providing the proper tools, resources and environment to build, develop and increase the ability and effectiveness of others to set and reach goals for individual and social ends. Empowerment occurs between two or more people: the person who empowers and the person(s) who is (are) empowered. The Murrell-Armstrong Empowerment matrix, with six categories of empowering behaviours, provides the theoretical framework. References from organizational, nursing, educational and sociological literature provide support for the defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of empowerment. A conceptual map depicts these relationships and demonstration cases serve to make the ideas more apparent. The concept of empowerment is applied to philosophy, learning and instruction. Pragmatism reflects the ideas presented on empowerment because both embrace individual and social goals, the student is active in the learning process, learning is lifelong, and the appropriate environment, tools and resources for learning must be present. Kolb's experimental learning model corresponds with empowerment and pragmatism. The works of Dewey, Lewin, Piaget, Rogers and Freire are used as the basis for the model. Kolb describes learning as a four-step process that includes concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Transformative instruction is based on Freire's critical pedagogy, Belenky et al.'s connected teaching, Schön's reflection-in-action, and activities that allow students to complete the experimental learning cycle. Several strategies that promote transformative instruction are discussed. PMID:1602078
Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun
Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.
Wildman, Terry M.; Burton, John K.
This review of the state of educational evaluation, which is directed to both those who produce and those who consume evaluation data, suggests that certain prevalent evaluation practices are seriously out of step with, and inappropriate for, current mainstream instructional activity. Evaluation is recommended as not merely an appendage to…
Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Pelz, Jeff
Four experiments investigated classroom learning by deaf college students receiving lectures from instructors signing for themselves or using interpreters. Deaf students' prior content knowledge, scores on postlecture assessments of content learning, and gain scores were compared to those of hearing classmates. Consistent with prior research, deaf students, on average, came into and left the classroom with less content knowledge than hearing peers, and use of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) and American Sign Language (ASL) apparently were equally effective for deaf students' learning of the material. Students' self-rated sign language skills were not significantly related to performance. Two new findings were of particular importance. First, direct and mediated instruction (via interpreting) were equally effective for deaf college students under the several conditions employed here. Second, despite coming into the classroom with the disadvantage of having less content knowledge, deaf students' gain scores generally did not differ from those of their hearing peers. Possible explanations for these findings are considered.
Riddle, John S.
Discusses service learning and presents models of instruction that academic libraries might offer to service learning pedagogy. Highlights include the role of information literacy; reflection; affective and cognitive learning outcomes of service learning; impact of service learning on libraries; learning process model; course objectives model;…
Eysink, Tessa H. S.; de Jong, Ton
This study compared the affordances of 4 multimedia learning environments for specific learning processes. The environments covered the same domain but used different instructional approaches: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry learning. Although they all promote an active…
Bryant, N. Dale; And Others
A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 30 learning disabled students (7 to 13 years old) who were taught with a set of phonics instructional materials based on the learning principles of providing focus, learning to master, distributed practice and review, discrimination training, and training for transfer. Goals of instruction were…
Stefaniak, Jill E.
This paper describes the design of service-learning experiences with a graduate-level instructional design course. Service-learning provides students with real-life experiences in a situated-learning environment. Students were tasked with working on an instructional design project in a real-world setting to gain consultative experience. This paper…
This study examined the relationship between learners' motivation to learn a second language (L2) and persistence in their learning using self-instructional radio (SIR) materials with a sample of Japanese high school students learning English. L2 self-instruction remains under-researched, in spite of the importance of out-of-class learning…
Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling
The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…
Klein, James D.; Moore, Alison L.
This article focuses on informal learning and its implications for instructional design and performance improvement. The authors begin by sharing a story of how a novice instructional designer employs informal learning strategies in her professional and personal life. Next, they offer a definition of informal learning that encompasses both…
Dabbagh, Nada; Blijd, Cecily Williams
The purpose of this case study was to examine students' perceptions of their learning experiences while working on a real world instructional design project in a performance oriented team in the context of a situated and problem-based learning environment. Participants were 11 graduate students enrolled in a learning-by-doing instructional design…
Ikegulu, Nelson T.
This paper discusses the effectiveness of mediated instructional strategies in culturally and linguistically diverse learning environments, focusing on the use of computer-mediated instruction and its relationship to various learning styles. It examines learning style dimensions and reviews related literature on the relationship between…
Tonsing-Meyer, Julie A.
As technology has evolved, the way individuals learn and the way instructors teach has changed. Despite the general consensus that learning styles and instructional preferences should be addressed in e-learning, there remains a gap in the research into how different styles might be correlated with certain instructional preferences to improve the…
Microblogging tools such as Twitter show potential to enrich classroom experience and benefit student learning. Research shows that instructional guidance is particularly necessary in computer-assisted learning environments, but no research has been done to study the effects of instructional guidance in microblogging-based learning. Using a…
Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.
The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…
Dantas, Alessandra K; Shinagawa, Adriana; Deboni, Maria Cristina Z
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate three learning methods for teaching basic oral surgical skills. Thirty predoctoral dental students without any surgical knowledge or previous surgical experience were divided into three groups (n=10 each) according to instructional strategy: Group 1, active learning; Group 2, text reading only; and Group 3, text reading and video demonstration. After instruction, the apprentices were allowed to practice incision, dissection, and suture maneuvers in a bench learning model. During the students' performance, a structured practice evaluation test to account for correct or incorrect maneuvers was applied by trained observers. Evaluation tests were repeated after thirty and sixty days. Data from resulting scores between groups and periods were considered for statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer) with a significant level of a=0.05. Results showed that the active learning group presented the significantly best learning outcomes related to immediate assimilation of surgical procedures compared to other groups. All groups' results were similar after sixty days of the first practice. Assessment tests were fundamental to evaluate teaching strategies and allowed theoretical and proficiency learning feedbacks. Repetition and interactive practice promoted retention of knowledge on basic oral surgical skills.
Cleveland, April Jones
The integration of technology into the K--12 classroom has become a key focus in the last several years. However, teachers are often left out of this integration process, and subsequently training in the use of the technologies in a classroom setting is often minimal in nature. Teachers are left on their own as they struggle to integrate technology into their curriculum. Web-based professional development has the potential to alleviate both time and place constraints teachers often confront when trying to attend traditional professional programs to upgrade their technology skills. This study focuses on 70 upper elementary, middle, and high school teachers who volunteered to take part in this study in which a web-based tutorial was used as a tool for professional development and data collection. A comparison of settings allowed these teachers to participate in one of three ways: (1) in a workshop-type setting with an instructional leader; (2) in a workshop-type setting with a facilitator; and (3) on the web without an instructional leader or informal peer interaction. All the groups used the same web-based tutorial on water quality monitoring for instructional purposes. Research data included pretest and post-test measurement from all three groups as well as their analysis of a known water sample. The Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MUTEBI) was administered to all the participants as a measurement of self-efficacy beliefs as they relate to the use of computers in science teaching. In addition to the quantitative data collected, qualitative data was also compiled. The results of the study indicate that all the participants were equal in terms of knowledge acquisition, but may have derived "unanticipated benefits" from interaction with their peers in the workshop-type settings. The results also indicate that as teachers' self-rating of computer expertise increased, their scores on the Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy
Huang, C; Huang, H K
The biomedical sciences are a rapidly changing discipline that have adapted to innovative technological advances. Despite these many advances, we face two major challenges: a) the number of experts in the field is vastly outnumbered by the number of students, many of whom are separated geographically or temporally and b) the teaching methods used to instruct students and learners have not changed. Today's students have adapted to technology--they use the web as a source of information and communicate via email and chat rooms. Teaching in the biomedical sciences should adopt these new information technologies (IT), but has thus far failed to capitalize on technological opportunity. Creating a "digital textbook" of the traditional learning material is not sufficient for dynamic processes such as cellular physiology. This paper describes innovative teaching techniques that incorporate familiar IT and high-quality interactive learning content with user-centric instruction design models. The Virtual Labs Project from Stanford University has created effective interactive online teaching modules in physiology (simPHYSIO) and delivered them over broadband networks to their undergraduate and medical students. Evaluation results of the modules are given as a measure of success of such innovative teaching method. This learning media strategically merges IT innovations with pedagogy to produce user-driven animations of processes and engaging interactive simulations. PMID:14984013
Beeth, Michael E.; Hewson, Peter W.
This paper addresses the question of how teachers can support and facilitate conceptual change in student thinking. It begins with a discussion of the multiple meanings of the term conceptual change. An argument is presented for the notion that recent developments in research in science learning have dramatic implications for what students are…
McLaughlin, Judith; Osterhout, Lee; Kim, Albert
Adult second-language (L2) learning is often claimed to be slow and laborious compared to native language (L1) acquisition, but little is known about the rate of L2 word learning. Here we report that adult second-language learners' brain activity, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs), discriminated between L2 words and L2 'pseudowords' (word-like letter strings) after just 14 h of classroom instruction. This occurred even while the learners performed at chance levels when making overt L2 word-nonword judgments, indicating that the early acquisition of some aspects of a new language may be overlooked by current behavioral assessments.
Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie
Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409
The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…
Leffert, James S.; Brady, Mary E.; Siperstein, Gary N.
Students participate in a "social community" of learners. For children with learning problems, mastering the skills needed to actively participate in this community can be a challenge. How can teachers find time to provide social skills instruction, given the pressures to teach academic subjects first and foremost? This article shows school…
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram
This study focuses on vocational education teachers' instructional activities in a new technology-enhanced learning (TEL) setting. A content analysis is applied to investigate teachers' and students' interactions in a 3D game context. The findings illustrate that when teachers' and students' interactions are mediated by a…
Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of learning activities based on conceptual change conditions and traditionally designed physics instruction on tenth-grade students' understanding of static electricity concepts and their attitudes toward physics as a school subject. Misconceptions related to static electricity concepts…
Woodard, Diane K.
Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…
International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.
This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…
Merrill, M. David; And Others
Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…
Guthrie, John T.; Anderson, Emily; Alao, Solomon; Rinehart, Jennifer
Attempting to increase reading engagement, a collaborative team implemented a year-long integration of reading/language arts and science instruction known as Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI). Compared to traditionally organized instruction, the CORI context increased strategy use, conceptual learning, and text comprehension more than…
McKenna, John William; Shin, Mikyung; Ciullo, Stephen
Systematically observing instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) provides information regarding the quality of school-based interventions, allocation of instructional time, and other implementation variables associated with student outcomes. In this synthesis, observation studies of reading and mathematics instruction from 2000 to…
Weisgerber, Robert A.; Blake, Patricia L.
Fourth in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled (LD) students, this paper explores issues related to the evaluation and selection of instructional software for LD students. Topics discussed include the following: (1) criteria for instructionally useful software (e.g., flexibility and…
King, Chula; Piotrowski, Chris
While Blended pedagogical approaches are a ubiquitous feature in higher education, the Flipped class is a rather recent instructional format in undergraduate-level instruction. The Flipped paradigm blends together many of the benefits of E-Learning courses, with many of the benefits of face-to-face instruction. At the same time, the disadvantages…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
This report focuses on a family of interventions that includes all "Direct Instruction" products ("DISTAR" and "Language for Learning"). "Direct Instruction" was used to refer to this family of interventions, as well as to all versions past and present. "Direct Instruction" includes teaching techniques that are fast-paced, teacher-directed, and…
The application of behavioral and cognitive learning theories to the design of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at the college level is discussed. A model of instructional design and the unique qualities of computers are also briefly reviewed. The general model of instruction, which is used for designing a curriculum, has five major components:…
King-Sears, Margaret E.; Bowman-Kruhm, Mary
In this exploratory study, secondary special education co-teachers report about specialized reading instruction for students with learning disabilities in co-taught classes. Almost half of the respondents were concerned that reading instruction was not occurring in co-taught classes. One-third were concerned reading instruction was not occurring…
Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard
In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…
Wagner, Ellen D.
Two assessment endeavors were undertaken to determine the relative impact of alphanumeric and graphic instructional mediators upon intentional and incidental learning outcomes in applied instructional contexts. The intent of these investigations was to determine the feasibility of embedding strategic organizational cues within instruction to…
Over the past few decades, grammar instruction has moved from its central position in traditional language teaching approaches to playing virtually no role in communicative approaches. This article first gives a historical perspective of grammar instruction. Then it outlines the 10 principles of instructed language learning formulated by Ellis and…
Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…
Ellis, Violet Adams
Proving a child has been adequately educated is manifest through assessments evaluating the recall of facts or the deciphering of codes. How this information is taught and learned is the issue. Webb's depth of knowledge (DOK) and Bloom's taxonomy are cognitive models that drive instruction in today's classrooms. According to these models,…
Boynton, Christine Mary
In 2006, the California legislature released $14 million to the schools of California to create school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Bill (CA Assembly Bill 1535, 2006). This study examined the differences and similarities of school gardens as learning spaces by exploring a fifth grade school standards-based mathematics…
Farrar, Cynthia Hamen
In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to
Pundak, David; Herscovitz, Orit; Shacham, Miri
Instruction in higher education has developed significantly over the past two decades, influenced by two trends: promotion of active learning methods and integration of web technology in e-Learning. Many studies found that active teaching improves students' success, involvement and thinking skills. Nevertheless, internationally, most instructors…
Swofford, Janet A; DeBello, William M
Owls reared wearing prismatic spectacles learn to make adaptive orienting movements. This instructed learning depends on re-calibration of the midbrain auditory space map, which in turn involves the formation of new synapses. Here we investigated whether these processes are associated with differential gene expression, using longSAGE. Newly fledged owls were reared for 8-36 days with prism or control lenses at which time the extent of learning was quantified by electrophysiological mapping. Transciptome profiles were obtained from the inferior colliculus (IC), the major site of synaptic plasticity, and the optic tectum (OT), which provides an instructive signal that controls the direction and extent of plasticity. Twenty-two differentially expressed sequence tags were identified in IC and 36 in OT, out of more than 35,000 unique tags. Of these, only four were regulated in both structures. These results indicate that regulation of two largely independent gene clusters is associated with synaptic remodeling (in IC) and generation of the instructive signal (in OT). Real-time PCR data confirmed the changes for two transcripts, ubiquitin/polyubiquitin and tyrosine 3-monooxgenase/tryotophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta subunit (YWHAQ; also referred to as 14-3-3 protein). Ubiquitin was downregulated in IC, consistent with a model in which protein degradation pathways act as an inhibitory constraint on synaptogenesis. YWHAQ was up-regulated in OT, indicating a role in the synthesis or delivery of instructive information. In total, our results provide a path towards unraveling molecular cascades that link naturalistic experience with synaptic remodeling and, ultimately, with the expression of learned behavior. PMID:17526003
Koedinger, Kenneth R; Corbett, Albert T; Perfetti, Charles
Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of high potential for generality, while explicitly identifying constraints of and opportunities for detailed analysis of the knowledge students may acquire in courses. Drawing on research across domains of science, math, and language learning, we illustrate the analyses of knowledge, learning, and instructional events that the KLI framework affords. We present a set of three coordinated taxonomies of knowledge, learning, and instruction. For example, we identify three broad classes of learning events (LEs): (a) memory and fluency processes, (b) induction and refinement processes, and (c) understanding and sense-making processes, and we show how these can lead to different knowledge changes and constraints on optimal instructional choices.
Pelika, Stacey L.
Principals can better learn to support an instructional reform when classes for professional development use the new instructional method, giving them a first hand understanding of its effectiveness. Constructivist teaching is supported by the National Research Council's "How People Learn" and the Students at the Center initiative. Students at the…
Reid, Robert; Lienemann, Torri Ortiz
Practical and accessible, this book provides the first step-by-step guide to cognitive strategy instruction, which has been shown to be one of the most effective instructional techniques for students with learning problems. Presented are proven strategies that students can use to improve their self-regulated learning, study skills, and performance…
McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark
Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigated…
Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Despite recent advances in the development of instructional interventions, many students with significant learning problems do not benefit from them. This includes 25% to 50% of students with learning disabilities (LD). In this article, we identify five limitations of current instructional programs that may help to explain students' inadequate…
Taylor, Joseph A.; Van Scotter, Pamela; Coulson, Doug
For decades the National Science Foundation has been funding the development of instructional materials whose design is based upon the recommendations of educational research. These recommendations include the idea that learning be sequenced and organized using an experiential learning cycle or an instructional model such as the Biological Science…
The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…
Choi, Ikseon; Lee, Sang Joon; Jung, Jong Won
Although many benefits of case-based instruction with multimedia have been reported, there are few empirical studies of how the benefits of multimedia case-based instructions (MCBIs) are mediated by students' individual differences, such as their learning styles. Understanding the relationships between students' learning styles and the learning…
Black, Robert D.; Weinberg, Lois A.; Brodwin, Martin G.
Universal design in education is a framework of instruction that aims to be inclusive of different learning preferences and learners, and helps to reduce barriers for students with disabilities. The principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) were used as the framework for this study. The purposes…
I investigated how five first-year teachers--all peers from the same science methods class framed around ambitious instruction--used resources to plan and learn in schools that promoted pedagogy anchored around information delivery. The participants engaged in different cycles of resource-driven learning based on the instructional framework they…
Salyer, B. Keith; Thyfault, Alberta
This paper discusses the value of merging real-life events with content instruction and provides six sample lessons to illustrate such instruction. A brief review of the literature notes historic recognition of the importance of applied learning, the issue of retention and transfer of learning, the approach of using content relevant experiences…
Cekiso, M. P.
Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design accordingly. In addition, a…
Wagensveld, Barbara; Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo
We examined the role child factors on the acquisition and transfer of learning the control of variables strategy (CVS) via instruction or self-discovery. Seventy-six fourth graders and 43 sixth graders were randomly assigned to a group receiving direct CVS instruction or a discovery learning group. Prior to the intervention, cognitive, scientific,…
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Björkskog, Linda
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues…
Ryan, Linda Jo
Adult education literature suggests that the instructional perspective of the teacher has an important effect on adult satisfaction with learning. In this study, the relationships between instructional perspective, satisfaction with language learning, and certain teacher and student characteristics were investigated. Study participants were adult…
Sarfo, Frederick Kwaku; Elen, Jan
This study aimed at experimentally investigating the moderating role of instructional conceptions on the effectiveness of powerful learning environments (PLE) designed in line with the four-component instructional design model (4C/ID-model). The study also investigated the influence of learning in a 4C/ID PLE on students' instructional…
Morice, J.; Michinov, N.; Delaval, M.; Sideridou, A.; Ferrières, V.
Peer instruction has been recognized as an instructional method having a positive impact on learning compared to traditional lectures in science. This method has been widely supported by the socio-constructivist approach to learning giving a positive role to interaction between peers in the construction of knowledge. As far as we know, no study…
Ortiz-Arteaga, Carmen A.
Instructional designers must design and develop online learning environments that present the content in a way that learners will find important and useful. Faculty and novice designers are being tasked to design and develop online learning environments without having the necessary knowledge or experience in instructional design in order to select…
Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Birkan, Bunyamin
A multiple-probe design across response chains and students was used to evaluate the combined instructional effects of progressive time delay, general case training, and observational learning on the food and drink preparation skills of three children with autism. All instruction was delivered in a group learning arrangement. The data suggested…
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin
This study investigated the effects of supplemental instruction, a peer-assisted learning approach, on students, learning competence and academic performance. The supplemental instruction intervention facilitated by senior students focused on developing students' use of study skills and enhancing their motivation and academic performance. Pre- and…
Warren, Richard Daniel
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.
Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…
Haugen, Marlen Ingvard
Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.
Bullard, B.; McBride, J. )
During the past several years, the Training and Management Systems Division (TMSD) staff of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has designed and developed nuclear criticality safety (NCS) training programs that focus on high trainee involvement through the use of instructional games and activities. This paper discusses the instructional game, initial considerations for developing games, advantages and limitations of games, and how games may be used in developing and implementing NCS training. It also provides examples of the various instructional games and activities used in separate courses designed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES's) supervisors and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel facility inspectors.
Albinet, C; Fezzani, K
Using a computer-simulated anticipation-coincidence task, the main aim of the study was to examine the effect of the type of instruction on learning a temporal pattern. For this task, participants must learn to anticipate the appropriate time to launch a projectile to hit a moving target. The experiment involved three instructional conditions. In the Explicit-rule Discover Instruction Condition participants were informed that target speed could change from trial to trial and that change is controlled by a regular pattern. Their task was then to search, to identify, and to use such pattern to enhance their anticipation. In the Explicit-Informative Instruction Condition, participants were, however, allowed before practice to examine attentively the regular pattern. Participants were also explicitly urged to use the pattern they observed to ensure a better interception of the target. Finally, in the Implicit Instruction Condition, participants were only informed that their task was to hit, or at least, to place the projectile as near as possible to the target. No additional information was provied about the target's behaviour. Analysis indicated that learning the temporal pattern was more important in Implicit than in Explicit-rule Discover Instruction Condion. However, the Explicit-Informative Instruction Condition produced unambiguouslly the highest learning. Overall, the study highlights the role of information over guidance in the understanding of the effect of the instructions on learning. Finally, we discussed the implications of these results on the comprehension of the variability of the effects of the instruction on learning.
Parker, Edmond T.; Conzen, Michael P.
These activities are part of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity involves students in the use of maps as a source of information about American social and economic history. It outlines six learning activities which employ inductive methods. Given…
Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.
Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…
Kirik, Ozgecan Tastan; Boz, Yezdan
Learning is a social event and so the students need learning environments that enable them to work with their peers so that they can learn through their interactions. This study discusses the effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to traditional instruction in terms of students' motivation and understanding of chemical kinetics in a high…
Tseng, Hung Wei; Tang, Yingqi; Morris, Betty
As mobile learning technology promotes learning accessibility and flexibility, students benefit from social interactivity and connective learning process which will also foster students' performance and satisfaction on learning content. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate iTunes U courses based on instructional design strategies…
Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy
Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)
Klein, James D.
The effects of orienting activities and practice on performance and student behaviors in a cooperative learning environment were studied with 80 graduate education majors in an educational psychology course. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used, with orienting activity (advance organizer versus objectives) and type of practice (verbal information…
Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace
This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…
Markant, Douglas B.; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gureckis, Todd M.; Xu, Fei
Despite widespread consensus among educators that "active learning" leads to better outcomes than comparatively passive forms of instruction, it is often unclear why these benefits arise. In this article, we review research showing that the opportunity to control the information experienced while learning leads to improved memory…
This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
Hewson, Peter W.; Hewson, Mariana G.
Presented is an analysis of a concept teaching technique that was developed according to a theoretical perspective which emphasizes the importance of a student's existing knowledge in influencing that person's subsequent learning. Significant differences between an experimental group which was exposed to this instructional strategy, and the…
This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…
Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew
Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…
This study investigated whether the level of instructional guidance affected student learning and science self-efficacy when nine- and ten- year old children learn to design unconfounded experiments using control of variable strategies (CVS). Specifically, the goal of this study was to replicate and extend prior research that examines the impact of the level of guidance on ability to successfully design scientifically credible experiments that isolate the relationship between two variables (Klahr & Nigam, 2004). Sixty children, who were enrolled in a summer sports program, were randomly assigned in equal numbers to one of the three following conditions: (1) guided instruction, where children received instruction with examples and explanations; (2) direct instruction, where children received instruction through lecture with examples; and (3) discovery learning, where children received instruction through methods of self discovery. Before starting the experiment, participants completed a prior knowledge pretest and a science self-efficacy measure. After receiving a common introduction to scientists' use of experiments, children received their assigned instructional treatment and completed the outcomes. The outcomes included: (1) design of experiments; (2) a recall measure about designing unconfounded experiments using CVS; (3) an application measure about applying CVS to scientific experiments; (4) an evaluation measure using CVS to evaluate a scientific experiment; and, (5) science self-efficacy. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs and repeated-measures ANOVA. Children who received guided instruction designed a greater percentage of experiments correctly and had greater changes in self-efficacy relative to direct instruction and discovery learning. Children receiving direct instruction and guided instruction performed better than children who learned through discovery on all other learning measures. Results were interpreted in terms of theoretical and
Finding a way to encourage first year students to use deep processing strategies was the aim of this research. The need for an adequate method became clear after using the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) of Vermunt: almost half of the first year students turned out to have an undirected or a reproduction-directed learning style. A possible intervention is process-oriented instruction. In this type of instruction learning strategies are taught in coherence with domain specific knowledge. The emphasis is on a gradual transfer from a strongly instruction-guided regulation of the learning process towards a student-regulation. By promoting congruence and constructive frictions between instruction and learning strategies, students are challenged to improve their learning strategies. These general features of process-oriented instruction were refined by Vermunt (1992) in twelve general and specific principles. Literature was studied in which researchers reported about their experiences with interventions aimed at teaching physics knowledge, physics strategies and/or learning and thinking strategies. It became obvious that several successful interventions stressed four principles: (1) the student must experience (constructive) f&barbelow;rictions, including cognitive conflicts; (2) he must be encouraged to ṟeflect on his experiences (thinking about them and analysing them); (3) the instruction must e&barbelow;xplicate and demonstrate the necessary knowledge and strategies; and (4) the student must be given the opportunity to practice (ḏoing) with the learned knowledge and strategies. These four FRED-principles are useful for teaching both general and domain specific knowledge and strategies. They show similarities with the four stages in the learning cycle of Kolb (1984). Moreover, other elements of process-oriented instruction are also depicted by the learning cycle, which, when used in process-oriented instruction, has to start with experiencing (constructive
Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.
The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of
Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D.
Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4th to 9th graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768
Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D
Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4(th) to 9(th) graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768
Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D
Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4(th) to 9(th) graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities.
Black, R. David; Weinberg, Lois A.; Brodwin, Martin G.
Universal design in the education setting is a framework of instruction that aims to be inclusive of different learners to reduce barriers for all students, including those with disabilities. We used the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL focuses on the learner) and Universal Design for Instruction (UDI focuses on instruction) as the…
The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p < .01) in academic performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in
Alcon Soler, Eva
This paper is based on a study which attempted to examine the efficacy of instruction at the pragmatic level. Specifically, the main purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent two instructional paradigms--explicit versus implicit instruction--affected learners' knowledge and ability to use request strategies. One hundred and thirty-two…
Ubuz, Behiye; Duatepe-Paksu, Asuman
This paper explains what drama-based instruction is and offers insights into the phases in drama-based instruction. Further, examples of drama-based lessons in geometry related to ring and circle, and altitude of a triangle together with the teacher and students perceptions related to the strengths and limitations of drama based instruction in…
Seidel, Robert J.; And Others
Project IMPACT (Instructional Model Prototypes Attainable in Computerized Training) is a comprehensive advanced development project designed to produce an effective and economical computer administered instruction (CAI) system for the Army. In this paper, the rationale for conceptualizing the instructional process in a form implementable by…
Brown, James W.
A survey of nonformal community education activities was conducted to determine specific use of media for identified educational and informational purposes. The results presented in this report are intended to provide resource information to professionals and paraprofessionals who ultimately may be employed in Learning Resource Center-Based…
This study investigates the potential of enhancing students' learning of difficult science concepts by exploring the interaction between teachers' four different instructional approaches and students' four different learning preference styles. Students' immediate performance and their retention for learning of buoyancy concepts serve to examine…
Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan
Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…
Hoops, Leah D.; Yu, Shirley L.; Wang, Qianqian; Hollyer, Virginia L.
Promoting students' self-regulated learning (SRL) is one way to improve postsecondary student success. However, few studies have investigated the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors that may support students' SRL. This study sought to fill this gap. An undergraduate mathematics course was observed to determine instruction utilized…
Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Corbett, Albert T.; Perfetti, Charles
Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of…
Mithaug, Dennis E.; Mithaug, Deirdre K.; Agran, Martin; Martin, James E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
This book describes a method of teaching that fosters autonomous learning in all students, including students with disabilities. The pedagogy is based on decades of research on strategy instruction as well as on a theory of learning that claims these four conditions promote self-determined learning in all learners: (1) opportunities to choose…
Academic distance learning programs have gained popularity and added to the demand for online library services. Librarians are now conducting instruction for distance learning students beyond their traditional work. Technology advancements have enhanced the delivery mode in distance learning across academic disciplines. Online conference tools…
De Corte, Erik
This article argues that research and educational practices relating to gifted students can highly benefit by linking up more closely with the mainstream of research on learning and instruction. The CLIA-model for the design of powerful learning environments that consists of four interconnected components (Competence, Learning, Intervention, and…
Sun, Pei-Chen; Cheng, Hsing Kenny
The rapid development of computer and Internet technologies has made e-Learning become an important learning method. There has been a considerable increase in the needs for multimedia instructional material in e-Learning recently as such content has been shown to attract a learner's attention and interests. The multimedia content alone, however,…
King, Kathleen P.
In a world dominated by change and transformation, this article explores instructional technology connections to and applications of transformative learning. The author provides an overview of the theory of transformative learning, which embraces the hallmarks of 21st century learning. Rather than focusing solely on how to use technology,…
Lehmann, Thomas; Ifenthaler, Dirk
This research contributes to answer the question whether learning/cognitive styles of students serve as a justified starting point for creating target-group appropriate instruction. The study was realized in a self-regulated problem-based learning environment. Data of 56 participants on their individual learning styles, their acquired problem…
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.
Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…
Higher education is one of the last institutions of learning to embrace the challenge of learner diversity that exists everywhere today (Dunn & Griggs, 2000; Rowley, Lujan, Dolence, 1998). This investigation explored the relationships between perceived preferred instructional strategies and student learning styles of learning-style aware…
Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet
The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods…
Describes a study conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine student attitudes toward various aspects of network-based instruction. Discusses Internet technology; Web-based education; online learning; learning styles; and results from Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, the Hidden Figures Test, and a number of multivariate procedures.…
Bailey, Alison L.; Heritage, Margaret
This article addresses theoretical and empirical issues relevant for the development and evaluation of language learning progressions. The authors explore how learning progressions aligned with new content standards can form a central basis of efforts to describe the English language needed in school contexts for learning, instruction, and…
Sáez, Leilani; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald
Conceptually, learning progressions hold promise for improving assessment and instruction by precisely outlining what students know and don't know at particular stages of knowledge and skill development. Based upon a synthesis of the literature, a rationale for the use of learning progressions maps to clarify how learning progresses in…
Horn, Ilana Seidel; Kane, Britnie Delinger
Increasingly, instructional improvement efforts include teacher communities as part of their overall strategy, yet the relationship between teachers' talk and professional learning remains underspecified. Using a discourse perspective on learning, this article compares opportunities to learn (OTLs) in the collaborative conversations of 3…
Sweeney, Michelle M.
The National Association for Sport and Physical Education supports the offering of strong college and university instructional physical activity programs (C/UIPAPs). With a rapid decline in physical activity levels, high stress levels, and unhealthy weight-loss practices among college-age students, it is apparent that C/UIPAPs embedded in the…
Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079
Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of different types of visuals (static and animated) and instructional strategies (no strategy, questions, and questions plus feedback) used to complement visualized materials on students' learning of different educational objectives in a computer-based instructional (CBI)…
Xin, Yan Ping; Jitendra, Asha; Deatline-Buchman, Andria; Hickman, Wesley; Bertram, Dean
This study examined the differential effects of two instructional strategies on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of mathematical word problem solving by students with learning disabilities: an explicit schema-based problem solving strategy (SBI) and a traditional general heuristic instructional strategy (TI). Twenty-two middle…
Allen, David; And Others
This report explains a teaching system designed to stimulate polysensory learning by use of multi-media instructional materials, which use as many of the physical senses as practical to augment traditional instruction. They include motion pictures, filmstrips, audio tapes, models, mock-ups, etc., according to school facilities and course needs.…
Sczechowicz, Edward; Hinrichsen, James J.
Twenty-eight normal and 28 learning disabled children were given the Bender-Gestalt Test under instructional sets of low (standard) attention or high attention. Results failed to support the hypothesis that high attention instructions would lead to differential recall performance of the diagnostic groups.
Saab, Nadira; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M.
We present a study on the effect of instruction on collaboration in a collaborative discovery learning environment. The instruction we used, called RIDE, is built upon four principles identified in the literature on collaborative processes: Respect, Intelligent collaboration, Deciding together, and Encouraging. In an experimental study, a group of…
Calais, Gerald J.
Balanced reading instruction proposes an alternative to phonics only or whole language only programs; offers an efficient mixture of instructional approaches; and reconciles an array of learning styles. Although this balanced approach can not be interpreted monolithically, due to the various ways that whole language and phonics can be taught and…
Jitendra, Asha K.; Edwards, Lana L.; Sacks, Gabriell; Jacobson, Lisa A.
This article summarizes published research on vocabulary instruction involving students with learning disabilities. Nineteen vocabulary studies that comprised 27 investigations were located. Study interventions gleaned from the review included keyword or mnemonic approaches, cognitive strategy instruction (e.g., semantic features analysis), direct…
Minott, Mark A.
The aim of this anecdotal essay is to encourage college lecturers and classroom teachers to examine and articulate their personal instructional theory. This is important for two reasons. One, doing so brings an awareness of personal instructional practices, and two, it is an important facet of the scholarship of teaching and learning. To achieve…
Bahtaji, Michael Allan A.
This study investigates the outcome of designed source-text materials in context-based physics learning using validated test questions in mechanics. Two groups of students received context-based instruction (experimental group) and one group received content-based instruction (control group). These three groups of students are only different with…
Wilkinson, Colleen Ann
Online learning has become a prevalent method of instruction in higher education. There are many reasons for this change in pedagogy, including rapid developments in technology, as well as the logistic challenges of enrolling in college, such as commuting and coordinating work schedules. The quality of online instruction and its impact on teacher…
Hauf, Harold D.; And Others
Colleges need appropriate large group instructional facilities for effective and efficient use of instructional aids and media. A well planned system of facilities must provide space for learning; production, origination, and support; storage and retrieval. Design begins with a building plan--a statement, made jointly by the administrator and…
Formative assessment is a potentially powerful instructional process because the practice of sharing assessment information that supports learning is embedded into the instructional process by design. If the potential of formative assessment is to be realized, it must transform from a collection of abstract theories and research methodologies and…
Chapman, Debra; Wang, Shuyan
Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way effectively and economically present instructional material. MMITs are commonly used in introductory computer applications courses as MMITs should be effective in increasing student knowledge and positively impact motivation and learning strategies, without increasing costs. This…
Ritchey, Kristen D.
Students with learning disabilities (LD) represent a significant proportion of students enrolled in U.S. schools. Research suggests that students with LD in reading benefit from specialized reading instruction, and effective reading instruction can be characterized as explicit, intensive, and systematic. Examples of evidence-based interventions…
Mercado Cruz, Daniel
Traditional classrooms are not being designed with deaf and hard of hearing learners in mind. Providing equal learning opportunities with the use of appropriate instructional design strategies to deaf and hard of hearing learners requires that instructional designers, faculty, and educational institutions understand what accommodations and…
Campbell, Constance R.; Swift, Cathy Owens
In this article, the authors compared student perceptions about distance learning (DL) across location, type of business course, and level of instruction. Results indicated that there were no differences in student perceptions based on type of course or level of instruction. Onsite students found the DL classroom more distracting than did remote…
Marsh, Julie A.; Bertrand, Melanie; Huguet, Alice
Background: Despite increased access to student learning data, scholars have demonstrated that teachers do not always know how to use these data in ways that lead to deep changes in instruction and often lack skills and knowledge to interpret results and develop solutions. In response, administrators have invested in instructional coaches, data…
Hannafin, Michael J.
In this article, the author describes how Eric Fox presents an interesting case for applying functional contextualism (FC) constructs and principles to learning and instruction. He draws several well-debated issues related to the instructional design and technology (IDT) field's shifting philosophical-epistemological roots and pedagogical…
Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on college students' conceptual learning, motivation, and self-efficacy in an algebra-based introductory physics course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experiment, Solomon four-group design on 123 students. Treatment groups were taught by peer instruction.…
This dissertation investigates the use of observational learning enhanced health instruction to mitigate problems of low language competency among learners. Low language competency can cause improper comprehension of medical instruction and health education, resulting in misdiagnosis, reduced recall, under reporting of medical conditions and…
Bishop, M. J.; Amankwatia, Tonya B.; Cates, Ward Mitchell
Sound may hold great promise for instructional software by supporting learning in a variety of ways. Conceptual and preconceptual barriers, however, still appear to prevent software designers from using sound more effectively in their instructional products. Interface books seldom discuss the use of sound and when they do, it is most often simple…
Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…
This study examined the influence of morphological instruction in an eye-tracking English vocabulary recognition task. Sixty-eight freshmen enrolled in an English course and received either traditional or morphological instruction for learning English vocabulary. The experimental part of the study was conducted over two-hour class periods for…
Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele
The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…
Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas
In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation (visual modality and gestures) and visuo-haptic simulation (visual modality, gestures, and somatosensory information). A pilot study involving N = 23 college students examined how using different types of visuo-haptic representation in instruction affected people's mental model construction for physics systems. Participants' abilities to construct mental models were operationalized through their pretest-to-posttest gain scores for a basic physics system and their performance on a transfer task involving an advanced physics system. Findings from this pilot study revealed that, while both simulations significantly improved participants' mental modal construction for physics systems, visuo-haptic simulation was significantly better than visuo-gestural simulation. In addition, clinical interviews suggested that participants' mental model construction for physics systems benefited from receiving visuo-haptic simulation in a tutorial prior to the instruction stage. A dissertation study involving N = 96 college students examined how types of visuo-haptic representation in different applications support participants' mental model construction for physics systems. Participant's abilities to construct mental models were again operationalized through their pretest-to-posttest gain scores for a basic physics system and their performance on a transfer task involving an advanced physics system. Participants' physics misconceptions were also measured before and after the grounded learning experience. Findings from this dissertation study not only revealed that visuo-haptic simulation was significantly more effective in promoting mental model
This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…
Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei
We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.
Steele, Marcee M.
This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.
Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.
We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post- instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (N < 10) to large (N˜180) and were from all types of institutions, including both 2-year and 4-year colleges and universities. To study how the instruction in different classrooms affected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner- centered, active-engagement instruction such as Peer Instruction and collaborative tutorials. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ˜25% (24 ± 2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the gains measured varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. The distribution of gain scores indicates that differences were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactivity. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains (
Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien
The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine. PMID:26079748
Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam
Incremental instruction on the workings of a set of mechanical systems induced a progression of changes in the neural representations of the systems. The neural representations of four mechanical systems were assessed before, during, and after three phases of incremental instruction (which first provided information about the system components, then provided partial causal information, and finally provided full functional information). In 14 participants, the neural representations of four systems (a bathroom scale, a fire extinguisher, an automobile braking system, and a trumpet) were assessed using three recently developed techniques: (1) machine learning and classification of multi-voxel patterns; (2) localization of consistently responding voxels; and (3) representational similarity analysis (RSA). The neural representations of the systems progressed through four stages, or states, involving spatially and temporally distinct multi-voxel patterns: (1) initially, the representation was primarily visual (occipital cortex); (2) it subsequently included a large parietal component; (3) it eventually became cortically diverse (frontal, parietal, temporal, and medial frontal regions); and (4) at the end, it demonstrated a strong frontal cortex weighting (frontal and motor regions). At each stage of knowledge, it was possible for a classifier to identify which one of four mechanical systems a participant was thinking about, based on their brain activation patterns. The progression of representational states was suggestive of progressive stages of learning: (1) encoding information from the display; (2) mental animation, possibly involving imagining the components moving; (3) generating causal hypotheses associated with mental animation; and finally (4) determining how a person (probably oneself) would interact with the system. This interpretation yields an initial, cortically-grounded, theory of learning of physical systems that potentially can be related to cognitive
The intent of this study was to explore the intrinsic aspects of motivation, and to see if the design of instruction could positively affect learners' levels of intrinsic motivation toward the subject matter. The following questions were addressed: (1) Will different computer-based instructional treatments which have been designed to reflect…
Kaczmarek, Louise A.; Dell, Amy Glasser
Proposed are several new directions that encourage the variety and flexibility of haphazard teaching and the precision of one objective-one activity teaching in the design of activities for handicapped preschoolers. Journal availability: see EC 133 846. (Author)
Forte, Imogene; Schurr, Sandra
This workbook includes high-interest activities, lessons, and projects to further students' interest in and understanding of important exploratory and enrichment topics essential to a balanced middle grades program. The workbook includes lessons and activities that encourage students to learn more about the arts. Instructional strategies are…
Ekwue, Eleazer U.
The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.
McCormack, Wayne T; Garvan, Cynthia W
Common practices for responsible conduct of research (RCR) instruction have recently been shown to have no positive impact on and possibly to undermine ethical decision-making (EDM). We show that a team-based learning (TBL) RCR curriculum results in some gains in decision ethicality, the use of more helpful metacognitive reasoning strategies in decision-making, and elimination of most negative effects of other forms of RCR instruction on social-behavioral responses. TBL supports the reasoning strategies and social mechanisms that underlie EDM and ethics instruction, and may provide a more effective method for RCR instruction than lectures and small group discussion.
McCormack, Wayne T.; Garvan, Cynthia W.
Common practices for responsible conduct of research (RCR) instruction have recently been shown to have no positive impact on and possibly to undermine ethical decision-making (EDM). We show that a team-based learning (TBL) RCR curriculum results in some gains in decision ethicality, the use of more helpful meta-cognitive reasoning strategies in decision-making, and elimination of most negative effects of other forms of RCR instruction on social–behavioral responses. TBL supports the reasoning strategies and social mechanisms that underlie EDM and ethics instruction, and may provide a more effective method for RCR instruction than lectures and small group discussion. PMID:24073606
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Lerner, Matthew D.
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children’s development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment. PMID:22180666
Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.
Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…
Kern, Lee; State, Talida M.
It is often said that the best intervention strategies prevent problem behaviors from starting in the first place. Two preventative strategies that teachers can use are choice making and incorporating preferred activities into classwide instruction. Not only do these strategies avoid problem behaviors, but teachers also find them easy to use in…
Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.
Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373
Andrews, T M; Leonard, M J; Colgrove, C A; Kalinowski, S T
Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning.
THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 6 YEARS IN SELF-INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES HAVE LED RESEARCHERS TO CONCLUDE THAT TOTAL PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION SEEMS PRODUCTIVE ONLY IN CASES WHERE THE TERMINAL BEHAVIOR TO BE ACHIEVED IS VERY LIMITED. EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT IT IS MOST USEFUL IN MODULES AT EARLY LEVELS FOR TEACHING…
Leopold, Claudia; Doerner, Marcel; Leutner, Detlev; Dutke, Stephan
In two experiments, we compared effects of instructions that encourage learners to create referential connections between words and pictures with instructions that distract learners from creating referential connections. In Experiment 1, students read a scientific text under four conditions. In the text-picture condition, students read the…
Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Taylor, W. Patrick; Carlson, Coleen D.; Lei, Xiaoxuan; Hunter, C. Vincent; Francis, David J.
In order to examine the effectiveness of instruction, the authors confront formidable statistical problems, including multivariate structure of classroom observations, longitudinal dependence of both classroom observations and student outcomes. As the authors begin to examine instruction, classroom observations involve multiple variables for which…
Krause, Magia G.
This article reports on the results of a survey of instructional practices in a variety of archival and manuscript repositories. The results of the survey suggest that archives professionals devote a significant amount of time and energy to instructing users of primary sources. However, a relatively small number of respondents conduct formal…
Whether or not "instruction" appears in their job titles, librarians are often in the position of educating their users, colleagues, and peers to successfully locate and evaluate information. Because MLIS education tends to offer less-than-comprehensive preparation in pedagogy and instructional design, this much-needed book tackles the challenge…
Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard
As noted in part I of this article (published in "TechTrends 54"(3)), advances in technology continue to outpace research on the design and effectiveness of instructional (digital video) games. In general, instructional designers know little about game development, commercial video game developers know little about training, education and…
Henderson, George; Nash, Susan Smith
This book will improve the quality of instruction that college students need. It makes numerous suggestions that must be tended to when teachers instruct students. For example, the authors speculate about ways teachers can present what may at times seem to be a mountain of information without burying students under it; why teachers must…
Hodges, Charles B.
This case study presents the experience of an instructional designer working on an instructional development project for the first time. The project team was creating online course materials for a college level business calculus course. Project management skills, considerations in the project budget, and communication issues are suggested as…
Alparslan, Cem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer
Investigates the effect of conceptual change instruction on grade 11 students' understanding of respiration. The Respiration Concept Test was developed and used to test students' misconceptions. Results indicate that the conceptual change instruction that explicitly addressed students' misconceptions produced significantly greater achievement in…
Gredin, Viktor; Williams, A Mark
The authors examined the relative effectiveness of explicit internal-oriented instructions, explicit external-oriented instructions, and unguided discovery learning on the performance, acquisition, and learning of a motor skill using novice youth soccer players. Thirty-seven players (age = 9.9 ± 0.7 years) underwent 3 × 30 trials of instruction-specific blocks of practice. The accuracy of lofted soccer kicks was assessed under practice conditions (prior to and after the practice period and after each practice block) and transfer conditions (prior to and after the practice period). Our findings indicated that generalized explicit instructions have detrimental effects on performance, whereas the benefits of unguided discovery learning increase with the amount of practice undertaken and when performing under transfer conditions.
Atlas, Lauren Y; Doll, Bradley B; Li, Jian; Daw, Nathaniel D; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Socially-conveyed rules and instructions strongly shape expectations and emotions. Yet most neuroscientific studies of learning consider reinforcement history alone, irrespective of knowledge acquired through other means. We examined fear conditioning and reversal in humans to test whether instructed knowledge modulates the neural mechanisms of feedback-driven learning. One group was informed about contingencies and reversals. A second group learned only from reinforcement. We combined quantitative models with functional magnetic resonance imaging and found that instructions induced dissociations in the neural systems of aversive learning. Responses in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex updated with instructions and correlated with prefrontal responses to instructions. Amygdala responses were influenced by reinforcement similarly in both groups and did not update with instructions. Results extend work on instructed reward learning and reveal novel dissociations that have not been observed with punishments or rewards. Findings support theories of specialized threat-detection and may have implications for fear maintenance in anxiety. PMID:27171199
Lysne, Steven John
The practice of science education in American colleges and universities is changing and the role of faculty is changing as well. There is momentum in higher education to transform our instruction and do a better job at supporting more students' success in science and engineering programs. New teaching approaches are transforming undergraduate science instruction and new research demonstrates that these new approaches are more engaging for students, result in greater achievement, and create more positive attitudes toward science careers. Additionally, teaching scholars have described a paradigm shift toward placing the burden of content coverage on students which allows more time for in-class activities such as discussion and problem solving. Teaching faculty have been asked to redesign their courses and rebrand themselves as facilitators of student learning, rather than purveyors of information, to improve student engagement, achievement, and attitudes. This dissertation is a critical evaluation of both the assumption that active learning improves student achievement and knowledge retention and my own assumptions regarding science education research and my students' resiliency. This dissertation is a collection of research articles, published or in preparation, presenting the chronological development (Chapters 2 and 3) and evaluation (Chapters 4 and 5) of an active instructional model for undergraduate biology instruction. Chapters 1 and 6.provide a broad introduction and summary, respectively. Chapter 2 is an exploration of student engagement through interviews with a variety of students. From these interviews I identified several themes that students felt were important, and science instructors need to address, including the place where learning happens and strategies for better engaging students. Chapter 3 presents a review of the science education literature broadly and more focused review on the how students learn and how faculty teach. Consistent with what
The leadership practice of superintendents spans three domains: instructional, managerial, and political (Johnson, 1996; Cuban, 1998; Nestor-Baker and Hoy, 2001; Lashaway, 2002). Despite the fact that superintendents lead organizations whose main business is teaching and learning, they spend most of their time in the political and managerial…
Advice on the selection of suitable instructional materials to support the chosen method(s) of instruction is offered in this booklet. The first of four sections takes a brief look at the different roles that instructional materials can play in the three main instructional modes--mass instruction, individualized learning, and group learning. The…
Prather, Edward E.; Rudolph, Alexander L.; Brissenden, Gina; Schlingman, Wayne M.
We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy as taught in general education, non-science-major, introductory astronomy courses. Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of courses taught by 36 different instructors at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post-instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size and were from all types of institutions, including 2- and 4-year colleges and universities. Normalized gain scores for each class were calculated. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ~25%, independent of class size and institution type, and normalized gain scores varied from about -0.07 to 0.50. To estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner-centered, active-engagement instruction we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). Our results suggest that the differences in gains were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. We also found that higher interactivity classes had the highest gains, confirming that interactive learning strategies are capable of increasing student conceptual understanding. However, the wide range of gain scores seen for both lower and higher interactivity classes suggests that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.
Rudolph, A. L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.
We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy as taught in general education, non-science major, and introductory astronomy courses (commonly referred to as Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of courses taught by 36 different instructors at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post-instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size and were from all types of institutions, including two- and four-year colleges and universities. Normalized gain scores for each class were calculated. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around 25%, independent of class size and institution type, and normalized gain scores varied from about -0.07 to 0.50. To estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner-centered, active-engagement instruction we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). Our results suggest that the differences in gains were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. We also found that higher interactivity classes had the highest gains, confirming that interactive learning strategies are capable of increasing student conceptual understanding. However, the wide range of gains scores seen for both lower and higher interactivity classes suggests that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.
Purpose: This article aims to reinterpret principal preparatory programs to also include the collective learning-from-success process (success-based learning), thus providing a complementary instructional framework on how to prepare principals for today's public school reality. Design/methodology/approach: The discussion reviews the core…
Russell, Thomas R.
This study examined the relationship between activity sequence and student outcomes in science instruction. Traditionally sequenced teacher learning units with lab activities late in activity sequence were compared to learning units with labs first in their activity sequence. A mixed-methods, quasi-experimental approach was used to test the effectiveness of a lab-first lesson approach suggested by the literature. Quantitative methods were used to assess content achievement; and qualitative methods were used to assess perception. No statistically significant difference was found between the approaches, although the researcher interpreted the results as suggesting some learning advantage for a lab-first approach. Although the teacher thought lab-first appeared to enhance learning, and students seemed to notice no difference during instruction, students preferred and thought they learned best with a lab-last approach. The teacher's view of the lab-first approach was positive; and he is inclined to continue to use it in his practice following the study.
Zheng, Xiang-wei; Ma, Hong-wei; Li, Yan
With the rapid development of Internet, e-learning has become a new teaching and learning mode. However, lots of e-learning systems deployed on Internet are just electronic learning materials with very limited interactivity and diagnostic capability. This paper presents an integrated e-learning environment named iCLSR. Firstly, iCLSR provides an…
GROPPER, GEORGE L.; KRESS, GERARD C., JR.
SELF-PACED INSTRUCTION, DETERMINANTS OF A SELF-ADOPTED PACE, AND THE EFFECTS OF THE PACE ADOPTED ON BEHAVIOR WERE STUDIED. THIS REPRESENTED THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF THREE STUDIES, CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PACING MODE AND BEHAVIOR. (REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 200, ED 003 201, AND ED 003 202 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON THIS…
Wagner, Kai; Klein, Martin; Klopp, Eric; Puhl, Thomas; Stark, Robin
An experimental field study at a German university was conducted in order to test the effectiveness of an integrated learning environment to improve the acquisition of knowledge about empirical research methods. The integrated learning environment was based on the combination of instruction-oriented and problem-oriented design principles and…
Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail; Kinay, Hüseyin
The purpose of the study is to explore relationships between learners' cognitive styles of field dependence and learner variables in the preference of learner Interface design, attitudes in e-Learning instruction and experience with e-Learning in distance education. Cognitive style has historically referred to a psychological dimension…
Gariepy, Laura W.; Stout, Jennifer A.; Hodge, Megan L.
Librarians face numerous challenges when designing effective, sustainable methods for assessing student learning outcomes in one-shot, course-integrated library instruction sessions. We explore the use of rubrics to programmatically assess authentic learning exercises completed in one-shot library sessions for a large, required sophomore-level…
Courtney, Daria Paul; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cooperative learning on the attitude and achievement of teachers enrolled in a graduate statistics course. Thirty students received instruction from a faculty member fully trained in cooperative learning methodology. A nine-item survey was administered at the conclusion of the course.…
Niess, Margaret; Gillow-Wiles, Henry
This qualitative, design-based research study resulted in a proposal for a comprehensive set of best instructional practices immersed in a learning trajectory, outlining the tools, processes and the content development for online asynchronous, text-based learning in graduate level professional development courses. The outcome provides a rich…
Interactive radio instruction has gained attention as a low-cost means of improving the academic achievement of primary school students. The Radio Mathematics Project in Nicaragua and subsequent programs developed by the Learning Technologies for Basic Education (LearnTech) Project illustrate the evolution such programs have undergone as…
Inan, Fethi A.; Crooks, Steven M.; Cheon, Jongpil; Ari, Fatih; Flores, Raymond; Kurucay, Murat; Paniukov, Dmitrii
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of modality on learning from multimedia instruction. This study utilized a factorial between-subject design to examine the effects of modality on student learning outcomes, study patterns and mental effort. An interactive computer-presented diagram was developed to teach the places of…
This article examines the value of situated learning as an alternative to the traditional college course instructional approach for pre-service teachers. The situated learning mode of teaching immerses students in the actual setting, practicing the skills and concepts emphasized in the curriculum. Through a partnership with a college, community…
The design of online or distributed problem-based learning (dPBL) is a nascent, complex design problem. Instructional designers are challenged to effectively unite the constructivist principles of problem-based learning (PBL) with appropriate media in order to create quality dPBL environments. While computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools and…
Brett, Clare; Forrester, Bruce; Fujita, Nobuko
This study looked at the instructional and assessment effects of using learning journals in three distance asynchronous computer conferencing courses (n = 18, n = 16, n = 17). The instructor used a design-research methodology: each iteration of the course involved modifications to how learning journals were used based on analyses of the responses…
Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.
An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…
Hsu, Yuling; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Sweller, John
Based on cognitive load theory, the effect of different levels of instructional detail and expertise in a simulation-based environment on learning about concepts of correlation was investigated. Separate versions of the learning environment were designed for the four experimental conditions which differed only with regard to the levels of written…
Cheng, Eric C. K.
This paper presents an evaluation study of an innovative and theory-based initial teacher education course entitled Learning Study, the aim of which is to develop the instructional design and teaching competency of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong. The Learning Study course is offered to all second year students as part of the Bachelor of…
Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming
The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…
Lund, Jacalyn L.; Veal, Mary Lou
Given the agreement of pedagogy experts about the importance of assessment in teaching and learning, this chapter focuses on the kinds of assessments used by student teachers as they planned lessons using five instructional models (IMs), for their models assessment project. In addition, the planned learning targets are examined by analyzing lesson…
The professional expertise of educational leaders has been defined through the lens of problem-solving processes. Problem-based learning has therefore become an increasingly popular instructional approach in principal preparatory programs. As such, this study represents an initial attempt to explore learning from success (i.e., success-based…
Roach, K. David
Finds significant relationships between levels of teaching assistant dress and student cognitive learning, student affective learning, and ratings of instruction. Finds significant negative relationship between casual instructor attire and student likelihood of misbehavior, with misbehaviors less likely for teaching assistants with high…
Weischadle, David E.
The article discusses knowledge management as a means of changing the way administrators carry out their role as instructional leaders. Knowledge management utilizes many concepts from learning organizations, encourages the formation of communities of practice, and employs best practices as a means of leading others to improve learning. Instead of…
Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Jia; Jones, Sarah R.; Tzur, Ron; Si, Luo
Reform efforts in mathematics education arose, in part, in response to constructivist works on conceptual learning. However, little research has examined how students with learning disabilities (LD) respond to constructivist-oriented instruction in mathematics, particularly in moment-to-moment interactions. To understand the nature of…
Lee, Jason W.; Kane, Jennifer J.; Gregg, Elizabeth A.
This article explores the opportunities and challenges that university instructors and students have when completing course assignments that merge community-based learning (CBL) and online learning (OL) in sport management and athletic administration pedagogy. As online instruction continues to increase, instructors and students need to be…
Keefe, James W.
In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) published a new learning style instrument, the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP). The LSP offers educators a well-validated and easy to use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study and instructional preferences of middle level…
Jacobs, Jennifer; Koellner, Karen; Funderburk, Joanie
Education researchers frequently seek out districts, schools, and teachers as partners for professional learning projects. They share their ambitious vision--a new model of professional learning that will support an empowered community, instructional improvement, and student achievement. The authors, along with other members of their research…
Zepeda, Cristina D.; Richey, J. Elizabeth; Ronevich, Paul; Nokes-Malach, Timothy J.
Prior studies have not tested whether an instructional intervention aimed at improving metacognitive skills results in changes to student metacognition, motivation, learning, and future learning in the classroom. We examined whether a 6-hr intervention designed to teach the declarative and procedural components of planning, monitoring, and…
Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen
Learning through writing is a way of learning not only the appropriate written expression of disciplinary knowledge, but also the knowledge itself through reflection and revision. This study investigates the quality of a writing experience provided to university students in a first-year biology subject. The writing instruction methodology used is…
Chingos, Matthew M.
Little is known about the importance of instructional quality in American higher education because few recent studies have had access to direct measures of student learning that are comparable across sections of the same course. Using data from two developmental algebra courses at a large community college, I found that student learning varies…
Correia, Ana-Paula; Yusop, Farrah Dina; Wilson, Jay R.; Schwier, Richard A.
This paper compares how two universities, Iowa State University and the University of Saskatchewan, exploit a service-learning and authentic learning approach to instructional design. Both programs emphasize student engagement and responsibility, as well as projects that have social significance. At the same time, the courses offered by the two…
The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…
Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura
To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the "Next Generation Science Standards," prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning…
This study investigated whether the level of instructional guidance affected student learning and science self-efficacy when nine- and ten- year old children learn to design unconfounded experiments using control of variable strategies (CVS). Specifically, the goal of this study was to replicate and extend prior research that examines the impact…
This study investigated the affordances for autonomous learning in a fully online learning environment involving the implementation of task-based instruction in conjunction with Web 2.0 technologies. To that end, four-skill-integrated tasks and digital tools were incorporated into the coursework. Data were collected using midterm reflections,…
Smith, Robert; Peethambaran, Bela; Pontiggia, Laura; Blumberg, Phyllis
Guided instruction is an approach that fully explains the concepts and procedures that students are required to learn. It seems intuitive that this approach should increase student learning; however, there is evidence in the literature that this may not always be the case. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of our own repeated…
Garcia-Ros, Rafael; Perez-Gonzales, Francisco
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensions underlying the instructional media preferences of learners and their relationships with their learning styles and motivational strategies. The sample is composed of 182 students in their first year of teaching college at the University of Valencia. The learning style was evaluated by…
A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…
Lin, Chin-Hung; Yang, Shu-Ching
Distance learning, where instruction is given to students despite wide separations of students and teachers, is increasingly popular. Videoconferencing, which is examined in this study, is a distance learning mode of featuring real-time interaction of students and teachers and provides sequence, real-time, vision, and actual interaction. This…
Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.
Robot systems deployed in space must exhibit flexibility. In particular, an intelligent robotic agent should not have to be reprogrammed for each of the various tasks it may face during the course of its lifetime. However, pre-programming knowledge for all of the possible tasks that may be needed is extremely difficult. Therefore, a powerful notion is that of an instructible agent, one which is able to receive task-level instructions and advice from a human advisor. An agent must do more than simply memorize the instructions it is given (this would amount to programming). Rather, after mapping instructions into task constructs that it can reason with, it must determine each instruction's proper scope of applicability. In this paper, we will examine the characteristics of instruction, and the characteristics of agents, that affect learning from instruction. We find that in addition to a myriad of linguistic concerns, both the situatedness of the instructions (their placement within the ongoing execution of tasks) and the prior domain knowledge of the agent have an impact on what can be learned.
Rothman, Alan H.
This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking
LoPresto, Michael C.; Slater, Timothy F.
Although traditional lectures are still the dominant form of undergraduate instruction, there have been relatively few studies comparing various learner-centered and active learning teaching strategies to one another in order to guide professors in making informed instructional decisions. To study the impact of different active learning…
SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.
A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…
Sternberger, C; Meyer, L
The use of computers in nursing education has evolved from elementary drill and practice tutorials to challenging presentations. Hypermedia technology has emerged as a powerful method of instruction that allows the user to experience new concepts, gain cognitive skill, and encounter realistic clinical situations in a no-harm environment. Hypermedia incorporates sound, video, graphics, text, and interaction. This article describes the process used to develop a CD-ROM for adult cardiovascular nursing that can be used as an interactive instructional program. A description of the use of Gagne's instructional design theory is incorporated as a framework to guide the project. Educators possess knowledge expertise and must become involved in the design of new teaching methodologies. If instructional design principles are followed when using authoring software, learners are motivated with real, challenging, life-like, nonthreatening scenarios to expand their critical-thinking and decision-making skills.
Wouldn't your job be easier if students were just more interested in learning? Now, here's a book that will open your eyes to where the desire to learn actually comes from and what teachers can really do to activate it. Using stories from classroom teachers, counselors, administrators, and students, Bob Sullo explains why the desire to learn is…
Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.
Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…
Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.
Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.
Franklin, Mary Ann
A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…
Williams, G. J.
This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…
A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following topics: New World Settlement and Colonial Growth; American Revolution and the New Nation; Developing an Effective National Government; The Growth of Nationalism and Democracy…
This manual presents five learning styles instruments and presents data related to validity and reliability and descriptive statistics. The manual also discusses the implications for learning presented by each of these learning models. For purposes of this discussion, "learning style,""cognitive style," and "personal style" are used synonymously.…
Hock, Michael F
Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level. In addition, large numbers of adults perform at the lowest skill levels on quantitative tasks. Clearly, significant instructional challenges exist for adults who struggle with literacy issues, and those challenges can be greater for adults with LD. In this article, the literature on adults with LD is reviewed, and evidenced-based instructional practices that significantly narrow the literacy achievement gap for this population are identified. Primary attention is given to instructional factors that have been shown to affect literacy outcomes for adults with LD. These factors include the use of explicit instruction, instructional technology, and intensive tutoring in skills and strategies embedded in authentic contexts.