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Sample records for active learning modules

  1. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  2. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  3. A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for Their Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…

  4. Promoting Active Learning with Cases and Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Larry G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes the use of cases and instructional modules to teach invention, engineering design, and technology management. Discusses the case method in graduate business education, cases and modules in engineering education, using cases in class, and the development and distribution of cases. Presents examples of using cases about total quality…

  5. The Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverman, Diana; Solem, Michael

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module examines the geography of human activities that produce the major…

  6. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    PubMed

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  7. Expanding Voluntary Active-learning Opportunities for Pharmacy Students in a Respiratory Physiology Module

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Hardy; Colthorpe, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To expand voluntary active-learning opportunities for bachelor of pharmacy students enrolled in a third-year human physiology and pharmacology course and determine whether the additional course components improved learning outcomes. Design Additional voluntary active-learning opportunities including a large-class tutorial, additional formative assessment, and an online discussion were added to the Respiratory Physiology Module of the course. Examination scores were compared with those from previous years. A questionnaire was administered to assess students' perception of the active-learning components. Assessment Mean examination scores increased from 69.3% ± 24.4% in 2003 to 88.9% ± 13.4% in 2004 and 86.9% ± 17.6% in 2005, after the addition of the active-learning components. Students' overall perception of the value of the active-learning activities was positive. Summary The addition of voluntary active-learning course components to a required pharmacy course resulted in improved student examination scores, and decreased failure rate, and were accomplished at low cost and with little additional staff time. PMID:18483596

  8. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Neuronal Activity and Learning in Pilot Training

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jaehoon; Coffman, Brian A.; Bergstedt, Dylan T.; Ziegler, Matthias D.; Phillips, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Skill acquisition requires distributed learning both within (online) and across (offline) days to consolidate experiences into newly learned abilities. In particular, piloting an aircraft requires skills developed from extensive training and practice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate neuronal function to improve skill learning and performance during flight simulator training of aircraft landing procedures. Thirty-two right-handed participants consented to participate in four consecutive daily sessions of flight simulation training and received sham or anodal high-definition-tDCS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or left motor cortex (M1) in a randomized, double-blind experiment. Continuous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were collected during flight simulation, n-back working memory, and resting-state assessments. tDCS of the right DLPFC increased midline-frontal theta-band activity in flight and n-back working memory training, confirming tDCS-related modulation of brain processes involved in executive function. This modulation corresponded to a significantly different online and offline learning rates for working memory accuracy and decreased inter-subject behavioral variability in flight and n-back tasks in the DLPFC stimulation group. Additionally, tDCS of left M1 increased parietal alpha power during flight tasks and tDCS to the right DLPFC increased midline frontal theta-band power during n-back and flight tasks. These results demonstrate a modulation of group variance in skill acquisition through an increasing in learned skill consistency in cognitive and real-world tasks with tDCS. Further, tDCS performance improvements corresponded to changes in electrophysiological and blood-oxygenation activity of the DLPFC and motor cortices, providing a stronger link between modulated neuronal function and behavior. PMID:26903841

  9. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  10. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders.

  11. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  12. Serotonergic modulation of septo-hippocampal and septo-mammillary theta activity during spatial learning, in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2017-02-15

    Theta activity has been related to the processing of spatial information and the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. The medial septum (MS) plays an important role in the control and coordination of theta activity, as well as in the modulation of learning. It has been established that increased serotonergic activity may desynchronize theta activity, while reduced serotonergic activity produces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. We investigate whether serotonin acting on the medial septum could modify spatial learning and the functional relationship between septo-hippocampal and septo-mammillary theta activity. The serotonin was depleted (5HT-D) from the medial septum by the injection of 5,7 DHT (5,7- dihydroxytryptamine). Theta activity was recorded in the dorsal hippocampus, MS and mammillary nuclei (SUM, MM) of Sprague-Dawley male rats during spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Spatial learning was facilitated, and the frequency of the hippocampal theta activity during the first days of training increased (to 8.5Hz) in the 5HT-D group, unlike the vehicle group. Additionally, the coherence between the MS-hippocampus and the MS-mammillary nuclei was higher during the second day of the test compared to the vehicle group. We demonstrated that septal serotonin depletion facilitates the acquisition of spatial information in association with a higher functional coupling of the medial septum with the hippocampus and mammillary nuclei. Serotonin, acting in the medial septum, modulates hippocampal theta activity and spatial learning.

  13. Neural mechanisms of infant learning: differences in frontal theta activity during object exploration modulate subsequent object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Begus, Katarina; Southgate, Victoria; Gliga, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Investigating learning mechanisms in infancy relies largely on behavioural measures like visual attention, which often fail to predict whether stimuli would be encoded successfully. This study explored EEG activity in the theta frequency band, previously shown to predict successful learning in adults, to directly study infants' cognitive engagement, beyond visual attention. We tested 11-month-old infants (N = 23) and demonstrated that differences in frontal theta-band oscillations, recorded during infants' object exploration, predicted differential subsequent recognition of these objects in a preferential-looking test. Given that theta activity is modulated by motivation to learn in adults, these findings set the ground for future investigation into the drivers of infant learning. PMID:26018832

  14. Human Health in the Balance. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda S.; Washburn, Sarah; Holman, Jeremy T.

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module states that human health is a product of complex interactions among…

  15. Family Life and Worker Productivity. Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This manual includes eight learning modules about family life and worker productivity. Each module begins with the rationale and a list of objectives. Each objective is then taken up in turn, with an introductory statement and classroom activities given for each objective. Main ideas are presented in boldface type, and correlated with the learning…

  16. Can Active Citizenship Be Learned? Examining Content and Activities in a Teacher's Education Module Engaging with Gandhi and Makiguchi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Can active citizenship be learned? In recent years, teaching citizenship issues are becoming popular in schools across various parts of the world. This paper makes reference to India as an example. It argues the need for a pedagogical debate on what makes an active citizen. The complex questions it begins to address are these: who is a citizen?;…

  17. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  18. Assessment of Animated Self-Directed Learning Activities Modules for Children's Number Sense Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of two different learning modes; namely, a computer animation self-directed learning approach and a paper version of the self-directed learning approach, to 5th-graders' number sense development. Two 5th-grade classes, 30 students each, were selected from a public elementary…

  19. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  20. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  1. Let's Learn About Energy, Module A. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module defines energy and examines simple machines. Laboratory activities and a values exercise are included. (BT)

  2. Population Growth, Energy Use, and Pollution: Understanding the Driving Forces of Global Change. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Michael

    Since the beginning of the scientific revolution in the 1700s, the absolute scale of the human economy has increased many times over, and, with it, the impact on the natural environment. This learning module's activities introduce the student to linkages among population growth, energy use, level of economic and technological development and their…

  3. Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Lorraine

    Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

  4. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 2: Modules 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  5. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 1: Modules 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  6. Persistent ERK Activation Maintains Learning-Induced Long-Lasting Modulation of Synaptic Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Matsliah, Sivan Ida; Seroussi, Yaron; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2008-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination (OD) trained rats undergo synaptic modifications that last for days after learning. A particularly intriguing modification is reduced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the synapses interconnecting these cells; a phenomenon thought to reflect enhanced synaptic release. The…

  7. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  8. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  9. Education techniques for lifelong learning: writing multiple-choice questions for continuing medical education activities and self-assessment modules.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2006-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used type of test item in radiologic graduate medical and continuing medical education examinations. Now that radiologists are participating in the maintenance of certification process, there is an increased need for self-assessment modules that include MCQs and persons with test item-writing skills to develop such modules. Although principles of effective test item writing have been documented, violations of these principles are common in medical education. Guidelines for test construction are related to development of educational objectives, defining levels of learning for each objective, and writing effective MCQs that test that learning. Educational objectives should be written in observable, behavioral terms that allow for an accurate assessment of whether the learner has achieved the objectives. Learning occurs at many levels, from simple recall to problem solving. The educational objectives and the MCQs that accompany them should target all levels of learning appropriate for the given content. Characteristics of effective MCQs can be described in terms of the overall item, the stem, and the options. Flawed MCQs interfere with accurate and meaningful interpretation of test scores and negatively affect student pass rates. Therefore, to develop reliable and valid tests, items must be constructed that are free of such flaws. The article provides an overview of established guidelines for writing effective MCQs, a discussion of writing appropriate educational objectives and MCQs that match those objectives, and a brief review of item analysis.

  10. Applying Economics Using Interactive Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of web-based, interactive learning modules in the principles of economics course. The learning modules introduce students to important, historical economic events while providing real-world application of the economic theory presented in class. Each module is designed to supplement and complement the economic theory…

  11. Sticking with the nice guy: trait warmth information impairs learning and modulates person perception brain network activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2014-12-01

    Social learning requires inferring social information about another person, as well as evaluating outcomes. Previous research shows that prior social information biases decision making and reduces reliance on striatal activity during learning (Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, Nature Neuroscience 8 (11): 1611-1618, 2005). A rich literature in social psychology on person perception demonstrates that people spontaneously infer social information when viewing another person (Fiske & Taylor, 2013) and engage a network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and precuneus (Amodio & Frith, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(4), 268-277, 2006; Haxby, Gobbini, & Montgomery, 2004; van Overwalle Human Brain Mapping, 30, 829-858, 2009). We investigate the role of these brain regions during social learning about well-established dimensions of person perception-trait warmth and trait competence. We test the hypothesis that activity in person perception brain regions interacts with learning structures during social learning. Participants play an investment game where they must choose an agent to invest on their behalf. This choice is guided by cues signaling trait warmth or trait competence based on framing of monetary returns. Trait warmth information impairs learning about human but not computer agents, while trait competence information produces similar learning rates for human and computer agents. We see increased activation to warmth information about human agents in person perception brain regions. Interestingly, activity in person perception brain regions during the decision phase negatively predicts activity in the striatum during feedback for trait competence inferences about humans. These results suggest that social learning may engage additional processing within person perception brain regions that hampers learning in economic contexts.

  12. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  13. Global Change and Urbanization in Latin America. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Sarah; Lawson, Victoria

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module examines how social, economic, political, and environmental forces…

  14. Introduction to the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Emma R. M.; Turner, Billie L., II

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module provides students with a broad overview of the human dimensions of…

  15. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  16. Enhancing Effects of NMDA-Receptor Blockade on Extinction Learning and Related Brain Activation Are Modulated by BMI

    PubMed Central

    Golisch, Anne; Heba, Stefanie; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Tegenthoff, Martin; Lissek, Silke

    2017-01-01

    A distributed network including prefrontal and hippocampal regions is involved in context-related extinction learning as well as in renewal. Renewal describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the context of extinction differs from the context of recall. Animal studies have demonstrated that prefrontal, but not hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism disrupted extinction learning and processing of task context. However, human studies of NMDAR in extinction learning are lacking, while NMDAR antagonism yielded contradictory results in other learning tasks. This fMRI study investigated the role of NMDAR for human behavioral and brain activation correlates of extinction and renewal. Healthy volunteers received a single dose of the NMDAR antagonist memantine prior to extinction of previously acquired stimulus-outcome associations presented in either identical or novel contexts. We observed better, and partly faster, extinction learning in participants receiving the NMDAR antagonist compared to placebo. However, memantine did not affect renewal. In both extinction and recall, the memantine group showed a deactivation in extinction-related brain regions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, while hippocampal activity was increased. This higher hippocampal activation was in turn associated with the participants' body mass index (BMI) and extinction errors. Our results demonstrate potentially dose-related enhancing effects of memantine and highlight involvement of hippocampal NMDAR in context-related extinction learning. PMID:28326025

  17. Creating a Safe Climate for Active Learning and Student Engagement: An Example from an Introductory Social Work Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Raghallaigh, M.; Cunniffe, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of students who participated in a series of seminars that employed active learning methodologies. The study on which the article is based involved two parts. First, students completed a questionnaire after each seminar, resulting in 468 questionnaires. Second, nine students participated in a focus group where…

  18. Designing Online Learning Modules in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Weintraub, Randi J.; Breslin, Whitney; Carpenter, Katie C.; Strohacker, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Online-learning environment can substantially improve student learning and retention of key health concepts. In this case report, we describe our approach for the design of online learning modules to teach concepts in an undergraduate health science/kinesiology curriculum. This report describes our use of these concepts in two lower division and…

  19. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  20. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Michael L; Brachman, Rebecca A; Listwak, Samuel J; Herkenham, Miles

    2010-08-01

    The role of altered activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in specific aspects of motivated behavior and learning and memory was examined in mice lacking the p50 subunit of the NF-kappaB/rel transcription factor family. Nfkb1-deficient mice are unable to produce p50 and show specific susceptibilities to infections and inflammatory challenges, but the behavioral phenotype of such mice has been largely unexamined, owing in large part to the lack of understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in nervous system function. Here we show that Nfkb1 (p50) knockout mice more rapidly learned to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze than did wildtype mice. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels after the maze test was greater in p50 knockout than in wildtype mice. In the less stressful Barnes maze, which tests similar kinds of spatial learning, the p50 knockout mice performed similarly to control mice. Adrenalectomy with corticosterone replacement eliminated the differences between p50 knockout and wildtype mice in the water maze. Knockout mice showed increased levels of basal anxiety in the open-field and light/dark box tests, suggesting that their enhanced escape latency in the water maze was due to activation of the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis leading to elevated corticosterone production by strongly but not mildly anxiogenic stimuli. The results suggest that, as in the immune system, p50 in the nervous system normally serves to dampen NF-kappaB-mediated intracellular activities, which are manifested physiologically through elevated stress responses to aversive stimuli and behaviorally in the facilitated escape performance in learning tasks.

  1. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  2. Quercetin Modulates the Effects of Chromium Exposure on Learning, Memory and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in F1 Generation Mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Kar, Rajarshi; Mehta, Ashish K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Banerjee, Basu D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether chromium (Cr) administered to the dams (F0) during lactation period could affect memory and oxidative stress in F1 generation mice in their adulthood and whether quercetin could modulate these effects. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to test for spatial memory. Passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze were used to test for acquisition and retention memory. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase activity and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in the brain tissue. The results of MWM showed that the animals in the Cr-treated group compared to control have better spatial memory that was further enhanced when Cr was administered along with quercetin (50 mg/kg). The elevated plus maze test also showed the Cr-treated group to improve acquisition as well as retention memory compared to control. Co-treatment with quercetin (all doses) also exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention memory compared to control. The passive avoidance task demonstrated no significant improvement in memory in the Cr-treated mice but co-treatment with quercetin (100 mg/kg) showed improved acquisition memory compared to control which was significantly better than the animals treated with chromium alone. GST activity was significantly increased in the Cr-treated animals, and this was further increased in groups treated with Cr and quercetin (all doses). Chromium when administered alone and in combination with quercetin (all doses) significantly reduced MDA levels. However, Cr treatment did not show significant change in catalase activity. Nevertheless, co-treatment with quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg) resulted in significant decrease in catalase activity. Thus, our study demonstrates that Cr exposure during lactation could be beneficial for pups with respect to augmentation of cognitive function and reduction of oxidative stress. Quercetin could probably enhance this effect to some extent.

  3. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  4. Modulation of the extinction of fear learning.

    PubMed

    Myskiw, Jociane C; Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G

    2014-06-01

    We review recent work on extinction learning with emphasis on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of responding to previously acquired tasks. Like other forms of learning, it can be modulated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems and behavioral procedures. This bears on its use in the treatment of fear memories, particularly in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for which it is the treatment of choice, often under the name of exposure therapy. There have not been many laboratories interested in the modulation of extinction, but the available data, although not very abundant, are quite conclusive. Most studies on the nature of extinction and on its modulation have been carried out on fear motivated behaviors, possibly because of their applicability to the therapy of PTSD. A role for d-serine and the glycine site of NMDA receptors has been ascertained in two forms of extinction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus. The serine analog, d-cycloserine, has received clinical trials as an enhancer of extinction. The brain histaminergic system acting via H2 receptors, and the endocannabinoid system using CB1 receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala enhance extinction. Dopaminergic D1 and ß-noradrenergic receptors also modulate extinction by actions on these three structures. Isolated findings suggest roles for on serotonin-1A, dopaminergic-D2 and a- and ß-noradrenergic receptors in extinction modulation. Importantly, behavioral tagging and capture mechanisms in the hippocampus have been shown to play a major modulatory role in extinction. In addition, extinction of at least one aversive task (inhibitory avoidance) can be made state dependent on peripheral epinephrine.

  5. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  6. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum.

  7. An Interprofessional Learning Module on Asthma Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Smita; Kearey, Phoebe; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Grootjans, John; Armour, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate a new interprofessional learning module that focused on asthma health promotion called Taking Action Together for Asthma. Design Faculty members in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy courses recruited 10 students each to participate in a 3-day interprofessional learning module. Students received extensive materials including a workbook to document their expectations and experience; completed a 1-day interprofessional workshop; received training in the Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) program; and went into high schools and taught the Triple A program to students in interprofessional teams. Assessment Before and after participating in the module, students completed a questionnaire consisting of 3 previously validated instruments: the Asthma Knowledge for Health Professionals Scale, Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale, and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Seventeen students completed both the pre- and post-module scales and significant changes were seen only in means scores for the Attitude Toward Healthcare Teams (81.0 ± 4.7 to 85.2 ± 5.9) and the Teamwork and Collaboration subscale of the RIPLS (41.4 ± 2.7 to 43.2 ± 2.7). Conclusion Health promotion activities offer a viable mechanism for fostering interprofessional learning among health professions students. PMID:21519420

  8. Designing high-quality interactive multimedia learning modules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Camillan

    2005-01-01

    Modern research has broadened scientific knowledge and revealed the interdisciplinary nature of the sciences. For today's students, this advance translates to learning a more diverse range of concepts, usually in less time, and without supporting resources. Students can benefit from technology-enhanced learning supplements that unify concepts and are delivered on-demand over the Internet. Such supplements, like imaging informatics databases, serve as innovative references for biomedical information, but could improve their interaction interfaces to support learning. With information from these digital datasets, multimedia learning tools can be designed to transform learning into an active process where students can visualize relationships over time, interact with dynamic content, and immediately test their knowledge. This approach bridges knowledge gaps, fosters conceptual understanding, and builds problem-solving and critical thinking skills-all essential components to informatics training for science and medicine. Additional benefits include cost-free access and ease of dissemination over the Internet or CD-ROM. However, current methods for the design of multimedia learning modules are not standardized and lack strong instructional design. Pressure from administrators at the top and students from the bottom are pushing faculty to use modern technology to address the learning needs and expectations of contemporary students. Yet, faculty lack adequate support and training to adopt this new approach. So how can faculty learn to create educational multimedia materials for their students? This paper provides guidelines on best practices in educational multimedia design, derived from the Virtual Labs Project at Stanford University. The development of a multimedia module consists of five phases: (1) understand the learning problem and the users needs; (2) design the content to harness the enabling technologies; (3) build multimedia materials with web style standards and

  9. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  10. Hands-On Learning Modules for Interdisciplinary Environments: An Example with a Focus on Weather Radar Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilson, P. B.; Yeary, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Learning modules provide an effective means of encouraging cognition and active learning. This paper discusses several such modules that have been developed within a course on weather radar applications intended for students from Electrical Engineering and Meteorology. The modules were designed both to promote interdisciplinary exchange between…

  11. The feedback-related negativity is modulated by feedback probability in observational learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene; Bellebaum, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potentials (ERPs) component reflecting activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been shown to be modulated by feedback expectancy following active choices in feedback-based learning tasks. A general reduction of FRN amplitude has been described in observational feedback learning, raising the question whether FRN amplitude is modulated in a similar way in this type of learning. The present study investigated whether the FRN and the P300 - a second ERP component related to feedback processing - are modulated by feedback probability in observational learning. Thirty-two subjects participated in the experiment. They observed a virtual person choosing between two symbols and receiving positive or negative feedback. Learning about stimulus-specific feedback probabilities was assessed in active test trials without feedback. In addition, the bias to learn from positive or negative feedback and - in a subsample of 17 subjects - empathy scores were obtained. General FRN and P300 modulations by feedback probability were found across all subjects. Only for the FRN in learners, an interaction between probability and valence was observed. Larger FRN amplitudes for negative relative to positive feedback only emerged for the lowest outcome probability. The results show that feedback expectancy modulates FRN amplitude also in observational learning, suggesting a similar ACC function as in active learning. On the other hand, the modulation is only seen for very low feedback expectancy, which suggests that brain regions other than those of the reward system contribute to feedback processing in an observation setting.

  12. E-learning modules for nuclear reactor heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Praveen Bharadwaj

    E learning in engineering education is becoming popular at several universities as it allows instructors to create content that the students may view and interact with at his/her own convenience. Web-based simulation and what-if analysis are examples of such educational content and has proved to be extremely beneficial for engineering students. Such pedagogical content promote active learning and encourage students to experiment and be more creative. The main objective of this project is to develop web based learning modules, in the form of analytical simulations, for the Reactor Thermal Hydraulics course offered by the College of Engineering at UT Arlington. These modules seek to comprehensively transform the traditional education structure. The simulations are built to supplement the class lectures and are divided into categories like Fundamentals, Heat generation, Heat transfer and Heat removal categories. Each category contains modules which are sub-divided chapter wise and further into section wise. Some of the important sections from the text book are taken and calculations for a particular functionality are implemented. Since it is an interactive tool, it allows user to input certain values, which are then processed with the traditional equations, and output results either in the form of a number or graphs.

  13. Building an open academic environment - a new approach to empowering students in their learning of anatomy through 'Shadow Modules'.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan L; Moxham, Bernard J; Rutherford, Stephen M

    2014-03-01

    Teaching and learning in anatomy is undertaken by a variety of methodologies, yet all of these pedagogies benefit from students discussing and reflecting upon their learning activities. An approach of particular potency is peer-mediated learning, through either peer-teaching or collaborative peer-learning. Collaborative, peer-mediated, learning activities help promote deep learning approaches and foster communities of practice in learning. Students generally flourish in collaborative learning settings but there are limitations to the benefits of collaborative learning undertaken solely within the confines of modular curricula. We describe the development of peer-mediated learning through student-focused and student-led study groups we have termed 'Shadow Modules'. The 'Shadow Module' takes place parallel to the formal academically taught module and facilitates collaboration between students to support their learning for that module. In 'Shadow Module' activities, students collaborate towards curating existing online open resources as well as developing learning resources of their own to support their study. Through the use of communication technologies and Web 2.0 tools these resources are able to be shared with their peers, thus enhancing the learning experience of all students following the module. The Shadow Module activities have the potential to lead to participants feeling a greater sense of engagement with the subject material, as well as improving their study and group-working skills and developing digital literacy. The outputs from Shadow Module collaborative work are open-source and may be utilised by subsequent student cohorts, thus building up a repository of learning resources designed by and for students. Shadow Module activities would benefit all pedagogies in the study of anatomy, and support students moving from being passive consumers to active participants in learning.

  14. Developing Interactive Learning Objects for a Computing Mathematics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping; Lee, Siew Lie; Richards, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of the online component of a Computing Mathematics module at a local polytechnic in Singapore, this article provides a descriptive account of the development and employment of interactive learning objects to enhance the learning experiences of the students in the course. The experimented learning objects were branded as…

  15. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.

  16. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  17. Embedding Research in a Field-Based Module through Peer Review and Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Dawn T.

    2011-01-01

    A case study is presented of embedding research in a final year undergraduate, field-based, physical geography module. The approach is holistic, whereby research-based learning activities simulate the full life cycle of research from inception through to peer review and publication. The learning, teaching and assessment strategy emphasizes the…

  18. Efficacy of a Meiosis Learning Module Developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection.

    PubMed

    Goff, Eric E; Reindl, Katie M; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G; Schroeder, Noah L; White, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend greatly on how well the student prepares before class. As a possible preparatory resource, we test the efficacy of a learning module developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection. This module presents the concepts of meiosis in an interactive, dynamic environment that has previously been shown to facilitate learning in introductory biology students. Participants (n = 534) were enrolled in an introductory biology course and were presented the concepts of meiosis in one of two treatments: the interactive-learning module or a traditional lecture session. Analysis of student achievement shows that students who viewed the learning module as their only means of conceptual presentation scored significantly higher (d = 0.40, p < 0.001) than students who only attended a traditional lecture on the topic. Our results show the animation-based learning module effectively conveyed meiosis conceptual understanding, which suggests that it may facilitate student learning outside the classroom. Moreover, these results have implications for instructors seeking to expand their arsenal of tools for "flipping" undergraduate biology courses.

  19. Efficacy of a Meiosis Learning Module Developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Eric E.; Reindl, Katie M.; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Schroeder, Noah L.; White, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend greatly on how well the student prepares before class. As a possible preparatory resource, we test the efficacy of a learning module developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection. This module presents the concepts of meiosis in an interactive, dynamic environment that has previously been shown to facilitate learning in introductory biology students. Participants (n = 534) were enrolled in an introductory biology course and were presented the concepts of meiosis in one of two treatments: the interactive-learning module or a traditional lecture session. Analysis of student achievement shows that students who viewed the learning module as their only means of conceptual presentation scored significantly higher (d = 0.40, p < 0.001) than students who only attended a traditional lecture on the topic. Our results show the animation-based learning module effectively conveyed meiosis conceptual understanding, which suggests that it may facilitate student learning outside the classroom. Moreover, these results have implications for instructors seeking to expand their arsenal of tools for “flipping” undergraduate biology courses. PMID:28188282

  20. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Chun, Lauren E.; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12 hr light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats’ active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD. PMID:25746455

  1. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Chun, Lauren E; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12h light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats' active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD.

  2. Strategies for active learning in online continuing education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet M

    2005-01-01

    Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.

  3. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOEpatents

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  4. Active Learning and the LRC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Collin County Community College's commitment to an active/experiential learning philosophy and the role of the college's learning resources center (LRC) in promoting learner-centered education and lab experiences throughout the curriculum. Discusses the LRC's Alternative Learning Center, which uses computers and other technology to…

  5. Learning to integrate versus inhibiting information is modulated by age.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Pikkat, Helen; Upstill, Emily; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-02-04

    Cognitive training aiming at improving learning is often successful, but what exactly underlies the observed improvements and how these differ across the age spectrum are currently unknown. Here we asked whether learning in young and older people may reflect enhanced ability to integrate information required to perform a cognitive task or whether it may instead reflect the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information for successful task performance. We trained 30 young and 30 aging human participants on a numerosity discrimination task known to engage the parietal cortex and in which cue-integration and inhibitory abilities can be distinguished. We coupled training with parietal, motor, or sham transcranial random noise stimulation, known for modulating neural activity. Numerosity discrimination improved after training and was maintained long term, especially in the training + parietal stimulation group, regardless of age. Despite the quantitatively similar improvement in the two age groups, the content of learning differed remarkably: aging participants improved more in inhibitory abilities, whereas younger subjects improved in cue-integration abilities. Moreover, differences in the content of learning were reflected in different transfer effects to untrained but related abilities: in the younger group, improvements in cue integration paralleled improvements in continuous quantity (time and space), whereas in the elderly group, improvements in numerosity-based inhibitory abilities generalized to other measures of inhibition and corresponded to a decline in space discrimination, possibly because conflicting learning resources are used in numerosity and continuous quantity processing. These results indicate that training can enhance different, age-dependent cognitive processes and highlight the importance of identifying the exact processes underlying learning for effective training programs.

  6. Module Two: Voltage; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will study and learn what voltage is, how it is generated, what AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) are and why both kinds are needed, and how to measure voltages. The module is divided into six lessons: EMF (electromotive force) from chemical action, magnetism, electromagnetic induction, AC voltage, the…

  7. Politicizing Sociology through a Bill of Rights Learning Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Writers in this journal have presented a number of strategies that sociology teachers can use to facilitate the expression--and serious analysis--of unpopular opinions. This article contributes to this dialog by illustrating the application of a Bill of Rights learning module. In this module, students are expected to create a document that…

  8. Online Video Modules for Improvement in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancellotti, Matthew; Thomas, Sunil; Kohli, Chiranjeev

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this teaching innovation was to incorporate a comprehensive set of short online video modules covering key topics from the undergraduate principles of marketing class, and to evaluate its effectiveness in improving student learning. A quasiexperimental design was used to compare students who had access to video modules with a…

  9. Getting Your Driver's License. An Adult Competency Education Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia

    This instructional unit on getting one's driver's license is one of six Adult Competency Education Learning Modules designed for use in a program of competency-based instruction for students with intermediate reading level ability. It is self-contained and designed for immediate classroom use. The module is comprised of 4 parts and 10 lessons: The…

  10. Module Eleven: Capacitance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn about another circuit quantity, capacitance, and discover the effects of this component on circuit current, voltage, and power. The module is divided into seven lessons: the capacitor, theory of capacitance, total capacitance, RC (resistive-capacitive circuit) time constant, capacitive reactance, phase and…

  11. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.

  12. Modules as Learning Tools in Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Laurel; Vidakovic, Draga; Martin, William O.; Dexter, Scott; Suzuki, Jeff; Loch, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the experience of STEM and mathematics faculty at four different institutions working collaboratively to integrate learning theory with curriculum development in a core undergraduate linear algebra context. The faculty formed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) with a focus on learning theories in mathematics and…

  13. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.

  14. Student Perceptions of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…

  15. In Defense of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2008-01-01

    Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…

  16. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  17. Using Learning Styles Inventories To Promote Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…

  18. Learning to Work Together: Health and Social Care Students' Learning from Interprofessional Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, Margaret E.; Rickaby, Caroline E.; Clarke, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of student learning about collaboration and discusses the effectiveness of different forms of assessment in facilitating learning. The study was conducted in a large health and social care faculty in which all students on pre-qualifying professional programmes learn together in modules aimed at developing…

  19. Learning as a Subversive Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    2007-01-01

    "Learning as a subversive activity" is about working with public school students to debunk the shallow conception that achievement equals learning. That means exposing the power relations that keep in place such a narrow definition of what counts and exploring the implications of those powerful forces for students' lives and for society at large.…

  20. Inter-module credit assignment in modular reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Kazuyuki; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2003-09-01

    Critical issues in modular or hierarchical reinforcement learning (RL) are (i) how to decompose a task into sub-tasks, (ii) how to achieve independence of learning of sub-tasks, and (iii) how to assure optimality of the composite policy for the entire task. The second and last requirements are often under trade-off. We propose a method for propagating the reward for the entire task achievement between modules. This is done in the form of a 'modular reward', which is calculated from the temporal difference of the module gating signal and the value of the succeeding module. We implement modular reward for a multiple model-based reinforcement learning (MMRL) architecture and show its effectiveness in simulations of a pursuit task with hidden states and a continuous-time non-linear control task.

  1. Extracellular cGMP Modulates Learning Biphasically by Modulating Glycine Receptors, CaMKII and Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Malaguarnera, Michele; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that extracellular cGMP modulates the ability to learn a Y maze task, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. Here we show that extracellular cGMP, at physiological concentrations, modulates learning in the Y maze in a biphasic way by modulating the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cerebellum. Extracellular cGMP reduces glycine receptors activation inducing a voltage-dependent calcium-channels-mediated increase of calcium in Purkinje neurons. This calcium increase modulates CaMKII phosphorylation in a biphasic way. When basal calcium concentration is low extracellular cGMP reduces CaMKII phosphorylation, increasing nitric oxide synthase activity, the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function and learning ability. When basal calcium is normal extracellular cGMP increases CaMKII phosphorylation, reducing nitric oxide synthase activity, the pathway function and learning. These data unveil new mechanisms modulating learning in the Y maze and likely other learning types which may be therapeutic targets to improve learning in pathological situations associated with altered cGMP levels. PMID:27634333

  2. Phosphodiesterase 1B differentially modulates the effects of methamphetamine on locomotor activity and spatial learning through DARPP32-dependent pathways: evidence from PDE1B-DARPP32 double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ehrman, L A; Williams, M T; Schaefer, T L; Gudelsky, G A; Reed, T M; Fienberg, A A; Greengard, P; Vorhees, C V

    2006-10-01

    Mice lacking phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) exhibit an exaggerated locomotor response to D-methamphetamine and increased in vitro phosphorylation of DARPP32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M r 32 kDa) at Thr34 in striatal brain slices treated with the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297. These results indicated a possible regulatory role for PDE1B in pathways involving DARPP32. Here, we generated PDE1B x DARPP32 double-knockout (double-KO) mice to test the role of PDE1B in DARPP32-dependent pathways in vivo. Analysis of the response to d-methamphetamine on locomotor activity showed that the hyperactivity experienced by PDE1B mutant mice was blocked in PDE1B-/- x DARPP32-/- double-KO mice, consistent with participation of PDE1B and DARPP32 in the same pathway. Further behavioral testing in the elevated zero-maze revealed that DARPP32-/- mice showed a less anxious phenotype that was nullified in double-mutant mice. In contrast, in the Morris water maze, double-KO mice showed deficits in spatial reversal learning not observed in either single mutant compared with wild-type mice. The data suggest a role for PDE1B in locomotor responses to psychostimulants through modulation of DARPP32-dependent pathways; however, this modulation does not necessarily impact other behaviors, such as anxiety or learning. Instead, the phenotype of double-KOs observed in these latter tasks may be mediated through independent pathways.

  3. Potentiating mGluR5 Function with a Positive Allosteric Modulator Enhances Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J.; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5…

  4. Learning biological networks: from modules to dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Learning regulatory networks from genomics data is an important problem with applications spanning all of biology and biomedicine. Functional genomics projects offer a cost-effective means of greatly expanding the completeness of our regulatory models, and for some prokaryotic organisms they offer a means of learning accurate models that incorporate the majority of the genome. There are, however, several reasons to believe that regulatory network inference is beyond our current reach, such as (i) the combinatorics of the problem, (ii) factors we can't (or don't often) collect genome-wide measurements for and (iii) dynamics that elude cost-effective experimental designs. Recent works have demonstrated the ability to reconstruct large fractions of prokaryotic regulatory networks from compendiums of genomics data; they have also demonstrated that these global regulatory models can be used to predict the dynamics of the transcriptome. We review an overall strategy for the reconstruction of global networks based on these results in microbial systems.

  5. An Integrated, Problem-Based Learning Material: The "Satellite" Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Emiroglu, Handan Byacioglu; Tarakci, Mehmet; Ozel, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a problem-based learning material, the Satellite Module, that has integrated some of the subjects included in the disciplines of physics and mathematics at an introductory level in undergraduate education. The reason why this modular and problem-based material has been developed is to enable students to…

  6. Economic--GNP per Capita Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  7. Lifelong Learning: Web-Based Information Literacy Module for Merchandisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in…

  8. Assessing the Value of the Enviroscape Watershed Learning Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Warren Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The researcher's evaluation of the West Atlanta Watershed Alliance's (WAWA) programs highlighted that few if any of the offered educational programs included a program evaluation, especially the most promising, the Enviroscape® Watershed learning module. The education programs that were customized and developed by the…

  9. Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

  10. Status of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The current status of the JEM activities are presented in graphic form. The JEM spacecraft configuration is presented. The JEM configuration consist of the Pressurized Module, the Exposed Facility, the Experiment Logistics Module which consist of a pressurized section and an exposed section; and the Remote Manipulator System. The master schedule of the space station is given. Also the development tests of the structure and mechanism, the electrical power system, the data management system, the thermal control system, the environment control system, the experiment support system, and the remote manipulator system are listed.

  11. Drafting. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet of technology learning activity (TLA) materials for drafting for students in grades 6-10 consists of an instructor's section and student materials. The instructor's section contains background information, suggested activities, and a list of suggested resources. A lesson plan for the 8-day module includes assignments; equipment, tools,…

  12. Web-based Learning Modules using Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hamper, R.; Morris, F.

    2011-01-01

    Three web-based learning modules for introductory undergraduate astronomy courses are available at Indiana University Bloomington. The NovaSearch module allows students to view images of the core of the Andromeda Galaxy to discover novae and monitor their light curves. The Proper Pair module allows students to examine proper motion and parallax data from Hipparcos to determine if pairs of stars close together on the sky are true binary star systems. A third module, Astronomy in Color, allows students to produce color images using multi-wavelength data. The pedagogical goals of these curriculum materials are to teach that science is a process of discovery, not just a body of knowledge, to increase positive attitudes towards science by engaging students in discovery, and to motivate students towards pursuing STEM careers by giving students an opportunity to develop skills such as critical thinking, teamwork, and task focus that are important in any career path. The learning modules may be accessed at www.astro.indiana.edu/catyp/rbseu The development of these curriculum modules has been funded by the national Science Foundation through grant DUE-0618441.

  13. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents. PMID:26655917

  14. Sex differences in social modulation of learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mikosz, Marta; Nowak, Aleksandra; Werka, Tomasz; Knapska, Ewelina

    2015-12-14

    In its simplest form, empathy can be characterized as the capacity to share the emotional experiences among individuals, a phenomenon known as emotional contagion. Recent research shows that emotional contagion and its adaptive role can be studied in rodents. However, it is not known whether sex differences observed in human empathy extend to its more primitive forms. In the present study, we used a rat model of emotional contagion to compare the behavioral consequences of social transfer of information about threat, and the subsequent neural activation patterns in male and female rats. We found that: (1) males and females display a similar behavioral pattern during the interaction with either a fear-conditioned or a control rat; (2) interaction with a fear-conditioned conspecific positively modulates two-way avoidance learning in male and diestral female rats but not in estral females; and (3) such interaction results in increased c-Fos expression in the central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala and the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex in males, whereas in females no such changes were observed. Collectively, our results point to the occurrence of sex and estrus cycle phase differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and underlying neuronal activation in rodents.

  15. Unsupervised learning approach to adaptive differential pulse code modulation.

    PubMed

    Griswold, N C; Sayood, K

    1982-04-01

    This research is concerned with investigating the problem of data compression utilizing an unsupervised estimation algorithm. This extends previous work utilizing a hybrid source coder which combines an orthogonal transformation with differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). The data compression is achieved in the DPCM loop, and it is the quantizer of this scheme which is approached from an unsupervised learning procedure. The distribution defining the quantizer is represented as a set of separable Laplacian mixture densities for two-dimensional images. The condition of identifiability is shown for the Laplacian case and a decision directed estimate of both the active distribution parameters and the mixing parameters are discussed in view of a Bayesian structure. The decision directed estimators, although not optimum, provide a realizable structure for estimating the parameters which define a distribution which has become active. These parameters are then used to scale the optimum (in the mean square error sense) Laplacian quantizer. The decision criteria is modified to prevent convergence to a single distribution which in effect is the default condition for a variance estimator. This investigation was applied to a test image and the resulting data demonstrate improvement over other techniques using fixed bit assignments and ideal channel conditions.

  16. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  17. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  18. A new predoctoral endodontic module: evaluating learning and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Lara; Anderson, Vivienne

    2011-03-01

    The teaching of advanced endodontic courses at the predoctoral level is common, but it can be difficult to assess teaching effectiveness. Advanced modules placed later in the dental curriculum provide the opportunity to introduce a new topic, revisit and reinforce concepts learned previously, and instill the notion of lifelong learning. At any level, the introduction of new techniques to novices must be based on recognition of their prior knowledge and experience and their need for explicit direction, stepwise instruction, and comprehensive feedback. Assessment of students' performance should not only provide insights into what they know and can do, but also steer them towards desired outcomes. In addition, assessment can provide valuable feedback on teaching effectiveness. In this article, we describe a module piloted for inclusion in the University of Otago (New Zealand) fourth-year dental curriculum. This involved the use of tapered hand and rotary nickel-titanium files for root canal preparation and was taught through a didactic program (lectures and problem-based learning seminars) and a series of preclinical hands-on sessions. Findings from formative and summative assessments as well as student, peer, and self-evaluation indicated that the objectives of the module were met and that it was effective in both providing students with the basic skills for using this type of instrumentation and increasing their understanding and enthusiasm for endodontics. We conclude by discussing curriculum changes resulting from our module evaluation, directions for future research, and suggestions for teaching advanced endodontic techniques.

  19. Mangroves and Seawalls. "Increased Pressure for Land Fill Will Cause More and More Stress to Natural Areas." Grades 7 and 8. A Three Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity/discussion-centered unit focusing on the importance of shoreline surface area. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways to solve…

  20. Project-based Modules from two STEM Learning Teams in Howard County, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, L. N.; Bradley, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, two Maryland school districts-Howard County Public School System and Prince George's County Public Schools-and the Goddard Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnered with the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) to develop NASA 21st Century Learning Studios. In 2010, NCTAF expanded the program to include Learning Studios at two additional Maryland school districts (Anne Arundel County Public Schools and Baltimore County Public Schools), partnering with the United States Naval Academy and the University of Maryland. Overall, the focus of these Learning Studios is to combine the expertise of scientists with that of educators through Learning Teams to improve teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, while delivering project-based modules to be implemented in other school districts. The focus of this paper is to summarize the experience and outcomes from two Learning Teams from the Howard County Public School System. STEM Learning Teams were established at Centennial High School and Hammond High School in Maryland. Each Team worked together for two years to create interdisciplinary units of study for their students with a focus on Earth Science. To maximize student interest, teachers worked with NASA scientists five times a year to develop four learning modules using practical examples and incorporating real scientific observations. A weathering and erosion module challenges students to collect appropriate field observations and determine erosion and deposition rates in a nearby lake. A plate tectonics module requires students to use measures of plate motion from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to estimate rates of convergence in southern Asia. A third module for lessons in climate change requires students to find open source climate data, determine changes in the atmosphere and estimate anthropogenic impacts. A follow

  1. Nicotinic modulation of hippocampal cell signaling and associated effects on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    The hippocampus is a key brain structure involved in synaptic plasticity associated with long-term declarative memory formation. Importantly, nicotine and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can alter hippocampal plasticity and these changes may occur through modulation of hippocampal kinases and transcription factors. Hippocampal kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), and the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) that are activated either directly or indirectly by nicotine may modulate hippocampal plasticity and in parallel hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Evidence suggests that nicotine may alter hippocampus-dependent learning by changing the time and magnitude of activation of kinases and transcription factors normally involved in learning and by recruiting additional cell signaling molecules. Understanding how nicotine alters learning and memory will advance basic understanding of the neural substrates of learning and aid in understanding mental disorders that involve cognitive and learning deficits.

  2. Business Communication through Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann

    Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…

  3. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  4. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  5. Learning Style Differences in the Perceived Effectiveness of Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…

  6. Exemplary Learning Modules in the ESSE Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, J. L.; Ruzek, M.

    2006-12-01

    Supported by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the cooperative university- based Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program fosters the development of undergraduate curriculum and courses designed to understand Earth as a system. The ESSE community has produced the web-based Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education as a living synthesis of the program. One section of the Design Guide contains exemplary learning modules with demonstrated value in courses that include new perspectives and new audiences underrepresented in the sciences. Two highlights are applications of earth system science to the urban environment and the adaptation of course material for the K- 12 curriculum. These learning modules will be useful in existing courses and will provide ideas for future course development. Each module has a description that includes the rationale, the learning objectives, the target audience, types of activities supported, instructor's tips, evaluation procedures and other information to help faculty to make best use of the module. Vignettes of personal experiences with the learning modules and linkage to the Design Guide provide scientific, pedagogical and institutional context. The ESSE21 Evaluation Toolkit, packaged with the Design Guide, offers additional information about evaluation. The topics developed in the learning modules cover a broad range from the tropics to the poles to near-Earth space: urban land surface-atmosphere systems; carbon cycle; remote sensing; integrating earth system science and the urban environment; land use and land cover change; pollution protection of Earth systems; local energy balance at air/land and air/water interfaces; earth and space science; and polar remote sensing.

  7. Psychosocial Modulators of Motor Learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zemankova, Petra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Bares, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here, we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD. PMID:26973495

  8. Psychosocial Modulators of Motor Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zemankova, Petra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Bares, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual's task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here, we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.

  9. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  10. Stress modulates the engagement of multiple memory systems in classification learning.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-08-08

    Learning and memory are supported by anatomically and functionally distinct systems. Recent research suggests that stress may alter the contributions of multiple memory systems to learning, yet the underlying mechanism in the human brain remains completely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked in the present experiment whether stress may modulate the engagement of hippocampus-based "declarative" and striatum-based "procedural" memory systems during classification learning in humans and what brain mechanisms are involved in this effect. We found that stress reduced declarative knowledge about the learning task and changed the used learning strategy from a single-cue-based declarative strategy to a multicue-based procedural strategy, whereas learning performance per se remained unaffected by stress. Neuroimaging revealed that hippocampal activity correlated positively with task performance in the control condition, whereas striatal activity correlated with performance in the stress condition. After stress, hippocampal activity was reduced and even negatively correlated with learning performance. These findings show for the first time that stress alters the engagement of multiple memory systems in the human brain. Stress impaired the hippocampus-dependent system and allowed the striatum to control behavior. The shift toward "procedural" learning after stress appears to rescue task performance, whereas attempts to engage the "declarative" system disrupt performance.

  11. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  12. Connecting Family Learning and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…

  13. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  14. Potentiating mGluR5 function with a positive allosteric modulator enhances adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zhu, Yongling; Kraniotis, Stephen; He, Qionger; Marshall, John J; Nomura, Toshihiro; Stauffer, Shaun R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Contractor, Anis

    2013-07-18

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) plays important roles in modulating neural activity and plasticity and has been associated with several neuropathological disorders. Previous work has shown that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 disrupts fear extinction and spatial reversal learning, suggesting that mGluR5 signaling is required for different forms of adaptive learning. Here, we tested whether ADX47273, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR5, can enhance adaptive learning in mice. We found that systemic administration of the ADX47273 enhanced reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze, an adaptive task. In addition, we found that ADX47273 had no effect on single-session and multi-session extinction, but administration of ADX47273 after a single retrieval trial enhanced subsequent fear extinction learning. Together these results demonstrate a role for mGluR5 signaling in adaptive learning, and suggest that mGluR5 PAMs represent a viable strategy for treatment of maladaptive learning and for improving behavioral flexibility.

  15. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  16. Active Learning through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…

  17. Blackout!: An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Electricity and Solar Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  18. Blackout!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Electricity and Solar Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  19. Prior Visual Experience Modulates Learning of Sound Localization Among Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-02-04

    Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.

  20. Fear-relevant outcomes modulate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning.

    PubMed

    Prince, Steven E; Thomas, Laura A; Kragel, Philip A; LaBar, Kevin S

    2012-01-02

    Although much work has implicated the contributions of frontostriatal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) systems during probabilistic classification learning, the impact of emotion on these learning circuits is unknown. We used a modified version of the weather prediction task in which two participant groups were scanned with identical neutral cue cards probabilistically linked to either emotional (snake/spider) or neutral (mushroom/flower) outcomes. Owing to the differences in visual information shown as outcomes, analyses were restricted to the cue phase of the trials. Learning rates did not differ between the two groups, although the Emotional group was more likely to use complex strategies and to respond more slowly during initial learning. The Emotional group had reduced frontostriatal and MTL activation relative to the Neutral group, especially for participants who scored higher on snake/spider phobia questionnaires. Accurate performance was more tied to medial prefrontal activity in the Emotional group early in training, and to MTL activity in the Neutral group later in training. Trial-by-trial fluctuations in functional connectivity between the caudate and MTL were also reduced in the Emotional group compared to the Neutral group. Across groups, reaction time indexed a switch in learning systems, with faster trials mediated by the caudate and slower trials mediated by the MTL and frontal lobe. The extent to which the caudate was activated early in training predicted later performance improvements. These results reveal insights into how emotional outcomes modulate procedural learning systems, and the dynamics of MTL-striatal engagement across training trials.

  1. Salience modulation in serial preexposure: implications for perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Antonio A; Contel, David M; Sansa, Joan; Prados, Jose

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments rats were given serial preexposure to two flavor stimuli. In Experiment 1, some animals were given exposure to AX followed by the presentation of BX, a forward schedule; the others were given backward preexposure (BX→AX). Conditioning and test trials with the A element showed that salience or effectiveness of A was better protected in the forward than in the backward condition. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the relevance of this salience modulation mechanism for perceptual learning. In these experiments, generalization of a conditioned aversion from AX to BX was reduced in the forward (but not in the backward) condition only after prolonged exposure, indicating that the establishment of an inhibitory link from B to A is required for successful discrimination. However, generalization to a novel compound stimulus, NX, was reduced in the forward group both after short and long preexposure, suggesting the existence of salience modulation processes that work in parallel with associative inhibition. These results seem to support the existence of a salience modulation mechanism that seems to be beyond the scope of current theories of perceptual learning.

  2. A Firefly Learning Module for Environmental Sustainable Development in Samutsongkhram Province, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To-Im, Jongdee; Klunklueng, Arunwan

    2012-01-01

    A firefly learning module for the sustainable development was developed for Thai secondary school students in the study province. A deeper connection between environment, social and economic dimensions, which lies at the core of sustainability, became the key issue for this learning module. Also an important dimension of the module was the…

  3. Developing Metacognition: A Basis for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…

  4. Learning activism, acting with phronesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.

  5. Module for Learning Integral Calculus with Maple: Lecturers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2012-01-01

    Engineering technology students can attain a meaningful mathematics learning if they are allowed to actively participate in hands-on activities. However, the current dissemination of knowledge in the classroom still focuses on teacher-centered paradigm of teaching. A study to explore lecturers' views regarding a newly developed integral calculus…

  6. Linking Mission to Learning Activities for Assurance of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching

    2011-01-01

    Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…

  7. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Rütsche, Bruno; Ruff, Christian C; Hauser, Tobias U

    2015-07-01

    The successful acquisition of arithmetic skills is an essential step in the development of mathematical competencies and has been associated with neural activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). It is unclear, however, whether this brain region plays a causal role in arithmetic skill acquisition and whether arithmetic learning can be modulated by means of non-invasive brain stimulation of this key region. In the present study we addressed these questions by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left PPC during a short-term training that simulates the typical path of arithmetic skill acquisition (specifically the transition from effortful procedural to memory-based problem-solving strategies). Sixty participants received either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS while practising complex multiplication and subtraction problems. The stability of the stimulation-induced learning effects was assessed in a follow-up test 24 h after the training. Learning progress was modulated by tDCS. Cathodal tDCS (compared with sham) decreased learning rates during training and resulted in poorer performance which lasted over 24 h after stimulation. Anodal tDCS showed an operation-specific improvement for subtraction learning. Our findings extend previous studies by demonstrating that the left PPC is causally involved in arithmetic learning (and not only in arithmetic performance) and that even a short-term tDCS application can modulate the success of arithmetic knowledge acquisition. Moreover, our finding of operation-specific anodal stimulation effects suggests that the enhancing effects of tDCS on learning can selectively affect just one of several cognitive processes mediated by the stimulated area.

  9. Modulation of ceramide synthase activity via dimerization.

    PubMed

    Laviad, Elad L; Kelly, Samuel; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H

    2012-06-15

    Ceramide, the backbone of all sphingolipids, is synthesized by a family of ceramide synthases (CerS) that each use acyl-CoAs of defined chain length for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. CerS mRNA expression and enzymatic activity do not always correlate with the sphingolipid acyl chain composition of a particular tissue, suggesting post-translational mechanism(s) of regulation of CerS activity. We now demonstrate that CerS activity can be modulated by dimer formation. Under suitable conditions, high M(r) CerS complexes can be detected by Western blotting, and various CerS co-immunoprecipitate. CerS5 activity is inhibited in a dominant-negative fashion by co-expression with catalytically inactive CerS5, and CerS2 activity is enhanced by co-expression with a catalytically active form of CerS5 or CerS6. In a constitutive heterodimer comprising CerS5 and CerS2, the activity of CerS2 depends on the catalytic activity of CerS5. Finally, CerS dimers are formed upon rapid stimulation of ceramide synthesis by curcumin. Together, these data demonstrate that ceramide synthesis can be regulated by the formation of CerS dimers and suggest a novel way to generate the acyl chain composition of ceramide (and downstream sphingolipids), which may depend on the interaction of CerS with each other.

  10. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  11. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  12. Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Bredy, Timothy W; Barad, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning.

  13. Teaching calculus using module based on cooperative learning strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbin, Norazman; Ghani, Sazelli Abdul; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of a module which utilizes the cooperative learning for teaching Calculus for limit, derivative and integral. The sample consists of 50 semester 1 students from the Science Programme (AT 16) Sultan Idris Education University. A set of questions of related topics (pre and post) has been used as an instrument to collect data. The data is analyzed using inferential statistics involving the paired sample t-test and the independent t-test. The result shows that students have positive inclination towards the modulein terms of understanding.

  14. [Genes and the modulation of learning and memory].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhang, C C

    1995-10-01

    Recently, progress in the study of the relationship between gene and the modulation of learning and memory was noticeable. The studies showed that: (1) The expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), especially the c-fos, is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of memory; the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) is accompanied by an increase of IEGs expression; (2) Mice with deficiency of alpha-Calcium-Calmodulin Kinase II (alpha-CaMK II), or neural-cell adhesion molecules (N-CAM) or tyrosine kinase gene (fyn) generated by gene targeting appear deficits in spatial learning and memory, mutation of alpha-CaMK II and N-CAM gene can also interfere with the induction and maintenance of LTP; (3) The single-gene mutants of Drosophilia (dnc, rut) showed significant decrease of the ability of memory. The mechanism is related to the altered synaptic plasticity, and the mushroom body may be the memory center of Drosophila.

  15. Effect of Active Learning Techniques on Students' Choice of Approach to Learning in Dentistry: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on empirical work, related to a techniques module, undertaken with the dental students of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. I will relate how a range of different active learning techniques (tutorials; question papers and mock tests) assisted students to adopt a deep approach to learning in…

  16. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-07-29

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  17. Reinforcement Learning or Active Inference?

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614

  18. Module Fifteen: Special Topics; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The final module emphasizes utilizing the information learned in modules 1-14 to analyze and evaluate the power supply constructed in Module 0. The module contains the following narrative--power supply evaluation; experiment 1--resistance analysis of the half-wave and semiconductor power supply; experiment 2--voltage analysis of the half-wave and…

  19. Scaffolds are 'active' regulators of signaling modules.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Anita; Varga, János; Reményi, Attila

    2010-11-01

    Signaling cascades, in addition to proteins with obvious signaling-relevant activities (e.g. protein kinases or receptors), also employ dedicated 'inactive' proteins whose functions appear to be the organization of the former components into higher order complexes through protein-protein interactions. The core function of signaling adaptors, anchors and scaffolds is the recruitment of proteins into one macromolecular complex. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the recruiter and the recruited molecules mutually influence each other in a scaffolded complex. This yields fundamentally novel properties for the signaling complex as a whole. Because these are not merely additive to the properties of the individual components, scaffolded signaling complexes may behave as functionally distinct modules.

  20. Social Cognition as Reinforcement Learning: Feedback Modulates Emotion Inference.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Jamil; Kallman, Seth; Wimmer, G Elliott; Ochsner, Kevin; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-09-01

    Neuroscientific studies of social cognition typically employ paradigms in which perceivers draw single-shot inferences about the internal states of strangers. Real-world social inference features much different parameters: People often encounter and learn about particular social targets (e.g., friends) over time and receive feedback about whether their inferences are correct or incorrect. Here, we examined this process and, more broadly, the intersection between social cognition and reinforcement learning. Perceivers were scanned using fMRI while repeatedly encountering three social targets who produced conflicting visual and verbal emotional cues. Perceivers guessed how targets felt and received feedback about whether they had guessed correctly. Visual cues reliably predicted one target's emotion, verbal cues predicted a second target's emotion, and neither reliably predicted the third target's emotion. Perceivers successfully used this information to update their judgments over time. Furthermore, trial-by-trial learning signals-estimated using two reinforcement learning models-tracked activity in ventral striatum and ventromedial pFC, structures associated with reinforcement learning, and regions associated with updating social impressions, including TPJ. These data suggest that learning about others' emotions, like other forms of feedback learning, relies on domain-general reinforcement mechanisms as well as domain-specific social information processing.

  1. A Colloquial Approach: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)

  2. Modulating reproductive activity in stallions: a review.

    PubMed

    Stout, T A E

    2005-10-01

    Situations in which suppression or stimulation of reproductive activity in stallions has been attempted, or is desired, include resolution of the equine arteritis virus 'shedding' state, induction of testicular descent in inguinal cryptorchids, and the improvement of sperm production capacity and/or semen quality in sub-fertile stallions. However, the most common reason for wanting to modulate reproductive activity in a stallion is to alter the expression of sexual behaviour. In the case of intact stallions used for competitive or recreational purposes, the overt expression of sexual or aggressive behaviour can be distracting for both animal and owner and, in some cases, dangerous to all concerned. By the same token, a breeding stallion that displays little interest in mounting a mare/phantom, or is slow to achieve erection and/or ejaculation, can be extremely frustrating. This paper reviews the major pharmacological agents reported to usefully modify reproductive activity in stallions, and outlines their pros and cons when compared to training, management or surgical alternatives.

  3. Reminder Cues Modulate the Renewal Effect in Human Predictive Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Javier; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning refers to our ability to learn about regularities in our environment. When a stimulus is repeatedly followed by a specific outcome, we learn to expect the outcome in the presence of the stimulus. We are also able to modify established expectations in the face of disconfirming information (the stimulus is no longer followed by the outcome). Both the change of environmental regularities and the related processes of adaptation are referred to as extinction. However, extinction does not erase the initially acquired expectations. For instance, following successful extinction, the initially learned expectations can recover when there is a context change – a phenomenon called the renewal effect, which is considered as a model for relapse after exposure therapy. Renewal was found to be modulated by reminder cues of acquisition and extinction. However, the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of reminder cues are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of reminder cues on renewal in the field of human predictive learning. Experiment I demonstrated that renewal in human predictive learning is modulated by cues related to acquisition or extinction. Initially, participants received pairings of a stimulus and an outcome in one context. These stimulus-outcome pairings were preceded by presentations of a reminder cue (acquisition cue). Then, participants received extinction in a different context in which presentations of the stimulus were no longer followed by the outcome. These extinction trials were preceded by a second reminder cue (extinction cue). During a final phase conducted in a third context, participants showed stronger expectations of the outcome in the presence of the stimulus when testing was accompanied by the acquisition cue compared to the extinction cue. Experiment II tested an explanation of the reminder cue effect in terms of simple cue-outcome associations. Therefore, acquisition and

  4. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  5. The integration of an online module on student learning.

    PubMed

    Yehle, Karen S; Chang, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Heart failure is a prevalent and costly condition. Patients with better self-management are less likely to be rehospitalized. An online interactive heart failure module was developed and integrated into a medical-surgical nursing course to assist students in learning how to care for patients with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the integration of an online heart failure module improved baccalaureate nursing students' heart failure self-management knowledge. A pretest/posttest design was used to examine the effects of student knowledge of heart failure self-management following implementation of an online module. Among 235 students, significant improvement of heart failure self-management knowledge was observed (P < .05). The mean posttest scores ranged from 13.82 to 15.93. Students had problems mastering knowledge of weight monitoring, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, symptoms to report to physicians, and potassium-based salt substitutes. These findings were similar to four studies examining nurses' knowledge of heart failure. Students and nurses have difficulty mastering similar heart failure education concepts. An additional strategy, such as simulated or case scenarios, needs to be developed to help nurses and nursing students master all key concepts of heart failure self-management.

  6. How instructed knowledge modulates the neural systems of reward learning

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Mauricio R.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in neuroeconomics has demonstrated that the reinforcement learning model of reward learning captures the patterns of both behavioral performance and neural responses during a range of economic decision-making tasks. However, this powerful theoretical model has its limits. Trial-and-error is only one of the means by which individuals can learn the value associated with different decision options. Humans have also developed efficient, symbolic means of communication for learning without the necessity for committing multiple errors across trials. In the present study, we observed that instructed knowledge of cue-reward probabilities improves behavioral performance and diminishes reinforcement learning-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to feedback in the nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal complex. The decrease in BOLD responses in these brain regions to reward-feedback signals was functionally correlated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These results suggest that when learning action values, participants use the DLPFC to dynamically adjust outcome responses in valuation regions depending on the usefulness of action-outcome information. PMID:21173266

  7. Revision of the DELFIC Particle Activity Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J

    2010-09-01

    The Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) was originally released in 1968 as a tool for modeling fallout patterns and for predicting exposure rates. Despite the continual advancement of knowledge of fission yields, decay behavior of fission products, and biological dosimetry, the decay data and logic of DELFIC have remained mostly unchanged since inception. Additionally, previous code revisions caused a loss of conservation of radioactive nuclides. In this report, a new revision of the decay database and the Particle Activity Module is introduced and explained. The database upgrades discussed are replacement of the fission yields with ENDF/B-VII data as formatted in the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code, revised decay constants, revised exposure rate multipliers, revised decay modes and branching ratios, and revised boiling point data. Included decay logic upgrades represent a correction of a flaw in the treatment of the fission yields, extension of the logic to include more complex decay modes, conservation of nuclides (including stable nuclides) at all times, and conversion of key variables to double precision for nuclide conservation. Finally, recommended future work is discussed with an emphasis on completion of the overall radiation physics upgrade, particularly for dosimetry, induced activity, decay of the actinides, and fractionation.

  8. Motivation, Confidence, and Control; Unraveling Active Learning for Nutrition and Food Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxman, Jenny R.; Nield, Kevin; Hall, Anna C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Nutrition and food students at Sheffield Hallam University completed an "active learning" assessment as part of a final year module, Applied Nutrition 2. The purpose of the "active learning" assessment was to encourage and enhance learner autonomy. The assessment consisted of 5 main stages: a briefing, thought shower,…

  9. Differential Modulation of Reinforcement Learning by D2 Dopamine and NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Tilmann A.; Ullsperger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The firing pattern of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is well known to reflect reward prediction errors (PEs), the difference between obtained and expected rewards. The PE is thought to be a crucial signal for instrumental learning, and interference with DA transmission impairs learning. Phasic increases of DA neuron firing during positive PEs are driven by activation of NMDA receptors, whereas phasic suppression of firing during negative PEs is likely mediated by inputs from the lateral habenula. We aimed to determine the contribution of DA D2-class and NMDA receptors to appetitively and aversively motivated reinforcement learning. Healthy human volunteers were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an instrumental learning task under the influence of either the DA D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg), the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (20 mg), or placebo. Participants quickly learned to select (“approach”) rewarding and to reject (“avoid”) punishing options. Amisulpride impaired both approach and avoidance learning, while memantine mildly attenuated approach learning but had no effect on avoidance learning. These behavioral effects of the antagonists were paralleled by their modulation of striatal PEs. Amisulpride reduced both appetitive and aversive PEs, while memantine diminished appetitive, but not aversive PEs. These data suggest that striatal D2-class receptors contribute to both approach and avoidance learning by detecting both the phasic DA increases and decreases during appetitive and aversive PEs. NMDA receptors on the contrary appear to be required only for approach learning because phasic DA increases during positive PEs are NMDA dependent, whereas phasic decreases during negative PEs are not. PMID:25253860

  10. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  11. Activities for Science: Cooperative Learning Lessons (Challenging).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia

    This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…

  12. Learning Activities of Disadvantaged Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisel, Marsel A.

    1986-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…

  13. Producing Learning Activities Packages. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

    This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…

  14. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  15. Improved sequence learning with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: evidence for treatment-specific network modulation.

    PubMed

    Mure, Hideo; Tang, Chris C; Argyelan, Miklos; Ghilardi, Maria-Felice; Kaplitt, Michael G; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2012-02-22

    We used a network approach to study the effects of anti-parkinsonian treatment on motor sequence learning in humans. Eight Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation underwent H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) while they performed kinematically matched sequence learning and movement tasks at baseline and during stimulation. Network analysis revealed a significant learning-related spatial covariance pattern characterized by consistent increases in subject expression during stimulation (p = 0.008, permutation test). The network was associated with increased activity in the lateral cerebellum, dorsal premotor cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus, with covarying reductions in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and orbitofrontal cortex. Stimulation-mediated increases in network activity correlated with concurrent improvement in learning performance (p < 0.02). To determine whether similar changes occurred during dopaminergic pharmacotherapy, we studied the subjects during an intravenous levodopa infusion titrated to achieve a motor response equivalent to stimulation. Despite consistent improvement in motor ratings during infusion, levodopa did not alter learning performance or network activity. Analysis of learning-related rCBF in network regions revealed improvement in baseline abnormalities with STN stimulation but not levodopa. These effects were most pronounced in the SMA. In this region, a consistent rCBF response to stimulation was observed across subjects and trials (p = 0.01), although the levodopa response was not significant. These findings link the cognitive treatment response in PD to changes in the activity of a specific cerebello-premotor cortical network. Selective modulation of overactive SMA-STN projection pathways may underlie the improvement in learning found with stimulation.

  16. Development and validation of a computer-based learning module for wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Obdeijn, M C; Alewijnse, J V; Mathoulin, C; Liverneaux, P; Tuijthof, G J M; Schijven, M P

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based module for wrist arthroscopy to which a group of experts could consent. The need for such a module was assessed with members of the European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS). The computer-based module was developed through several rounds of consulting experts on the content. The module's learning enhancement was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 28 medical students who were assigned to the computer-based module group or lecture group. The design process led to a useful tool, which is supported by a panel of experts. Although the computer based module did not enhance learning, the participants did find the module more pleasant to use. Developing learning tools such as this computer-based module can improve the teaching of wrist arthroscopy skills.

  17. Prior probability modulates anticipatory activity in category-specific areas.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Sabrina; Lepsien, Jöran; Kotz, Sonja A; Bar, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    Bayesian models are currently a dominant framework for describing human information processing. However, it is not clear yet how major tenets of this framework can be translated to brain processes. In this study, we addressed the neural underpinning of prior probability and its effect on anticipatory activity in category-specific areas. Before fMRI scanning, participants were trained in two behavioral sessions to learn the prior probability and correct order of visual events within a sequence. The events of each sequence included two different presentations of a geometric shape and one picture of either a house or a face, which appeared with either a high or a low likelihood. Each sequence was preceded by a cue that gave participants probabilistic information about which items to expect next. This allowed examining cue-related anticipatory modulation of activity as a function of prior probability in category-specific areas (fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area). Our findings show that activity in the fusiform face area was higher when faces had a higher prior probability. The finding of a difference between levels of expectations is consistent with graded, probabilistically modulated activity, but the data do not rule out the alternative explanation of a categorical neural response. Importantly, these differences were only visible during anticipation, and vanished at the time of stimulus presentation, calling for a functional distinction when considering the effects of prior probability. Finally, there were no anticipatory effects for houses in the parahippocampal place area, suggesting sensitivity to stimulus material when looking at effects of prediction.

  18. Attention modulates adaptive motor learning in the 'broken escalator' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh; Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2014-07-01

    The physical stumble caused by stepping onto a stationary (broken) escalator represents a locomotor aftereffect (LAE) that attests to a process of adaptive motor learning. Whether such learning is primarily explicit (requiring attention resources) or implicit (independent of attention) is unknown. To address this question, we diverted attention in the adaptation (MOVING) and aftereffect (AFTER) phases of the LAE by loading these phases with a secondary cognitive task (sequential naming of a vegetable, fruit and a colour). Thirty-six healthy adults were randomly assigned to 3 equally sized groups. They performed 5 trials stepping onto a stationary sled (BEFORE), 5 with the sled moving (MOVING) and 5 with the sled stationary again (AFTER). A 'Dual-Task-MOVING (DTM)' group performed the dual-task in the MOVING phase and the 'Dual-Task-AFTEREFFECT (DTAE)' group in the AFTER phase. The 'control' group performed no dual task. We recorded trunk displacement, gait velocity and gastrocnemius muscle EMG of the left (leading) leg. The DTM, but not the DTAE group, had larger trunk displacement during the MOVING phase, and a smaller trunk displacement aftereffect compared with controls. Gait velocity was unaffected by the secondary cognitive task in either group. Thus, adaptive locomotor learning involves explicit learning, whereas the expression of the aftereffect is automatic (implicit). During rehabilitation, patients should be actively encouraged to maintain maximal attention when learning new or challenging locomotor tasks.

  19. Dynamic microglial modulation of spatial learning and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Torres, Luisa; Danver, Joan; Ji, Kyungmin; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Chen, Danling; Anderson, Maria E; West, Brian L; Robinson, John K; Tsirka, Stella E

    2016-07-01

    Microglia are active players in inflammation, but also have important supporting roles in CNS maintenance and function, including modulation of neuronal activity. We previously observed an increase in the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic current in organotypic brain slices after depletion of microglia using clodronate. Here, we describe that local hippocampal depletion of microglia by clodronate alters performance in tests of spatial memory and sociability. Global depletion of microglia by high-dose oral administration of a Csf1R inhibitor transiently altered spatial memory but produced no change in sociability behavior. Microglia depletion and behavior effects were both reversible, consistent with a dynamic role for microglia in the regulation of such behaviors.

  20. Kinaesthetic Learning Activities and Learning about Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…

  1. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  2. Student Activity and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…

  3. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  4. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees.

  5. Understanding and modulating motor learning with Cerebellar stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Celnik, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques are a powerful approach to investigate the physiology and function of the central nervous system. Recent years have seen numerous investigations delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum to determine its role in motor, cognitive and emotional behaviours. Early studies have shown that it is possible to assess cerebellar-motor cortex (CB-M1) connectivity using a paired-pulse TMS paradigm called cerebellar inhibition (CBI), and indirectly infer the state of cerebellar excitability. Thus, it has been shown that CBI changes proportionally to the magnitude of locomotor learning and in association with reaching adaption tasks. In addition, CBI has been used to demonstrate at a physiological level the effects of applying TMS or tDCS to modulate, up or down, the excitability of cerebellar-M1 connectivity. These studies became the fundamental substrate to newer investigations showing that we can affect motor, cognitive and emotional behaviour when TMS or tDCS targeting the cerebellum is delivered in the context of performance. Furthermore, newer investigations are starting to report the effects of cerebellar non-invasive stimulation to treat symptoms associated with neurological conditions such as stroke and dystonia. Altogether, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation can potentially become a game changer for the management of conditions that affect the cerebellum given the scarcity of current effective therapeutic options. In this brief manuscript, some of the current evidence demonstrating the effects of cerebellar stimulation to modulate motor behaviour and its use to assess physiological processes underlying motor learning are presented. PMID:25283180

  6. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  7. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    PubMed

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior.

  8. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  9. Four Variations on Drueke's Active Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragains, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    A lesson structure for one-time bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions based on an active learning technique was developed. Active learning is discussed, and the "jigsaw method" is described. BI sessions presented to junior- and senior-level college students are examined, and considerations for librarians wishing to incorporate active…

  10. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  11. Olfactory modulation by dopamine in the context of aversive learning

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Martin, Joshua P.; Gage, Stephanie L.; Nighorn, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The need to detect and process sensory cues varies in different behavioral contexts. Plasticity in sensory coding can be achieved by the context-specific release of neuromodulators in restricted brain areas. The context of aversion triggers the release of dopamine in the insect brain, yet the effects of dopamine on sensory coding are unknown. In this study, we characterize the morphology of dopaminergic neurons that innervate each of the antennal lobes (ALs; the first synaptic neuropils of the olfactory system) of the moth Manduca sexta and demonstrate with electrophysiology that dopamine enhances odor-evoked responses of the majority of AL neurons while reducing the responses of a small minority. Because dopamine release in higher brain areas mediates aversive learning we developed a naturalistic, ecologically inspired aversive learning paradigm in which an innately appetitive host plant floral odor is paired with a mimic of the aversive nectar of herbivorized host plants. This pairing resulted in a decrease in feeding behavior that was blocked when dopamine receptor antagonists were injected directly into the ALs. These results suggest that a transient dopaminergic enhancement of sensory output from the AL contributes to the formation of aversive memories. We propose a model of olfactory modulation in which specific contexts trigger the release of different neuromodulators in the AL to increase olfactory output to downstream areas of processing. PMID:22552185

  12. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  13. Finding a Way: Learning Activities in Geography for Grades 7-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This set of curriculum modules contains geography learning activities that emphasize strategies to encourage young women in geography and social studies classes. Compiled in an effort to improve the motivation and achievement levels of students in geography classrooms, grades 7-11, the modules aim to boost academic performance and overall interest…

  14. The Topography Tub Learning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and

  15. Learning to Produce Syllabic Speech Sounds via Reward-Modulated Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Finnegan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    At around 7 months of age, human infants begin to reliably produce well-formed syllables containing both consonants and vowels, a behavior called canonical babbling. Over subsequent months, the frequency of canonical babbling continues to increase. How the infant’s nervous system supports the acquisition of this ability is unknown. Here we present a computational model that combines a spiking neural network, reinforcement-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and a human-like vocal tract to simulate the acquisition of canonical babbling. Like human infants, the model’s frequency of canonical babbling gradually increases. The model is rewarded when it produces a sound that is more auditorily salient than sounds it has previously produced. This is consistent with data from human infants indicating that contingent adult responses shape infant behavior and with data from deaf and tracheostomized infants indicating that hearing, including hearing one’s own vocalizations, is critical for canonical babbling development. Reward receipt increases the level of dopamine in the neural network. The neural network contains a reservoir with recurrent connections and two motor neuron groups, one agonist and one antagonist, which control the masseter and orbicularis oris muscles, promoting or inhibiting mouth closure. The model learns to increase the number of salient, syllabic sounds it produces by adjusting the base level of muscle activation and increasing their range of activity. Our results support the possibility that through dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity, the motor cortex learns to harness its natural oscillations in activity in order to produce syllabic sounds. It thus suggests that learning to produce rhythmic mouth movements for speech production may be supported by general cortical learning mechanisms. The model makes several testable predictions and has implications for our understanding not only of how syllabic vocalizations develop

  16. PICALM modulates autophagy activity and tau accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kevin; Fleming, Angeleen; Imarisio, Sara; Lopez Ramirez, Ana; Mercer, Jacob L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Bento, Carla F.; Puri, Claudia; Zavodszky, Eszter; Siddiqi, Farah; Lavau, Catherine P.; Betton, Maureen; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including proteins involved in endocytic trafficking such as PICALM/CALM (phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein). It is unclear how these loci may contribute to AD pathology. Here we show that CALM modulates autophagy and alters clearance of tau, a protein which is a known autophagy substrate and which is causatively linked to AD, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, altered CALM expression exacerbates tau-mediated toxicity in zebrafish transgenic models. CALM influences autophagy by regulating the endocytosis of SNAREs, such as VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8, which have diverse effects on different stages of the autophagy pathway, from autophagosome formation to autophagosome degradation. This study suggests that the AD genetic risk factor CALM modulates autophagy, and this may affect disease in a number of ways including modulation of tau turnover. PMID:25241929

  17. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  18. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2011-11-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent perception and recognition of associations among multiple senses has not been investigated. Twenty participants were included in an fMRI study that explored the impact of active motor learning on subsequent processing of unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Participants were exposed to visuo-motor associations between novel objects and novel sounds either through self-generated actions on the objects or by observing an experimenter produce the actions. Immediately after exposure, accuracy, RT, and BOLD fMRI measures were collected with unisensory and multisensory stimuli in associative perception and recognition tasks. Response times during audiovisual associative and unisensory recognition were enhanced by active learning, as was accuracy during audiovisual associative recognition. The difference in motor cortex activation between old and new associations was greater for the active than the passive group. Furthermore, functional connectivity between visual and motor cortices was stronger after active learning than passive learning. Active learning also led to greater activation of the fusiform gyrus during subsequent unisensory visual perception. Finally, brain regions implicated in audiovisual integration (e.g., STS) showed greater multisensory gain after active learning than after passive learning. Overall, the results show that active motor learning modulates the processing of multisensory associations.

  19. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed.

  20. Exploring Space Science Concepts using Interactive Animations and Learning Modules (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K.

    2009-12-01

    Many concepts in the planetary sciences can be difficult to teach using traditional or laboratory methods, but interactive media may provide unique opportunities to explore these. Such “interactives” can engage the user by allowing them to manipulate variables, view multiple trials in succession, and explore sophisticated conceptual information within a dynamic graphical interface. In formal educational settings, interactives accompanied by student data sheets can be used to foster and evaluate learning. At Montana State University’s Extended University we have developed interactive animations using Flash® to explore concepts such as gravity assist maneuvers and spin-orbit resonance as part of the education and public outreach efforts for NASA’s MESSENGER and New Horizons missions (to Mercury and Pluto, respectively). Some of theses interactives are paired with standards-based hands-on classroom activities. Here we will demonstrate several interactives and accompanying learning modules.

  1. Goal-Directed and Habit-Like Modulations of Stimulus Processing during Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Luque, David; Beesley, Tom; Morris, Richard W; Jack, Bradley N; Griffiths, Oren; Whitford, Thomas J; Le Pelley, Mike E

    2017-03-15

    Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an "attentional habit." Recording event-related potentials in humans during a reinforcement learning task, we show strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Resistance to outcome devaluation (the defining feature of a habit) was shown by the stimulus-locked P1 component, reflecting activity in the extrastriate visual cortex. Analysis at longer latencies revealed a positive component (corresponding to the P3b, from 550-700 ms) sensitive to outcome devaluation. Therefore, distinct spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity were observed corresponding to habitual and goal-directed processes. These results demonstrate that reinforcement learning engages both attentional habits and goal-directed processes in parallel. Consequences for brain and computational models of reinforcement learning are discussed.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human attentional network adapts to detect stimuli that predict important rewards. A recent hypothesis suggests that the visual cortex automatically prioritizes reward-related stimuli, driven by cached representations of reward value; that is, stimulus-response habits. Alternatively, the neural system may track the current value of the predicted outcome. Our results demonstrate for the first time that visual cortex activity is increased for reward-related stimuli even when the rewarding event is temporarily devalued. In contrast, longer-latency brain activity was specifically sensitive to transient changes in reward value. Therefore, we show that both habit-like attention and goal-directed processes occur in the same learning episode at different latencies. This result has important consequences for computational models of reinforcement learning.

  2. Interactive Web-based Learning Modules Prior to General Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515

  3. Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2015-09-01

    Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR, 8-15 Hz) are brain oscillations associated with successful motor performance, imagery, and imitation. Voluntary modulation of SMR can be used to control brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the absence of any physical movements. The mechanisms underlying acquisition of such skill are unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a causal link between function of the primary motor cortex (M1), active during motor skill learning and retention, and successful acquisition of abstract skills such as control over SMR. Thirty healthy participants were trained on 5 consecutive days to control SMR oscillations. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups that received either 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1. Learning SMR control across training days was superior in the anodal tDCS group relative to the other 2. Cathodal tDCS blocked the beneficial effects of training, as evidenced with sham tDCS. One month later, the newly acquired skill remained superior in the anodal tDCS group. Thus, application of weak electric currents of opposite polarities over M1 differentially modulates learning SMR control, pointing to this primary cortical region as a common substrate for acquisition of physical motor skills and learning to control brain oscillatory activity.

  4. Advanced Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.117.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers design and operation…

  5. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  6. Intermediate Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.116.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series and considers aeration devices,…

  7. Basic Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.115.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the first of a three module series and considers definition of terms, design…

  8. Active dictionary learning for image representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2015-05-01

    Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. High and Low Computer Self-Efficacy Groups and Their Learning Behavior from Self-Regulated Learning Perspective While Engaged in Interactive Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Oenardi; Becker, Kurt; Fang, Ning; Reeve, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate high school students' computer self-efficacy (CSE) and learning behavior in a self-regulated learning (SRL) framework while utilizing an interactive learning module. The researcher hypothesizes that CSE is reflected on cognitive actions and metacognitive strategies while the students are engaged with…

  10. A Hybrid Approach to Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an approach to incorporate active learning strategies into the first semester of a university-level introductory physics course. Combines cooperative and peer-based methods inside the classroom with project-based learning outside the classroom in an attempt to develop students' transferable skills as well as improving their understanding…

  11. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  12. Discussing Active Learning from the Practitioner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamba, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…

  13. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  14. Conditions for Apprentices' Learning Activities at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…

  15. Active learning in transportation engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Jennifer Anne

    The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.

  16. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  17. Medial orbitofrontal cortex modulates associative learning between environmental cues and reward probability.

    PubMed

    Hall-McMaster, Sam; Millar, Jessica; Ruan, Ming; Ward, Ryan D

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been recognized that orbitofrontal cortex has 2 subdivisions that are anatomically and functionally distinct. Most rodent research has focused on the lateral subdivision, leaving the medial subdivision (mOFC) relatively unexplored. We recently showed that inhibiting mOFC neurons eliminated the differential impact of reward probability cues on discrimination accuracy in a sustained attention task. In the present study, we tested whether increasing mOFC neuronal activity in rats would accelerate acquisition of reward contingencies. mOFC neuronal activity was increased using the DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) method, in which clozapine-N-oxide administration leads to neuronal modulation by acting on synthetic receptors not normally expressed in the rat brain. We predicted that rats with neuronal activation in mOFC would require fewer sessions than controls for acquisition of a task in which visual cues signal the probability of reward for correct discrimination performance. Contrary to this prediction, mOFC neuronal activation impaired task acquisition, suggesting mOFC may play a role in learning relationships between environmental cues and reward probability or for using that information in adaptive decision-making. In addition, disrupted mOFC activity may contribute to psychiatric conditions in which learning associations between environmental cues and reward probability is impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. An event-related potential evoked by movement planning is modulated by performance and learning in visuomotor control.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holger

    2009-06-01

    Based on a previous exploratory study, the functionality of event-related potentials related to visuomotor processing and learning was investigated. Three pursuit tracking tasks (cursor control either mouse, joystick, or bimanually) revealed the greatest tracking error and greatest learning effect in the bimanual task. The smallest error without learning was found in the mouse task. Error reduction reflected visuomotor learning. In detail, target-cursor distance was reduced continuously, indicating a better fit to a changed direction, whereas response time remained at 300 ms. A central positive ERP component with an activity onset 100 ms after a directional change of the target and most likely generated in premotor areas could be assigned to response planning and execution. The magnitude of this component was modulated by within-and-between-task difficulty and size of the tracking error. Most importantly, the size of this component was sensitive to between-subject performance and increased with visuomotor learning.

  19. Beyond the four walls: Examining the use of authentic learning modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Donna Marie

    While attempting to provide real world experiences in STEM, educators face numerous challenges including adhering to curriculum requirements and working with potentially limited resources. The purpose of this action research study was to examine how the addition of authentic learning modules to the existing University of Arizona Middle School Engineering 101 (UA MS engineering 101) unit on energy efficiency can provide students with real world experiences as active participants. During an instructional workshop, participating teachers were introduced to strategies they use in their classroom so students could engage with individuals from both inside and outside of the school to create solutions for energy issues the students have identified within their own schools. This study used a series of observations, interviews, and focus groups with the teacher participants to gather data in determining how and in what ways students were able to obtain real world experiences as active participants through the authentic learning modules. Because there are numerous teachers within the UA MS engineering 101 group, a future goal was to assist these additional teachers in providing this innovation to their students.

  20. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  1. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  2. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  3. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.

  4. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  5. Teacher Directed Active Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlatos, Lori L.; Scarlatos, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Games are widely recognized for their potential to enhance students' learning. Yet they are only rarely used in classrooms because they cannot be modified to meet the needs of a particular class. This article describes a novel approach to creating educational software that addresses this problem: provide an interface specifically for teachers that…

  6. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  7. Multimedia Learning: Cognitive Individual Differences and Display Design Techniques Predict Transfer Learning with Multimedia Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the information explosion and rapidly progressing technology [Mayer, R. E. (2001). "Multimedia learning". Cambridge: University Press] formulated a theory that focused on human cognition, rather than technology capacity and features. By measuring the effect of cognitive individual differences and display design manipulations on…

  8. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  9. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  10. Building Learning Modules for Undergraduate Education Using LEAD Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. D.; Yalda, S.

    2006-12-01

    embedding students in an authentic, contextualized environment where the knowledge domain is an extension, yet integral supplement, to the classroom experience.This presentation describes two different approaches for the use of LEAD in undergraduate education: 1) a use-case for integrating LEAD technology into undergraduate subject material; and 2) making LEAD capability available to a select group of students participating in the National Collegiate Forecasting Contest (NCFC). The use-case (1) is designed to have students explore a particular weather phenomenon (e.g., a frontal boundary, jet streak, or lake effect snow event) through self-guided inquiry, and is intended as a supplement to classroom instruction. Students will use interactive, Web-based, LEAD-to-Learn modules created specifically to build conceptual knowledge of the phenomenon, adjoin germane terminology, explore relationships between concepts and similar phenomena using the LEAD ontology, and guide them through the experiment builder and workflow orchestration process in order to establish a high-resolution WRF run over a region that exhibits the characteristics of the phenomenon they wish to study. The results of the experiment will be stored in the student's MyLEAD workspace from which it can be retrieved, visualized and analyzed for atmospheric signatures characteristic of the phenomenon. The learning process is authentic in that students will be exposed to the same process of investigation, and will have available many of the same tools, as researchers. The modules serve to build content knowledge, guide discovery, and provide assessment while the LEAD portal opens the gateway to real-time observations, model accessibility, and a variety of tools, services, and resources.

  11. A Web Module to Teach Hydrology Using Problem Based Learning in the Context of Designing a Flood Detention Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merck, M. F.; Tarboton, D. G.; Habib, E. H.; Lall, U.; Ma, Y.; Aly, A.

    2014-12-01

    HydroViz is a web-based, student-centered, highly visual educational system designed to support active learning in the field of Hydrology. It is primarily designed to be used in junior/senior/graduate level courses on subjects related to hydrology and water resources engineering. HydroViz presents case-based, data- and simulation-driven learning experiences in the form of modules that use data, models and analysis to introduce hydrologic concepts in the context of solving real world problems. One of several modules currently under development is based on a case study of Dry Canyon in Logan, Utah, where a flood detention basin has recently been constructed to protect an area of urban development at the mouth of the canyon. The module leads students through the design process, introducing key concepts along the way. It begins by introducing students to the concept of a watershed and methods for determining watershed properties and precipitation inputs from NOAA and NCDC sources. Then soil properties and the concepts involved in infiltration and runoff generation are introduced in support of methods for evaluating the design flood hydrograph. It concludes by introducing the use of computer models to examine alternative designs for the detention basin. Each section of the module uses active learning through hands-on activities that build the hydrologic knowledge needed to address the problem of flood protection. We will introduce the Hydroviz system and present the design cycle used to create the Dry Canyon module, including classroom implementation, student assessments of the system, and changes to the module resulting from the assessments.

  12. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.

  13. Active mode locking of lasers by piezoelectrically induced diffraction modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausz, F.; Turi, L.; Kuti, Cs.; Schmidt, A. J.

    1990-04-01

    A new amplitude-modulation mode-locking technique is presented. Acoustic waves are generated directly on the faces of a resonant photoelastic medium. The created standing waves cause a highly efficient diffraction modulation of light. The modulation depth of standing-wave mode lockers is related to material and drive parameters and a figure of merit is introduced. With a lithium niobate crystal modulation depths over 10 are achieved at 1.054 μm and 1 W of radio frequency power. Using this device for the active mode locking of a continuous-wave Nd:glass laser pulses as short as 3.8 ps are produced at a repetition rate of 66 MHz. Limitations of amplitude-modulation mode locking by standing acoustic waves are discussed.

  14. A Matlab/Simulink-Based Interactive Module for Servo Systems Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliane, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive module for learning both the fundamental and practical issues of servo systems. This module, developed using Simulink in conjunction with the Matlab graphical user interface (Matlab-GUI) tool, is used to supplement conventional lectures in control engineering and robotics subjects. First, the paper introduces the…

  15. Challenge-Based Instruction: The VaNTH Biomechanics Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald E.; Pandy, Marcus G.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Roselli, Robert J.; Brophy, Sean; Freeman, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of teaching an entire engineering course using challenge-based instruction. The challenges consisted of eight biomechanics multimedia learning modules developed by the authors as part of a broader NSF educational coalition. The biomechanics modules were presented in an undergraduate mechanical…

  16. As We Teach and Learn: Recognizing Our Catholic Identity. Module 2: Faith Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Angela Ann; Ristau, Karen, Ed.; Haney, Regina, Ed.

    The As We Teach and Learn program consists of an instrument to assess the Catholic dimension of a school and is designed to be used with study modules in a faculty-meeting format. Module topics include: "Faith Community"; "Faith Development"; "Religion Curriculum Articulation: Faith as the Root of all Instruction";…

  17. As We Teach and Learn: Recognizing Our Catholic Identity. Module 5: Prayer and Liturgy Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Pat; Ristau, Karen, Ed.; Haney, Regina, Ed.

    The As We Teach and Learn program consists of an instrument to assess the Catholic dimension of a school and is designed to be used with study modules in a faculty-meeting format. Module topics include: "Faith Community"; "Faith Development"; "Religion Curriculum Articulation: Faith as the Root of all Instruction";…

  18. Module Thirteen: Series AC RLC Circuits and Resonance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will combine RL (resistive-inductance) and RC (resistive-capacitive) circuits and learn some of the phenomena which result. The module is divided into four lessons: solving RLC (resistive-inductance-capacitive) circuits, resonant frequency in series circuits, conditions of series resonance, and experiments with series…

  19. Access to Adult Learning Opportunities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 6. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on access to adult learning opportunities. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  20. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn about parallel RL (resistive-inductance), RC (resistive-capacitive), and RCL (resistive-capacitive-inductance) circuits and the conditions that exist at resonance. The module is divided into six lessons: solving for quantities in RL parallel circuits; variational analysis of RL parallel circuits; parallel RC…

  1. Module Six: Parallel Circuits; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…

  2. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-07-01

    Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  3. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Thalamic Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Russo, Gary S.; Hashimoto, Takao; Zhang, Jianyu; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective tool for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which STN DBS elicits its beneficial effect, however, remains unclear. We previously reported STN stimulation increased the rate and produced a more regular and periodic pattern of neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). Here we extend our observations to neurons in the pallidal (ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)) and cerebellar (ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)) receiving areas of the motor thalamus during STN DBS. Stimulation parameters that produced improvement in rigidity and bradykinesia resulted in changes in the pattern and power of oscillatory activity of neuronal activity that were similar in both regions of the motor thalamus. Neurons in both VA/VLo and VPLo tended to become more periodic and regular with a shift in oscillatory activity from low to high frequencies. Burst activity was reduced in VA/VLo, but was not significantly changed in VPLo. There was also a significant shift in the population of VA/VLo neurons that were inhibited during STN DBS, while VPLo neurons tended to be activated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that STN DBS increases output from the nucleus and produces a change in the pattern and periodicity of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network, and that these changes include cerebellar pathways likely via activation of adjacent cerebello-thalamic fiber bundles. PMID:19005057

  4. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jessica K; Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Ivry, Richard B; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-05-01

    Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning and the other assaying nonmotor/declarative learning, to examine off-line changes in performance in young (20-34 years), middle-aged (35-50 years), and older (51-70 years) adults without disordered sleep. During an initial session, conducted either in the morning or evening, participants learned a motor sequence and a list of word pairs. Memory tests were given twice, 12 and 24 hours after training, allowing us to analyze off-line consolidation after a break that included sleep or normal wake. Sleep-dependent performance changes were reduced in older adults on the motor sequence learning task. In contrast, sleep-dependent performance changes were similar for all 3 age groups on the word pair learning task. Age-related changes in sleep or networks activated during encoding or during sleep may contribute to age-related declines in motor sequence consolidation. Interestingly, these changes do not affect declarative memory.

  5. Administrator & Teacher Decision Module. Module I. Telecommunication Aids in Learning the Keys (TALK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This module presents information to administrators and teachers planning to use telecommunications in the business and office curriculum in grades 9-12. It accompanies three modules designed for use in three courses in which a unit on telecommunications can be taught. The module addresses four major needs. The first section discusses required…

  6. Bacteriophage: A Model System for Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.

    2002-01-01

    Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543

  7. Active learning in optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, Joseph J.

    2016-09-01

    Active learning in optics and photonics (ALOP) is a program of the International Basic Sciences Program at UNESCO, in collaboration with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and supported by SPIE, which is designed to help teachers in the developing world attract and retain students in the physical sciences. Using optics and photonics, it naturally attracts the interest of students and can be implemented using relatively low cost technologies, so that it can be more easily reproduced locally. The active learning methodology is student-centered, meaning the teachers give up the role of lecturer in favor of guiding and facilitating a learning process in which students engage in hands-on activities and active peer-peer discussions, and is shown to effectively enhance basic conceptual understanding of physics.

  8. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    molecular pathways through allosteric regulation of various proteins including proteases [39,40], the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) [41], the a7 nicotinic...41. Price MR, Baillie GL, Thomas A, Stevenson LA, Easson M, et al. (2005) Allosteric modulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor . Mol Pharmacol 68...Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity Jonathan D. Bohbot, Joseph C. Dickens* Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior

  9. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…

  10. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  11. RoboResource Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.

    Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…

  12. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  13. Learning Activities for the Growth Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Linda, Ed.

    This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting…

  14. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent; Kristiansen, Uffe; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are ideally placed to detect and respond to network activity. They express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, and can release gliotransmitters. Astrocytes also express transporters that regulate the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters. Here we report a previously unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na+ concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca2+ through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal glutamate release via activation of presynaptic adenosine receptors. Through this mechanism, increases in astrocytic GAT-3 activity due to GABA released from interneurons contribute to 'diffuse' heterosynaptic depression. This provides a mechanism for homeostatic regulation of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:27886179

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of a Collaborative LearningScience Module: The Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah; Alias, Norlidah; Leng, Chin Hai

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the retrospective evaluation of collaborative mLearning (CmL) Science module for teaching secondary school science which was designed based on social constructivist learning theories and Merrill's First Principle of Instruction. This study is part of a developmental research in which computer-mediated communication (CMC)…

  16. Design and Implementation of a Mechatronics Learning Module in a Large First-Semester Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, R. T.; Zephirin, T.; Lohani, V. K.; Kachroo, P.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the first-year engineering program at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, has been significantly restructured to include more hands-on learning. A major grant (2004-2009) under the department level reform (DLR) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) facilitated this restructuring. A number of hands-on learning modules were developed…

  17. Effects of an E-Learning Module on Students' Attitudes in an Electronics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getuno, Daniel M.; Kiboss, Joel K.; Changeiywo, Johnson M.; Ogola, Leo B.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that students exhibit negative attitudes towards Electronics especially when they are taught using the conventional method. This is in addition to poor instructional methods that do not promote individualization of instruction or make learning interesting. The purpose of this study was to design an e-learning module in…

  18. Development of an e-Learning Research Module Using Multimedia Instruction Approach.

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Chan, Moon Fai; Tan, Sharon Swee Lin; Soong, Alan Swee Kit; Chan, Sally Wai Chi

    2017-03-01

    Students nowadays feel more comfortable with new technologies, which increase their motivation and, as a result, improve their academic performance. In the last two decades, the use of information communication technology has been increasing in many disciplines in higher education. Online learning or e-learning has been used and integrated into the curriculum around the world. A team of nursing faculty and educational technology specialists have developed an e-learning research module and integrate it into the nursing curriculum. The aim was to assist master of nursing and postgraduate nursing students in developing their research knowledge before and throughout their enrollment in the research course. This e-learning module includes interactive multimedia such as audiovisual presentation, graphical theme, animation, case-based learning, and pretest and posttest for each topic area. The module focuses on three main topic areas: (1) basic research principles (for review), (2) quantitative method, and (3) qualitative method. The e-learning module is an innovative use of the information and communication technology to enhance student engagement and learning outcomes in a local context. This article discusses the development journey, piloting process, including the variety of evaluation perspectives, and the ways in which the results influenced the e-learning resource before its wider distribution.

  19. Podcasting to Provide Teaching and Learning Support for an Undergraduate Module on English Language and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Rizzi, Chiara; Nie, Ming; Rothwell, Libby

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports findings from research into the benefits of integrating podcasts into a first year undergraduate module on English Language and Communication at Kingston University. As part of a Faculty teaching and learning support scheme for first year undergraduates, six podcasts were developed to improve students' learning and study skills…

  20. Human use regulatory affairs advisor (HURAA): learning about research ethics with intelligent learning modules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangen; Graesser, Arthur C

    2004-05-01

    The Human Use Regulatory Affairs Advisor (HURAA) is a Web-based facility that provides help and training on the ethical use of human subjects in research, based on documents and regulations in United States federal agencies. HURAA has a number of standard features of conventional Web facilities and computer-based training, such as hypertext, multimedia, help modules, glossaries, archives, links to other sites, and page-turning didactic instruction. HURAA also has these intelligent features: (1) an animated conversational agent that serves as a navigational guide for the Web facility, (2) lessons with case-based and explanation-based reasoning, (3) document retrieval through natural language queries, and (4) a context-sensitive Frequently Asked Questions segment, called Point & Query. This article describes the functional learning components of HURAA, specifies its computational architecture, and summarizes empirical tests of the facility on learners.

  1. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  2. Modulation of motoneuron activity by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Serotonin is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system involved in most physiological functions including appetite regulation, sexual arousal, sleep regulation and motor control. The activity of neurons from the raphe spinal tract, which release serotonin on motoneurons, is positively correlated with motor behaviour. During moderate physical activity, serotonin is released from synaptic terminals onto the dendrites and cell bodies of motoneurons. Serotonin increases the excitability of motoneurons and thereby facilitate muscle contraction by acting on several parallel intracellular pathways. By activating 5-HT1A receptors, serotonin inhibits TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels and small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. In parallel, serotonin binds to 5-HT2 receptors, which promotes the low-threshold L-type Ca(2+) channels. During intense physical activity, more serotonin is released. The reuptake systems saturate and serotonin spills over to reach extrasynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located on the axon initial segment of motoneurons. This in turn induces the inhibition of the Na(+) channels responsible for the initiation of action potentials. Fewer nerve impulses are generated and muscle contraction becomes weaker. By decreasing the gain of motoneurons, serotonin triggers central fatigue.

  3. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  4. Results of Formal Evaluation of a Data and Modeling Driven Hydrology Learning Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Sanchez, C. A.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    New hydrologists should not only develop a well-defined knowledgebase of basic hydrological concepts, but also synthesize this factual learning with more authentic 'real-world' knowledge gained from the interpretation and analysis of data from hydrological models (Merwade and Ruddell, 2012, Wagener et al., 2007). However, hydrological instruction is often implemented using a traditional teacher-centered approach (e.g., lectures) (Wagener, 2007). The emergence of rich and dynamic computer simulation techniques which allow students the opportunity for more authentic application of knowledge (Merwade & Ruddell, 2012). This study evaluates the efficacy of using such data-driven simulations to increase the understanding of the field of hydrology in the lower-division undergraduate geoscience classroom. In this study, 88 students at a local community college who were enrolled in an Introductory Earth Science class were evaluated on their learning performance in a unit on applying the Rational Method to estimate hydrographs and flooding for urban areas. Students were either presented with a data and visualization rich computer module (n=52), or with paper and pencil calculation activities (n=36). All conceptual material presented in lecture was consistent across these two conditions. Students were evaluated for not only changes in their knowledge and application of the concepts within the unit (e.g., effects of urbanization and impervious cover, discharge rates), but also for their broad "T-shaped" profile of professional knowledge and skills. While results showed significant (p<.05) increases from pre to post assessments in all learning areas for both groups, there is a significantly larger benefit for the data module group when it came to (1) understanding the effects of urbanization and impervious cover on flooding, (2) applying consistent vocabulary appropriately within context, and (3) explaining the roles and responsibilities of hydrologists and flood managers.

  5. Module Ten: Transformers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…

  6. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  7. Cross-Functional Globalization Modules: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Kathryn T.; Das, Jayoti; Synn, Wonhi J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-functional international teaching modules. The modules presented in this paper are intended to assist higher education institutions in initiating and implementing the first level of internationalization of the business school curriculum. Although the focus is on achieving a level of global awareness,…

  8. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  9. Dopaminergic Drugs Modulate Learning Rates and Perseveration in Parkinson’s Patients in a Dynamic Foraging Task

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Robb B.; Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Lau, Brian; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Making appropriate choices often requires the ability to learn the value of available options from experience. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, neurons hypothesized to play a role in reinforcement learning. Although previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s patients are impaired in tasks involving learning from feedback, they have not directly tested the widely held hypothesis that dopamine neuron activity specifically encodes the reward prediction error signal used in reinforcement learning models. To test a key prediction of this hypothesis, we fit choice behavior from a dynamic foraging task with reinforcement learning models and show that treatment with dopaminergic drugs alters choice behavior in a manner consistent with the theory. More specifically, we found that dopaminergic drugs selectively modulate learning from positive outcomes. We observed no effect of dopaminergic drugs on learning from negative outcomes. We also found a novel dopamine-dependent effect on decision making that is not accounted for by reinforcement learning models: perseveration in choice, independent of reward history, increases with Parkinson’s disease and decreases with dopamine therapy. PMID:19955362

  10. Lateral entorhinal modulation of piriform cortical activity and fine odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Julie; Cohen, Yaniv; He, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhijan; Jin, Sen; Xu, Fuqiang; Wilson, Donald A

    2013-08-14

    The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) receives direct input from olfactory bulb mitral cells and piriform cortical pyramidal cells and is the gateway for olfactory input to the hippocampus. However, the LEC also projects back to the piriform cortex and olfactory bulb. Activity in the LEC is shaped by input from the perirhinal cortices, hippocampus, and amygdala, and thus could provide a rich contextual modulation of cortical odor processing. The present study further explored LEC feedback to anterior piriform cortex by examining how LEC top-down input modulates anterior piriform cortex odor evoked activity in rats. Retrograde viral tracing confirmed rich LEC projections to both the olfactory bulb and piriform cortices. In anesthetized rats, reversible lesions of the ipsilateral LEC increased anterior piriform cortical single-unit spontaneous activity. In awake animals performing an odor discrimination task, unilateral LEC reversible lesions enhanced ipsilateral piriform cortical local field potential oscillations during odor sampling, with minimal impact on contralateral activity. Bilateral LEC reversible lesions impaired discrimination performance on a well learned, difficult odor discrimination task, but had no impact on a well learned simple odor discrimination task. The simple discrimination task was impaired by bilateral reversible lesions of the anterior piriform cortex. Given the known function of LEC in working memory and multisensory integration, these results suggest it may serve as a powerful top-down modulator of olfactory cortical function and odor perception. Furthermore, the results provide potential insight into how neuropathology in the entorhinal cortex could contribute to early olfactory deficits seen in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Mechanobiocatalysis: Modulating Enzymatic Activity with Mechanical Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    displayed by enzymes and other materials. It was demonstrated that the application of forces to enzymes properly outfitted with polymers resulted in...intrinsic activities displayed by enzymes and other materials. It was demonstrated that the application of forces to enzymes properly outfitted with polymers ...of eYFP-containing polymer composites via the application of mechanical force, as well as showing that the photophysical properties displayed by

  12. Active Learning in Engineering Education: A (Re)Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…

  13. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    PubMed

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis.

  14. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks.

  15. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  16. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  17. Muscle metaboreceptor modulation of cutaneous active vasodilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Stephens, D. P.; Johnson, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia has been shown to reduce cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) by inhibiting the cutaneous active vasodilator system. METHODS: To identify whether this response was initiated by muscle metaboreceptors, in seven subjects two 3-min bouts of isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia were performed, followed by 2 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI). An index of forearm skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was measured on the contralateral arm at an unblocked site and at a site at which adrenergic vasoconstrictor function was blocked via bretylium iontophoresis to reveal active cutaneous vasodilator function unambiguously. Sweat rate was measured via capacitance hygrometry, CVC was indexed from the ratio of skin blood flow to mean arterial pressure and was expressed as a percentage of maximal CVC at that site. In normothermia, neither isometric exercise nor PEI affected CVC (P > 0.05). RESULTS: The first bout of isometric handgrip exercise in hyperthermia reduced CVC at control sites and this reduction persisted through PEI (pre-exercise: 59.8 +/- 5.4, exercise: 49.8 +/- 4.9, PEI: 49.7 +/- 5.3% of maximum; both P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant changes in CVC at the bretylium treated sites. The succeeding bout of isometric exercise in hyperthermia significantly reduced CVC at both untreated (pre-exercise: 59.0 +/- 4.8, exercise: 47.3 +/- 4.0, PEI: 50.1 +/- 4.1% of maximum; both P < 0.05) and bretylium treated sites (pre-exercise: 61.4 +/- 7.3, exercise: 50.6 +/- 5.1, PEI: 53.9 +/- 6.0% of maximum, both P < 0.05). At both sites, CVC during PEI was lower than during the pre-exercise period (P < 0.05). Sweat rate rose significantly during both bouts of isometric exercise and remained elevated during PEI. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the reduction in CVC during isometric exercise in hyperthermia, including the inhibition of the active vasodilator system, is primarily mediated by muscle

  18. Modulation of macrophage activation by prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Carnuccio, R.; D'Acquisto, F.; Rosa, M. Di

    1996-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandtn E2, iloprost and cAMP on both nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α release in J774 macrophages has been studied. Both prostaglandin E2 and iloprost inhibited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α. The inhibitory effect of these prostanoids seems to be mediated by an increase of the second messenger cAMP since it was mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP and potentiated by the selective type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor RO-20-1724. Our results suggest that the inhibition of nitric oxide release by prostaglandin E2 and iloprost in lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages may be secondary to the inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α generation, which in turn is likely to be mediated by cAMP. PMID:18475691

  19. Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

  20. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  1. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative—context-dependent—scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system. PMID:26302782

  2. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-08-25

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system.

  3. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  4. Modified case based learning: Our experience with a new module for pharmacology undergraduate teaching

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanchan; Arora, Shalini; Kaushal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The undergraduate teaching in pharmacology has always been a challenging task for medical teachers. Traditional lecture format is monotonous and a passive way of learning. There is a need to shift the educational focus from content centered to case based. In an effort to create interest and further improve the student learning, we have introduced simulated bedside teaching sessions as case based learning (CBL) module (modified CBL-[mCBL]) for 2nd professional MBBS students. Materials and Methods: A case scenario of a clinical disease condition was prepared in consultation with a clinician. During the session, the case was presented along with discussion on the disease process, its management and rational drug use. Students were encouraged to participate actively. After the session, students were requested to fill the feedback questionnaire anonymously (both open-ended questions and responses on Likert scale). Results: According to the students, factors such as clinical orientation, interactivity and re-enforcement of important points helped them to learn better. Majority of the students (76.09%) found the sessions to be better than theory lectures and tutorials. The fact that the interactive component of departmental feedback (taken at the institutional level) has improved during the last 2 years could be attributed to the introduction of these sessions. Conclusion: mCBL (in the presence of departmental faculty and concerned clinician) is a good method of integrating pharmacology with clinical subjects. To make such sessions more reliable, the next planned step is to assess the knowledge gained by the students during such sessions in the future. PMID:25143883

  5. Active Collaborative Learning through Remote Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…

  6. Active/Cooperative Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…

  7. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  8. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  9. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  10. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  11. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. Effects of Review Activities on EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chiu-Lan Nina

    2009-01-01

    The utmost goal of foreign language instruction is aimed at helping the learner master the language. At the same time the learner shall become equipped with linguistic, pragmatic and social-linguistic competence. This study was done to explore if review activities in EFL classes should be mandatory for learners to learn the new knowledge. One…

  13. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  14. Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…

  15. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  16. Active Citizenship, Education and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwell, Jonathan; Scott, Ralph; Horley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how active citizenship can be encouraged through education and community action. It proposes that service learning and a renewed focus on voluntarism can both promote social cohesion between different ethnic and cultural groups while also fostering among the population a greater understanding of and commitment to civic…

  17. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  18. The Enlightenment Revisited: Sources & Interpretations. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Clorinda; And Others

    This resource book provides 26 learning activities with background materials for teaching about the Enlightenment. Topics include: (1) "What Was the Enlightenment?"; (2) "An Introduction to the Philosophes"; (3) "Was the Enlightenment a Revolt Against Rationalism?"; (4) "Were the Philosophes Democrats? A…

  19. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  20. Active Learning via Student Karaoke Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Gary D.; Richards, Travis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated students' perceptions and reactions to an active learning Karaoke Video project in both a large (104 student) undergraduate class in Natural History of Georgia and a small graduate seminar in Fish Ecology. Undergraduate responses were evaluated with both questionnaires and triangulation interviews and graduate student responses…

  1. Learning-related neuronal activity in the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus during associative cerebellar learning

    PubMed Central

    Kashef, Alireza; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    During delay eyeblink conditioning, rats learn to produce an eyelid-closure conditioned response (CR) to a conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a light, which precedes and coterminates with an unconditioned stimulus (US). Previous studies have suggested that the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) might play an important role in visual eyeblink conditioning by supplying visual sensory input to the pontine nuclei (PN) and also receiving feedback from the cerebellum. No prior study has investigated LGNv neuronal activity during eyeblink conditioning. The present study used multiple tetrodes to monitor single-unit activity in the rat LGNv during pre-exposure (CS only), unpaired CS/US, and paired CS-US training conditions. This behavioral-training sequence was used to investigate nonassociative- and associative-driven neuronal activity in the LGNv during training. LGNv neuronal activity habituated during unpaired training and then recovered from habituation during subsequent paired training, which may indicate that the LGNv plays a role in attention to the CS. The amplitude of LGNv neuronal activity correlated with CR production during paired but not unpaired CS/US training. Cerebellar feedback to the LGNv may play a role in modulating LGNv activity and attention to the CS during paired training. Based on the present findings, we hypothesize that the role of LGNv in visual eyeblink conditioning goes beyond simply routing visual CS information to the PN and involves modulation of attention. PMID:25122718

  2. Staufen Negatively Modulates MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiji; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Morrissey, David; Ambros, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various posttranscriptional gene regulatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer, and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3′ untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs or other small RNA populations between wild-type and stau-1 mutants, with the exception of certain endogenous siRNAs in the WAGO pathway. The modulation of microRNA activity by STAU-1 does not seem to be associated with the previously reported enhanced exogenous RNAi (Eri) phenotype of stau-1 mutants, since eri-1 exhibits the opposite effect on microRNA activity. Altogether, our results suggest that STAU-1 negatively modulates microRNA activity downstream of microRNA biogenesis, possibly by competing with microRNAs for binding on the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs. PMID:26921297

  3. Hydrophobic Core Flexibility Modulates Enzyme Activity in HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Seema; Cai, Yufeng; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Bolon, Daniel N.A.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-09-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) protease is crucial for viral maturation and infectivity. Studies of protease dynamics suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrophobic core is essential for enzyme activity. Many mutations in the hydrophobic core are also associated with drug resistance and may modulate the core flexibility. To test the role of flexibility in protease activity, pairs of cysteines were introduced at the interfaces of flexible regions remote from the active site. Disulfide bond formation was confirmed by crystal structures and by alkylation of free cysteines and mass spectrometry. Oxidized and reduced crystal structures of these variants show the overall structure of the protease is retained. However, cross-linking the cysteines led to drastic loss in enzyme activity, which was regained upon reducing the disulfide cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that altered dynamics propagated throughout the enzyme from the engineered disulfide. Thus, altered flexibility within the hydrophobic core can modulate HIV-1 protease activity, supporting the hypothesis that drug resistant mutations distal from the active site can alter the balance between substrate turnover and inhibitor binding by modulating enzyme activity.

  4. Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted β-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

  5. NMDA receptor modulation of incidental learning in Pavlovian context conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stote, Deborah L; Fanselow, Michael S

    2004-02-01

    Rats exposed to a footshock show conditional fear when reexposed to the shock context. Immediate presentation of shock after placement in the context significantly reduces this fear. Preexposure to the context in the absence of shock, coupled with a minimum preshock interval during training, overcomes this immediate shock deficit. Because rats learn about the context during preexposure and express that learning after being reinforced, the context preexposure effect is an aversive analogue of latent learning. The authors examined the effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphovalerate (APV) on the facilitatory effect of context preexposure. Rats were preexposed to a chamber after APV administration. The next day they were placed in the same chamber without drug and received shock 35 s later. APV blocked the facilitatory effect of preexposure. Therefore NMDA receptors are important for contextual latent learning.

  6. Increasing SK2 channel activity impairs associative learning

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Bridget M.; Oh, M. Matthew; Galvez, Roberto; Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Kroes, Roger A.; Weiss, Craig; Adelman, John P.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons via reductions in the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) has been hypothesized to be a biomarker of successful learning. This is supported by considerable evidence that pharmacologic enhancement of neuronal excitability facilitates learning. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that pharmacologic reduction of neuronal excitability restricted to the hippocampus can retard acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent task. Thus, the present study was designed to address this latter point using a small conductance potassium (SK) channel activator NS309 focally applied to the dorsal hippocampus. SK channels are important contributors to intrinsic excitability, as measured by the medium postburst AHP. NS309 increased the medium AHP and reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential width of CA1 neurons in vitro. In vivo, NS309 reduced the spontaneous firing rate of CA1 pyramidal neurons and impaired trace eyeblink conditioning in rats. Conversely, trace eyeblink conditioning reduced levels of SK2 channel mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. Therefore, the present findings indicate that modulation of SK channels is an important cellular mechanism for associative learning and further support postburst AHP reductions in hippocampal pyramidal neurons as a biomarker of successful learning. PMID:22552186

  7. [Modulators of the regulatory protein activity acting at microdoses].

    PubMed

    Iamskova, V P; Krasnov, M S; Skripnikova, V S; Moliavka, A A; Il'ina, A P; Margasiuk, D V; Borisenko, A V; Berezin, B B; Iamskov, I A

    2009-01-01

    New, previously not studied bioregulators active in the ultra low doses corresponding of 10(-8) - 10(-17) mg/ml have been isolated from vitreoretinal tissue of eye. It has been shown that these bioregulators comprise some regulatory peptides-modulators represented by proteins with molecular weights 15-70 KDa one of which is bovine serum albumin. Correlation between the nanosize of bioregulators and their ability to show activity in ultra low doses is established.

  8. Alcohol Usage and Abrupt Cessation Modulate Diurnal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norrell, Stacy; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Burau, Keith; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol has many effects throughout the body. The effect on circadian rhythms and the correlation of these effects to withdrawal effects of alcohol present interesting findings. By measuring 3 planes of activity of female Sprague-Dawley rats during alcohol usage and continuing study through the first two days following withdrawal of alcohol allow for the observation of a drastic modulation of the circadian pattern of activity. PMID:20615456

  9. An active learning approach to Bloom's Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Fred K; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    As educators strive toward improving student learning outcomes, many find it difficult to instill their students with a deep understanding of the material the instructors share. One challenge lies in how to provide the material with a meaningful and engaging method that maximizes student understanding and synthesis. By following a simple strategy involving Active Learning across the 3 primary domains of Bloom's Taxonomy (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), instructors can dramatically improve the quality of the lesson and help students retain and understand the information. By applying our strategy, instructors can engage their students at a deeper level and may even find themselves enjoying the process more.

  10. The subthalamic nucleus modulates the early phase of probabilistic classification learning.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Lam, Judith M; Breit, Sorin; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Krüger, Rejko; Luft, Andreas R; Wächter, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Previous models proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is critical in the early phase of skill acquisition. We hypothesized that subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates the learning curve in early classification learning. Thirteen idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), 9 medically treated iPD, and 21 age-matched healthy controls were tested with a probabilistic classification task. STN-DBS patients were tested with stimulation OFF and ON, and medically treated patients with medication OFF and ON, respectively. Performance and reaction time were analyzed on the first 100 consecutive trials as early learning phase. Moreover, data were separated for low and high-probability patterns, and more differentiated strategy analyses were used. The major finding was a significant modulation of the learning curve in DBS patients with stimulation ON: although overall learning was similar to healthy controls, only the stimulation ON group showed a transient significant performance dip from trials '41-60' that rapidly recovered. Further analysis indicated that this might be paralleled by a modulation of the learning strategy, particularly on the high-probability patterns. The reaction time was unchanged during the dip. Our study supports that the STN serves as a relay in early classification learning and directs attention toward unacquainted content. The STN might play a role in balancing the short-term success against strategy optimization for improved long-term outcome.

  11. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  12. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  13. Parvalbumin Interneurons Modulate Striatal Output and Enhance Performance during Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang; Holley, Sandra M; Shobe, Justin L; Chong, Natalie C; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2017-03-22

    The prevailing view is that striatal parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons primarily function to downregulate medium spiny projection neuron (MSN) activity via monosynaptic inhibitory signaling. Here, by combining in vivo neural recordings and optogenetics, we unexpectedly find that both suppressing and over-activating PV cells attenuates spontaneous MSN activity. To account for this, we find that, in addition to monosynaptic coupling, PV-MSN interactions are mediated by a competing disynaptic inhibitory circuit involving a variety of neuropeptide Y-expressing interneurons. Next we use optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches to show that dorsolateral striatal PV interneurons influence the initial expression of reward-conditioned responses but that their contribution to performance declines with experience. Consistent with this, we observe with large-scale recordings in behaving animals that the relative contribution of PV cells on MSN activity diminishes with training. Together, this work provides a possible mechanism by which PV interneurons modulate striatal output and selectively enhance performance early in learning.

  14. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  15. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  16. Practice and nap schedules modulate children's motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Guo, Wei; Yan, Jin H; Liu, Guanmin; Jia, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    Night- or day-time sleep enhances motor skill acquisition. However, prominent issues remained about the circadian (time-of-day) and homeostatic (time since last sleep) effects of sleep on developmental motor learning. Therefore, we examined the effects of nap schedules and nap-test-intervals (NTIs) on the learning of finger tapping sequences on computer keyboards. Children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years explicitly acquired the short and long tapping orders that share the same movement strings (4-2-3-1-4, 4-2-3-1-4-2-3-1-4). Following a constant 8- or 10-hr post-learning period in one of the four NTIs (2, 4, 5, 7 hr), children in the morning napping groups, the afternoon napping groups, or the waking group performed the original long sequence in retention test (4-2-3-1-4-2-3-1-4) and the mirrored-order sequence in transfer test (1-3-2-4-1-3-2-4-1). Age and treatment differences in the movement time (MT, ms) and sequence accuracy (SA, %) were compared during skill learning and in retrieval tests. Results suggest that practice or nap affects MT and SA in a greater extent for the younger learners than for the older learners. The circadian effects might not change nap-based skill learning. Importantly, the longer NTIs resulted in superior retention performance than the shorter ones, suggesting that children require a relatively longer post-nap period to form motor memory. Finally, nap-based motor learning was more marked in skill retention than in skill transfer. Brain development may play an important role in motor learning. Our discussion centers on memory consolidation and its relevance for skill acquisition from early to late childhood.

  17. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  18. Module Packaging Research and Reliability: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; delCueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K.

    2005-11-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples are described.

  19. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  20. Bug Talk: A Learning Module on Insect Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The study of insects (entomology) can be used to stimulate students' interest in science and nature. It can develop students' understanding of fundamental science concepts, awareness of interdisciplinary connections, and mastery of science process skills. This teaching module provides opportunities for middle school students (Grades 5-8) to learn…

  1. Intercultural Language Learning at Work: A Student-Designed Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoux, Marion

    2016-01-01

    During the academic year 2014-15, the Language Centre at the University of Nottingham Ningbo China (UNNC) worked in partnership with students on the design and validation of accredited work placement modules in the Language Centre. This initiative, endorsed by the UK campus within the Students As Change Agents (SACA) programme, aimed to address…

  2. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-05-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed. 38 references.

  3. Idefix insulator activity can be modulated by nearby regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Brasset, E; Bantignies, F; Court, F; Cheresiz, S; Conte, C; Vaury, C

    2007-01-01

    Insulators play important roles in controlling gene activity and maintaining regulatory independence between neighbouring genes. In this article, we show that the enhancer-blocking activity of the insulator present within the LTR retrotransposon Idefix can be abolished if two copies of the region containing the insulator--specifically, the long terminal repeat (LTR)--are fused to the retrotransposon's 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). The presence of this combination of two [LTR-5' UTR] modules is a prerequisite for the loss of enhancer-blocking activity. We further show that the 5' UTR causes flanking genomic sequences to be displaced to the nuclear periphery, which is not observed when two insulators are present by themselves. This study thus provides a functional link between insulators and independent genomic modules, which may cooperate to allow the specific regulation of defined genomic loci via nuclear repositioning. It further illustrates the complexity of genomic regulation within a chromatic environment with multiple functional elements.

  4. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed.

  5. Water modulation of stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme activity and desquamation.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Harding, C; Moore, A; Coan, P

    2001-09-01

    Exposure to a dry environment leads to depletion of water from the peripheral stratum corneum layers in a process dependent on the relative humidity (RH) and the intrinsic properties of the tissue. We hypothesized that by modulating the water content of the stratum corneum in the surface layers, RH effects the rate of desquamation by modulating the activity of the desquamatory enzymes, and specifically stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme (SCCE). Using a novel air interface in vitro desquamatory model, we demonstrated RH-dependent corneocyte release with desquamatory rates decreasing below 80% RH. Application of 10% glycerol or a glycerol-containing moisturizing lotion further increased desquamation, even in humid conditions, demonstrating that water was the rate-limiting factor in the final stages of desquamation. Furthermore, even in humid conditions desquamation was sub-maximal. In situ stratum corneum SCCE activity showed a dependence on RH: activity was significantly higher at 100% than at 44% RH. Further increases in SCCE activity were induced by applying a 10% glycerol solution. Since SCCE, a water-requiring enzyme, must function in the water-depleted outer stratum corneum, we sought to determine whether this enzyme has a tolerance to lowered water activity. Using concentrated sucrose solutions to lower water activity, we analysed the activity of recombinant SCCE and compared it to that of trypsin and chymotrypsin. SCCE activity demonstrated a tolerance to water restriction, and this may be an adaptation to maintain enzyme activity even within the water-depleted stratum corneum intercellular space. Overall these findings support the concept that in the upper stratum corneum, RH modulates desquamation by its effect upon SCCE activity, and possibly other desquamatory hydrolases. In addition, SCCE may be adapted to function in the water-restricted stratum corneum intercellular space.

  6. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  7. Active Democratic Citizenship and Service-Learning in the Postgraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clodagh

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the use of service-learning in teaching active democratic citizenship in the postgraduate classroom. In particular it draws on a case study of an MBS Government module (GV6104) entitled "Political Participation and Mobilisation" that explores the relationship between democracy and participation. Students of this…

  8. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  9. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  10. A learning progression based teaching module on the causes of seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galano, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report about designing and validating a teaching learning module based on a learning progression and focused on the causes of seasons. An initial learning progression about the Celestial Motion big idea -causes of seasons, lunar and solar eclipse and Moon phases- was developed and validated. Existing curricula, research studies on alternative conceptions about these phenomena, and students' answers to an open questionnaire were the starting point to develop initial learning progressions; then, a two-tier multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to validate and improve it. The questionnaire was submitted to about 300 secondary-school students whose answers were used to revise the hypothesized learning progressions. This improved version of the learning progression was used to design a module focused on the causes of seasons in which students were engaged in quantitative measurements with a photovoltaic panel to explain changes of the Sun rays' flow on the Earth's surface over the year. The efficacy of our module in improving students' understanding of the phenomenon of the seasons was tested using our questionnaire as pre- and post-test.

  11. A Mobile Learning Module for High School Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tzu-Yen; Chen, Che-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Although fieldwork is always cited as an important component of geographic education, there are many obstacles for executing high school fieldwork. Mobile electronic products are becoming popular and some schools are able to acquire these devices for mobile learning. This study attempts to provide a mobile-assisted means of guiding students…

  12. Collaborative Learning in a VLE Based Common Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Masters Level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments [VLEs] in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  13. Attentional Modulation in Visual Cortex Is Modified during Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, Marco; Smith, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practicing a visual task commonly results in improved performance. Often the improvement does not transfer well to a new retinal location, suggesting that it is mediated by changes occurring in early visual cortex, and indeed neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies both demonstrate that perceptual learning is associated with altered activity…

  14. Learning Modules to Develop Dispositions in Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, Patricia; Elsbree, Anne Rene; Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to develop professional dispositions in secondary pre-service teachers. Throughout the one year credential program, we infused a repetitive and deliberate learning sequence directed at practicing habits of reflection. Scenarios, case studies, role plays, simulations and discussions included questions,…

  15. Molecular Biology of Learning: Modulation of Transmitter Release.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Eric R.; Schwartz, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a behavioral system in Aplysia (marine snail) can be used to examine mechanisms of several forms of learning at different levels of analysis: behavioral, cell-physiological, ultrastructural, and molecular. Focusing on short-term sensitization, suggests how molecular mechanisms can be extended to explain long-term memory and classical…

  16. Physical fitness modulates incidental but not intentional statistical learning of simultaneous auditory sequences during concurrent physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yuji; Futagami, Hiroko; Tarumoto, Nagayoshi; Yasuda, Hideki

    2017-02-01

    In real-world auditory environments, humans are exposed to overlapping auditory information such as those made by human voices and musical instruments even during routine physical activities such as walking and cycling. The present study investigated how concurrent physical exercise affects performance of incidental and intentional learning of overlapping auditory streams, and whether physical fitness modulates the performances of learning. Participants were grouped with 11 participants with lower and higher fitness each, based on their Vo2max value. They were presented simultaneous auditory sequences with a distinct statistical regularity each other (i.e. statistical learning), while they were pedaling on the bike and seating on a bike at rest. In experiment 1, they were instructed to attend to one of the two sequences and ignore to the other sequence. In experiment 2, they were instructed to attend to both of the two sequences. After exposure to the sequences, learning effects were evaluated by familiarity test. In the experiment 1, performance of statistical learning of ignored sequences during concurrent pedaling could be higher in the participants with high than low physical fitness, whereas in attended sequence, there was no significant difference in performance of statistical learning between high than low physical fitness. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of physical fitness on learning while resting. In the experiment 2, the both participants with high and low physical fitness could perform intentional statistical learning of two simultaneous sequences in the both exercise and rest sessions. The improvement in physical fitness might facilitate incidental but not intentional statistical learning of simultaneous auditory sequences during concurrent physical exercise.

  17. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  18. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  19. Reference Framework for Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naithani, Pranav

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…

  20. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  1. Cardiac afferent activity modulates the expression of racial stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ruben T.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2017-01-01

    Negative racial stereotypes tend to associate Black people with threat. This often leads to the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons held by a Black individual. Yet, little is known about how bodily states impact the expression of racial stereotyping. By tapping into the phasic activation of arterial baroreceptors, known to be associated with changes in the neural processing of fearful stimuli, we show activation of race-threat stereotypes synchronized with the cardiovascular cycle. Across two established tasks, stimuli depicting Black or White individuals were presented to coincide with either the cardiac systole or diastole. Results show increased race-driven misidentification of weapons during systole, when baroreceptor afferent firing is maximal, relative to diastole. Importantly, a third study examining the positive Black-athletic stereotypical association fails to demonstrate similar modulations by cardiac cycle. We identify a body–brain interaction wherein interoceptive cues can modulate threat appraisal and racially biased behaviour in context-dependent ways. PMID:28094772

  2. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  3. Preventing and Reporting Resident Abuse in Assisted Living: A Learning Module for Resident Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Cole Marie

    In an effort to conform to the Massachusetts Executive Office of Elder Affairs (EOEA) staff development requirement regarding elder abuse, a learning module was developed. It was designed to be administered to an individual caregiver for the purpose of self-study or to small groups of caregivers using the lecture-discussion format. Following the…

  4. "Scaffolding" of Action Learning within a Part-Time Management Development Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joesbury, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This Account of Practice describes the introduction and development of action learning within a level 5 module of "Communications at Work" delivered as part of a Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) Professional Certificate in Management (CMS) between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. This will commence with a personal narrative and…

  5. Extinction and Renewal of Pavlovian Modulation in Human Sequential Feature Positive Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Frank; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Kerkhof, Ineke; De Ceulaer, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated extinction and renewal of Pavlovian modulation in human sequential Feature Positive (FP) discrimination learning. In Experiment 1, in context a participants were first trained on two FP discriminations, X[right arrow]A+/A- and Y[right arrow]B+/B-. Extinction treatment was administered in the…

  6. Assessment of a Prosthodontic Course for Dental Hygienists Using Self-instructional Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieman, Janice A.

    1981-01-01

    Self-instructional learning modules were used to teach the skill portion of a continuing education course. Short- and long-term results obtained from course evaluations and a follow-up survey indicate that dental hygienists are willing to extend their role to include prosthodontic care. (Author/LC)

  7. Attitudes of Students, Faculty, and Alumni Towards a Competency Based Therapeutics Program Utilizing Integrated Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, William N.

    1983-01-01

    Attitudes of students, faculty, and recent graduates to a self-paced, self-instructional junior-level program using learning modules were significantly positive for all groups. Faculty stressed the need for continuing support, and older students and seniors were the most positively disposed group. (MSE)

  8. Supporting Student Learning: The Use of Computer-Based Formative Assessment Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.…

  9. Effects of Web-Based Interactive Modules on Engineering Students' Learning Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan; Aman, Amjad; Xu, Yunjun; Orlovskaya, Nina; Zhou, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of a newly developed modules, Interactive Web-Based Visualization Tools for Gluing Undergraduate Fuel Cell Systems Courses system (IGLU), on learning motivations of engineering students using two samples (n[subscript 1] = 144 and n[subscript 2] = 135) from senior engineering classes. The…

  10. Stress Modulates the Use of Spatial versus Stimulus-Response Learning Strategies in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippsen, Christine; Richter, Steffen; Bohringer, Andreas; Wippich, Werner; Schachinger, Hartmut; Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S.

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies provided evidence that stress modulates multiple memory systems, favoring caudate nucleus-based "habit" memory over hippocampus-based "cognitive" memory. However, effects of stress on learning strategy and memory consolidation were not differentiated. We specifically address the effects of psychosocial stress on the applied learning…

  11. Using Multimedia Learning Modules in a Hybrid-Online Course in Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-01-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a "prelecture assignment" in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results…

  12. Environmental--Access to Safe Water Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  13. Comparison of Effectiveness of Computerized and Conventional Fixed and Learning Module in Undergraduate Pathology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavan, Manoharan; Kaur, Gurjeet

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Fixed Learning Module (FLM) adopted in pathology teaching to medical undergraduates, encompasses exhibition of potted specimens and charts. Though it is an important teaching method it also has its limitations. Aim: To create an alternative method for teaching pathology using web based, interactive computer technology [i.e.,…

  14. Educational Modules in Tissue Engineering Based on the "How People Learn" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birol, Gulnur; Liu, Shu Q.; Smith, H. David; Hirsch, Penny

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an educational package for use in tertiary level tissue engineering education. Current learning science principles and theory were employed in the design process of these educational tools. Each module started with a challenge statement designed to motivate students and consisted of laboratory exercises centered on the "How…

  15. Bridging the Divide: Sustainability and Relevance of a Distance Learning Module for Clinical Officers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigley, Stephen; Hosein, I.; Myemba, I. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on work by a team from Wales, supported by UNESCO Cymru-Wales, to develop a distance learning module for Tanzanian clinical officers (COs) on the syndromic management and counselling of sexually transmissible infection (STI) and HIV patients. Preparation included documentary analysis and a questionnaire survey to ascertain COs'…

  16. Beyond the Four Walls: Examining the Use of Authentic Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagielski, Donna Marie

    2016-01-01

    While attempting to provide real world experiences in STEM, educators face numerous challenges including adhering to curriculum requirements and working with potentially limited resources. The purpose of this action research study was to examine how the addition of authentic learning modules to the existing University of Arizona Middle School…

  17. Social cues modulate the representations underlying cross-situational learning.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kyle; Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    Because children hear language in environments that contain many things to talk about, learning the meaning of even the simplest word requires making inferences under uncertainty. A cross-situational statistical learner can aggregate across naming events to form stable word-referent mappings, but this approach neglects an important source of information that can reduce referential uncertainty: social cues from speakers (e.g., eye gaze). In four large-scale experiments with adults, we tested the effects of varying referential uncertainty in cross-situational word learning using social cues. Social cues shifted learners away from tracking multiple hypotheses and towards storing only a single hypothesis (Experiments 1 and 2). In addition, learners were sensitive to graded changes in the strength of a social cue, and when it became less reliable, they were more likely to store multiple hypotheses (Experiment 3). Finally, learners stored fewer word-referent mappings in the presence of a social cue even when given the opportunity to visually inspect the objects for the same amount of time (Experiment 4). Taken together, our data suggest that the representations underlying cross-situational word learning of concrete object labels are quite flexible: In conditions of greater uncertainty, learners store a broader range of information.

  18. Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress Modulation with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Millet, Grégoire P.; Pialoux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, resulting in molecular damage and disruption of redox signaling, is associated with numerous pathophysiological processes and known to exacerbate chronic diseases. Prolonged systemic hypoxia, induced either by exposure to terrestrial altitude or a reduction in ambient O2 availability is known to elicit oxidative stress and thereby alter redox balance in healthy humans. The redox balance modulation is also highly dependent on the level of physical activity. For example, both high-intensity exercise and inactivity, representing the two ends of the physical activity spectrum, are known to promote oxidative stress. Numerous to-date studies indicate that hypoxia and exercise can exert additive influence upon redox balance alterations. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate physical activity can attenuate altitude/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress during long-term hypoxic exposure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hypoxia-related oxidative stress modulation by different activity levels during prolonged hypoxic exposures and examine the potential mechanisms underlying the observed redox balance changes. The paper also explores the applicability of moderate activity as a strategy for attenuating hypoxia-related oxidative stress. Moreover, the potential of such moderate intensity activities used to counteract inactivity-related oxidative stress, often encountered in pathological, elderly and obese populations is also discussed. Finally, future research directions for investigating interactive effects of altitude/hypoxia and exercise on oxidative stress are proposed. PMID:28243207

  19. Active Learning in the Era of Big Data

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Kevin; Davis, IV, Warren L.

    2015-10-01

    Active learning methods automatically adapt data collection by selecting the most informative samples in order to accelerate machine learning. Because of this, real-world testing and comparing active learning algorithms requires collecting new datasets (adaptively), rather than simply applying algorithms to benchmark datasets, as is the norm in (passive) machine learning research. To facilitate the development, testing and deployment of active learning for real applications, we have built an open-source software system for large-scale active learning research and experimentation. The system, called NEXT, provides a unique platform for realworld, reproducible active learning research. This paper details the challenges of building the system and demonstrates its capabilities with several experiments. The results show how experimentation can help expose strengths and weaknesses of active learning algorithms, in sometimes unexpected and enlightening ways.

  20. Navigating the Active Learning Swamp: Creating an Inviting Environment for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marie C.; Malinowski, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a survey of faculty members (n=29) asking them to define active learning, to rate how effectively different teaching techniques contribute to active learning, and to list the three teaching techniques they use most frequently. Concludes that active learning requires establishing an environment rather than employing a specific teaching…

  1. Notetaking Activity as a Logical Classroom Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…

  2. Predicting Reading and Mathematics from Neural Activity for Feedback Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…

  3. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  4. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine disturbs depotentiation by modulating mAChRs and impairs reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo Seok; Cha, Jin Hee; Yoon, Sang Ho; Cho, Young Seon; Park, Kyeong-Yeol; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Antipsychotic medication is an essential component for treating schizophrenia, which is a serious mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the global population. Olanzapine (Olz), one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotics, is generally considered a first-line drug for treating schizophrenia. In contrast to psychotic symptoms, the effects of Olz on cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are still unclear. In addition, the mechanisms by which Olz affects the neural circuits associated with cognitive function are unknown. Here we show that Olz interrupts depotentiation (reversal of long-term potentiation) without disturbing de novo LTP (long-term potentiation) and LTD (long-term depression). At hippocampal SC-CA1 synapses, inhibition of NMDARs (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors), mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), or mAChRs (muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) disrupted depotentiation. In addition, co-activation of NMDARs, mGluRs, and mAChRs reversed stably expressed LTP. Olz inhibits the activation of mAChRs, which amplifies glutamate signaling through enhanced NMDAR opening and Gq (Gq class of G protein)-mediated signal transduction. Behaviorally, Olz impairs spatial reversal learning of mice in the Morris water maze test. Our results uncover a novel mechanism underpinning the cognitive modulation of Olz and show that the anticholinergic property of Olz affects glutamate signaling and synaptic plasticity.

  5. Individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment and neural activity during reward and avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment.

  6. Microarray and network-based identification of functional modules and pathways of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhong-Rui; Yin, Juan; Sun, Wen; Lin, Dian-Jie

    2017-02-08

    Diagnose of active tuberculosis (TB) is challenging and treatment response is also difficult to efficiently monitor. The aim of this study was to use an integrated analysis of microarray and network-based method to the samples from publically available datasets to obtain a diagnostic module set and pathways in active TB. Towards this goal, background protein-protein interactions (PPI) network was generated based on global PPI information and gene expression data, following by identification of differential expression network (DEN) from the background PPI network. Then, ego genes were extracted according to the degree features in DEN. Next, module collection was conducted by ego gene expansion based on EgoNet algorithm. After that, differential expression of modules between active TB and controls was evaluated using random permutation test. Finally, biological significance of differential modules was detected by pathways enrichment analysis based on Reactome database, and Fisher's exact test was implemented to extract differential pathways for active TB. Totally, 47 ego genes and 47 candidate modules were identified from the DEN. By setting the cutoff-criteria of gene size >5 and classification accuracy ≥0.9, 7 ego modules (Module 4, Module 7, Module 9, Module 19, Module 25, Module 38 and Module 43) were extracted, and all of them had the statistical significance between active TB and controls. Then, Fisher's exact test was conducted to capture differential pathways for active TB. Interestingly, genes in Module 4, Module 25, Module 38, and Module 43 were enriched in the same pathway, formation of a pool of free 40S subunits. Significant pathway for Module 7 and Module 9 was eukaryotic translation termination, and for Module 19 was nonsense mediated decay enhanced by the exon junction complex (EJC). Accordingly, differential modules and pathways might be potential biomarkers for treating active TB, and provide valuable clues for better understanding of molecular

  7. Active Learning With Optimal Instance Subset Selection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yifan; Zhu, Xingquan; Elmagarmid, A K

    2013-04-01

    Active learning (AL) traditionally relies on some instance-based utility measures (such as uncertainty) to assess individual instances and label the ones with the maximum values for training. In this paper, we argue that such approaches cannot produce good labeling subsets mainly because instances are evaluated independently without considering their interactions, and individuals with maximal ability do not necessarily form an optimal instance subset for learning. Alternatively, we propose to achieve AL with optimal subset selection (ALOSS), where the key is to find an instance subset with a maximum utility value. To achieve the goal, ALOSS simultaneously considers the following: 1) the importance of individual instances and 2) the disparity between instances, to build an instance-correlation matrix. As a result, AL is transformed to a semidefinite programming problem to select a k-instance subset with a maximum utility value. Experimental results demonstrate that ALOSS outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for AL.

  8. Functional modules, structural topology, and optimal activity in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo; Hernández, Magdalena; Mora, Yolanda; Encarnación, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Modular organization in biological networks has been suggested as a natural mechanism by which a cell coordinates its metabolic strategies for evolving and responding to environmental perturbations. To understand how this occurs, there is a need for developing computational schemes that contribute to integration of genomic-scale information and assist investigators in formulating biological hypotheses in a quantitative and systematic fashion. In this work, we combined metabolome data and constraint-based modeling to elucidate the relationships among structural modules, functional organization, and the optimal metabolic phenotype of Rhizobium etli, a bacterium that fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris. To experimentally characterize the metabolic phenotype of this microorganism, we obtained the metabolic profile of 220 metabolites at two physiological stages: under free-living conditions, and during nitrogen fixation with P. vulgaris. By integrating these data into a constraint-based model, we built a refined computational platform with the capability to survey the metabolic activity underlying nitrogen fixation in R. etli. Topological analysis of the metabolic reconstruction led us to identify modular structures with functional activities. Consistent with modular activity in metabolism, we found that most of the metabolites experimentally detected in each module simultaneously increased their relative abundances during nitrogen fixation. In this work, we explore the relationships among topology, biological function, and optimal activity in the metabolism of R. etli through an integrative analysis based on modeling and metabolome data. Our findings suggest that the metabolic activity during nitrogen fixation is supported by interacting structural modules that correlate with three functional classifications: nucleic acids, peptides, and lipids. More fundamentally, we supply evidence that such modular organization during functional nitrogen fixation is

  9. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  10. JAK tyrosine kinases promote hierarchical activation of Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Alessio; Bolomini-Vittori, Matteo; Toffali, Lara; Rossi, Barbara; Constantin, Gabriela; Laudanna, Carlo

    2013-12-23

    Lymphocyte recruitment is regulated by signaling modules based on the activity of Rho and Rap small guanosine triphosphatases that control integrin activation by chemokines. We show that Janus kinase (JAK) protein tyrosine kinases control chemokine-induced LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated adhesion as well as human T lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid organs. JAK2 and JAK3 isoforms, but not JAK1, mediate CXCL12-induced LFA-1 triggering to a high affinity state. Signal transduction analysis showed that chemokine-induced activation of the Rho module of LFA-1 affinity triggering is dependent on JAK activity, with VAV1 mediating Rho activation by JAKs in a Gαi-independent manner. Furthermore, activation of Rap1A by chemokines is also dependent on JAK2 and JAK3 activity. Importantly, activation of Rap1A by JAKs is mediated by RhoA and PLD1, thus establishing Rap1A as a downstream effector of the Rho module. Thus, JAK tyrosine kinases control integrin activation and dependent lymphocyte trafficking by bridging chemokine receptors to the concurrent and hierarchical activation of the Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

  11. Functional modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by cereblon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Min; Jo, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyunyoung; Lee, Jongwon; Park, Chul-Seung

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in cereblon (CRBN), a substrate binding component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cause a form of mental retardation in humans. However, the cellular proteins that interact with CRBN remain largely unknown. Here, we report that CRBN directly interacts with the α1 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK α1) and inhibits the activation of AMPK activation. The ectopic expression of CRBN reduces phosphorylation of AMPK α1 and, thus, inhibits the enzyme in a nutrient-independent manner. Moreover, AMPK α1 can be potently activated by suppressing endogenous CRBN using CRBN-specific small hairpin RNAs. Thus, CRBN may act as a negative modulator of the AMPK signaling pathway in vivo.

  12. Dietary modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, R; Déchelotte, P; Iacucci, M; Ghosh, S

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPAR gamma. As PPAR gamma plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPAR gamma. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds in modulating intestinal inflammation through PPAR gamma.

  13. Planetfinder: An Online Interactive Module for Learning How Astronomers Detect Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Richard

    Planetfinder is a Web-based module designed to enable undergraduates to learn how astronomers detect extrasolar planets through observations of the Doppler shifts of a star's spectral lines. The module guides students through the process of measuring the masses and orbital parameters of actual extrasolar planets by fitting model Doppler curves to the data. The main goal of the exercise is to give students an understanding of the process of scientific measurement and model fitting. The exercise can be done at various levels of difficulty, ranging from measuring the properties of planetary systems having nearly circular orbits without using algebra, to exploring properties of systems having eccentric orbits and the associated equations of motion. The module is self-checking. Student work is stored in a database that is easily accessible by the instructor. The module has been tested at several institutions and is available for public use.

  14. Interactive Online Modules and Videos for Learning Geological Concepts at the University of Toronto Department of Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veglio, E.; Graves, L. W.; Bank, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    We designed various computer-based applications and videos as educational resources for undergraduate courses at the University of Toronto in the Earth Science Department. These resources were developed in effort to enhance students' self-learning of key concepts as identified by educators at the department. The interactive learning modules and videos were created using the programs MATLAB and Adobe Creative Suite 5 (Photoshop and Premiere) and range from optical mineralogy (extinction and Becke line), petrology (equilibrium melting in 2-phase systems), crystallography (crystal systems), geophysics (gravity anomaly), and geologic history (evolution of Canada). These resources will be made available for students on internal course websites as well as through the University of Toronto Earth Science's website (www.es.utoronto.ca) where appropriate; the video platform YouTube.com may be used to reach a wide audience and promote the material. Usage of the material will be monitored and feedback will be collected over the next academic year in order to gage the use of these interactive learning tools and to assess if these computer-based applications and videos foster student engagement and active learning, and thus offer an enriched learning experience.

  15. The strength of gradually accruing probabilistic evidence modulates brain activity during a categorical decision

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Mark E.; Woo, Sarah G.; Ansel, Tobin; Tremel, Joshua J.; Collier, Amanda L.; Velanova, Katerina; Ploran, Elisabeth J.; Yang, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of neural activity during a perceptual decision is well characterized by the evidence parameter in sequential sampling models. However, it is not known whether accumulating signals in human neuroimaging are related to the integration of evidence. Our aim was to determine whether activity accumulates in a non-perceptual task by identifying brain regions tracking the strength of probabilistic evidence. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure whole-brain activity as choices were informed by integrating a series of learned prior probabilities. Subjects first learned the predictive relationship between a set of shape stimuli and one of two choices. During scanned testing, they made binary choices informed by the sum of the predictive strengths of individual shapes. Sequences of shapes adhered to three distinct rates of evidence (RoE), rapid, gradual, and switch. We predicted that activity in regions informing the decision would modulate as a function of RoE prior to the choice. Activity in some regions, including premotor areas, changed as a function of RoE and response hand, indicating a role in forming an intention to respond. Regions in occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes modulated as a function of RoE only, suggesting a pre-response stage of evidence processing. In all of these regions, activity was greatest on rapid trials and least on switch trials, which is consistent with an accumulation-to-boundary account. In contrast, activity in a set of frontal and parietal regions was greatest on switch and least on rapid trials, which is consistent with an effort or time-on-task account. PMID:25313658

  16. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other’s experiences in active learning. PMID:28232588

  17. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other's experiences in active learning.

  18. Alpha-band EEG activity in perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Brett C.; Visscher, Kristina M.; Le Dantec, Christophe C.; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perceptual learning (PL), subjects are typically highly trained across many sessions to achieve perceptual benefits on the stimuli in those tasks. There is currently significant debate regarding what sources of brain plasticity underlie these PL-based learning improvements. Here we investigate the hypothesis that PL, among other mechanisms, leads to task automaticity, especially in the presence of the trained stimuli. To investigate this hypothesis, we trained participants for eight sessions to find an oriented target in a field of near-oriented distractors and examined alpha-band activity, which modulates with attention to visual stimuli, as a possible measure of automaticity. Alpha-band activity was acquired via electroencephalogram (EEG), before and after training, as participants performed the task with trained and untrained stimuli. Results show that participants underwent significant learning in this task (as assessed by threshold, accuracy, and reaction time improvements) and that alpha power increased during the pre-stimulus period and then underwent greater desynchronization at the time of stimulus presentation following training. However, these changes in alpha-band activity were not specific to the trained stimuli, with similar patterns of posttraining alpha power for trained and untrained stimuli. These data are consistent with the view that participants were more efficient at focusing resources at the time of stimulus presentation and are consistent with a greater automaticity of task performance. These findings have implications for PL, as transfer effects from trained to untrained stimuli may partially depend on differential effort of the individual at the time of stimulus processing. PMID:26370167

  19. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  20. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Ho, Lena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Bruneau, B. G.

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also required to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.

  1. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    DOE PAGES

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; ...

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also requiredmore » to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.« less

  2. Decorin binds myostatin and modulates its activity to muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Takayuki; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito; Hennebry, Alex; Berry, Carole J.; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi; Nishimura, Takanori . E-mail: nishi@anim.agr.hokudai.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-{beta} superfamily of growth factors, acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanism whereby myostatin controls the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells is mostly clarified. However, the regulation of myostatin activity to myogenic cells after its secretion in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is still unknown. Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds TGF-{beta} and regulates its activity in the ECM. Thus, we hypothesized that decorin could also bind to myostatin and participate in modulation of its activity to myogenic cells. In order to test the hypothesis, we investigated the interaction between myostatin and decorin by surface plasmon assay. Decorin interacted with mature myostatin in the presence of concentrations of Zn{sup 2+} greater than 10 {mu}M, but not in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}. Kinetic analysis with a 1:1 binding model resulted in dissociation constants (K {sub D}) of 2.02 x 10{sup -8} M and 9.36 x 10{sup -9} M for decorin and the core protein of decorin, respectively. Removal of the glycosaminoglycan chain by chondroitinase ABC digestion did not affect binding, suggesting that decorin could bind to myostatin with its core protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that immobilized decorin could rescue the inhibitory effect of myostatin on myoblast proliferation in vitro. These results suggest that decorin could trap myostatin and modulate its activity to myogenic cells in the ECM.

  3. Effects of Sharing Clickers in an Active Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Todd; Tivener, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Scientific research into learning enhancement gained by the use of clickers in active classrooms has largely focused on the use of individual clickers. In this study, we compared the learning experiences of participants in active learning groups in which an entire small group shared a single clicker to groups in which each member of the group had…

  4. Clickers in the Classroom: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Margie

    2007-01-01

    Current research describes the benefits of active learning approaches. Clickers, or student response systems, are a technology used to promoted active learning. Most research on the benefits of using clickers in the classroom has shown that students become engaged and enjoy using them. However, research on learning outcomes has only compared the…

  5. Silent Students' Participation in a Large Active Learning Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…

  6. Integrating Active Learning and Assessment in the Accounting Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Fonda L.; Hogan, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Some colleges and universities are utilizing the inclusion of more active learning techniques in course content. Active learning involves students in thinking about what they are doing as they accomplish tasks or assignments in order to develop a deeper understanding of the topic or issue. In addition to a focus on enhancing student learning, the…

  7. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  8. Teacher Educators' Design and Implementation of Group Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…

  9. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  10. Contemplating a Constructivist Stance for Active Learning within Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    This article examines constructivist philosophies for learning with an emphasis on student-centered environments in education and the active involvement of students in learning as they relate new understanding to what they already know and refine previous skills in terms of newly acquired proficiencies. Active learning is explored from a…

  11. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  12. From modulated Hebbian plasticity to simple behavior learning through noise and weight saturation.

    PubMed

    Soltoggio, Andrea; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2012-10-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a major mechanism for adaptation, learning, and memory. Yet current models struggle to link local synaptic changes to the acquisition of behaviors. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a computational relationship between local Hebbian plasticity and behavior learning by exploiting two traditionally unwanted features: neural noise and synaptic weight saturation. A modulation signal is employed to arbitrate the sign of plasticity: when the modulation is positive, the synaptic weights saturate to express exploitative behavior; when it is negative, the weights converge to average values, and neural noise reconfigures the network's functionality. This process is demonstrated through simulating neural dynamics in the autonomous emergence of fearful and aggressive navigating behaviors and in the solution to reward-based problems. The neural model learns, memorizes, and modifies different behaviors that lead to positive modulation in a variety of settings. The algorithm establishes a simple relationship between local plasticity and behavior learning by demonstrating the utility of noise and weight saturation. Moreover, it provides a new tool to simulate adaptive behavior, and contributes to bridging the gap between synaptic changes and behavior in neural computation.

  13. Getting To Know You: Activities for Learning Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Learning names is vital to the enjoyment and productivity of a group. Presents four games to help campers learn each others' names. Sidebar presents three additional teambuilding activities and ice breakers. (TD)

  14. Zinc modulates PPARgamma signaling and activation of porcine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Meerarani, Purushothaman; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2003-10-01

    Dietary zinc has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is a critical component of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression and regulation. To assess the protective mechanisms of PPARgamma in endothelial cell dysfunction and the role of zinc in the modulation of PPARgamma signaling, cultured porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were exposed to the membrane-permeable zinc chelator N,N,N'N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylene diamine (TPEN), thiazolidinedione (TZD; PPARgamma agonist) or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE; PPARgamma antagonist). Subsequently, endothelial cells were activated by treatment with linoleic acid (90 micro mol/L) for 6 h. Zinc chelation by TPEN increased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1, decreased PPARgamma expression and activation as well as up-regulated interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production. These effects were fully reversed by zinc supplementation. In addition, exposure to TZD down-regulated linoleic acid-induced DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1, whereas BADGE further induced activation of these oxidative stress-sensitive transcription factors. Most importantly, the TZD-mediated down-regulation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and reduced inflammatory response were impaired during zinc chelation. These data suggest that zinc plays a critical role in PPARgamma signaling in linoleic acid-induced endothelial cell activation and indicate that PPARgamma signaling is impaired during zinc deficiency.

  15. Construction and validation of a distance learning module on premedication antisepsis for nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Barbara Juliana da Costa; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Beatriz Maria, Jorge; Mazzo, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this descriptive study, carried out at a public university, was to design, develop, and validate a distance learning module on intramuscular premedication antisepsis. The content was introduced in the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, based on the Systematic Model for Web-Based Training projects. Ten nurses and information technologists at work consented to participate, in compliance with ethical guidelines, and answered a questionnaire to validate the Virtual Learning Environment. The educational aspects of the environment interface were mostly evaluated as "excellent," whereas the assessment of didactic resources indicated interactivity difficulties. It is concluded that distance learning is an important tool for the teaching of premedication antisepsis. To ensure its effectiveness, appropriate methods and interactive devices must be used.

  16. Improvement of quality and safety in health care as a new interprofessional learning module – evaluation from students

    PubMed Central

    Gjessing, Kristian; Torgé, Cristina Joy; Hammar, Mats; Dahlberg, Johanna; Faresjö, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Interprofessional teamwork is in many ways a norm in modern health care, and needs to be taught during professional education. Description This study is an evaluation of a newly introduced and mandatory learning module where students from different health profession programs used Improvement of Quality and Safety as a way to develop interprofessional competence in a real-life setting. The intention of this learning module was to integrate interprofessional teamwork within the students’ basic education, and to give students a basic knowledge about Improvement of Quality and Safety. This report focuses on evaluations from the participating students (n=222), mainly medical and nursing students. Materials and methods To evaluate this new learning module, a questionnaire was developed and analyzed using a mixed methods design, integrating both qualitative and quantitative methods. The evaluation addressed learning concepts, learning objectives, and interprofessional and professional development. Results and conclusion A majority of students responded positively to the learning module as a whole, but many were negative towards specific parts of the learning module and its implementation. Medical students and male students were less positive towards this learning module. Improvements and alterations were suggested. PMID:25125983

  17. Active-Learning Assignments to Integrate Basic Science and Clinical Course Material

    PubMed Central

    Nykamp, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate active-learning exercises requiring the integration and application of pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics knowledge of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Design Two team-based case study exercises, one evaluating a patient with osteoarthritis and the second, a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, were developed, incorporating material and questions from pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The learning assignments were implemented in a required pharmacotherapy module. Assessment Student learning was evaluated using performance on the team-based case study exercises and on 2 examinations. A standard student course evaluation was used to assess students' impressions of the learning activity. The mean student grades for the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis activities were 9.1 and 8.9, respectively, on a 10-point scale. The majority of students indicated that the learning exercises were more than adequate to excellent in helping students learn. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was successful in teaching pharmacy students the knowledge needed to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21088724

  18. Tribotronic Tuning Diode for Active Analog Signal Modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Yang, Zhi Wei; Pang, Yaokun; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-24

    Realizing active interaction with external environment/stimuli is a great challenge for current electronics. In this paper, a tribotronic tuning diode (TTD) is proposed by coupling a variable capacitance diode and a triboelectric nanogenerator in free-standing sliding mode. When the friction layer is sliding on the device surface for electrification, a reverse bias voltage is created and applied to the diode for tuning the junction capacitance. When the sliding distance increases from 0 to 25 mm, the capacitance of the TTD decreases from about 39 to 8 pF. The proposed TTD has been integrated into analog circuits and exhibited excellent performances in frequency modulation, phase shift, and filtering by sliding a finger. This work has demonstrated tunable diode and active analog signal modulation by tribotronics, which has great potential to replace ordinary variable capacitance diodes in various practical applications such as signal processing, electronic tuning circuits, precise tuning circuits, active sensor networks, electronic communications, remote controls, flexible electronics, etc.

  19. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; Matthys, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Other cytokines can modulate the induction of NO biosynthesis in macrophages. NO is a major effector molecule of the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity of rodent macrophages against certain micro-organisms and tumour cells, respectively. The NO synthesizing pathway has been demonstrated in human monocytes and other cells, but its role in host defence seems to be accessory. A delicate functional balance between microbial stimuli, host-derived cytokines and hormones in the microenvironment regulates iNOS expression. This review will focus mainly on the known and proposed mechanisms of the regulation of iNOS induction, and on agents that can modulate NO release once the active enzyme has been expressed in the macrophage. PMID:18475620

  20. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…

  1. Patterns of Field Learning Activities and Their Relation to Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Field practicum is an active learning process. This study explores the different learning stages or processes students experience during their field practicum. First-year master's of social work students in field practica were asked how much they had engaged in educational learning activities such as observation, working independently, process…

  2. Aversive learning in adolescents: modulation by amygdala-prefrontal and amygdala-hippocampal connectivity and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tzschoppe, Jelka; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Jürgen; Ströhle, Aandreas; Struve, Maren; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2014-03-01

    Neuroticism involves a tendency for enhanced emotional and cognitive processing of negative affective stimuli and a propensity to worry and be anxious. It is known that this trait modulates fear learning and the activation of brain regions involved in it such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex and their connectivity. Thirty-nine (21 female) 14-year-old healthy adolescents participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aversive pavlovian differential delay conditioning. An unpleasant sound served as unconditioned stimulus (US) and pictures of neutral male faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+ followed by the US in 50% of the cases; CS- never followed by the US). During acquisition (CS+/- differentiation), higher levels of neuroticism were associated with a stronger interaction between the right amygdala and the right hippocampus as well as the right amygdala and prefrontal cortical regions, specifically ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The association of stronger conditionability of fear and connectivity of brain regions related to consolidation of fear associations and neuroticism points to underlying mechanisms of the enhanced propensity for anxiety disorders in highly neurotic participants. This is especially important in adolescence, a vulnerable time for the onset of mental disorders such as anxiety disorders.

  3. Aversive Learning in Adolescents: Modulation by Amygdala–Prefrontal and Amygdala–Hippocampal Connectivity and Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Tzschoppe, Jelka; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Jürgen; Ströhle, Aandreas; Struve, Maren; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    Neuroticism involves a tendency for enhanced emotional and cognitive processing of negative affective stimuli and a propensity to worry and be anxious. It is known that this trait modulates fear learning and the activation of brain regions involved in it such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex and their connectivity. Thirty-nine (21 female) 14-year-old healthy adolescents participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aversive pavlovian differential delay conditioning. An unpleasant sound served as unconditioned stimulus (US) and pictures of neutral male faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+ followed by the US in 50% of the cases; CS− never followed by the US). During acquisition (CS+/− differentiation), higher levels of neuroticism were associated with a stronger interaction between the right amygdala and the right hippocampus as well as the right amygdala and prefrontal cortical regions, specifically ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The association of stronger conditionability of fear and connectivity of brain regions related to consolidation of fear associations and neuroticism points to underlying mechanisms of the enhanced propensity for anxiety disorders in highly neurotic participants. This is especially important in adolescence, a vulnerable time for the onset of mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. PMID:24126454

  4. Modulation of hyaluronan synthase activity in cellular membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Vigetti, Davide; Genasetti, Anna; Karousou, Evgenia; Viola, Manuela; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Hascall, Vincent C; Passi, Alberto

    2009-10-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is involved in morphogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. In mammals, HA is synthesized by three homologous HA synthases, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, that polymerize the HA chain using UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as precursors. Since the amount of HA is critical in several pathophysiological conditions, we developed a non-radioactive assay for measuring the activity of HA synthases (HASs) in eukaryotic cells and addressed the question of HAS activity during intracellular protein trafficking. We prepared three cellular fractions: plasma membrane, cytosol (containing membrane proteins mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi), and nuclei. After incubation with UDP-sugar precursors, newly synthesized HA was quantified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fluorophore-labeled saccharides and high performance liquid chromatography. This new method measured HAS activity not only in the plasma membrane fraction but also in the cytosolic membranes. This new technique was used to evaluate the effects of 4-methylumbeliferone, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin 1beta, platelet-derived growth factor BB, and tunicamycin on HAS activities. We found that HAS activity can be modulated by post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation and N-glycosylation. Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in HAS activity in the cytosolic membrane fraction after tunicamycin treatment. Since this compound is known to induce HA cable structures, this result links HAS activity alteration with the capability of the cell to promote HA cable formation.

  5. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R

    2017-03-01

    Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.

  6. Activity Learning and Learning Activity: Discussions of a Concept, and an Outline for an Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallden, Ola

    This paper is a first report from the project "Activity Learning and Cooperation," financed by the Swedish Board of Education. The aim of the project is to establish a theoretical basis for a field study of locally initiated experiments using various teaching strategies. More specifically, this paper is restricted to a discussion of the…

  7. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  8. Contextual taste cues modulate olfactory learning in C. elegans by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Law, Eric; Nuttley, William M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2004-07-27

    Manipulations of context can affect learning and memory performance across species in many associative learning paradigms. Using taste cues to create distinct contexts for olfactory adaptation assays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we now show that performance in this associative learning paradigm is sensitive to context manipulations, and we investigate the mechanism(s) used for the integration of context cues in learning. One possibility is that the taste and olfactory stimuli are perceived as a combined, blended cue that the animals then associate with the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the same manner as with any other unitary conditioned stimuli (CS). Alternatively, an occasion-setting model suggests that the taste cues only define the appropriate context for olfactory memory retrieval without directly entering into the primary association. Analysis of genetic mutants demonstrated that the olfactory and context cues are sensed by distinct primary sensory neurons and that the animals' ability to use taste cues to modulate olfactory learning is independent from their ability to utilize these same taste cues for adaptation. We interpret these results as evidence for the occasion-setting mechanism in which context cues modulate primary Pavlovian association by functioning in a hierarchical manner to define the appropriate setting for memory recall.

  9. "Heart Shots": a classroom activity to instigate active learning.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning.

  10. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  11. Sleep after spatial learning promotes covert reorganization of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2006-05-02

    Sleep promotes the integration of recently acquired spatial memories into cerebral networks for the long term. In this study, we examined how sleep deprivation hinders this consolidation process. Using functional MRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during place-finding navigation in a virtual town, immediately after learning and 3 days later, in subjects either allowed regular sleep (RS) or totally sleep-deprived (TSD) on the first posttraining night. At immediate and delayed retrieval, place-finding navigation elicited increased brain activity in an extended hippocampo-neocortical network in both RS and TSD subjects. Behavioral performance was equivalent between groups. However, striatal navigation-related activity increased more at delayed retrieval in RS than in TSD subjects. Furthermore, correlations between striatal response and behavioral performance, as well as functional connectivity between the striatum and the hippocampus, were modulated by posttraining sleep. These data suggest that brain activity is restructured during sleep in such a way that navigation in the virtual environment, initially related to a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy, becomes progressively contingent in part on a response-based strategy mediated by the striatum. Both neural strategies eventually relate to equivalent performance levels, indicating that covert reorganization of brain patterns underlying navigation after sleep is not necessarily accompanied by overt changes in behavior.

  12. Simulations of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Geomagnetic activity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang; Burns, Alan G.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    2014-08-01

    The modulation of geomagnetic activity on the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) in thermospheric temperature under the high solar activity condition is investigated using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model simulations. The model simulations during the geomagnetically disturbed interval, when the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) oscillates between southward and northward directions, are analyzed and also compared with those under the quiet time condition. Our results show that ionospheric electron densities increase greatly in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest region and decrease around the magnetic equator during the storm time, resulting from the enhanced eastward electric fields. The impact of both the direct heat deposition at high latitudes and the modulation of the storm time enhanced EIA crests on the ETA are subsequently studied. The increased plasma densities over the EIA crest region enhance the field-aligned ion drag that accelerates the poleward meridional winds and consequently their associated adiabatic cooling effect. This process alone produces a deeper temperature trough over the magnetic equator as a result of the enhanced divergence of meridional winds. Moreover, the enhanced plasma-neutral collisional heating at higher latitudes associated with the ionospheric positive storm effect causes a weak increase of the ETA crests. On the other hand, strong changes of the neutral temperature are mainly confined to higher latitudes. Nevertheless, the changes of the ETA purely due to the increased plasma density are overwhelmed by those associated with the storm time heat deposition, which is the major cause of an overall elevated temperature in both the ETA crests and trough during the geomagnetically active period. Associated with the enhanced neutral temperature at high latitudes due to the heat deposition, the ETA crest-trough differences become larger under the minor

  13. EarthScope Content Module for IRIS Active Earth Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shiffman, C. R.; Olds, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Active Earth Monitor (AEM) is an interactive computer-based display for university lobbies, museums, visitor centers, schools and libraries. AEM runs in a standard Internet web browser in full screen mode. The display consists of a customizable set of content pages about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Low-cost and simple-to-implement, the Active Earth Monitor provides a way to engage audiences with earth science information without spending resources on a large exhibit. The EarthScope Active Earth Monitor content set highlights the connections between the landscape and the research and monitoring being conducted by EarthScope in partnership with regional monitoring networks. Modules consist of chapters that focus on What is EarthScope?, EarthScope Observatories, and EarthScope Research Results. Content topics are easily explored using a web page button type navigation interface via a touch screen or mouse. A formative evaluation of general public users informed the interface design. Chapters in the modules start with a general overview and proceed to detailed specifics. Each chapter utilizes at least one set of live or near real-time research data (often more than one). This exposes the general public to active ongoing research that is engaging, relevant to the individual user, and explained in easy to understand terms. All live content is updated each time a user accesses the individual page displaying the live data. Leading questions are presented allowing the user to examine the content before accessing the answer via pop-up box. Diagrams and charts of research data have explanatory keys that allow users to self explore all content. Content pages can be created and inserted in the Active Earth Monitor by utilizing the simple HTML/CSS coding.;

  14. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.

  15. Perceptual learning modules in mathematics: enhancing students' pattern recognition, structure extraction, and fluency.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Philip J; Massey, Christine M; Son, Ji Y

    2010-04-01

    Learning in educational settings emphasizes declarative and procedural knowledge. Studies of expertise, however, point to other crucial components of learning, especially improvements produced by experience in the extraction of information: perceptual learning (PL). We suggest that such improvements characterize both simple sensory and complex cognitive, even symbolic, tasks through common processes of discovery and selection. We apply these ideas in the form of perceptual learning modules (PLMs) to mathematics learning. We tested three PLMs, each emphasizing different aspects of complex task performance, in middle and high school mathematics. In the MultiRep PLM, practice in matching function information across multiple representations improved students' abilities to generate correct graphs and equations from word problems. In the Algebraic Transformations PLM, practice in seeing equation structure across transformations (but not solving equations) led to dramatic improvements in the speed of equation solving. In the Linear Measurement PLM, interactive trials involving extraction of information about units and lengths produced successful transfer to novel measurement problems and fraction problem solving. Taken together, these results suggest (a) that PL techniques have the potential to address crucial, neglected dimensions of learning, including discovery and fluent processing of relations; (b) PL effects apply even to complex tasks that involve symbolic processing; and (c) appropriately designed PL technology can produce rapid and enduring advances in learning.

  16. Modulation of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies by exogenous cortisol in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S; Richter, Steffen; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2009-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to influence learning and memory processes. While most studies focus on the effects of GCs on the performance within a single memory system, we asked whether GCs modulate also the transition between hippocampus-dependent spatial and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response memory systems. Eighty-four young healthy women received a placebo, 5 or 30 mg hydrocortisone orally. One hour later, participants were asked to locate a win-card in a 3D model of a room. The card could be located via two strategies: spatial (multiple distal cues) and stimulus-response (a single proximal cue). Relocation of the proximal cue after 12 trials revealed the strategy, number of trials to learning criterion the performance. As expected, more trials were needed to acquire the task with hydrocortisone. Remarkably, hydrocortisone switched the use of learning strategies towards more spatial learning (dose-dependently: placebo 4% < 5 mg 21%< 30 mg 32%), independent of autonomic and subjective arousal. The learning curves of spatial and stimulus-response learners were comparable. Our results demonstrate that exogenous GCs prior to learning affect the performance within a memory system and also coordinate the use of multiple memory systems. Taking into account this dual action of GCs will contribute to a better understanding of stress (hormone) effects on learning and memory.

  17. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  18. Endogenous Epoxygenases Are Modulators of Monocyte/Macrophage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Mary C.; Holness, Mark J.; Swales, Karen E.; Warner, Timothy D.; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid is metabolized through three major metabolic pathways, the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and CYP450 enzyme systems. Unlike cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, the role of CYP450 epoxygenases in monocyte/macrophage-mediated responses is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings When transfected in vitro, CYP2J2 is an efficient activator of anti-inflammatory pathways through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. Human monocytes and macrophages contain PPARα and here we show they express the epoxygenases CYP2J2 and CYP2C8. Inhibition of constitutive monocyte epoxygenases using the epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and activity, and the release of TNFα, and can be reversed by either add back of the endogenous epoxygenase products and PPARα ligand 11,12- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) or the addition of the selective synthetic PPARα ligand GW7647. In alternatively activated (IL-4-treated) monocytes, in contrast to classically activated cells, epoxygenase inhibition decreased TNFα release. Epoxygenases can be pro-inflammatory via superoxide anion production. The suppression of TNFα by SKF525A in the presence of IL-4 was associated with a reduction in superoxide anion generation and reproduced by the superoxide dismutase MnCl2. Similar to these acute activation studies, in monocyte derived macrophages, epoxygenase inhibition elevates M1 macrophage TNFα mRNA and further decreases M2 macrophage TNFα. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, epoxygenase activity represents an important endogenous pathway which limits monocyte activation. Moreover endogenous epoxygenases are immuno-modulators regulating monocyte/macrophage activation depending on the underlying activation state. PMID:22028915

  19. Adaptive eLearning modules for cytopathology education: A review and approach.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T Danielle; La, Teresa; Wu, Roseann I

    2016-11-01

    Clinical training imposes time and resource constraints on educators and learners, making it difficult to provide and absorb meaningful instruction. Additionally, innovative and personalized education has become an expectation of adult learners. Fortunately, the development of web-based educational tools provides a possible solution to these challenges. Within this review, we introduce the utility of adaptive eLearning platforms in pathology education. In addition to a review of the current literature, we provide the reader with a suggested approach for module creation, as well as a critical assessment of an available platform, based on our experience in creating adaptive eLearning modules for teaching basic concepts in gynecologic cytopathology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:944-951. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Modulation of human motoneuron activity by a mental arithmetic task.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, Laurent; Duclos, Yann; Rossi-Durand, Christiane

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the performance of a mental task affects motoneuron activity. To this end, the tonic discharge pattern of wrist extensor motor units was analyzed in healthy subjects while they were required to maintain a steady wrist extension force and to concurrently perform a mental arithmetic (MA) task. A shortening of the mean inter-spike interval (ISI) and a decrease in ISI variability occurred when MA task was superimposed to the motor task. Aloud and silent MA affected equally the rate and variability of motoneuron discharge. Increases in surface EMG activity and force level were consistent with the modulation of the motor unit discharge rate. Trial-by-trial analysis of the characteristics of motor unit firing revealed that performing MA increases activation of wrist extensor SMU. It is suggested that increase in muscle spindle afferent activity, resulting from fusimotor drive activation by MA, may have contributed to the increase in synaptic inputs to motoneurons during the mental task performance, likely together with enhancement in the descending drive. The finding that a mental task affects motoneuron activity could have consequences in assessment of motor disabilities and in rehabilitation in motor pathologies.

  1. Scene interpretation module for an active vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remagnino, P.; Matas, J.; Illingworth, John; Kittler, Josef

    1993-08-01

    In this paper an implementation of a high level symbolic scene interpreter for an active vision system is considered. The scene interpretation module uses low level image processing and feature extraction results to achieve object recognition and to build up a 3D environment map. The module is structured to exploit spatio-temporal context provided by existing partial world interpretations and has spatial reasoning to direct gaze control and thereby achieve efficient and robust processing using spatial focus of attention. The system builds and maintains an awareness of an environment which is far larger than a single camera view. Experiments on image sequences have shown that the system can: establish its position and orientation in a partially known environment, track simple moving objects such as cups and boxes, temporally integrate recognition results to establish or forget object presence, and utilize spatial focus of attention to achieve efficient and robust object recognition. The system has been extensively tested using images from a single steerable camera viewing a simple table top scene containing box and cylinder-like objects. Work is currently progressing to further develop its competences and interface it with the Surrey active stereo vision head, GETAFIX.

  2. The Mechanical Environment Modulates Intracellular Calcium Oscillation Activities of Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, Charles; Follonier Castella, Lysianne; Smith, Eric A.; Talele, Nilesh; Chow, Melissa L.; Garonna, Adriano; Hinz, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast contraction is fundamental in the excessive tissue remodeling that is characteristic of fibrotic tissue contractures. Tissue remodeling during development of fibrosis leads to gradually increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this increased stiffness positively feeds back on the contractile activities of myofibroblasts. We have previously shown that cycles of contraction directly correlate with periodic intracellular calcium oscillations in cultured myofibroblasts. We analyze cytosolic calcium dynamics using fluorescent calcium indicators to evaluate the possible impact of mechanical stress on myofibroblast contractile activity. To modulate extracellular mechanics, we seeded primary rat subcutaneous myofibroblasts on silicone substrates and into collagen gels of different elastic modulus. We modulated cell stress by cell growth on differently adhesive culture substrates, by restricting cell spreading area on micro-printed adhesive islands, and depolymerizing actin with Cytochalasin D. In general, calcium oscillation frequencies in myofibroblasts increased with increasing mechanical challenge. These results provide new insight on how changing mechanical conditions for myofibroblasts are encoded in calcium oscillations and possibly explain how reparative cells adapt their contractile behavior to the stresses occurring in normal and pathological tissue repair. PMID:23691248

  3. Dopamine Modulates the Activity of Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cecilia; Trapani, Josef G.; Pacentine, Itallia; Maeda, Reo; Sheets, Lavinia; Mo, Weike

    2015-01-01

    The senses of hearing and balance are subject to modulation by efferent signaling, including the release of dopamine (DA). How DA influences the activity of the auditory and vestibular systems and its site of action are not well understood. Here we show that dopaminergic efferent fibers innervate the acousticolateralis epithelium of the zebrafish during development but do not directly form synapses with hair cells. However, a member of the D1-like receptor family, D1b, tightly localizes to ribbon synapses in inner ear and lateral-line hair cells. To assess modulation of hair-cell activity, we reversibly activated or inhibited D1-like receptors (D1Rs) in lateral-line hair cells. In extracellular recordings from hair cells, we observed that D1R agonist SKF-38393 increased microphonic potentials, whereas D1R antagonist SCH-23390 decreased microphonic potentials. Using ratiometric calcium imaging, we found that increased D1R activity resulted in larger calcium transients in hair cells. The increase of intracellular calcium requires Cav1.3a channels, as a Cav1 calcium channel antagonist, isradipine, blocked the increase in calcium transients elicited by the agonist SKF-38393. Collectively, our results suggest that DA is released in a paracrine fashion and acts at ribbon synapses, likely enhancing the activity of presynaptic Cav1.3a channels and thereby increasing neurotransmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neurotransmitter dopamine acts in a paracrine fashion (diffusion over a short distance) in several tissues and bodily organs, influencing and regulating their activity. The cellular target and mechanism of the action of dopamine in mechanosensory organs, such as the inner ear and lateral-line organ, is not clearly understood. Here we demonstrate that dopamine receptors are present in sensory hair cells at synaptic sites that are required for signaling to the brain. When nearby neurons release dopamine, activation of the dopamine receptors increases the activity of

  4. Guide RNA functional modules direct Cas9 activity and orthogonality.

    PubMed

    Briner, Alexandra E; Donohoue, Paul D; Gomaa, Ahmed A; Selle, Kurt; Slorach, Euan M; Nye, Christopher H; Haurwitz, Rachel E; Beisel, Chase L; May, Andrew P; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2014-10-23

    The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease specifically targets and cleaves DNA in a sequence-dependent manner and has been widely used for programmable genome editing. Cas9 activity is dependent on interactions with guide RNAs, and evolutionarily divergent Cas9 nucleases have been shown to work orthogonally. However, the molecular basis of selective Cas9:guide-RNA interactions is poorly understood. Here, we identify and characterize six conserved modules within native crRNA:tracrRNA duplexes and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that direct Cas9 endonuclease activity. We show the bulge and nexus are necessary for DNA cleavage and demonstrate that the nexus and hairpins are instrumental in defining orthogonality between systems. In contrast, the crRNA:tracrRNA complementary region can be modified or partially removed. Collectively, our results establish guide RNA features that drive DNA targeting by Cas9 and open new design and engineering avenues for CRISPR technologies.

  5. The hypothalamic NPVF circuit modulates ventral raphe activity during nociception

    PubMed Central

    Madelaine, Romain; Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Halluin, Caroline; Andalman, Aaron S.; Liang, Jin; Skariah, Gemini M.; Leung, Louis C.; Burns, Vanessa M.; Mourrain, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    RFamide neuropeptide VF (NPVF) is expressed by neurons in the hypothalamus and has been implicated in nociception, but the circuit mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we studied the structural and functional connections from NPVF neurons to downstream targets in the context of nociception, using novel transgenic lines, optogenetics, and calcium imaging in behaving larval zebrafish. We found a specific projection from NPVF neurons to serotonergic neurons in the ventral raphe nucleus (vRN). We showed NPVF neurons and vRN are suppressed and excited by noxious stimuli, respectively. We combined optogenetics with calcium imaging and pharmacology to demonstrate that stimulation of NPVF cells suppresses neuronal activity in vRN. During noxious stimuli, serotonergic neurons activation was due to a suppression of an inhibitory NPVF-ventral raphe peptidergic projection. This study reveals a novel NPVF-vRN functional circuit modulated by noxious stimuli in vertebrates. PMID:28139691

  6. Task complexity modulates pilot electroencephalographic activity during real flights.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Suárez, Juan; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Roca-Dorda, Joaquín; Catena, Andrés

    2015-07-01

    Most research connecting task performance and neural activity to date has been conducted in laboratory conditions. Thus, field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as during real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of flight procedures of varied complexity on the in-flight EEG activity of military helicopter pilots. Flight procedural complexity modulated the EEG power spectrum: highly demanding procedures (i.e., takeoff and landing) were associated with higher EEG power in the higher frequency bands, whereas less demanding procedures (i.e., flight exercises) were associated with lower EEG power over the same frequency bands. These results suggest that EEG recordings may help to evaluate an operator's cognitive performance in challenging real-life scenarios, and thus could aid in the prevention of catastrophic events.

  7. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  8. Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kudchodkar, B J; Lacko, A G; Dory, L; Fungwe, T V

    2000-10-01

    We examined the effects of dietary fats with specific fatty acid compositions, on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four dietary groups. One group received the control diet [AIN 93M with soybean oil (5 g/100 g diet)], whereas the remaining three groups received the modified control diet supplemented with (15 g/100 g diet) triolein, tripalmitin or fish oil, respectively. After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined. Serum lipids and lipid components of lipoproteins were also determined. Serum PON1 activity [micromol/(L.min)] was significantly (P: < 0.05) higher in triolein (98 +/- 6) and lower in fish oil (41 +/- 4), compared with tripalmitin-fed rats (63 +/- 11). Serum PON1 activity in tripalmitin-fed rats was comparable to that of controls (67 +/- 9). Serum PON1 activity correlated significantly with serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (r = 0.77, P: < 0.001) and was transported in blood principally in association with the denser subfraction of HDL, very high density lipoprotein (VHDL; d > 1.15 kg/L). Serum PON1 activity correlated strongly with serum lipids as well as lipids of VLDL, HDL and its subfractions. Multiple linear regression analysis, however, showed a significant relationship of serum PON1 activity, principally with the phospholipids of VHDL (r = 0.47, P: < 0.002). These data suggest that the modulation of serum PON1 activity by dietary fat may be mediated via the effect of the specific fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of VHDL, the subfraction of HDL that transports the majority of PON1 in the blood.

  9. Meeting "Learned Helplessness" Head on with "Active Learning."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian; Stan-Spence, Aileen

    Learned helplessness is an insidious condition involving undeveloped executive functioning, lack of persistence, and an undeveloped sense of connecting new words or concepts into a web of meanings. Remedial teaching in most small-group, diagnostic/prescriptive settings encourages continued learned helplessness because students are dependent on the…

  10. Active Learning Strategies and Assessment in World Geography Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Active learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as inquiry and discovery, in which students are actively engaged in the learning process. This article describes several strategies that can be used in secondary-or college-level world geography courses. The goal of these activities is to foster development of a spatial perspective in…

  11. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656

  12. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed

    Linton, Debra L; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a "lecture" course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises.

  13. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible.

  14. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  15. Innate Visual Learning through Spontaneous Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593

  16. Perception towards Mobile Learning Activities among Post Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiyagu, K.

    2012-01-01

    M-learning is learning supported by mobile devices and intelligent user interfaces. Compared to the prior generation a few years ago, storage capacity and screen size of mobile devices as well as transfer speed of wireless connections have significantly increased. Equipped with mobile devices, learners can conduct learning activities at anytime…

  17. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  18. Active Learning by Play Dough Modeling in the Medical Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…

  19. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  20. CurioCity, Developing an "Active Learning" Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)

  1. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  2. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  3. CAMKII activation is not required for maintenance of learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

    PubMed

    Liraz, Ori; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2009-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is due to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sI(AHP). We have previously shown that learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by persistent protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying this long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the CaMKII, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. KN93, that selectively blocks CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr286, reduced the AHP in neurons from trained and control rat to the same extent. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls remained. Accordingly, the level of activated CaMKII was similar in pirifrom cortex samples taken form trained and control rats. Our data show that although CaMKII modulates the amplitude of AHP of pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, its activation is not required for maintaining learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

  4. CAMKII Activation Is Not Required for Maintenance of Learning-Induced Enhancement of Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Liraz, Ori; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2009-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is due to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sIAHP. We have previously shown that learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by persistent protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying this long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the CaMKII, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. KN93, that selectively blocks CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr286, reduced the AHP in neurons from trained and control rat to the same extent. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls remained. Accordingly, the level of activated CaMKII was similar in pirifrom cortex samples taken form trained and control rats. Our data show that although CaMKII modulates the amplitude of AHP of pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, its activation is not required for maintaining learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability. PMID:19172997

  5. Oxalate Blockage of Calcium and Iron: A Student Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student learning activity used to teach the meaning of percentage composition, mole concept, selective precipitation, and limiting factors. Presents two word problems and their solutions. (CW)

  6. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Matthias J.; Gelman, Bernard D.; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-01-01

    Summary People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about, and also for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. FMRI results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity in order to create more effective learning experiences. PMID:25284006

  7. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Matthias J; Gelman, Bernard D; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-10-22

    People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity. Importantly, individual variability in curiosity-driven memory benefits for incidental material was supported by anticipatory activity in the midbrain and hippocampus and by functional connectivity between these regions. These findings suggest a link between the mechanisms supporting extrinsic reward motivation and intrinsic curiosity and highlight the importance of stimulating curiosity to create more effective learning experiences.

  8. Longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed similarities and differences between the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) from 20 March to 6 April 2002, when both the ETA and the EIA are distinct in the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) observations. The characteristics of the ETA and the EIA are obtained from the CHAMP accelerometer, in situ electron density measurements, and total electron content (TEC) above the CHAMP satellite. Our results show that the trough locations of the ETA and the EIA in latitude show a good agreement, and both correspond well with the dip magnetic equator, while the ETA crests are usually located poleward of the EIA. Meanwhile, the latitudinal locations of the ETA crests exhibit strong hemispheric asymmetry and large variability during our study interval. The longitudinal variations between the EIA and the ETA show significant differences. The EIA crests from the CHAMP observations show strong wave 4 structures, but the primary component in the ETA is wave 1. Moreover, the ETA densities show strong variations in response to geomagnetic activity, whereas CHAMP in situ electron densities and TEC at the EIA do not reflect such large day-to-day variability. Therefore, a simple EIA-ETA relationship cannot explain the dependence of the longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the ETA and the EIA. The meridional ion drag, which is significantly modulated by enhanced equatorward winds during elevated geomagnetic activity, is probably responsible for some of the observed features in the ETA, although no unambiguous explanation for ETA formation yet exists.

  9. Using active learning strategies to present bloodborne pathogen programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mary G

    2003-06-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety of learning environments, engaging students in the learning process by having them play an active role. With some planning, preparation, and imagination, active learning strategies can be incorporated into bloodborne pathogen presentations. The purpose of this article is to define active learning, describe how to develop a program using active learning strategies, and provide some examples of bloodborne pathogen presentations that have already been developed. Several sources are identified that can provide the school nurse with information regarding bloodborne pathogens. Information about how computers can be integrated into the bloodborne pathogen presentation is also presented.

  10. Antipsychotic dose modulates behavioral and neural responses to feedback during reinforcement learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Insel, Catherine; Reinen, Jenna; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Shohamy, Daphna; Smith, Edward E

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by an abnormal dopamine system, and dopamine blockade is the primary mechanism of antipsychotic treatment. Consistent with the known role of dopamine in reward processing, prior research has demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in reward-based learning. However, it remains unknown how treatment with antipsychotic medication impacts the behavioral and neural signatures of reinforcement learning in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to examine whether antipsychotic medication modulates behavioral and neural responses to prediction error coding during reinforcement learning. Patients with schizophrenia completed a reinforcement learning task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task consisted of two separate conditions in which participants accumulated monetary gain or avoided monetary loss. Behavioral results indicated that antipsychotic medication dose was associated with altered behavioral approaches to learning, such that patients taking higher doses of medication showed increased sensitivity to negative reinforcement. Higher doses of antipsychotic medication were also associated with higher learning rates (LRs), suggesting that medication enhanced sensitivity to trial-by-trial feedback. Neuroimaging data demonstrated that antipsychotic dose was related to differences in neural signatures of feedback prediction error during the loss condition. Specifically, patients taking higher doses of medication showed attenuated prediction error responses in the striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that antipsychotic medication treatment may influence motivational processes in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Color modulates olfactory learning in honeybees by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded trials if these two situations are indicated by different colors that do not themselves become associated with the reward. Despite a growing interest in nonelemental learning in insects, no study has so far attempted to study occasion setting in restrained honeybees, although this would allow direct access to the neural basis of nonelemental learning. Here we asked whether colors can modulate olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) via an occasion-setting mechanism. We show that intact, harnessed bees are not capable of learning a direct association between color and sucrose. Despite this incapacity, bees solved an occasion-setting discrimination in which colors set the occasion for appropriate responding to an odor that was rewarded or nonrewarded depending on the color. We therefore provide the first controlled demonstration of bimodal (color-odor) occasion setting in harnessed honeybees, which opens the door for studying the neural basis of such bimodal, nonelemental discriminations in insects.

  12. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  13. Focused ultrasound modulates region-specific brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21354315

  14. Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed

    Mena, Auxiliadora; De la Casa, Luis G

    2013-09-01

    When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs.

  15. AMPK Phosphorylation Modulates Pain by Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Bullón, Pedro; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Carrión, Angel M.; Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Román-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Culic, Ognjen; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Battino, Maurizio; Sánchez-Alcazar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Impairment in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation are associated with several metabolic and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in the molecular mechanism underlying pain perception. Results: Impairment in AMPK activation induced by compound C or sunitinib, two AMPK inhibitors, provoked hyperalgesia in mice (p<0.001) associated with marked NLRP3 inflammasome protein activation and increased serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (24.56±0.82 pg/ml) and IL-18 (23.83±1.882 pg/ml) compared with vehicle groups (IL-1β: 8.15±0.44; IL-18: 4.92±0.4). This effect was rescued by increasing AMPK phosphorylation via metformin treatment (p<0.001), caloric restriction diet (p<0.001), or NLRP3 inflammasome genetic inactivation using NLRP3 knockout (nlrp3−/−) mice (p<0.001). Deficient AMPK activation and overactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome axis were also observed in blood cells from patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a prevalent human chronic pain disease. In addition, metformin treatment (200 mg/daily), which increased AMPK activation, restored all biochemical alterations examined by us in blood cells and significantly improved clinical symptoms, such as, pain, fatigue, depression, disturbed sleep, and tender points, in patients with FM. Innovation and Conclusions: These data suggest that AMPK/NLRP3 inflammasome axis participates in chronic pain and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition by AMPK modulation may be a novel therapeutic target to fight against chronic pain and inflammatory diseases as FM. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 157–170. PMID:26132721

  16. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Isaac M.; Heesters, Balthasar A.; Ghasemlou, Nader; Von Hehn, Christian A.; Zhao, Fan; Tran, Johnathan; Wainger, Brian; Strominger, Amanda; Muralidharan, Sriya; Horswill, Alexander R.; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; Hwang, Sun Wook; Carroll, Michael C.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nociceptor sensory neurons are specialized to detect potentially damaging stimuli, protecting the organism by initiating the sensation of pain and eliciting defensive behaviors. Bacterial infections produce pain by unknown molecular mechanisms, although they are presumed secondary to immune activation. Here we demonstrate that bacteria directly activate nociceptors, and that the immune response mediated through TLR2, MyD88, T cells, B cells, and neutrophils/monocytes is not necessary for Staphylococcus aureus induced pain in mice. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia parallels live bacterial load rather than tissue swelling or immune activation. Bacteria induce calcium flux and action potentials in nociceptor neurons, in part via bacterial N-formylated peptides and the pore-forming toxin alpha-hemolysin through distinct mechanisms. Specific ablation of Nav1.8-lineage neurons, which include nociceptors, abrogated pain during bacterial infection, but concurrently increased local immune infiltration and lymphadenopathy of the draining lymph node. Thus, bacterial pathogens produce pain by directly activating sensory neurons that modulate inflammation, an unsuspected role for the nervous system in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23965627

  17. Cinobufagin Modulates Human Innate Immune Responses and Triggers Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shanshan; Spelmink, Laura; Codemo, Mario; Subramanian, Karthik; Pütsep, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su is widely used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but also as a remedy for infections such as furunculosis, tonsillitis and acute pharyngitis. The clinical use of Chan-Su suggests that it has anti-infective effects, however, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. In particular, the effect on the human immune system is poorly defined. Here, we describe previously unrecognized immunomodulatory activities of cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of Chan-Su. Using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we show that LPS-induced maturation and production of a number of cytokines was potently inhibited by CBG, which also had a pro-apoptotic effect, associated with activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, CBG triggered caspase-1 activation and significantly enhanced IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CBG upregulates gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hBD-2 and hBD-3 in DCs, and induces secretion of HNP1-3 and hCAP-18/LL-37 from neutrophils, potentiating neutrophil antibacterial activity. Taken together, our data indicate that CBG modulates the inflammatory phenotype of DCs in response to LPS, and triggers an antibacterial innate immune response, thus proposing possible mechanisms for the clinical effects of Chan-Su in anti-infective therapy. PMID:27529866

  18. Stimulating Students' Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Chemistry through the Use of Context-Based Learning Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a research project in which five chemistry teachers, working in cooperation with university researchers, implemented a new teaching approach using context-based modules specially designed to stimulate the intrinsic motivation of students. The intention was to induce change in chemistry teachers' teaching approach from more…

  19. A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta

    This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…

  20. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  1. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  2. Multiliteracies and Active Learning in CLIL--The Development of Learn Web2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marenzi, I.; Zerr, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of LearnWeb2.0, a search and collaboration environment for supporting searching, organizing, and sharing distributed resources, and our pedagogical setup based on the multiliteracies approach. In LearnWeb2.0, collaborative and active learning is supported through project-focused search and aggregation, with…

  3. Collegewide Promotion of E-Learning/Active Learning and Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Japanese National Institutes of Technology have revealed a plan to strongly promote e-Learning and active learning under the common schematization of education in over 50 campuses nationwide. Our e-Learning and ICT-driven education practiced for more than fifteen years were highly evaluated, and is playing a leading role in promoting e-Learning…

  4. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  5. Physiological expression of olfactory discrimination rule learning balances whole-population modulation and circuit stability in the piriform cortex network.

    PubMed

    Jammal, Luna; Whalley, Ben; Ghosh, Sourav; Lamrecht, Raphael; Barkai, Edi

    2016-07-01

    Once trained, rats are able to execute particularly difficult olfactory discrimination tasks with exceptional accuracy. Such skill acquisition, termed "rule learning", is accompanied by a series of long-lasting modifications to three cellular properties which modulate pyramidal neuron activity in piriform cortex; intrinsic excitability, synaptic excitation, and synaptic inhibition. Here, we explore how these changes, which are seemingly contradictory at the single-cell level in terms of their effect on neuronal excitation, are manifested within the piriform cortical neuronal network to store the memory of the rule, while maintaining network stability. To this end, we monitored network activity via multisite extracellular recordings of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPS) and with single-cell recordings of miniature inhibitory and excitatory synaptic events in piriform cortex slices. We show that although 5 days after rule learning the cortical network maintains its basic activity patterns, synaptic connectivity is strengthened specifically between spatially proximal cells. Moreover, while the enhancement of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connectivity is nearly identical, strengthening of synaptic inhibition is equally distributed between neurons while synaptic excitation is particularly strengthened within a specific subgroup of cells. We suggest that memory for the acquired rule is stored mainly by strengthening excitatory synaptic connection between close pyramidal neurons and runaway synaptic activity arising from this change is prevented by a nonspecific enhancement of synaptic inhibition.

  6. Supporting Self-Improvement in Teaching, Literacy, Language and Numeracy. Tools for Staff Development. Module 2: Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The second in a series of five, module 2 provides everything one will need to run sharply focused, practical staff development training sessions for adult and Post-16 literacy, language and numeracy teachers. Each module addresses aspects of teaching and learning commonly identified as areas in need of improvement and can be used individually or…

  7. Design and Development of Physics Module Based on Learning Style and Appropriate Technology by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at designing and developing a Physics module based on learning style and appropriate technology in secondary educational setting by employing Isman Instructional Design Model and to test the effectiveness of the module. The paper draws attention to the design principles which employs Isman Instructional Design Model. The…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Practical Inquiry-Based Learning Bioinformatics Module on Undergraduate Student Engagement and Applied Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James A. L.

    2016-01-01

    A pedagogic intervention, in the form of an inquiry-based peer-assisted learning project (as a practical student-led bioinformatics module), was assessed for its ability to increase students' engagement, practical bioinformatic skills and process-specific knowledge. Elements assessed were process-specific knowledge following module completion,…

  9. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  10. Coco is a dual activity modulator of TGFβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Haremaki, Tomomi; Warmflash, Aryeh; Sorre, Benoit; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of developmental processes and disease. The activity of TGFβ ligands is modulated by various families of soluble inhibitors that interfere with the interactions between ligands and receptors. In an unbiased, genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes involved in ligand-dependent signaling, we unexpectedly identified the BMP/Activin/Nodal inhibitor Coco as an enhancer of TGFβ1 signaling. Coco synergizes with TGFβ1 in both cell culture and Xenopus explants. Molecularly, Coco binds to TGFβ1 and enhances TGFβ1 binding to its receptor Alk5. Thus, Coco acts as both an inhibitor and an enhancer of signaling depending on the ligand it binds. This finding raises the need for a global reconsideration of the molecular mechanisms regulating TGFβ signaling. PMID:26116664

  11. Coco is a dual activity modulator of TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Haremaki, Tomomi; Warmflash, Aryeh; Sorre, Benoit; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2015-08-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is a crucial regulator of developmental processes and disease. The activity of TGFβ ligands is modulated by various families of soluble inhibitors that interfere with the interactions between ligands and receptors. In an unbiased, genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes involved in ligand-dependent signaling, we unexpectedly identified the BMP/Activin/Nodal inhibitor Coco as an enhancer of TGFβ1 signaling. Coco synergizes with TGFβ1 in both cell culture and Xenopus explants. Molecularly, Coco binds to TGFβ1 and enhances TGFβ1 binding to its receptor Alk5. Thus, Coco acts as both an inhibitor and an enhancer of signaling depending on the ligand it binds. This finding raises the need for a global reconsideration of the molecular mechanisms regulating TGFβ signaling.

  12. Specific modulation of protein activity by using a bioorthogonal reaction.

    PubMed

    Warner, John B; Muthusamy, Anand K; Petersson, E James

    2014-11-24

    Unnatural amino acids with bioorthogonal reactive groups have the potential to provide a rapid and specific mechanism for covalently inhibiting a protein of interest. Here, we use mutagenesis to insert an unnatural amino acid containing an azide group (Z) into the target protein at positions such that a "click" reaction with an alkyne modulator (X) will alter the function of the protein. This bioorthogonally reactive pair can engender specificity of X for the Z-containing protein, even if the target is otherwise identical to another protein, allowing for rapid target validation in living cells. We demonstrate our method using inhibition of the Escherichia coli enzyme aminoacyl transferase by both active-site occlusion and allosteric mechanisms. We have termed this a "clickable magic bullet" strategy, and it should be generally applicable to studying the effects of protein inhibition, within the limits of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis.

  13. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

      PubMed Central

      León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

      2012-01-01

      Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

    • Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, but not estrogen receptor α or β, rapidly enhances social learning.

      PubMed

      Ervin, Kelsy Sharice Jean; Mulvale, Erin; Gallagher, Nicola; Roussel, Véronique; Choleris, Elena

      2015-08-01

      Social learning is a highly adaptive process by which an animal acquires information from a conspecific. While estrogens are known to modulate learning and memory, much of this research focuses on individual learning. Estrogens have been shown to enhance social learning on a long-term time scale, likely via genomic mechanisms. Estrogens have also been shown to affect individual learning on a rapid time scale through cell-signaling cascades, rather than via genomic effects, suggesting they may also rapidly influence social learning. We therefore investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol and involvement of the estrogen receptors (ERs) using the ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol, the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1) agonist G1 on the social transmission of food preferences (STFP) task, within a time scale that focused on the rapid effects of estrogens. General ER activation with 17β-estradiol resulted in a modest facilitation of social learning, with mice showing a preference up to 30min of testing. Specific activation of the GPER1 also rapidly enhanced social learning, with mice showing a socially learned preference up to 2h of testing. ERα activation instead shortened the expression of a socially learned food preference, while ERβ activation had little to no effects. Thus, rapid estrogenic modulation of social learning in the STFP may be the outcome of competing action at the three main receptors. Hence, estrogens' rapid effects on social learning likely depend on the specific ERs present in brain regions recruited during social learning.

    • MCT SWIR modules for passive and active imaging applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Breiter, R.; Benecke, M.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.

      2016-05-01

      Based on AIM's state-of-the-art MCT IR technology, detector modules for the SWIR spectral range have been developed, fabricated and characterized. While LPE grown MCT FPAs with extended 2.5μm cut-off have been fabricated and integrated also MBE grown MCT on GaAs is considered for future production. Two imaging applications have been in focus operating either in passive mode by making use of e.g. the night glow, or in active mode by laser illumination for gated viewing. Dedicated readout integrated circuits (ROIC), realized in 0.18μm Si-CMOS technology providing the required functionality for passive imaging and gated imaging, have been designed and implemented. For both designs a 640x512 15μm pitch format was chosen. The FPAs are integrated in compact dewar cooler configurations using AIM's split linear coolers. A command and control electronics (CCE) provides supply voltages, biasing, clocks, control and video digitization for easy system interfacing. For imaging under low-light conditions a low-noise 640x512 15μm pitch ROIC with CTIA input stages and correlated double sampling was designed. The ROIC provides rolling shutter and snapshot integration. To reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) a 640x512 format detector in a 10μm pitch is under development. The module makes use of the extended SWIR spectral cut-off up to 2.5μm. To be used for active gated-viewing operation SWIR MCT avalanche photodiodes have been implemented and characterized on FPA level in a 640x512 15μm pitch format. The specific ROIC provides also the necessary functions for range gate control and triggering by the laser illumination. First lab and field tests of a gated viewing demonstrator have been carried out. The paper will present the development status and performance results of AIM's MCT based SWIR Modules for imaging applications.

    • Active-Learning Processes Used in US Pharmacy Education

      PubMed Central

      Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett

      2011-01-01

      Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144

    • Modulation of ventral striatal activity by cognitive effort.

      PubMed

      Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Jessup, Ryan K; Tricomi, Elizabeth

      2017-02-15

      Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant. In the low effort condition, a single image was presented with four response options. In the high effort condition, two images were presented, each with two response options, and correct feedback was presented only when participants responded correctly to both of the images. Accuracy was significantly lower for the high effort condition, and all participants reported that the high effort condition was more difficult. A region of the ventral striatum selected for sensitivity to feedback value also showed increased activation to feedback presentation associated with the high effort condition relative to the low effort condition, when controlling for activation from corresponding control conditions where feedback was random. These results suggest that increased cognitive effort produces corresponding increases in positive feedback-related ventral striatum activity, in line with the predictions made by contrast theory. The accomplishment of obtaining a hard-earned intrinsic reward, such as positive feedback, may be particularly likely to promote reward-related brain activity.

    • From bird to sparrow: Learning-induced modulations in fine-grained semantic discrimination.

      PubMed

      De Meo, Rosanna; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Murray, Micah M; Clarke, Stephanie

      2015-09-01

      Recognition of environmental sounds is believed to proceed through discrimination steps from broad to more narrow categories. Very little is known about the neural processes that underlie fine-grained discrimination within narrow categories or about their plasticity in relation to newly acquired expertise. We investigated how the cortical representation of birdsongs is modulated by brief training to recognize individual species. During a 60-minute session, participants learned to recognize a set of birdsongs; they improved significantly their performance for trained (T) but not control species (C), which were counterbalanced across participants. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded during pre- and post-training sessions. Pre vs. post changes in AEPs were significantly different between T and C i) at 206-232ms post stimulus onset within a cluster on the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus; ii) at 246-291ms in the left middle frontal gyrus; and iii) 512-545ms in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. All effects were driven by weaker activity for T than C species. Thus, expertise in discriminating T species modulated early stages of semantic processing, during and immediately after the time window that sustains the discrimination between human vs. animal vocalizations. Moreover, the training-induced plasticity is reflected by the sharpening of a left lateralized semantic network, including the anterior part of the temporal convexity and the frontal cortex. Training to identify birdsongs influenced, however, also the processing of C species, but at a much later stage. Correct discrimination of untrained sounds seems to require an additional step which results from lower-level features analysis such as apperception. We therefore suggest that the access to objects within an auditory semantic category is different and depends on subject's level of expertise. More specifically, correct intra

    • Hypoxia induced cognitive impairment modulating activity of Cyperus rotundus.

      PubMed

      Kandikattu, Hemanth Kumar; Deep, Satya Narayan; Razack, Sakina; Amruta, Narayanappa; Prasad, Dipti; Khanum, Farhath

      2017-03-27

      Hypobaric hypoxia leads to decrease in cellular oxygen content which subsequently damages the hippocampus with an increase in brain oxidative stress and impairs the memory of the individual. In the present study, we have evaluated the cognitive impairment modulating activity of total oligomeric flavonoids fraction of Cyperus rotundus (TOF) in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were trained for memory activity for a period of 7days followed by 7days exposure to 25,000ft. altitude and the spatial reference memory was evaluated. Behavioral analysis of the rats by Morris water maze experiment showed that TOF supplementation enhanced the spatial reference memory activity of the rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The decrease in antioxidant status of the animals exposed to hypoxia was restored with TOF supplementation. The increase in ROS, lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls of the hippocampus was significantly decreased in animals with TOF administration. The histological assessment of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of hypoxia-exposed animals showed nuclear damage and TOF supplementation prevented nuclear damage. TOF administration suppressed hypoxia-induced increase in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. GABA and Ach levels were decreased by hypoxia which was prevented by TOF supplementation. The increase in GFAP, HIF-1α and VEGF expression in CA3 region of the hippocampus in hypoxia-exposed rats was decreased in TOF administered rats. Taken together, TOF extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus through its anti-stress effects.

  1. Modulation of aromatase activity by diet polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosário; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceição

    2006-05-17

    Estrogens are involved in physiological actions related to reproduction, body fat distribution, and maintenance of bone mass and are also related to the pathogenesis of estrogen-dependent cancers. The aim of this work was to study the effect of polyphenols on estrogen synthesis. The effect of polyphenols and polyphenolic-rich beverages on aromatase activity was tested in JAR cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line) through the tritiated water release assay. Some of the tested polyphenols inhibited estrogen production, chrysin being the most potent. Additionally, we observed that red wine, alcohol-free red wine, green tea, and black tea (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. No effect on aromatase expression, as assessed by western blotting and RT-PCR, has been detected after 24 h of treatment with any of the flavonoids under study. In conclusion, polyphenols are able to modulate aromatase activity and, consequently, estrogen synthesis. The knowledge of such interference may help to clarify some of the biological properties attributed to polyphenols and may be useful in prevention/treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders.

  2. A Distance Learning Review--The Communicational Module "Learning on Demand--Anywhere at Any Time"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Ruzic, Maja

    2004-01-01

    The society of knowledge refers to the society marked with the principle which requires that knowledge, information and life-time learning hold a key to success in the world of IT technology. Internet, World Wide Web, Web Based Education and ever so growing speed of IT and communicational technologies have enabled the application of new modes,…

  3. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Chen, Simon X; Komiyama, Takaki

    2014-06-12

    The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are not fully understood. Here we addressed this issue by using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of the same population of hundreds of layer 2/3 neurons while mice learned a forelimb lever-press task over two weeks. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons were identified by transgenic labelling. Inhibitory neuron activity was relatively stable and balanced local excitatory neuron activity on a movement-by-movement basis, whereas excitatory neuron activity showed higher dynamism during the initial phase of learning. The dynamics of excitatory neurons during the initial phase involved the expansion of the movement-related population which explored various activity patterns even during similar movements. This was followed by a refinement into a smaller population exhibiting reproducible spatiotemporal sequences of activity. This pattern of activity associated with the learned movement was unique to expert animals and not observed during similar movements made during the naive phase, and the relationship between neuronal activity and individual movements became more consistent with learning. These changes in population activity coincided with a transient increase in dendritic spine turnover in these neurons. Our results indicate that a novel and reproducible activity-movement relationship develops as a result of motor learning, and we speculate that synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex underlies the emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity patterns for learned movements. These results underscore the profound influence of learning on the way that the cortex produces movements.

  4. The Effects of Field Dependent/Independent Style Awareness on Learning Strategies and Outcomes in an Instructional Hypermedia Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and…

  5. Basolateral Amygdala Projections to Ventral Hippocampus Modulate the Consolidation of Footshock, but Not Contextual, Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Mary L.; Emmons, Eric B.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory consolidation for a variety of types of learning, whereas other brain regions play more selective roles in specific kinds of learning suggesting a role for differential consolidation via distinct BLA pathways. The ventral hippocampus (VH), an efferent target of the BLA, has been suggested to…

  6. Cerebellar Norepinephrine Modulates Learning of Delay Classical Eyeblink Conditioning: Evidence for Post-Synaptic Signaling via PKA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Mathew; Bickford, Paula C.; Cartford, M. Claire; Samec, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to modulate cerebellar-dependent learning and memory. Lesions of the nucleus locus coeruleus or systemic blockade of noradrenergic receptors has been shown to delay the acquisition of several cerebellar-dependent learning tasks. To date, no studies have shown a direct involvement of…

  7. "Module 9": A New Course to Help Students Develop Interdisciplinary Projects Using the Framework of Experiential Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canboy, Basak; Montalvo, Adolfo; Buganza, M. Carmen; Emmerling, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an example of how to introduce student-centred knowledge creation and competency development in a systematic way into a master's programme. The curriculum of a new course called Module 9 was framed according to experiential learning theory. While student teams work on self-selected projects, their learning processes are…

  8. Development of Health Education Learning Module in Bac.TSE-LDPE Programme in TTI: Needs Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujang, Alijah; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore the need to develop learning modules of health education for trainee teachers in the Bachelor Of Teaching (Hons)(Special Education-Learning Disabilities For Primary Education) Programme (Bac.TSE-LDPE) in the Teacher Training Institute (TTI). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale with the close ended questions analysed by…

  9. The Development of Reflective Undergraduate Students: Assessing the Educational Benefits of Reflective Learning Logs in Entrepreneurship Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheng, Yeoh Khar; Sethela, June

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze written reflections on learning log of among the third and final year students undertaking an entrepreneurship module. Data was collected in the form of written reflection taken from the learning log of 140 students from 3 classes. At the end of the collection only 136 students' responses were managed to…

  10. Astrocytic Orosomucoid-2 Modulates Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Myungjin; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Gyun Jee; Seo, Minchul; Hwang, Eun Mi; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-03-15

    Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule-binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the CNS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that astrocytes are the major cellular sources of ORM2 in the inflamed mouse brain. Recombinant ORM2 protein treatment decreased microglial production of proinflammatory mediators and reduced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in vitro LPS-induced microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus, and neuroinflammation-associated cognitive deficits also decreased as a result of intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant ORM2 protein in vivo Moreover, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Orm2 knockdown enhanced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Mechanistically, ORM2 inhibited C-C chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4)-induced microglial migration and activation by blocking the interaction of CCL4 with C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Together, the results from our cultured glial cells, mouse neuroinflammation model, and patient studies suggest that ORM2 is a novel mediator of astrocyte-microglial interaction. We also report that ORM2 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating microglial activation and migration during brain inflammation. ORM2 can be exploited therapeutically for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural cell interactions are important for brain physiology and pathology. Particularly, the interaction between non

  11. Structural Engineering. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  12. Active and Reflective Learning to Engage All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how teachers effectively manage learning through active engagement of all students throughout each class period. A case study is presented which demonstrates how students learn through active and reflective engagement with ideas, the environment, and other learners (National Middle School Association, 2010). The case study…

  13. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  14. The Role of Active Learning in College Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Jones, Willis A.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Hartley, Harold V., III

    2008-01-01

    Active learning, which entails any class activity that "involves students doing things and thinking about the things that they are doing," stands as an important pedagogical practice. Discussion, the types of questions faculty ask students in class, role playing, cooperative learning, debates, and the types of questions faculty ask on examinations…

  15. Incorporating Active Learning with Videos: A Case Study from Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2008-01-01

    Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…

  16. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  17. Problem Solving. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  18. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  19. Teaching for Engagement: Part 3: Designing for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…

  20. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  1. Two Learning Activities for a Large Introductory Statistics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharopoulou, Hrissoula

    2006-01-01

    In a very large Introductory Statistics class, i.e. in a class of more than 300 students, instructors may hesitate to apply active learning techniques, discouraged by the volume of extra work. In this paper two such activities are presented that evoke student involvement in the learning process. The first is group peer teaching and the second is…

  2. Students as Doers: Examples of Successful E-Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammelin, Maija; Peltonen, Berit; Puranen, Pasi; Auvinen, Lis

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses learning language and communication activities that focus on students' concrete involvement in their learning process. The activities first deal with student-produced blogs and digital videos in business Spanish. They then present student-produced podcasts for Swedish business communication learners that are meant for speakers…

  3. The use of self-learning modules to facilitate learning of basic science concepts in an integrated medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Nelson, Loren D; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41 medical students, 40 students voluntarily completed a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended items to evaluate students' attitudes and perspectives on the learning value of SLMs. Closed-ended items were assessed on a five-point Likert scale (5 = high score) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Open-ended questions further evaluated students' perspectives on the effectiveness of SLMs; student responses to open-ended questions were analyzed to identify shared patterns or themes in their experience using SLMs. The results of the midterm examination were also analyzed to compare student performance on items related to SLMs and traditional sessions. Students positively evaluated their experience using the SLMs with an overall mean score of 4.25 (SD ± 0.84). Most students (97%) indicated that the SLMs improved understanding and facilitated learning basic science concepts. SLMs were reported to allow learner control, to help in preparation for subsequent in-class discussion, and to improve understanding and retention. A significant difference in students' performance was observed when comparing SLM-related items with non-SLM items in the midterm examination (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of SLMs in an integrated basic science curriculum has the potential to individualize the teaching and improve the learning of basic sciences.

  4. Octopamine modulates activity of neural networks in the honey bee antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Rein, Julia; Mustard, Julie A; Strauch, Martin; Smith, Brian H; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Neuronal plasticity allows an animal to respond to environmental changes by modulating its response to stimuli. In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), the biogenic amine octopamine plays a crucial role in appetitive odor learning, but little is known about how octopamine affects the brain. We investigated its effect in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory center in the brain, using calcium imaging to record background activity and odor responses before and after octopamine application. We show that octopamine increases background activity in olfactory output neurons, while reducing average calcium levels. Odor responses were modulated both upwards and downwards, with more odor response increases in glomeruli with negative or weak odor responses. Importantly, the octopamine effect was variable across glomeruli, odorants, odorant concentrations and animals, suggesting that the octopaminergic network is shaped by plasticity depending on an individual animal's history and possibly other factors. Using RNA interference, we show that the octopamine receptor AmOA1 (homolog of the Drosophila OAMB receptor) is involved in the octopamine effect. We propose a network model in which octopamine receptors are plastic in their density and located on a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons in a disinhibitory pathway. This would improve odor-coding of behaviorally relevant, previously experienced odors.

  5. Lmo4 in the Basolateral Complex of the Amygdala Modulates Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Rajani; Kharazia, Viktor; Lasek, Amy W.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is an associative learning paradigm in which mice learn to associate a neutral conditioned stimulus with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for the transcriptional regulator Lmo4 in fear learning. LMO4 is predominantly expressed in pyramidal projection neurons of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLC). Mice heterozygous for a genetrap insertion in the Lmo4 locus (Lmo4gt/+), which express 50% less Lmo4 than their wild type (WT) counterparts display enhanced freezing to both the context and the cue in which they received the aversive stimulus. Small-hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Lmo4 in the BLC, but not the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus recapitulated this enhanced conditioning phenotype, suggesting an adult- and brain region-specific role for Lmo4 in fear learning. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed an increase in the number of c-Fos positive puncta in the BLC of Lmo4gt/+ mice in comparison to their WT counterparts after fear conditioning. Lastly, we measured anxiety-like behavior in Lmo4gt/+ mice and in mice with BLC-specific downregulation of Lmo4 using the elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box tests. Global or BLC-specific knockdown of Lmo4 did not significantly affect anxiety-like behavior. These results suggest a selective role for LMO4 in the BLC in modulating learned but not unlearned fear. PMID:22509321

  6. A recommendation module to help teachers build courses through the Moodle Learning Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongelli, Carla; Lombardi, Matteo; Marani, Alessandro; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In traditional e-learning, teachers design sets of Learning Objects (LOs) and organize their sequencing; the material implementing the LOs could be either built anew or adopted from elsewhere (e.g. from standard-compliant repositories) and reused. This task is applicable also when the teacher works in a system for personalized e-learning. In this case, the burden actually increases: for instance, the LOs may need adaptation to the system, through additional metadata. This paper presents a module that gives some support to the operations of retrieving, analyzing, and importing LOs from a set of standard Learning Objects Repositories, acting as a recommending system. In particular, it is designed to support the teacher in the phases of (i) retrieval of LOs, through a keyword-based search mechanism applied to the selected repositories; (ii) analysis of the returned LOs, whose information is enriched by a concept of relevance metric, based on both the results of the searching operation and the data related to the previous use of the LOs in the courses managed by the Learning Management System; and (iii) LO importation into the course under construction.

  7. Using active learning in lecture: best of "both worlds".

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H

    2004-01-01

    Many creative teaching strategies have been developed in recent years in nursing and other fields to promote active learning. These strategies foster development of problem solving, critical thinking, and communication skills, and they encourage students to work collaboratively with peers. However, in nurse educators' rush to embrace active learning, lecture has been viewed negatively by some faculty. Rather than positioning active learning against lecture, another approach is to integrate active learning within lecture, gaining the benefits of both methods. An integrated approach also takes into consideration the situation of teaching large groups of students. This article examines benefits of an integrated approach to teaching and presents strategies for active learning intended for use with lecture.

  8. Cognitive components of color vision in honey bees: how conditioning variables modulate color learning and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Since the demonstration of color vision in honey bees 100 years ago by Karl von Frisch, appetitive conditioning to color targets has been used as the principal way to access behavioral aspects of bee color vision. Yet, analyses on how conditioning parameters affect color perception remained scarce. Conclusions on bee color vision have often been made without referring them to the experimental context in which they were obtained, and thus presented as absolute facts instead of realizing that subtle variations in conditioning procedures might yield different results. Here, we review evidence showing that color learning and discrimination in bees are not governed by immutable properties of their visual system, but depend on how the insects are trained and thus learn a task. The use of absolute or differential conditioning protocols, the presence of aversive reinforcement in differential conditioning and the degrees of freedom of motor components determine dramatic variations in color discrimination. We, thus, suggest top-down attentional modulation of color vision to explain the changes in color learning and discrimination reviewed here. We discuss the possible neural mechanisms of this modulation and conclude that color vision experiments require a careful consideration of how training parameters shape behavioral responses.

  9. Star Power: Providing for the Gifted & Talented. Module 5. Enrichment Activities for the Gifted/Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallis, Jackie; Gilman, Sharlene

    The document presents Module 5, enrichment activities for the gifted/talented, of the Star Power modules developed for school personnel who have an interest in or a need to explore the area of gifted and talented education. It is explained in an introductory section that the modules can be used for independent study, for small group interaction,…

  10. Belief about Nicotine Modulates Subjective Craving and Insula Activity in Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told “nicotine” vs. told “no nicotine”) with the nicotine content in a cigarette (nicotine vs. placebo) which participants smoked immediately before performing a fMRI task involving reward learning. Subjects’ reported craving was measured both before smoking and after the fMRI session. We found that first, in the presence of nicotine, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told “nicotine in cigarette” but showed no change in craving when told “no nicotine.” Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told “nicotine” but not when told “no nicotine.” Both effects were absent in the placebo condition. Third, insula activation related to computational learning signals was modulated by belief about nicotine regardless of nicotine’s presence. These results suggest that belief about nicotine has a strong impact on subjective craving and insula responses related to both craving and learning in deprived smokers, providing insights into the complex nature of belief–drug interactions. PMID:27468271

  11. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous synaptic activity in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Middleton, T P; Protti, D A

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been found throughout the central nervous system and modulates cell excitability in various forms of short-term plasticity. ECBs and their receptors have also been localized to all retinal cells, and cannabinoid receptor activation has been shown to alter voltage-dependent conductances in several different retinal cell types, suggesting a possible role for cannabinoids in retinal processing. Their effects on synaptic transmission in the mammalian retina, however, have not been previously investigated. Here, we show that exogenous cannabinoids alter spontaneous synaptic transmission onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in whole-mount retinas, we measured spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SPSCs) in RGCs in adult and young (P14-P21) mice. We found that the addition of an exogenous cannabinoid agonist, WIN55212-2 (5 μM), caused a significant reversible reduction in the frequency of SPSCs. This change, however, did not alter the kinetics of the SPSCs, indicating a presynaptic locus of action. Using blockers to isolate inhibitory or excitatory currents, we found that cannabinoids significantly reduced the release probability of both GABA and glutamate, respectively. While the addition of cannabinoids reduced the frequency of both GABAergic and glutamatergic SPSCs in both young and adult mice, we found that the largest effect was on GABA-mediated currents in young mice. These results suggest that the ECB system may potentially be involved in the modulation of signal transmission in the retina. Furthermore, they suggest that it might play a role in the developmental maturation of synaptic circuits, and that exogenous cannabinoids are likely able to disrupt retinal processing and consequently alter vision.

  12. Micro-Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems Douglas S. Beck Beck Engineering , Inc. 1490 Lumsden Road, Port Orchard...refrigerator. We are developing for DARPA a cm-scale Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) micro- refrigerator to benefit the DoD systems. Under...a DARPA contract, we are designing, building, and demonstrating a breadboard MS/ACM. Keywords: Stirling ; cooler; active cooling module; micro

  13. Neural activation during successful and unsuccessful verbal learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Sibylle; Sartory, Gudrun; Müller, Bernhard W; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Jüptner, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Successful and unsuccessful intention to learn words was assessed by means of event-related functional MRI. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants were scanned while being given two word lists to read and another seven to learn with immediate recall. Neural activation patterns were segregated according to whether words were subsequently recalled or forgotten and these conditions were contrasted with each other and reading. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits with regard to neural recruitment of right hippocampus and of cerebellar structures during successful verbal learning. Furthermore, a reversal of activated structures was evident in the two groups: Controls showed activation of right frontal and left middle temporal structures during the unsuccessful intention to learn. During successful learning, there was additional activation of right superior parietal lobule. In contrast, patients showed activation of right superior parietal lobule during unsuccessful and successful intention to learn. There were additional frontal and left middle temporal lobe activations during successful learning. We conclude that increased parietal activity may reflect a mechanism which compensates for the lack of hippocampal and cerebellar contributions to verbal learning in schizophrenia.

  14. Hydrophobic Moiety of Cationic Lipids Strongly Modulates Their Transfection Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; Tenchov, Boris; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2010-01-18

    Synthetic cationic lipids are widely used components of nonviral gene carriers, and the factors regulating their transfection efficiency are the subject of considerable interest. In view of the important role that electrostatic interactions with the polyanionic nucleic acids play in formation of lipoplexes, a common empirical approach to improving transfection has been the synthesis and testing of amphiphiles with new versions of positively charged polar groups, while much less attention has been given to the role of the hydrophobic lipid moieties. On the basis of data for {approx}20 cationic phosphatidylcholine (PC) derivatives, here we demonstrate that hydrocarbon chain variations of these lipids modulate by over 2 orders of magnitude their transfection efficiency. The observed molecular structure-activity relationship manifests in well-expressed dependences of activity on two important molecular characteristics, chain unsaturation and total number of carbon atoms in the lipid chains, which is representative of the lipid hydrophobic volume and hydrophilic-lipophilic ratio. Transfection increases with decrease of chain length and increase of chain unsaturation. Maximum transfection was found for cationic PCs with monounsaturated 14:1 chains. It is of particular importance that the high-transfection lipids strongly promote cubic phase formation in zwitterionic membrane phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). These remarkable correlations point to an alternative, chain-dependent process in transfection, not related to the electrostatic cationic-anionic lipid interactions.

  15. A human phospholipid phosphatase activated by a transmembrane control module.

    PubMed

    Halaszovich, Christian R; Leitner, Michael G; Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Le, Audrey; Frezza, Ludivine; Feuer, Anja; Schreiber, Daniela N; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Oliver, Dominik

    2012-11-01

    In voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), a transmembrane voltage sensor domain (VSD) controls an intracellular phosphoinositide phosphatase domain, thereby enabling immediate initiation of intracellular signals by membrane depolarization. The existence of such a mechanism in mammals has remained elusive, despite the presence of VSP-homologous proteins in mammalian cells, in particular in sperm precursor cells. Here we demonstrate activation of a human VSP (hVSP1/TPIP) by an intramolecular switch. By engineering a chimeric hVSP1 with enhanced plasma membrane targeting containing the VSD of a prototypic invertebrate VSP, we show that hVSP1 is a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase whose predominant substrate is PI(4,5)P(2). In the chimera, enzymatic activity is controlled by membrane potential via hVSP1's endogenous phosphoinositide binding motif. These findings suggest that the endogenous VSD of hVSP1 is a control module that initiates signaling through the phosphatase domain and indicate a role for VSP-mediated phosphoinositide signaling in mammals.

  16. Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2002-04-17

    This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.

  17. Modulation of Group I Ribozyme Activity by Cationic Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Tatsunobu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cationic porphyrins on the catalytic activities of four group I ribozymes were investigated. A cationic porphyrin possessing four pyridinium moieties (pPyP) inhibited two group IC3 ribozymes (Syn Rz and Azo Rz) and a group IC1 ribozyme (Tet Rz). In the case of a group IA2 ribozyme (Td Rz), however, pPyP served not only as an inhibitor but also as an activator, and the effects of pPyP were dependent on its concentration. To analyze the structural and electronic factors determining the effects of pPyP on group I ribozymes, three cationic porphyrins (pPyNCP, pPyF4P, and TMPyP) were also examined. As interactions between small organic molecules and nucleic acids are attractive and important issues in biochemistry and biotechnology, this study contributes to the development of porphyrin-based molecules that can modulate functions of structured RNA molecules. PMID:25811638

  18. Materials and Process Activities for NASA's Composite Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polis, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). The overall goal of the CCM project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project s baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. The materials and process activities were prioritized based on a rapid prototype approach. This approach focused developmental activities on design details with greater risk and uncertainty, such as out-of-autoclave joining, over some of the more traditional lamina and laminate building block levels. While process development and associated building block testing were performed, several anomalies were still observed at the full-scale level due to interactions between process robustness and manufacturing scale-up. This paper describes the process anomalies that were encountered during the CCM development and the subsequent root cause investigations that led to the final design solutions. These investigations highlight the importance of full-scale developmental work early in the schedule of a complex composite design/build project.

  19. The active zone T-bar--a plasticity module?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2010-09-01

    The synaptic active zone, the site where Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles takes place, is commonly associated with protein-rich, electron-dense cytomatrices. The molecular composition and functional role of active zones, especially in the context of vesicular exo- and endocytosis, are under intense investigation. Per se, Drosophila synapses, which display so-called T-bars as electron-dense specializations, should be a highly suitable model system, as they allow for a combination of efficient genetics with ultrastructural and electrophysiological analyses. However, it needed a biochemical approach of the Buchner laboratory to "molecularly" access the T-bar by identification of the CAST/ERC-family member Bruchpilot as the first T-bar-residing protein. Genetic elimination of Bruchpilot revealed that the protein is essential for T-bar formation, calcium channel clustering, and hence proper vesicle fusion and patterned synaptic plasticity. Recently, Bruchpilot was shown to directly shape the T-bar, likely by adopting an elongated conformation. Moreover, first mechanisms that control the availability of Bruchpilot for T-bar assembly were described. This review seeks to summarize the information on T-bar structure, as well as on functional aspects, formulating the hypothesis that T-bars are genuine "plasticity modules."

  20. Development and Impact Evaluation of an E-Learning Radiation Oncology Module

    SciTech Connect

    Alfieri, Joanne; Portelance, Lorraine; Souhami, Luis; Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter; Gallant, Fleure; Artho, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists are faced with the challenge of irradiating tumors to a curative dose while limiting toxicity to healthy surrounding tissues. This can be achieved only with superior knowledge of radiologic anatomy and treatment planning. Educational resources designed to meet these specific needs are lacking. A web-based interactive module designed to improve residents' knowledge and application of key anatomy concepts pertinent to radiotherapy treatment planning was developed, and its effectiveness was assessed. Methods and Materials: The module, based on gynecologic malignancies, was developed in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of subject matter experts. Subsequently, a multi-centre randomized controlled study was conducted to test the module's effectiveness. Thirty-six radiation oncology residents participated in the study; 1920 were granted access to the module (intervention group), and 17 in the control group relied on traditional methods to acquire their knowledge. Pretests and posttests were administered to all participants. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test, analysis of variance, and post hoc tests. Results: The randomized control study revealed that the intervention group's pretest and posttest mean scores were 35% and 52%, respectively, and those of the control group were 37% and 42%, respectively. The mean improvement in test scores was 17% (p < 0.05) for the intervention group and 5% (p = not significant) for the control group. Retrospective pretest and posttest surveys showed a statistically significant change on all measured module objectives. Conclusions: The use of an interactive e-learning teaching module for radiation oncology is an effective method to improve the radiologic anatomy knowledge and treatment planning skills of radiation oncology residents.