Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert
Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…
Kurahashi, Setsuya; Terano, Takao
Continuation processes in chemical and/or biotechnical plants always generate a large amount of time series data. However, since conventional process models are described as a set of control models, it is difficult to explain the complicated and active plant behaviors. Based on the background, this research proposes a novel method to develop a process response model from continuous time-series data. The method consists of the following phases: 1) Collect continuous process data at each tag point in a target plant; 2) Normalize the data in the interval between zero and one; 3) Get the delay time, which maximizes the correlation between given two time series data; 4) Select tags with the higher correlation; 5) Develop a process response model to describe the relations among the process data using the delay time and the correlation values; 6) Develop a process prediction model via several tag points data using a neural network; 1) Discover control rules from the process prediction model using Learning Classifier system. The main contribution of the research is to establish a method to mine a set of meaningful control rules from Learning Classifier System using the Minimal Description Length criteria. The proposed method has been applied to an actual process of a biochemical plant and has shown the validity and the effectiveness.
Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett
Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144
Quann, Steve; Satin, Diana
This textbook leads high-beginning and intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students through cooperative computer-based activities that combine language learning with training in basic computer skills and word processing. Each unit concentrates on a basic concept of word processing while also focusing on a grammar topic. Skills are…
Bell, Bradford S; Kozlowski, Steve W J
This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex, computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees' metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety. Implications for development of an integrated theory of active learning, learner-centered design, and research extensions are discussed.
Cunningham, John; Hillier, Emilie
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to define characteristics and processes that enhance informal learning in a public sector workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Based on interviews and questionnaires, the authors solicited examples of informal learning practices that 40 supervisors experienced during their careers. The examples were content…
Barenberg, Jonathan; Berse, Timo; Dutke, Stephan
As executive functions play an essential role in learning processes, approaches capable of enhancing executive functioning are of particular interest to educational psychology. Recently, the hypothesis has been advanced that executive functioning may benefit from changes in neurobiological processes induced by physical activity. The present…
O'Brien, William J.; Soibelman, Lucio; Elvin, George
In a capstone course, graduate students from two universities participated in collaborative design in the architectural, engineering, and construction industries in multidisciplinary teams via the Internet. Students also developed process designs to integrate technology into multidisciplinary teamwork, combining active and reflective learning.…
Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean
A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…
Gingerich, Karla J.; Bugg, Julie M.; Doe, Sue R.; Rowland, Christopher A.; Richards, Tracy L.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; McDaniel, Mark A.
This study evaluated brief, in-class write-to-learn assignments as a tool for promoting learning and retention in large, introductory psychology courses. A within-subjects (student) design was used with assignment of concepts to write-to-learn and copy (control) conditions counterbalanced across sections for each instructor. Students performed…
Park, Mijung; Weller, J Patrick; Horwitz, Gregory D; Pillow, Jonathan W
A firing rate map, also known as a tuning curve, describes the nonlinear relationship between a neuron's spike rate and a low-dimensional stimulus (e.g., orientation, head direction, contrast, color). Here we investigate Bayesian active learning methods for estimating firing rate maps in closed-loop neurophysiology experiments. These methods can accelerate the characterization of such maps through the intelligent, adaptive selection of stimuli. Specifically, we explore the manner in which the prior and utility function used in Bayesian active learning affect stimulus selection and performance. Our approach relies on a flexible model that involves a nonlinearly transformed gaussian process (GP) prior over maps and conditionally Poisson spiking. We show that infomax learning, which selects stimuli to maximize the information gain about the firing rate map, exhibits strong dependence on the seemingly innocuous choice of nonlinear transformation function. We derive an alternate utility function that selects stimuli to minimize the average posterior variance of the firing rate map and analyze the surprising relationship between prior parameterization, stimulus selection, and active learning performance in GP-Poisson models. We apply these methods to color tuning measurements of neurons in macaque primary visual cortex.
Cornoldi, C; Rigoni, F; Venneri, A; Vecchi, T
The distinction between passive and active visuo-spatial memory has been useful to interpret various pattern of deficits reported in individual differences studies. However, this interpretation raises the issue of task difficulty, since active tasks could be failed simply because more complex and the corresponding deficit could reflect a reduced capacity of the system. We describe two children with Nonverbal Learning Disability whose performance provides evidence of a dissociation between passive and active memory processes. One of the children showed a selective impairment in passive tasks and performed flawlessly in active tasks, whereas the second child displayed the opposite pattern. These data suggest that a qualitative difference between passive and active processes does exist and that differences in performance do not reflect a lower/higher level of task difficulty. Further, these data underlie the importance of formulating theoretical models of visuo-spatial memory including both material-related (i.e., visual vs spatial) and process-related (i.e., passive vs active) distinctions.
Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.
There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self
Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.
Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356
Reese, Hayne W.
This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…
Ru, Hui; Yu, Huai; Huang, Pingping; Yang, Wen
Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.
Johnson, Margaret (Peg)
Details the active-learning approach to teaching cellular respiration in an introductory, one-semester course for nonmajors. Focuses on a laboratory exercise designed to answer the question of what happens to food when eaten. Contains 19 references. (DDR)
Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…
Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…
Tan, Andrea; Ferreira, Aldónio
This study investigates the influence of the use of accounting software in teaching activity-based costing (ABC) on the learning process. It draws upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and uses the end-user computer satisfaction (EUCS) framework to examine students' satisfaction with the ABC software. The study examines students' satisfaction with…
Tipton, Tom, Ed.
Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)
some have been shown to interact with other learner traits (i.e., learning styles like impulsivity) to impact learning. Let’s now consider in more detail...the second conative factor--learning style. Learning styles , in the broadest sense, refer to "general behavioral dispositions that characterize...manipulated and thus are more transitory in nature, learning styles are comparatively more stable. However, style does imply a choice by the learner as
Prokhorov, Alexander O.; Chernov, Albert V.; Yusupov, Mark G.
Investigation of the interaction of mental states and cognitive processes in the classroom allows us to solve the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training by activating cognitive processes and management of students' mental states. This article is concerned with the most general patterns of interaction between mental state and…
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…
Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael
Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.
Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…
Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M
In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.
CLASSICATMN OF ThIS PA5UrSfie Dule gIt.,.d ANALOGICAL PROCESSES IN LEARNING David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman Program in Cognitive Science Center...for Human Information Processing University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California 92093 Copyright Q) 1980 David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman...4) SEARS 7 E Ilamnp C5P Tota $.600 Aprovd.L. Figure 1. Stimuli for the two conditions of D’Andrade’s reasoning * experiment. The left panel shows the
Punhagui, Giovana Chimentão; de Souza, Nadia Aparecida
Learning a foreign language is, among other factors, based on the perception of one's own development and on undertaking strategies for greater communicative competence, which are founded in autonomous procedures that span the necessity for greater responsibility. As learning a language demands constant study, even after the school period--when…
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.
Martel, Guillaume; Millard, Annabelle; Jaffard, Robert; Guillou, Jean-Louis
Procedural and declarative memory systems are postulated to interact in either a synergistic or a competitive manner, and memory consolidation appears to be a highly critical stage for this process. However, the precise cellular mechanisms subserving these interactions remain unknown. To investigate this issue, 24-h retention performances were examined in mice given post-training intrahippocampal injections of forskolin (FK) aiming at stimulating hippocampal adenylyl cyclases (ACs). The injection was given at different time points over a period of 9 h following acquisition in either an appetitive bar-pressing task or water-maze tasks challenging respectively "response memory" and "place memory." Retention testing (24 h) showed that FK injection altered memory formation only when given within a 3- to 6-h time window after acquisition but yielded opposite memory effects as a function of task demands. Retention of the spatial task was impaired, whereas retention of both the cued-response in the water maze and the rewarded bar-press response were improved. Intrahippocampal injections of FK produced an increase in pCREB immunoreactivity, which was strictly limited to the hippocampus and lasted less than 2 h, suggesting that early effects (0-2 h) of FK-induced cAMP/CREB activation can be distinguished from late effects (3-6 h). These results delineate a consolidation period during which specific cAMP levels in the hippocampus play a crucial role in enhancing memory processes mediated by other brain regions (e.g., dorsal or ventral striatum) while eliminating interference by the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory.
Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)
Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian
Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.
variation in computer simulation of biologically realistic neural networks. (1994). 3. Mpitsos, G.J. and Edstrom, J.,Symbolic dynamics of firing patterns...dissipative action, learning, muscarinicreceptors, symbolic dynamics , finite-state automata, " neural networksneron membrane perturbation analysis 19. ABSTRACT...Seth Wolpert, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maine, to construct analog VLSI networks of neurons as we have described them. This
International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.
This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…
Saparkyzy, Zhannat; Isatayeva, Gulzhan; Kozhabekova, Zahida; Zhakesheva, Aimzhan; Koptayeva, Gulzhamal; Agabekova, Gulzhan; Agabekova, Sholpan
In this article we will discuss how the holding of a special and dedicated work helped to change the levels of formation of the major components of cognitive activity. Cognitive activity with the content aspect is a system of perceptual, mnemonic and intellectual activity and from the form--as an individual, joint, or pseudo-individual pseudo…
ten Cate, Olle; Snell, Linda; Mann, Karen; Vermunt, Jan
Based on developments in educational psychology from the late 1980s, the authors present a model of an approach to teaching. Students' learning processes were analyzed to determine teacher functions. The learning-oriented teaching (LOT) model aims at following and guiding the learning process. The main characteristics of the model are (1) the components of learning: cognition (what to learn), affect (why learn), and metacognition (how to learn); and (2) the amount of guidance students need. If education aims at fostering one's ability to function independently in society, an important general objective should be that one learns how to fully and independently regulate his or her own learning; i.e., the ability to pursue one's professional life independently. This implies a transition from external guidance (from the teacher) through shared guidance (by the student together with the teacher) to internal guidance (by the student alone). This transition pertains not only to the cognitive component of learning (content) but also to the affective component (motives) and the metacognitive component (learning strategies). This model reflects a philosophy of internalization of the teacher's functions in a way that allows optimal independent learning after graduation. The model can be shown as a two-dimensional chart of learning components versus levels of guidance. It is further elaborated from learners' and teachers' perspectives. Examples of curriculum structure and teachers' activities are given to illustrate the model. Implications for curriculum development, course development, individual teaching moments, and educational research are discussed.
Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318
Web portfolios should be integrated in the learning process as they encourage the students to take an active interest in their own learning and highlights the individual students, their interests and their goals, increases student motivation and provides an excellent method for teaching students. Implementation of Web portfolios could be made more…
Martel, Guillaume; Millard, Annabelle; Jaffard, Robert; Guillou, Jean-Louis
Procedural and declarative memory systems are postulated to interact in either a synergistic or a competitive manner, and memory consolidation appears to be a highly critical stage for this process. However, the precise cellular mechanisms subserving these interactions remain unknown. To investigate this issue, 24-h retention performances were…
On global era todays, as the professional teacher should be improving their pedagogic competency, including to improve their science pedagogy quality. This study is aimed to identify: (1) Process skill approach which has been used by Elementary School Teacher in science learning; (2) Teacher's opinion that process skill can motivate the student to…
Mateos, Mar; Martin, Elena; Villalon, Ruth; Luna, Maria
The research reported here employed a multiple-case study methodology to assess the online cognitive and metacognitive activities of 15-year-old secondary students as they read informational texts and wrote a new text in order to learn, and the relation of these activities to the written products they were asked to generate. To investigate the…
Copperman, Elana; Beeri, Catriel; Ben-Zvi, Nava
This paper introduces various visual models for the analysis and description of learning processes. The models analyse learning on two levels: the dynamic level (as a process over time) and the functional level. Two types of model for dynamic modelling are proposed: the session trace, which documents a specific learner in a particular learning…
The very stimulating paper  discusses an approach to perception and learning in a large population of living agents. The approach is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods in which the interactions between agents are described in terms of game theory. Such an approach was already discussed in Ref. [2-4] (see also references therein) in various contexts. The processes of perception and learning are based on the interactions between agents and therefore the general kinetic theory is a suitable tool for modeling them. However the main question that rises is how the perception and learning processes may be treated in the mathematical modeling. How may we precisely deliver suitable mathematical structures that are able to capture various aspects of perception and learning?
Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn
This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…
Rohmer, Jeremy; Idier, Deborah; Bulteau, Thomas; Paris, François
From a risk management perspective, it can be of high interest to identify the critical set of offshore conditions that lead to inundation on key assets for the studied territory (e.g., assembly points, evacuation routes, hospitals, etc.). This inverse approach of risk assessment (Idier et al., NHESS, 2013) can be of primary importance either for the estimation of the coastal flood hazard return period or for constraining the early warning networks based on hydro-meteorological forecast or observations. However, full-process based models for coastal flooding simulation have very large computational time cost (typically of several hours), which often limits the analysis to a few scenarios. Recently, it has been shown that meta-modelling approaches can efficiently handle this difficulty (e.g., Rohmer & Idier, NHESS, 2012). Yet, the full-process based models are expected to present strong non-linearities (non-regularities) or shocks (discontinuities), i.e. dynamics controlled by thresholds. For instance, in case of coastal defense, the dynamics is characterized first by a linear behavior of the waterline position (increase with increasing offshore conditions), as long as there is no overtopping, and then by a very strong increase (as soon as the offshore conditions are energetic enough to lead to wave overtopping, and then overflow). Such behavior might make the training phase of the meta-model very tedious. In the present study, we propose to explore the feasibility of active learning techniques, aka semi-supervised machine learning, to track the set of critical conditions with a reduced number of long-running simulations. The basic idea relies on identifying the simulation scenarios which should both reduce the meta-model error and improve the prediction of the critical contour of interest. To overcome the afore-described difficulty related to non-regularity, we rely on Support Vector Machines, which have shown very high performance for structural reliability
Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh
This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…
Wittrock, M. C.
A cognitive model of human learning with understanding is introduced. Empirical research supporting the model, which is called the generative model, is summarized. The model is used to suggest a way to integrate some of the research in cognitive development, human learning, human abilities, information processing, and aptitude-treatment…
Aydede Yalçin, Meryem Nur
It is important for people to be able to judge the nature while actually living in it to gain the scientific perspective which is an important skill nowadays. Within this importance, the general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of active learning based science camp activities on sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' opinions…
Hodkinson, Phil; Ford, Geoff; Hodkinson, Heather; Hawthorn, Ruth
This article draws upon a major qualitative empirical research investigation in Great Britain to explore the relationships between retirement and learning. Though retirement is frequently viewed as an event leading to a life stage, our data show that it can perhaps be best understood as a lengthy process. This process begins well before actual…
This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...
Schuchardt, Daniel Shaner
This research project was developed to inspire students to constructively use problem based learning and the scientific process to learn middle school science content. The student population in this study consisted of male and female seventh grade students. Students were presented with authentic problems that are connected to physical and chemical properties of matter. The intent of the study was to have students use the scientific process of looking at existing knowledge, generating learning issues or questions about the problems, and then developing a course of action to research and design experiments to model resolutions to the authentic problems. It was expected that students would improve their ability to actively engage with others in a problem solving process to achieve a deeper understanding of Michigan's 7th Grade Level Content Expectations, the Next Generation Science Standards, and a scientific process. Problem based learning was statistically effective in students' learning of the scientific process. Students statistically showed improvement on pre to posttest scores. The teaching method of Problem Based Learning was effective for seventh grade science students at Dowagiac Middle School.
Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic
An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item
Montrezor, Luís H.
The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
Schultz, James L.
Teachers must give adequate attention to teaching social skills and monitoring for total team involvement if they are to introduce cooperative learning successfully. Interpersonal skills are more important than positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, or group processing skills. Includes five references. (MLH)
Ducote, Richard L.
Describes Collin County Community College's commitment to an active/experiential learning philosophy and the role of the college's learning resources center (LRC) in promoting learner-centered education and lab experiences throughout the curriculum. Discusses the LRC's Alternative Learning Center, which uses computers and other technology to…
Bursley, James K; Nestor, Adrian; Tarr, Michael J; Creswell, J David
Offline processing has been shown to strengthen memory traces and enhance learning in the absence of conscious rehearsal or awareness. Here we evaluate whether a brief, two-minute offline processing period can boost associative learning and test a memory reactivation account for these offline processing effects. After encoding paired associates, subjects either completed a distractor task for two minutes or were immediately tested for memory of the pairs in a counterbalanced, within-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Results showed that brief, awake, offline processing improves memory for associate pairs. Moreover, multi-voxel pattern analysis of the neuroimaging data suggested reactivation of encoded memory representations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offline processing. These results signify the first demonstration of awake, active, offline enhancement of associative memory and suggest that such enhancement is accompanied by the offline reactivation of encoded memory representations.
Nestor, Adrian; Tarr, Michael J.; Creswell, J. David
Offline processing has been shown to strengthen memory traces and enhance learning in the absence of conscious rehearsal or awareness. Here we evaluate whether a brief, two-minute offline processing period can boost associative learning and test a memory reactivation account for these offline processing effects. After encoding paired associates, subjects either completed a distractor task for two minutes or were immediately tested for memory of the pairs in a counterbalanced, within-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Results showed that brief, awake, offline processing improves memory for associate pairs. Moreover, multi-voxel pattern analysis of the neuroimaging data suggested reactivation of encoded memory representations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offline processing. These results signify the first demonstration of awake, active, offline enhancement of associative memory and suggest that such enhancement is accompanied by the offline reactivation of encoded memory representations. PMID:27119345
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.
A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…
Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…
Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.
Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Douglas, Elliot P.; Chiu, Chu-Chuan
This paper describes implementation and testing of an active learning, team-based pedagogical approach to instruction in engineering. This pedagogy has been termed Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL), and is based upon the learning cycle model. Rather than sitting in traditional lectures, students work in teams to complete worksheets…
Biggs, John B.
This manual describes the theory behind the Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) used in Australia and defines what the subscale and scale scores mean. The LPQ is a 36-item self-report questionnaire that yields scores on three basic motives for learning and three learning strategies, and on the approaches to learning that are formed by these…
Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.
Field practicum is an active learning process. This study explores the different learning stages or processes students experience during their field practicum. First-year master's of social work students in field practica were asked how much they had engaged in educational learning activities such as observation, working independently, process…
FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl
Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305
Mayes, L C
This brief review has covered three major areas: what kinds of information can infants encode in the first 6 to 9 months and what methods are available to measure their responses; the status of memory functions in infancy; and current models of synaptogenesis, a process likely underlying the emerging cognitive processes during infancy. We can conclude that infants are capable of learning even from the first hours after birth and show a rapid increase in their capacity to recall information and use it for further learning. Furthermore, neurobiologic models of development are beginning to define a more detailed picture of crucial phases in the first months for learning processes. There are four notable omissions in the above points and in the material covered in this review. Mentioning these in this summary serves to caution the reader that there is much more to consider, and to point to other active areas of investigation of infants' cognitive capacities. These points also serve as a partial response to the questions asked in the beginning of the paper about how far we have yet to go in our understanding of infants' learning and about what may be the observational blind spots for our generation of infancy investigators. First, we have not discussed what drives learning--why infants seek actively to acquire information and seem motivated to retain that information for later use? Lipsitt points out that much of early infant behavior is based on positive and negative responses to diverse stimuli of varying degrees of attractiveness, and that the "hedonic overtones," or the amount of pleasure, involved in a stimulus situation, certainly contribute to the infant's response. Until recently, studies of social and affective development have been essentially separate from studies of cognition. Currently, the field of "social cognition" symbolizes the link between studies of basic cognitive processes and social development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Hatch, J. Amos
"Learning as a subversive activity" is about working with public school students to debunk the shallow conception that achievement equals learning. That means exposing the power relations that keep in place such a narrow definition of what counts and exploring the implications of those powerful forces for students' lives and for society at large.…
Process-oriented learning designs are innovative learning activities that include a set of inter-related learning tasks and are generic (could be used across disciplines). An example includes a problem-solving process widely used in problem-based learning today. Most of the existing process-oriented learning designs are not documented, let alone…
Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.
Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…
Deciphering the learning mechanism which exists in man remains to be solved. This article examines the learning process with respect to association and cybernetics. It is recommended that research should focus on the transdisciplinary processes of learning which could become the next key concept in the science of man. (Author/MA)
Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease with arthritis, and causes substantial functional disability in approximately 50% patients after 10 years. Accurate measurement of the disease activity is crucial to provide an adequate treatment and care to the patients. The aim of this study is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity. Material and methods This paper focus on a computer aided diagnostic system that was developed within joint Polish–Norwegian research project related to the automated assessment of the severity of synovitis. Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Synovitis is estimated by ultrasound examiner using the scoring system graded from 0 to 3. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience or standardized ultrasound atlases. The method needs trained medical personnel and the result can be affected by a human error. Results The porotype of a computer-aided diagnostic system and algorithms essential for an analysis of ultrasonic images of finger joints are main scientific output of the MEDUSA project. Medusa Evaluation System prototype uses bone, skin, joint and synovitis area detectors for mutual structural model based evaluation of synovitis. Finally, several algorithms that support the semi-automatic or automatic detection of the bone region were prepared as well as a system that uses the statistical data processing approach in order to automatically localize the regions of interest. Conclusions Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience and the result can be affected by a human error. In this paper we presented the MEDUSA project which is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity
Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…
Andreatta, Marta; Michelmann, Sebastian; Pauli, Paul; Hewig, Johannes
Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock. During two learning blocks, participants could avoid an electric shock in 80% of the trials by pressing one button (avoidance button), or by not pressing another button (punishment button). After learning, participants underwent two test blocks, which were identical to the learning ones except that no shocks were delivered. Participants pressed the avoidance button more often than the punishment button. Importantly, response frequency increased throughout the learning blocks but it did not decrease during the test blocks, indicating impaired extinction and/or habit formation. In line with a PE account, FRN amplitude to negative feedback after correct responses (i.e., unexpected punishment) was significantly larger than to positive feedback (i.e., expected omission of punishment), and it increased throughout the blocks. Highly anxious individuals showed equal FRN amplitudes to negative and positive feedback, suggesting impaired discrimination. These results confirm the role of negative reinforcement in motivating behavior and learning, and reveal important differences between high and low anxious individuals in the processing of prediction errors.
Dalton, Margaret R.
The Missouri Professors of Educational Administration (MPEA) initiated the Leaders for Learning project to create technology based instructional materials aligned with the standards of the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). With funding from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE), faculty from…
Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman
Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…
Niemela, Joseph J.
Active learning in optics and photonics (ALOP) is a program of the International Basic Sciences Program at UNESCO, in collaboration with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and supported by SPIE, which is designed to help teachers in the developing world attract and retain students in the physical sciences. Using optics and photonics, it naturally attracts the interest of students and can be implemented using relatively low cost technologies, so that it can be more easily reproduced locally. The active learning methodology is student-centered, meaning the teachers give up the role of lecturer in favor of guiding and facilitating a learning process in which students engage in hands-on activities and active peer-peer discussions, and is shown to effectively enhance basic conceptual understanding of physics.
Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh
The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…
Simonson, Shawn R.; Shadle, Susan E.
Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) uses specially designed activities and cooperative learning to teach content and to actively engage students in inquiry, analytical thinking and teamwork. It has been used extensively in Chemistry education, but the use of POGIL is not well documented in other physical and biological sciences. This…
Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.
Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…
Texas Child Care, 1996
Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)
Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.
Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…
Phillips, Janet M
Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.
Lee, Doris; McCool, John; Napieralski, Laura
Graduate students (n=134) used the analytic hierarchy process, which weights expressed preferences, to rate four learning activities: lectures, discussion/reflection, individual projects, and group projects. Their preferences for discussion/reflection and individual projects were independent of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.…
Li, Hong; Ren, Chuanbao; Li, Luoqing
Preference learning has caused great attention in machining learning. In this letter we propose a learning framework for pairwise loss based on empirical risk minimization of U-processes via Rademacher complexity. We first establish a uniform version of Bernstein inequality of U-processes of degree 2 via the entropy methods. Then we estimate the bound of the excess risk by using the Bernstein inequality and peeling skills. Finally, we apply the excess risk bound to the pairwise preference and derive the convergence rates of pairwise preference learning algorithms with squared loss and indicator loss by using the empirical risk minimization with respect to U-processes.
Havy, Mélanie; Bouchon, Camillia; Nazzi, Thierry
Infants have remarkable abilities to learn several languages. However, phonological acquisition in bilingual infants appears to vary depending on the phonetic similarities or differences of their two native languages. Many studies suggest that learning contrasts with different realizations in the two languages (e.g., the /p/, /t/, /k/ stops have…
Gagne, Robert M.
Although the study of learning theory can produce principles applicable to the design of instruction, virtually no instructional materials in existence today have deliberately been prepared on the basis of such principles. Terms used in four different learning theories--motivation, (Neal Miller); stimulus control (Skinner); distinctive conditions…
Ford, Michael J.
This article argues for increased theoretical specificity in the active learning process. Whereas constructivist learning emphasizes construction of meaning, the process articulated here complements meaning construction with disciplinary critique. This process is an implication of how disciplinary communities generate new knowledge claims, which…
Active learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as inquiry and discovery, in which students are actively engaged in the learning process. This article describes several strategies that can be used in secondary-or college-level world geography courses. The goal of these activities is to foster development of a spatial perspective in…
Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann
Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
Clear, A. G.
International collaborative learning is becoming more viable through a variety of Internet enabled software products. Group Support Systems appear to offer promise. But it is not well understood how to facilitate the teaching and learning process in electronic environments. If education is to involve an interactive process of collaborative inquiry…
Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)
Karns, Gary L.
The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…
Goacher, Robyn E.; Kline, Cynthia M.; Targus, Alexis; Vermette, Paul J.
We describe how a practical instructional development process helped a first-year assistant professor rapidly develop, implement, and assess the impact on her Analytical Chemistry course caused by three changes: (a) moving the lab into the same semester as the lecture, (b) developing a more collaborative classroom environment, and (c) increasing…
Kujalowicz, Agnieszka; Zajdler, Ewa
Many offline studies on third language acquisition suggest strong connections between speakers' L3 and L2 rather than between their L3 and L1, especially if the foreign languages are typologically related (Cenoz, Hufeisen, & Jessner, 2001; Singleton, 2001). However, a recent online study investigating trilingual processing did not provide evidence…
Remmen, Kari Beate; Frøyland, Merethe
Follow-up activities after fieldwork are recommended, yet little research has been conducted in this area. This study investigates six cases of follow-up work carried out by three teachers and their students in three upper secondary schools in Norway. The data comprises video observations of teachers and students, instructional artifacts,…
Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin
When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena. These include repetition suppression, mismatch negativity, violation responses, place-cell activity, phase precession, theta sequences, theta-gamma coupling, evidence accumulation, race-to-bound dynamics, and transfer of dopamine responses. Furthermore, the (approximately Bayes' optimal) behavior prescribed by these dynamics has a degree of face validity, providing a formal explanation for reward seeking, context learning, and epistemic foraging. Technically, the fact that a gradient descent appears to be a valid description of neuronal activity means that variational free energy is a Lyapunov function for neuronal dynamics, which therefore conform to Hamilton's principle of least action.
Mansvelder-Longayroux, Desiree D.; Beijaard, Douwe; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.
In this study, we aimed to develop a framework that could be used to describe the value of the learning portfolio for the learning process of individual student teachers. Retrospective interviews with 21 student teachers were used, as were their portfolio-evaluation reports on their experiences of working on a portfolio. Seven functions of the…
In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…
Gomes, José Duarte Cardoso; Figueiredo, Mauro Jorge Guerreiro; Amante, Lúcia da Graça Cruz Domingues; Gomes, Cristina Maria Cardoso
Gaming activities are an integral part of the human learning process, in particular for children. Game-based learning focuses on motivation and children's engagement towards learning. Educational game-based activities are becoming effective strategies to enhance the learning process. This paper presents an educational activity focusing to merge…
Weigel, Fred K; Bonica, Mark
As educators strive toward improving student learning outcomes, many find it difficult to instill their students with a deep understanding of the material the instructors share. One challenge lies in how to provide the material with a meaningful and engaging method that maximizes student understanding and synthesis. By following a simple strategy involving Active Learning across the 3 primary domains of Bloom's Taxonomy (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), instructors can dramatically improve the quality of the lesson and help students retain and understand the information. By applying our strategy, instructors can engage their students at a deeper level and may even find themselves enjoying the process more.
Levine, I.L.; Pike, R.A.
Active metal bonding using Cusil (silver-copper) braze alloys is a well established method used at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) for bonding metal to metal, metal to ceramics, and ceramics to ceramics. However, there are many instances in which using a silver alloy for bonding is undesirable (e.g., in vacuum tube envelopes, or where sequential braze steps at different temperatures are required to complete an assembly). The Material and Processes Laboratory at GEND has discovered a new method of active brazing with non-silver alloys which has proved especially successful in ceramic-to-ceramic joints. This method has the added advantage of eliminating several steps which are required in conventional bonding techniques. 2 figs., 10 tabs.
Sieber, Stefanie; Henrich, Andreas
Comparing the typical learner only about one or two decades ago and today, an undeniable difference is evident. By now, most of traditional learning has been moved into a continuum of blended learning, as defined by Jones . In this context, especially ways for distributing learning material and contacting each other have completely changed. Learning Management Systems (LMS) are, in the majority of cases, employed to provide a basis for modern learning. Whether it comes to distance learning or not, all required material, including additional information for further reading and tasks controlling the learner’s success, is provided online such that learners can easily access all desired information any time and any place. Communication has been detached from specific points or periods in time as well. This digitalization of the learning process also bears new challenges, which have to be faced by learners as well as lecturers.
Abykanova, Bakytgul; Bilyalova, Zhupar; Makhatova, Valentina; Idrissov, Salamat; Nugumanov, Samal
Creative activity of a pedagogic process subject depends on the pedagogue's position, on his faith in the abilities to learn successfully, on encouragement of achievements, stimulating the initiative and activity. Successful learning by activating creative activity is possible with the presence of respectful attitude towards the pedagogic process…
Ivanitskaya, Lana; Clark, Deborah; Montgomery, George; Primeau, Ronald
Presents an adaptation of Biggs and Collis' (1982) Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome which illustrates stages of interdisciplinary knowledge integration and explains corresponding patterns of learners' intellectual functioning, from acquisition of single-subject information to transfer of interdisciplinary knowledge to other topics,…
Baker, Keith D.
There has been considerable emphasis on the availability and reuse of learning content in recent years. Since 2000, the ADL initiative has refined the recommendations contained in the SCORM documents through progressive stages represented in the SCORM 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 documents. Fundamental to SCORM is the notion of the Shareable Content…
Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.
Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the routine concept of Nelson and Winter.…
Pijls, Monique; Dekker, Rijkje; Van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
The study focused on the interaction between two secondary school students while they were working on computerized mathematical investigation tasks related to probability theory. The aim was to establish how such interaction helped the students to learn from one another, and how it may have hindered their learning process. The assumption was that…
Representatives of a variety of disciplines concerned with either clinical or research problems in vision and learning disabilities present reviews and reports of relevant research and clinical approaches. Contributions are organized into four broad sections: basic processes, specific disorders, diagnosis of visually based problems in learning,…
The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…
Helping students develop multiple intelligences and achieve content mastery requires teachers to design meaningful active learning experiences. Active learning uses the active engagement of the students' thinking processes in learning and applying knowledge. By designing active strategies that engage each student's strongest learning skills, a…
King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.
Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to
Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Ganesh, Gowrishankar; Robbins, Trevor; Seymour, Ben
Pavlovian conditioning underlies many aspects of pain behavior, including fear and threat detection , escape and avoidance learning , and endogenous analgesia . Although a central role for the amygdala is well established , both human and animal studies implicate other brain regions in learning, notably ventral striatum and cerebellum . It remains unclear whether these regions make different contributions to a single aversive learning process or represent independent learning mechanisms that interact to generate the expression of pain-related behavior. We designed a human parallel aversive conditioning paradigm in which different Pavlovian visual cues probabilistically predicted thermal pain primarily to either the left or right arm and studied the acquisition of conditioned Pavlovian responses using combined physiological recordings and fMRI. Using computational modeling based on reinforcement learning theory, we found that conditioning involves two distinct types of learning process. First, a non-specific "preparatory" system learns aversive facial expressions and autonomic responses such as skin conductance. The associated learning signals-the learned associability and prediction error-were correlated with fMRI brain responses in amygdala-striatal regions, corresponding to the classic aversive (fear) learning circuit. Second, a specific lateralized system learns "consummatory" limb-withdrawal responses, detectable with electromyography of the arm to which pain is predicted. Its related learned associability was correlated with responses in ipsilateral cerebellar cortex, suggesting a novel computational role for the cerebellum in pain. In conclusion, our results show that the overall phenotype of conditioned pain behavior depends on two dissociable reinforcement learning circuits.
Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.
Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…
In a very large Introductory Statistics class, i.e. in a class of more than 300 students, instructors may hesitate to apply active learning techniques, discouraged by the volume of extra work. In this paper two such activities are presented that evoke student involvement in the learning process. The first is group peer teaching and the second is…
Tammelin, Maija; Peltonen, Berit; Puranen, Pasi; Auvinen, Lis
This paper discusses learning language and communication activities that focus on students' concrete involvement in their learning process. The activities first deal with student-produced blogs and digital videos in business Spanish. They then present student-produced podcasts for Swedish business communication learners that are meant for speakers…
Yurdugül, Halil; Menzi Çetin, Nihal
Problem Statement: Learners can access and participate in online learning environments regardless of time and geographical barriers. This brings up the umbrella concept of learner autonomy that contains self-directed learning, self-regulated learning and the studying process. Motivation and learning strategies are also part of this umbrella…
Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva
Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While…
Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.
The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…
The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.
Fischer, Hans Ernst; von Aufschnaiter, Stephan
Reviews four hypotheses about learning: Comenius's transmission-reception theory, information processing theory, Gestalt theory, and Piagetian theory. Uses the categories preunderstanding, conceptual change, and learning processes to classify and assess investigations on learning processes. (PR)
Eanet, Marilyn G.
Cognitive process instruction takes a constructivist view of education and emphasizes that students must be actively involved in learning, not merely recipients of information. Four basic descriptive model-building frameworks characterize the work related to cognitive process instruction: (1) a developmental framework, (2) a microanalytic…
Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching
Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…
Weaver, Mary G
Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety of learning environments, engaging students in the learning process by having them play an active role. With some planning, preparation, and imagination, active learning strategies can be incorporated into bloodborne pathogen presentations. The purpose of this article is to define active learning, describe how to develop a program using active learning strategies, and provide some examples of bloodborne pathogen presentations that have already been developed. Several sources are identified that can provide the school nurse with information regarding bloodborne pathogens. Information about how computers can be integrated into the bloodborne pathogen presentation is also presented.
Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656
Linton, Debra L; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a "lecture" course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises.
Bailey, Don; And Others
Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…
Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija
The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…
Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.
Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614
Gleason, Brenda L.; Peeters, Michael J.; Resman-Targoff, Beth H.; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan
Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences. PMID:22171114
Lam, J M; Globas, C; Hosp, J A; Karnath, H-O; Wächter, T; Luft, A R
The ability to learn is assumed to support successful recovery and rehabilitation therapy after stroke. Hence, learning impairments may reduce the recovery potential. Here, the hypothesis is tested that stroke survivors have deficits in feedback-driven implicit learning. Stroke survivors (n=30) and healthy age-matched control subjects (n=21) learned a probabilistic classification task with brain activation measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a subset of these individuals (17 stroke and 10 controls). Stroke subjects learned slower than controls to classify cues. After being rewarded with a smiley face, they were less likely to give the same response when the cue was repeated. Stroke subjects showed reduced brain activation in putamen, pallidum, thalamus, frontal and prefrontal cortices and cerebellum when compared with controls. Lesion analysis identified those stroke survivors as learning-impaired who had lesions in frontal areas, putamen, thalamus, caudate and insula. Lesion laterality had no effect on learning efficacy or brain activation. These findings suggest that stroke survivors have deficits in reinforcement learning that may be related to dysfunctional processing of feedback-based decision-making, reward signals and working memory.
Fosshage, Erik D.; Drewien, Celeste A.; Eras, Kenneth; Hartwig, Ronald Craig; Post, Debra S.; Stoecker, Nora Kathleen
The Lessons Learned Process Improvement Team was tasked to gain an understanding of the existing lessons learned environment within the major programs at Sandia National Laboratories, identify opportunities for improvement in that environment as compared to desired attributes, propose alternative implementations to address existing inefficiencies, perform qualitative evaluations of alternative implementations, and recommend one or more near-term activities for prototyping and/or implementation. This report documents the work and findings of the team.
This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating…
Lang, Tobias; Flachsenberg, Florian; von Luxburg, Ulrike; Rarey, Matthias
A common task in the hit-to-lead process is classifying sets of compounds into multiple, usually structural classes, which build the groundwork for subsequent SAR studies. Machine learning techniques can be used to automate this process by learning classification models from training compounds of each class. Gathering class information for compounds can be cost-intensive as the required data needs to be provided by human experts or experiments. This paper studies whether active machine learning can be used to reduce the required number of training compounds. Active learning is a machine learning method which processes class label data in an iterative fashion. It has gained much attention in a broad range of application areas. In this paper, an active learning method for multiclass compound classification is proposed. This method selects informative training compounds so as to optimally support the learning progress. The combination with human feedback leads to a semiautomated interactive multiclass classification procedure. This method was investigated empirically on 15 compound classification tasks containing 86-2870 compounds in 3-38 classes. The empirical results show that active learning can solve these classification tasks using 10-80% of the data which would be necessary for standard learning techniques.
Bandura, Albert; Jeffery, Robert W.
Results were interpreted supporting a social learning view of observational learning that emphasizes contral processing of response information in the acquisition phase and motor reproduction and incentive processes in the overt enactment of what has been learned. (Author)
Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.
To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…
Bosse, Michael J.; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.
This study was designed to examine whether a set of cross-curricular learning processes could be found in the respective K-12 US national standards for math, language arts, foreign language, science, social studies, fine arts, and technology. Using a qualitative research methodology, the standards from the national associations for these content…
Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela
This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…
Pedersen, Daphne E.
In this article, the author describes the use of active and collaborative learning strategies in an undergraduate sociological theory course. A semester-long ethnographic project is the foundation for the course; both individual and group participation contribute to the learning process. Assessment findings indicate that students are able, through…
Interest of teacher educators working in the field of social justice focuses on the ways in which teachers learn to inscribe their professional activity within social movements (for progressive change. The community of practice (COP) approach to understanding learning as a social process has a lot of currency right now in teacher education…
Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula
This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…
Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia
This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…
Heisel, Marsel A.
This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…
Vidal, Franck; Meckler, Cédric; Hasbroucq, Thierry
In sensorimotor activities, learning requires efficient information processing, whether in car driving, sport activities or human–machine interactions. Several factors may affect the efficiency of such processing: they may be extrinsic (i.e., task-related) or intrinsic (i.e., subjects-related). The effects of these factors are intimately related to the structure of human information processing. In the present article we will focus on some of them, which are poorly taken into account, even when minimizing errors or their consequences is an essential issue at stake. Among the extrinsic factors, we will discuss, first, the effects of the quantity and quality of information, secondly, the effects of instruction and thirdly motor program learning. Among the intrinsic factors, we will discuss first the influence of prior information, secondly how individual strategies affect performance and, thirdly, we will stress the fact that although the human brain is not structured to function errorless (which is not new) humans are able to detect their errors very quickly and (in most of the cases), fast enough to correct them before they result in an overt failure. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors are important to take into account for learning because (1) they strongly affect performance, either in terms of speed or accuracy, which facilitates or impairs learning, (2) the effect of certain extrinsic factors may be strongly modified by learning and (3) certain intrinsic factors might be exploited for learning strategies. PMID:25762944
Sorensen, Birgitte Holm
Describes a development project for the use of computer graphics and video in connection with an inservice training course for primary education teachers in Denmark. Topics addressed include research approaches to computers; computer graphics in learning processes; activities relating to computer graphics; the role of the teacher; and student…
Rangachari, P. K.
An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In "stage 1", students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In "stage 2", each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the…
Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche
By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…
Chi, Michelene T H
Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited.
Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather
In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.
Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia
Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…
Gravani, Maria N.
The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…
Wilhelm, Pascal; Beishuizen, Jos J.
Asking learners standardized questions during performance of a self-directed inductive learning task might be a useful way to complement think aloud protocol data. However, asking questions might also scaffold the learning process and thus influence the exact processes one wants to study. In the study described in this paper two groups of learners…
Njoo, Melanie; de Jong, Ton
, but no different effects of domain specific and general information could be found. Students who were provided with hypotheses showed a higher global activity level and higher scores in domain correctness of their learning processes.
Soroush, Masoud; Weinberger, Charles B.
This manuscript presents a successful application of inductive learning in process modeling. It describes two process modeling courses that use inductive learning methods such as inquiry learning and problem-based learning, among others. The courses include a novel collection of multi-disciplinary complementary process modeling examples. They were…
Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek
Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…
A lesson structure for one-time bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions based on an active learning technique was developed. Active learning is discussed, and the "jigsaw method" is described. BI sessions presented to junior- and senior-level college students are examined, and considerations for librarians wishing to incorporate active…
Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)
van Soeren, Mary; Devlin-Cop, Sandra; Macmillan, Kathleen; Baker, Lindsay; Egan-Lee, Eileen; Reeves, Scott
Simulated learning activities are increasingly being used in health professions and interprofessional education (IPE). Specifically, IPE programs are frequently adopting role-play simulations as a key learning approach. Despite this widespread adoption, there is little empirical evidence exploring the teaching and learning processes embedded within this type of simulation. This exploratory study provides insight into the nature of these processes through the use of qualitative methods. A total of 152 clinicians, 101 students and 9 facilitators representing a range of health professions, participated in video-recorded role-plays and debrief sessions. Videotapes were analyzed to explore emerging issues and themes related to teaching and learning processes related to this type of interprofessional simulated learning experience. In addition, three focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to explore perceptions of their educational experiences. Five key themes emerged from the data analysis: enthusiasm and motivation, professional role assignment, scenario realism, facilitator style and background and team facilitation. Our findings suggest that program developers need to be mindful of these five themes when using role-plays in an interprofessional context and point to the importance of deliberate and skilled facilitation in meeting desired learning outcomes.
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.
A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547
Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A
Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task predicted reading and mathematics performance 2 years later. The results indicated that feedback learning performance predicted both reading and mathematics performance. Activity during feedback learning in left superior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted reading performance, whereas activity in presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex (pre-SMA/ACC) predicted mathematical performance. Moreover, left superior DLPFC and pre-SMA/ACC activity predicted unique variance in reading and mathematics ability over behavioral testing of feedback learning performance alone. These results provide valuable insights into the relationship between laboratory-based learning tasks and learning in school settings, and the value of neural assessments for prediction of school performance over behavioral testing alone. (PsycINFO Database Record
Thiessen, Erik D
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms. Prior theoretical approaches to statistical learning have often tried to explain or model learning in a single task. However, in many cases these approaches appear inadequate to explain performance in multiple tasks. For example, explaining word segmentation via the computation of sequential statistics (such as transitional probability) provides little insight into the nature of sensitivity to regularities among simultaneously presented features. In this article, we will present a formal computational approach that we believe is a good candidate to provide a unifying framework to explore and explain learning in a wide variety of statistical learning tasks. This framework suggests that statistical learning arises from a set of processes that are inherent in memory systems, including activation, interference, integration of information and forgetting (e.g. Perruchet & Vinter 1998 Journal of Memory and Language 39: , 246-263; Thiessen et al. 2013 Psychological Bulletin 139: , 792-814). From this perspective, statistical learning does not involve explicit computation of statistics, but rather the extraction of elements of the input into memory traces, and subsequent integration across those memory traces that emphasize consistent information (Thiessen and Pavlik
Repperger, D. W.; Goodyear, C.
An active controller was used to help train naive subjects involved in a compensatory tracking task. The controller is called active in this context because it moves the subject's hand in a direction to improve tracking. It is of interest here to question whether the active controller helps the subject to learn a task more rapidly than the passive controller. Six subjects, inexperienced to compensatory tracking, were run to asymptote root mean square error tracking levels with an active controller or a passive controller. The time required to learn the task was defined several different ways. The results of the different measures of learning were examined across pools of subjects and across controllers using statistical tests. The comparison between the active controller and the passive controller as to their ability to accelerate the learning process as well as reduce levels of asymptotic tracking error is reported here.
Glesener, G. B.
Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and
Montrezor, Luís H
The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them.
Modell, H I
Most students have spent the majority of their school career in passive learning environments in which faculty were disseminators of information, and students were required to memorize information or use specified algorithms to "solve problems." In an active learning environment, students are encouraged to engage in the process of building and testing their own mental models from information that they are acquiring. In such a learner-centered environment, faculty become facilitators of learning, and students become active participants, engaging in a dialogue with their colleagues and with the instructor. To create a successful active learning environment, both faculty and students must make adjustments to what has been their respective "traditional" roles in the classroom. For the instructor who is committed to promoting active learning, the challenge lies in helping students understand the necessity of becoming active colleagues in learning. This process can be facilitated if the curriculum includes exercises to direct students' attention to a number of issues that impact their learning. This paper describes four such exercises designed to help students form appropriate course expectations, recognize the need for seeking clarification when communicating, recognize the role of personal experience in building mental models, and become familiar with study aids for building formal models.
Dissanayeke, Uvasara; Hewagamage, K. P.; Ramberg, Robert; Wikramanayake, G. N.
The study intends to see how to introduce mobile learning within the domain of agriculture so as to enhance the agriculture education process. We propose to use the Activity theory together with other methodologies such as participatory methods to design, implement, and evaluate mLearning activities. The study explores the process of introducing…
Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R
Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.
Nogaj, Luiza A.
This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…
As our understanding of practice development becomes more sophisticated, we enhance our understanding of how the facilitation of learning in and from practice, can be more effectively achieved. This paper outlines an approach for enabling and maximizing learning within practice development known as 'Active Learning'. It considers how, given establishing a learning culture is a prerequisite for the sustainability of PD within organisations, practice developers can do more to maximize learning for practitioners and other stakeholders. Active Learning requires that more attention be given by organisations committed to PD, at a corporate and strategic level for how learning strategies are developed in the workplace. Specifically, a move away from a heavy reliance on training may be required. Practice development facilitators also need to review: how they organise and offer learning, so that learning strategies are consistent with the vision, aims and processes of PD; have skills in the planning, delivery and evaluation of learning as part of their role and influence others who provide more traditional methods of training and education.
The concept of approach "stresses relationships between intention, process and outcome within a specified context as described by an individual" (Schmeck, 1988, p. 10). This paper explores the approaches to learning of a group of mature students from the theoretical perspective of activity theory in order to gain an insight into some of the ways statistics is learned. In this framework, learning, regarded as goal-directed behaviour, is analysed by exploring the socio-historical factors relating to students' self regulation of their cognitive activities. The material is derived from questionnaires and interviews with five students, and focuses on the students' own interpretations of the contexts affecting their approaches.
Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva
Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While introducing a new methodology, it is important to weight the advantages found and the conditions that might have restrained the activity outcomes, thereby modulating its overall efficiency. Our results show that several factors are decisive for the success of the methodology: the use of specific and detailed orientation guidelines for CT skills, the students' training on how to deliver a meaningful feedback, the opportunity to counter-argument, the selection of good assignments' examples, and the constant teacher's monitoring of the activity. Results also tackle other aspects of the methodology such as the thinking skills evaluation tools (grades and tests) that most suit our reality. An improved methodology is proposed taking in account the encountered limitations, thus offering the possibility to other interested institutions to use/test and/or improve it.
Cavanagh, Andrew J.; Aragón, Oriana R.; Chen, Xinnian; Couch, Brian; Durham, Mary; Bobrownicki, Aiyana; Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.
The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure–persuasion–identification–commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n = 245) engagement in an undergraduate science course featuring active learning. Student buy-in to active learning was positively associated with engagement in self-regulated learning and students’ course performance. The positive associations among buy-in, self-regulated learning, and course performance suggest buy-in as a potentially important factor leading to student engagement and other student outcomes. These findings are particularly salient in course contexts featuring active learning, which encourage active student participation in the learning process. PMID:27909026
Chang, D-I; Lissek, S; Ernst, T M; Thürling, M; Uengoer, M; Tegenthoff, M; Ladd, M E; Timmann, D
Whereas acquisition of new associations is considered largely independent of the context, context dependency is a hallmark of extinction of the learned associations. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are known to be involved in context processing during extinction learning and recall. Although the cerebellum has known functional and anatomic connections to the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, cerebellar contributions to context processing of extinction have rarely been studied. In the present study, we reanalyzed functional brain imaging data (fMRI) of previous work investigating context effects during extinction in a cognitive associative learning paradigm in 28 young and healthy subjects (Lissek et al. Neuroimage. 81:131-3, 2013). In that study, event-related fMRI analysis did not include the cerebellum. The 3 T fMRI dataset was reanalyzed using a spatial normalization method optimized for the cerebellum. Data of seven participants had to be excluded because the cerebellum had not been scanned in full. Cerebellar activation related to context change during extinction learning was most prominent in lobule Crus II bilaterally (p < 0.01, t > 2.53; partially corrected by predetermined cluster size). No significant cerebellar activations were observed related to context change during extinction retrieval. The posterolateral cerebellum appears to contribute to context-related processes during extinction learning, but not (or less) during extinction retrieval. The cerebellum may support context learning during extinction via its connections to the hippocampus. Alternatively, the cerebellum may support the shifting of attention to the context via its known connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is critically involved in context-related processes during extinction retrieval, and there are no known connections between the cerebellum and the vmPFC, the cerebellum may be less important
Torres-Montealban, Jonas; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio; Gomez-Lozoya, Enrique Armando
As a didactic proposal, moodle e-learning platform was implemented in one of two Physics High School's group at UACH, in order to show how the use of new technologies can improve the learning progress linked to physics concepts. As a result, the first group worked at the same time with inside class activities as well as outside resources from the moodle e-platform. The second group only worked with inside class activities. This teaching application was developed in six sections. Section I defines the educational framework. Section II identifies the key physic's concepts to be studied in each proposed activity. Section III describes the didactic model. Section IV displays the compared results between similarities and differences in both groups. Section VI shows the gathered information in order to be discussed as a topic related on how new technologies improve the Physic's learning process in the high school' students.
Ramsier, R. D.
Describes an approach to incorporate active learning strategies into the first semester of a university-level introductory physics course. Combines cooperative and peer-based methods inside the classroom with project-based learning outside the classroom in an attempt to develop students' transferable skills as well as improving their understanding…
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…
Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.
This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…
Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.
The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…
Weir, Jennifer Anne
The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.
Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas; Choudhury, Naseem; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Benasich, April A.
Children with language-learning impairment (LLI) have consistently shown difficulty with tasks requiring precise, rapid auditory processing. Remediation based on neural plasticity assumes that the temporal precision of neural coding can be improved by intensive training protocols. Here, we examined the extent to which early oscillatory responses in auditory cortex change after audio-visual training, using combined source modeling and time-frequency analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Twenty-one elementary school students diagnosed with LLI underwent the intervention for an average of 32 days. Pre- and post-training assessments included standardized language/literacy tests and EEG recordings in response to fast-rate tone doublets. Twelve children with typical language development were also tested twice, with no intervention given. Behaviorally, improvements on measures of language were observed in the LLI group following completion of training. During the first EEG assessment, we found reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. Amplitude reduction for the second tone was no longer evident for the LLI children post-intervention, although these children still exhibited attenuated phase-locking. Our findings suggest that specific aspects of inefficient sensory cortical processing in LLI are ameliorated after training. PMID:23352997
Zwart, R. C.; Wubbels, Th.; Bolhuis, S.; Bergen, Th. C. M.
Just what and how eight experienced teachers in four coaching dyads learned during a 1-year reciprocal peer coaching trajectory was examined in the present study. The learning processes were mapped by providing a detailed description of reported learning activities, reported learning outcomes, and the relations between these two. The sequences of…
Learning effectiveness requires an understanding of the relationship among extracurricular activities, learning approach and academic performance and, it is argued, this helps educators develop techniques designed to enrich learning effectiveness. Biggs' Presage-Process-Product model on student learning has identified the relationship among…
In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)
Dietze, Stefan; Gugliotta, Alessio; Domingue, John
Current E-Learning technologies primarily follow a data and metadata-centric paradigm by providing the learner with composite content containing the learning resources and the learning process description, usually based on specific metadata standards such as ADL SCORM or IMS Learning Design. Due to the design-time binding of learning resources,…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.
Russell, Sally S
Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Theories of adult education are based on valuing the prior learning and experience of adults. Adult learners have different learning styles which must be assessed prior to initiating any educational session. Health care providers can maximize teaching moments by incorporating specific adult-learning principles and learning styles into their teaching strategies.
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Scarlatos, Lori L.; Scarlatos, Tony
Games are widely recognized for their potential to enhance students' learning. Yet they are only rarely used in classrooms because they cannot be modified to meet the needs of a particular class. This article describes a novel approach to creating educational software that addresses this problem: provide an interface specifically for teachers that…
Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent
Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…
Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling
Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.
Hartfield, Perry J.
In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…
de Vries, Fred J.; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter; van Rosmalen, Peter; Pannekeet, Kees; Koper, Rob
Higher education staff involved in e-learning often struggle with organising their student support activities. To a large extent this is due to the high workload involved with such activities. We distinguish support related to learning content, learning processes and student products. At two different educational institutions, surveys were…
Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M
Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.
Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon
This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems), a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD) tool, which promotes the concept of "separation of concerns" during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the…
Toetenel, Lisette; Rienties, Bart
The focus on quality improvements by institutions for better online and blended teaching can be delivered in different ways. This article reports on the implementation of this process and the approaches taken first, in terms of the design of new learning materials, and second, when reviewing the existing curriculum. The study aims to ascertain…
Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.
Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.
Luckner, John L.; Nadler, Reldan S.
This book contends that learning is enhanced through active involvement in personally meaningful experiences accompanied by processing for meaning and future use. While some processing takes place automatically, much can be done strategically to enhance and generalize learning. Intended as a resource for experiential educators and therapists, this…
de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C.; Pacitti, Bernice J.; da Silva Gomes, Jorge F.; Pearson, Alan W.
From case studies of organizational learning in research and development companies, learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning, and product innovation project review. Organizational learning involved parallel rather than linear processes of information acquisition, distribution, and interpretation and…
LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.
Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543
Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat
A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…
Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie
Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…
Goldman, Susan R.
The papers in this Special Issue were initially prepared for an EARLI 2013 Symposium that was designed to examine methodologies in use by researchers from two sister communities, Learning and Instruction and Learning Sciences. The four papers reflect a common ground in advances in conceptions of learning since the early days of the "cognitive…
Ahmed, Noveera T.
This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…
Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.
Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
Darby, Linda, Ed.
This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting…
Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming
With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…
Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko
Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.
Zapalska, Alina; Brozik, Dallas; Rudd, Denis
Educational games and simulations are excellent active learning tools that offer students hands-on experience. Little research is available on developing games and simulations and how teachers can be assisted in making their own games and simulations. In this context, the paper presents a multi-step process of how to develop games and simulations…
Mas, Ángeles; Blasco, Vicente; Lerma, Carlos; Angulo, Quiteria
This study presents an investigation about the use of multimedia procedures applied to architectural construction teaching. We have applied current technological resources, aiming to rationalize and optimize the active learning process. The experience presented to students is very simple and yet very effective. It has consisted in a simulation of…
Schalles, Matt D.; Pineda, Jaime A.
Our motor and auditory systems are functionally connected during musical performance, and functional imaging suggests that the association is strong enough that passive music listening can engage the motor system. As predictive coding constrains movement sequence selections, could the motor system contribute to sequential processing of musical passages? If this is the case, then we hypothesized that the motor system should respond preferentially to passages of music that contain similar sequential information, even if other aspects of music, such as the absolute pitch, have been altered. We trained piano naive subjects with a learn-to play-by-ear paradigm, to play a simple melodic sequence over five days. After training, we recorded EEG of subjects listening to the song they learned to play, a transposed version of that song, and a control song with different notes and sequence from the learned song. Beta band power over sensorimotor scalp showed increased suppression for the learned song, a moderate level of suppression for the transposed song, and no suppression for the control song. As beta power is associated with attention and motor processing, we interpret this as support of the motor system's activity during covert perception of music one can play and similar musical sequences. PMID:26527118
Tang, Jinhui; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Chua, Tat-Seng
User interaction is an effective way to handle the semantic gap problem in image annotation. To minimize user effort in the interactions, many active learning methods were proposed. These methods treat the semantic concepts individually or correlatively. However, they still neglect the key motivation of user feedback: to tackle the semantic gap. The size of the semantic gap of each concept is an important factor that affects the performance of user feedback. User should pay more efforts to the concepts with large semantic gaps, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a semantic-gap-oriented active learning method, which incorporates the semantic gap measure into the information-minimization-based sample selection strategy. The basic learning model used in the active learning framework is an extended multilabel version of the sparse-graph-based semisupervised learning method that incorporates the semantic correlation. Extensive experiments conducted on two benchmark image data sets demonstrated the importance of bringing the semantic gap measure into the active learning process.
Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud
Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.
Olvera-Cortés, María Esther; García-Alcántar, Iván; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; Cervantes, Miguel
The participation key role of the hippocampus in place learning ability as well as the decline of cognitive functions associated with aging, have been established in experimental and clinical studies. On the other hand, hippocampal theta activity has been proposed as a part of the cerebral phenomena underlying hippocampal-dependent learning processes. In the present study, the relative power of low, high, and maximal frequency components of hippocampal CA1 theta activity during a 6-day training period (four daily trials; basal, searching, and platform stages) and the probe trial of a place learning paradigm (Morris water maze) were analyzed in young and aged rats. An increase in high frequency, and a decrease in low frequency relative power of theta activity during the searching stage, which were correlated with shorter swimming path lengths and predominant hippocampal-dependent allocentric strategies, were observed in young rats as became trained in place learning and memory tasks, in the Morris water maze; while, under these conditions, no changes in theta activity and predominant non hippocampal-dependent egocentric strategies occurred in the old rats. Besides, an overall (theta activity recorded during the three behavioral stages) increase of low frequency and an overall decrease of high frequency theta bands in the old group as compared to the young group were observed. These electrophysiological data suggest that old rats process information relevant for cognitive functions in a different manner, possibly leading to the use of different learning strategies, than young rats.
Li, Xuhong; Ng, Peter A.
This automatic document processing system proceeds from scanning a given paper-document into the system, automatic recognizing the document layout structure, classifying it as a particular document type, which is characterized in terms of attributes to form a frame template, and extracting the pertinent information from the document to form its corresponding frame instance, which is an effective digital form of the original document. The key attribute of the system is that it is a general-purpose system, which can be adapted easily to any application domains. A segmentation method based on the 'logical closeness' is proposed. A novel and natural representation of document layout structure -- Labeled Directed Weighted Graph (LDWG) and a methodology of transforming document segmentation into LDWG representation are described. To classify a given document, we compare its layout structure with the sample layout structures of various document types prestored in the knowledge base and then use logical structure to verify the initial matching from the first step. There is a weight associated with each component of the layout structure. During the learning stage, the system can adjust the weights automatically based on the human being's correction. Modified Perceptron Learning Algorithm (PLA) is applied.
Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni
This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.
Butler, Andrew J; James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman
Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent perception and recognition of associations among multiple senses has not been investigated. Twenty participants were included in an fMRI study that explored the impact of active motor learning on subsequent processing of unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Participants were exposed to visuo-motor associations between novel objects and novel sounds either through self-generated actions on the objects or by observing an experimenter produce the actions. Immediately after exposure, accuracy, RT, and BOLD fMRI measures were collected with unisensory and multisensory stimuli in associative perception and recognition tasks. Response times during audiovisual associative and unisensory recognition were enhanced by active learning, as was accuracy during audiovisual associative recognition. The difference in motor cortex activation between old and new associations was greater for the active than the passive group. Furthermore, functional connectivity between visual and motor cortices was stronger after active learning than passive learning. Active learning also led to greater activation of the fusiform gyrus during subsequent unisensory visual perception. Finally, brain regions implicated in audiovisual integration (e.g., STS) showed greater multisensory gain after active learning than after passive learning. Overall, the results show that active motor learning modulates the processing of multisensory associations.
The study described looks at the effects of learning style profile of teams on the quality of materials developed in a collaborative learning process. The study was carried out on collaborative teams of four or five university students, formed through learner preferences. Learning styles of the teams were determined using Kolb's Learning Styles…
Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.
This study aimed to provide an account of how learning takes place in problem-based learning (PBL), and to identify the relationships between the learning-oriented activities of students with their learning outcomes. First, the verbal interactions and computer resources studied by nine students for an entire PBL cycle were recorded. The relevant…
Nguyen, Dat-Dao; Zhang, Yue
This study uses the Learning-Style Inventory--LSI (Smith & Kolb, 1985) to explore to what extent student attitudes toward learning process and outcome of online instruction and Distance Learning are affected by their cognitive styles and learning behaviors. It finds that there are not much statistically significant differences in perceptions…
Cavanagh, Andrew J.; Aragón, Oriana R.; Chen, Xinnian; Couch, Brian; Durham, Mary; Bobrownicki, Aiyana; Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.
The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure-persuasion-identification-commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n =…
Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth
The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…
Méndez Coca, David; Slisko, Josip
Many physics professors have difficulties to know and assess in real time the learning of the students in their courses. Nevertheless, today, with Internet and the new technology devices that the students use every day, like smartphones, such tasks can be carried out relatively easy. The professor pose a few questions in "Socrative," the…
Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank
Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C
One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy.
Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from
The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…
Davidovitch, Lior; Parush, Avi; Shtub, Avy
The results of empirical experiments evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning-forgetting-relearning process in a dynamic project management simulation environment are reported. Sixty-six graduate engineering students performed repetitive simulation-runs with a break period of several weeks between the runs. The students used a…
This book provides research-based, concrete strategies for creating a student-centered curriculum in which every student can learn. It breaks down the Natural Human Learning Process (NHLP) into six stages, providing guidelines and models showing educators how to create learning experiences at each stage of the process for individuals, small…
Nurses are being increasingly asked to develop leadership skills in their practice and to be actively involved in continuous change processes in the workplace. Nursing students need to be developing leadership skills prior to entering the workplace to ensure they are able to meet the challenges associated with organisations and the cultures present in nursing, along with having highly tuned communication skills and leadership attributes that contribute to best patient care and outcomes. This paper looks at how the use of Active Learning in an undergraduate setting enabled the development and implementation of a leadership subject for nursing students preparing for professional practice. Through the use of a specific model of Active Learning, incorporating multiple intelligences into education allows students to bring deeper learning to their conscience so that whole person learning is an engaged experience. It seems apparent that Active Learning is an effective means of learning about leadership in undergraduate students who are developing towards a career as a health professional.
Wepman, Joseph M.
Presented is a developmental concept of perceptual processing as related to learning disabilities in young children. Learning is seen to involve the interaction of cognitive developmental stages at the preverbal, verbal, and postverbal levels with learning disabilities seen to be due to perceptual handicaps. A model is offered which posits a…
Charles, Marie-Therese; Bustard, David; Black, Michaela
Student engagement is crucial to the success of e-learning but is often difficult to achieve in practice. One significant factor is the quality of the learning content; also important, however, is the suitability of the process through which that material is studied. In recent years much research has been devoted to improving e-learning content…
Conde, Miguel Ángel; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Casany, Marià José; Alier Forment, Marc
Learning processes are changing related to technological and sociological evolution, taking this in to account, a new learning strategy must be considered. Specifically what is needed is to give an effective step towards the eLearning 2.0 environments consolidation. This must imply the fusion of the advantages of the traditional LMS (Learning Management System) - more formative program control and planning oriented - with the social learning and the flexibility of the web 2.0 educative applications.
Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.
An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…
Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza
The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…
Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula
Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…
Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu
This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…
Griffith, John R.
Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…
Lin, Chiu-Lan Nina
The utmost goal of foreign language instruction is aimed at helping the learner master the language. At the same time the learner shall become equipped with linguistic, pragmatic and social-linguistic competence. This study was done to explore if review activities in EFL classes should be mandatory for learners to learn the new knowledge. One…
On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…
A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…
Birdwell, Jonathan; Scott, Ralph; Horley, Edward
This article explores how active citizenship can be encouraged through education and community action. It proposes that service learning and a renewed focus on voluntarism can both promote social cohesion between different ethnic and cultural groups while also fostering among the population a greater understanding of and commitment to civic…
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Donato, Clorinda; And Others
This resource book provides 26 learning activities with background materials for teaching about the Enlightenment. Topics include: (1) "What Was the Enlightenment?"; (2) "An Introduction to the Philosophes"; (3) "Was the Enlightenment a Revolt Against Rationalism?"; (4) "Were the Philosophes Democrats? A…
This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…
Grossman, Gary D.; Richards, Travis
We evaluated students' perceptions and reactions to an active learning Karaoke Video project in both a large (104 student) undergraduate class in Natural History of Georgia and a small graduate seminar in Fish Ecology. Undergraduate responses were evaluated with both questionnaires and triangulation interviews and graduate student responses…
Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.
Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.
Diniaty, Artina; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia
The learning process on capita selecta subject of Chemistry Education Department, Islamic University of Indonesia, was carried out based on reviewing of journals in chemistry and chemistry education scopes. The learning process procedure included planning, implementation and reflection. The purposes of learning were 1) students got an insight into the trend research in chemistry and chemistry education scopes, 2) students knew how to access and search journals, 3) increased students learning motivation on reading scientific journals, 4) students had be trained for reviewing scientific journals, and inspiring students to think about research ideas, performed research and publishing in scientific journals. The result showed that the students' responses in this learning were good.
Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai
The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…
Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng
This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…
Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I
Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed.
Students benefit from collaborative learning activities, but they do not automatically reach desired learning outcomes when working together (Fischer, Kollar, Mandl, & Haake, 2007; King, 2007). Learners need instructional support to increase the quality of collaborative processes and individual learning outcomes. The core challenge is to find…
Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora
There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…
Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…
NAJAM, EDWARD W.
THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…
Colardyn, Danielle; White, Kathleen M.
From a search of (mostly French) literature, a hypothesis was formulated that students with both academic training and work experience would solve a practical learning problem more easily than students with academic learning only. A study was conducted at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris to test this hypothesis. Two groups,…
Feedback has been one of the important elements of learning and teaching theories and still pervades the literature and instructional models, especially computer and web-based ones. However, the mechanisms about feedback dominating the fundamentals of all the instructional models designed for self-learning have changed considerably with the…
Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana
Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…
McDougle, Samuel D; Bond, Krista M; Taylor, Jordan A
A popular model of human sensorimotor learning suggests that a fast process and a slow process work in parallel to produce the canonical learning curve (Smith et al., 2006). Recent evidence supports the subdivision of sensorimotor learning into explicit and implicit processes that simultaneously subserve task performance (Taylor et al., 2014). We set out to test whether these two accounts of learning processes are homologous. Using a recently developed method to assay explicit and implicit learning directly in a sensorimotor task, along with a computational modeling analysis, we show that the fast process closely resembles explicit learning and the slow process approximates implicit learning. In addition, we provide evidence for a subdivision of the slow/implicit process into distinct manifestations of motor memory. We conclude that the two-state model of motor learning is a close approximation of sensorimotor learning, but it is unable to describe adequately the various implicit learning operations that forge the learning curve. Our results suggest that a wider net be cast in the search for the putative psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying the multiplicity of processes involved in motor learning.
Laine, Teemu H.; Nygren, Eeva
Technology integration is the process of overcoming different barriers that hinder efficient utilisation of learning technologies. The authors divide technology integration into two components based on technology's role in the integration process. In active integration, the technology integrates learning resources into a learning space, making it…
Harre, David; Boshier, Roger
Describes how 12 socioeconomically excluded young adults restored a New Zealand social activist's home using a process related to service learning but enhanced with critical analysis of society. Compares the process to service learning in terms of organizational setting, social class, governance, level of abstraction, conceptual and reflective…
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
White, Sheldon H.
This appendix includes seven papers which focus on various aspects of the learning processes of children ages 5-7: (1) S. Thompson, "Transitions to concrete operations: A survey of Piaget's writings" (in outline form); (2) S. H. White, "Changes in learning processes in the late preschool years," an examination of cross-cultural…
Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio
This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…
Bhusry, Mamta; Ranjan, Jayanthi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for knowledge management (KM) in the teaching-learning process in technical educational institutions (TEIs) in India, and to assert the impact of information technology (IT) based KM intervention in the teaching-learning process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the paper is…
Comacchio, Anna; Scapolan, AnnaChiara
The diffusion process of e-learning has been, in recent years, at the centre of several studies. These researches focused mainly on the USA case, where there has been an exponential adoption both in the public and private sectors. From this perspective the paper would give a contribution to understand the diffusion process of e-learning in a…
MacFarlane, Geoff R.; Markwell, Kevin W.; Date-Huxtable, Elizabeth M.
Based on the criteria of Ramsden (1992) of contextual factors that encourage a deep approach to learning, an independent, open-ended field-based activity for students of behavioural ecology was designed and implemented. The project was designed to create an authentic learning activity that allowed responsible choice in the method and content…
Mosca, Joseph B.; Agacer, Gilder; Flaming, Linda; Buzza, John
Assurance of learning process plays a major role in higher education and has increased the accountability on the part of instructors at all levels. This paper will discuss the role of assurance processes in teaching and the ways to measure these processes of student learning. The research focus will be to determine if student engagement in problem…
Hoffman, Elizabeth A.
Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)
Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin
This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…
Analyzes students' conscious second-language learning activity and language problems students themselves recognize. Students answered a questionnaire regarding their learning habits. Successful and less successful language learners did not differ from each other in their general approach to learning. High achievers excelled at studying alone. (23…
Warren, Jane A.; Hof, Kiphany R.; McGriff, Deborah; Morris, Lay-nah Blue
This article describes five creative experiential classroom activities used in teaching addictions. The activities were integrated into the classroom curriculum and were processed weekly in focused dialogue. Student reflections throughout the article add depth to the meaning gained from the experience of the change process. The students' feedback…
Cruz, Dulce Marcia; de Moraes, Marialice; Barcia, Ricardo Miranda
The adoption and use of new interactive technologies in Distance Education, especially Tele-learning is a growing tendency in the most advanced countries. Nowadays, this tendency is so strong that being interactive is seen as a necessary pre-condition. Some reasons for this are a the growing perceived value of group-working; the popularization of…
Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming
Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…
Tovey, Duane R.; And Others
Offers teachers and parents practical suggestions for helping children to begin reading naturally. Looks at specific strategies for helping young children to learn to read, particularly a built-in success procedure emphasizing nonvisual aspects of reading. (RWB)
Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline
This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…
The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…
Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip
Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…
lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica
This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…
Memis, Esra Kabatas; Öz, Muhittin
The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of using multimodal representation modes in the writing practices done by the fifth grade students on their scientific process skills. A combined research method which had both quantitative and qualitative characteristics was used in the research and the groups were chosen as control and…
Wallace, Belle; Bernardelli, Alessio; Molyneux, Clare; Farrell, Clare
All children are born with the gifts of curiosity and creativity--and an insatiable appetite for asking questions to find out about the world in which they live. Fostering these questions and developing inquisitive and investigating minds is one of the essential roles of parent and teacher, and the processes of enquiry are the necessary routes for…
Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander
Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…
In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…
Fosshage, Erik D
This report examines the lessons learned process by a review of the literature in a variety of disciplines, and is intended as a guidepost for organizations that are considering the implementation of their own closed-loop learning process. Lessons learned definitions are provided within the broader context of knowledge management and the framework of a learning organization. Shortcomings of existing practices are summarized in an attempt to identify common pitfalls that can be avoided by organizations with fledgling experiences of their own. Lessons learned are then examined through a dual construct of both process and mechanism, with emphasis on integrating into organizational processes and promoting lesson reuse through data attributes that contribute toward changed behaviors. The report concludes with recommended steps for follow-on efforts.
Ervin-Tripp, Susan M.
An examination of the play situations in which children are successful in learning second languages was undertaken based on observations that children in foreign language settings learn languages quickly in the process of daily play activities. A wide variety of activities were examined, including play phone conversations, soccer, elastic rope…
Jamieson, Kevin; Davis, IV, Warren L.
Active learning methods automatically adapt data collection by selecting the most informative samples in order to accelerate machine learning. Because of this, real-world testing and comparing active learning algorithms requires collecting new datasets (adaptively), rather than simply applying algorithms to benchmark datasets, as is the norm in (passive) machine learning research. To facilitate the development, testing and deployment of active learning for real applications, we have built an open-source software system for large-scale active learning research and experimentation. The system, called NEXT, provides a unique platform for realworld, reproducible active learning research. This paper details the challenges of building the system and demonstrates its capabilities with several experiments. The results show how experimentation can help expose strengths and weaknesses of active learning algorithms, in sometimes unexpected and enlightening ways.
Ang, Chee Siang; Zaphiris, Panayiotis
Purpose: Recently, researchers have begun investigating the learning process that occurs within computer games (learning to play), as opposed to studying games that support explicit learning for educational purposes (playing to learn). With the increasing popularity of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), some research has begun to look…
Johnson, Marie C.; Malinowski, Jon C.
Reports on a survey of faculty members (n=29) asking them to define active learning, to rate how effectively different teaching techniques contribute to active learning, and to list the three teaching techniques they use most frequently. Concludes that active learning requires establishing an environment rather than employing a specific teaching…
Taylor, William; And Others
The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…
Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.
A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…
Ma, Min; Van Oystaeyen, Fred
The authors' aim was to arrive at a measurable model of the creative process by putting creativity in the context of a learning process. The authors aimed to provide a rather detailed description of how creative thinking fits in a general description of the learning process without trying to go into an analysis of a biological description of the…
Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie
DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.
Fu, Yifan; Zhu, Xingquan; Elmagarmid, A K
Active learning (AL) traditionally relies on some instance-based utility measures (such as uncertainty) to assess individual instances and label the ones with the maximum values for training. In this paper, we argue that such approaches cannot produce good labeling subsets mainly because instances are evaluated independently without considering their interactions, and individuals with maximal ability do not necessarily form an optimal instance subset for learning. Alternatively, we propose to achieve AL with optimal subset selection (ALOSS), where the key is to find an instance subset with a maximum utility value. To achieve the goal, ALOSS simultaneously considers the following: 1) the importance of individual instances and 2) the disparity between instances, to build an instance-correlation matrix. As a result, AL is transformed to a semidefinite programming problem to select a k-instance subset with a maximum utility value. Experimental results demonstrate that ALOSS outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for AL.
Guler, Cetin; Altun, Arif
Learning objects (LOs) can be defined as resources that are reusable, digital with the aim of fulfilling learning objectives (or expectations). Educators, both at the individual and institutional levels, are cautioned about the fact that LOs are to be processed through a proper development process. Who should be involved in the LO development…
Bhavsar, Victoria; Ahn, Ruth
We reflect on how to implement the instrumental aspect of collaborative writing in such a way that the developmental aspect of collaborative writing is maximally fostered, based on conditions necessary for socially constructed learning. We discuss four instrumental strategies that bolster mutual ownership of the writing and protect the social…
Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R.
Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions…
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell
The present paper is based on two empirical research studies. The "Netbook 1:1" project (2009-2012), funded by the municipality of Gentofte and Microsoft Denmark, is complete, while "Students' digital production and students as learning designers" (2013-2015), funded by the Danish Ministry of Education, is ongoing. Both…
Amey, Marilyn J.
Community college leaders face new and diverse challenges, often requiring different orientations to leadership than were effective previously. Yet, focusing on leadership as a series of career stages through which particular skills and techniques are learned often leaves leaders without the capacity to do the adaptive work required of their…
At a recent conference sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association on Professional Learning Communities in Science, I was reminded how crucial it is for teachers to continually examine their practice. As one new to teaching physics, you may be overwhelmed by the task of helping your students develop accurate understanding of the…
A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.; Merriam, Sharan B.
Medical advances and lifestyle changes have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, older adulthood, as other life stages, requires change in work, family, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The purpose of this study was to understand this process of learning.…
Kashihara, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Masanao; Hasegawa, Shinobu; Toyoda, Jun'ichi
Hypermedia/hypertext-based resources for learning generally provide learners with hyperspace, which consists of pages and links among the pages. In the hyperspace, they can navigate the pages in a self-directed way to learn the domain concepts/knowledge. The navigation often involves constructing knowledge, in which they would make semantic relationships among the contents learned in the navigated pages. Such self-directed learning in hyperspace requires learners to reflect on their knowledge construction process, which they have carried out so far, since what and how they have learned becomes hazy as the navigation progresses. However, it is hard for them to keep reflection during navigating hyperspace. The main issue addressed in this paper is how to facilitate learners' reflection to promote their self-directed learning. Our approach to this issue is to provide learners with a learning tool, which allows learners to annotate their navigation history representation with their knowledge construction process. The annotated navigation history enables them to reflect on their knowledge construction process. This paper also demonstrates an interactive history, which generates the annotated navigation history from learners' annotation. It also generates a knowledge map that visualizes the semantic relationships among the pages learners have learned in hyperspace. This paper also describes a case study with the interactive history. The results indicate that it facilitates reflection on knowledge construction process carried out in hyperspace.
Hamilton, Janet G.; Klebba, Joanne M.
This article describes a course design process to improve the effectiveness of using experiential learning techniques to foster critical thinking skills. The authors examine prior research to identify essential dimensions of experiential learning in relation to higher order thinking. These dimensions provide key insights for the selection of…
The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…
The importance of emotions in the process of intercultural learning has been recognised, but the topic has not been extensively theorised. This theoretical review article synthesises the research literature on emotions in the context of teachers' intercultural learning. The article argues that emotions are a vital part of any change, and thus play…
With funding from Alfred West, Jr., an alumnus of The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and chairman of SEI Investments, Wharton Dean Patrick T. Harker established the Alfred West Jr. Learning Lab to explore ways "to reach a deeper understanding of how people learn and to push that process to a higher level using advancements…
Goodrum, David A.; Knuth, Randy A.
This report begins by discussing the implications of a constructivist epistemology for instructional design and development, as well as drawbacks of the content database in instruction, the lack of special tools to help the learner actively construct knowledge, and emphasis on learning environments based on individual learning. The whole learning…
Han, Wenjing; Coutinho, Eduardo; Li, Haifeng; Schuller, Björn; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Xuan
Coping with scarcity of labeled data is a common problem in sound classification tasks. Approaches for classifying sounds are commonly based on supervised learning algorithms, which require labeled data which is often scarce and leads to models that do not generalize well. In this paper, we make an efficient combination of confidence-based Active Learning and Self-Training with the aim of minimizing the need for human annotation for sound classification model training. The proposed method pre-processes the instances that are ready for labeling by calculating their classifier confidence scores, and then delivers the candidates with lower scores to human annotators, and those with high scores are automatically labeled by the machine. We demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of this method in two practical scenarios: pool-based and stream-based processing. Extensive experimental results indicate that our approach requires significantly less labeled instances to reach the same performance in both scenarios compared to Passive Learning, Active Learning and Self-Training. A reduction of 52.2% in human labeled instances is achieved in both of the pool-based and stream-based scenarios on a sound classification task considering 16,930 sound instances. PMID:27627768
Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M
Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of medical students has many characteristics that should support active learning pedagogies. The purpose of this study was to analyze student and faculty perceptions of active learning in an integrated medical curriculum at the second-year mark, where students have been exposed to multiple educational pedagogies. The first hypothesis of the study was that faculty would favor active learning methods. The second hypothesis was that Millennial medical students would favor active learning due to their characteristics. Primary faculty for years 1 and 2 and second-year medical students were recruited for an e-mail survey consisting of 12 questions about active learning and lecture. Students perceived that lecture and passive pedagogies were more effective for learning, whereas faculty felt active and collaborative learning was more effective. Students believed that more content should be covered by lecture than faculty. There were also significant differences in perceptions of what makes a good teacher. Students and faculty both felt that lack of time in the curriculum and preparation time were barriers for faculty. The data suggest that students are not familiar with the process of learning and that more time may be needed to help students develop lifelong learning skills.
Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio
This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…
Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.
National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other’s experiences in active learning. PMID:28232588
Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E
National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other's experiences in active learning.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a
Daniel, Todd; Tivener, Kristin
Scientific research into learning enhancement gained by the use of clickers in active classrooms has largely focused on the use of individual clickers. In this study, we compared the learning experiences of participants in active learning groups in which an entire small group shared a single clicker to groups in which each member of the group had…
Current research describes the benefits of active learning approaches. Clickers, or student response systems, are a technology used to promoted active learning. Most research on the benefits of using clickers in the classroom has shown that students become engaged and enjoy using them. However, research on learning outcomes has only compared the…
Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.
Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…
Carter, Fonda L.; Hogan, Patrick T.
Some colleges and universities are utilizing the inclusion of more active learning techniques in course content. Active learning involves students in thinking about what they are doing as they accomplish tasks or assignments in order to develop a deeper understanding of the topic or issue. In addition to a focus on enhancing student learning, the…
De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem
The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…
Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.
We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…
This article examines constructivist philosophies for learning with an emphasis on student-centered environments in education and the active involvement of students in learning as they relate new understanding to what they already know and refine previous skills in terms of newly acquired proficiencies. Active learning is explored from a…
Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine
This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…
Rao, S P; DiCarlo, S E
Active involvement in the learning process has been suggested to enhance creative thinking, judgement, interpretation, and problem-solving skills. Therefore, educators are encouraged to create an active-learning environment by incorporating active-learning strategies into the class. However, there is very little documentation of the effectiveness of active-learning strategies. Furthermore, faculty are often reluctant to incorporate new strategies without documentation of the effectiveness of these strategies. To address this concern, we compared the performance of two individual classes on an identical respiratory physiology examination. One class was taught respiratory physiology using active-learning strategies. The other class was taught respiratory physiology using the traditional lecture format. The results document that students who learned using active-learning strategies did significantly better (P < 0.05) on the respiratory physiology examination than students who learned by the traditional lecture format (61 +/- 2.2 vs. 86 +/- 1.0). Thus, by actively involving students in the learning process, academic performance is enhanced.
Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101
DebBurman, Shubhik K
Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.
Discussion of learning processes and methods for use with adult learners by the teaching staff, extension committees, councils, and other policy making bodies. Paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (Editor/ABM)
In 2004, we launched a new calculus-based, introductory physics sequence at Washington University. Designed as an alternative to our traditional lecture-based sequence, the primary objectives for this new course were to actively engage students in the learning process, to significantly strengthen students' conceptual reasoning skills, to help students develop higher level quantitative problem solving skills necessary for analyzing ``real world'' problems, and to integrate modern physics into the curriculum. This talk will describe our approach, using The Six Ideas That Shaped Physics text by Thomas Moore, to creating an active learning environment in large classes as well as share our perspective on key elements for success and challenges that we face in the large class environment.
Spelt, P.F.; de Saussure, G.; Lyness, E.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.
The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) was founded at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research/Division of Engineering and Geoscience (DOE-OER/DEG) to conduct basic research in the area of intelligent machines. Therefore, researchers at the CESAR Laboratory are engaged in a variety of research activities in the field of machine learning. In this paper, we describe our approach to a class of machine learning which involves motor response acquisition using feedback from trial-and-error learning. Our formulation is being experimentally validated using an autonomous robot, learning tasks of control panel monitoring and manipulation for effect process control. The CLIPS Expert System and the associated knowledge base used by the robot in the learning process, which reside in a hypercube computer aboard the robot, are described in detail. Benchmark testing of the learning process on a robot/control panel simulation system consisting of two intercommunicating computers is presented, along with results of sample problems used to train and test the expert system. These data illustrate machine learning and the resulting performance improvement in the robot for problems similar to, but not identical with, those on which the robot was trained. Conclusions are drawn concerning the learning problems, and implications for future work on machine learning for autonomous robots are discussed. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
In contrast to traditional types of learning and teaching processes and learning media, such as printed material for Web and hypermedia learning resources, Web resources and Web-based activities are quite often unfortunately more or less separate parts of the planning process and curriculum documentation in an organization's traditional…
This paper places classroom discourse and interaction right at the heart of the teaching and learning process. It is built on the argument that high quality talk between the teacher and student(s) provides a fertile ground for an active, highly collaborative and cognitively stimulating learning process leading to improved learning outcomes. High…
Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities which deal with plants. Basic concepts about plants are presented through the use of laboratory experiences, learning stations, field trips, and…
Jordan, Debra J.
Learning names is vital to the enjoyment and productivity of a group. Presents four games to help campers learn each others' names. Sidebar presents three additional teambuilding activities and ice breakers. (TD)
Collazos, Cesar A.; Guerrero, Luis A.; Pino, Jose A.; Renzi, Stefano; Klobas, Jane; Ortega, Manuel; Redondo, Miguel A.; Bravo, Crescencio
Much of the research on collaborative work focuses on the quality of the group outcome as a measure of success. There is less research on the collaboration process itself, but an understanding of the process should help to improve both the process and the outcomes of collaboration. Understanding and analyzing collaborative learning processes…
Ignatova, Natalija; Dagiene, Valentina; Kubilinskiene, Svetlana
How to enable students to create a personalized learning environment? What are the criteria of evaluation of the ICT-based learning process personalization affordance? These questions are answered by conducting multiple case study research of the innovative ICT-based learning process in iTEC (Innovative Technologies for Engaging Classrooms)…
Sanchez-Elez, Marcos; Pardines, Inmaculada; Garcia, Pablo; Miñana, Guadalupe; Roman, Sara; Sanchez, Margarita; Risco, Jose Luis
The use of new technologies in higher education has surprisingly emphasized students' tendency to adopt a passive behavior in class. Participation and interaction of students are essential to improve academic results. This paper describes an educational experiment aimed at the promotion of students' autonomous learning by requiring them to generate test type questions related to the contents of the course. The main idea is to make the student feel part of the evaluation process by including students' questions in the evaluation exams. A set of applications running on our university online learning environment has been developed in order to provide both students and teachers with the necessary tools for a good interaction between them. Questions uploaded by students are visible to every enrolled student as well as to each involved teacher. In this way, we enhance critical analysis skills, by solving and finding possible mistakes in the questions sent by their fellows. The experiment was applied over 769 students from 12 different courses. Results show that the students who have actively participated in the experiment have obtained better academic performance.
Paul, Vanaja; Ekambaram, Perumal
Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from the amino acid, L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has received attention as a neurotransmitter in the brain. NO has been found to induce cognitive behaviour in experimental animals. In order to show evidence for the involvement of NO in learning and memory processes, the reports indicating the effects of its precursor, donors, and inhibitors of its synthesis in mammals, birds, fishes and invertebrates have been reviewed. Further, learning and memory impairment occurring in man and animals due to defective NO activity in the brain due to pathological conditions such as epilepsy, stress, diabetes and side effects of therapeutic agents and reversal of this condition by L-arginine and NO donors have been included. In addition, the reports that indicate ageing-induced impairment of cognition that is known to occur in Alzheimer's disease due to deposition of the toxic protein, beta amyloid and the effect of L-arginine and NO donors in preventing dementia in these patients have been reviewed. PMID:21623030
This paper is a first report from the project "Activity Learning and Cooperation," financed by the Swedish Board of Education. The aim of the project is to establish a theoretical basis for a field study of locally initiated experiments using various teaching strategies. More specifically, this paper is restricted to a discussion of the…
Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn
Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…
Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila
The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning.
Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.
Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html
Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.
Prothero, W. A.
One of the most effective ways of teaching science process is to have students take part in the same activities that practicing scientists engage in. These activities include studying the current research in the field, discussing ideas with colleagues, formulating a research problem, making a proposal defining the problem and plan of attack, presenting and writing about the results of the study, and critically reviewing the work of others. An inquiry curriculum can use these activities to guide the scaffolding of assignments and learning experiences that help students learn science process. At UCSB, students in a large general education oceanography class use real Earth data to study plate tectonics, the Indian Monsoon, climate change, and the health of the world fisheries. The end product for each subject has been a science paper based on Earth data. Over a period of approximately 15 years, the scaffolding of activities to prepare each student for the written assignments has been modified and improved, in response to student feedback and their success with the assignments. I have found that the following resources and sequence of activities help the oceanography students write good science papers. 1. Lecture: motivation and the opportunity for feedback and questions. 2. Textbook: background information. It is also possible to get the information from the internet, but unless the scope of reading is strictly defined, students don't know when to stop reading and become unhappy. 3. Online assignments: automatically graded assignments that force the student to keep up with reading. 4. Questions of the day: in-class handouts, with diagrams that the students either complete, or answer questions about. They are handed in and tallied, but not graded. They also inform the instructor of misconceptions. 5. Thought questions: student answers are posted on a threaded discussion list, and are due prior to lecture. The answers provide instructor feedback and guide the lecture
Paatz, Roland; Ryder, James; Schwedes, Hannelore; Scott, Philip
The purpose of this case study is to analyse the learning processes of a 16-year-old student as she learns about simple electric circuits in response to an analogy-based teaching sequence. Analogical thinking processes are modelled by a sequence of four steps according to Gentner's structure mapping theory (activate base domain, postulate local…
Shahrokni, Seyed Abdollah; Talaeizadeh, Ali
This article attempts to investigate the learning processes in blended language learning through assessing sources of information: logs, chat and forum scripts, and semi-structured interviews. Creating a MOODLE-based parallel component to face-to-face instruction for a group of EFL learners, we probed into 2,984 logged actions providing raw…
Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro
In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…
Keijzer, Ronald; Terwel, Jan
Research in mathematics education offers a considerable body of evidence that both high and low-achievers can benefit from learning mathematics in meaningful contexts. This case study offers an in-depth analysis of the learning process of a low-achieving student in the context of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). The focus is on the use of…
Expectations for simulations in healthcare education are high; however, little is known about healthcare students' expectations of the learning process in virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs). This research aims to describe first-year healthcare students' (N=97) expectations regarding teaching, studying, and…
Furukawa, James M.
High cognitive processing capacity (CPC) students were superior to low-CPC students in prose learning. Of the four learning modes--programmed instruction (PI), control, chunking study outline, and adjunct questions--PI was the most effective. Substantial CPC and performance correlations and poor long-term retention suggested that PI was not best…
Chen, Yukun; Mani, Subramani; Xu, Hua
Supervised machine learning methods for clinical natural language processing (NLP) research require a large number of annotated samples, which are very expensive to build because of the involvement of physicians. Active learning, an approach that actively samples from a large pool, provides an alternative solution. Its major goal in classification is to reduce the annotation effort while maintaining the quality of the predictive model. However, few studies have investigated its uses in clinical NLP. This paper reports an application of active learning to a clinical text classification task: to determine the assertion status of clinical concepts. The annotated corpus for the assertion classification task in the 2010 i2b2/VA Clinical NLP Challenge was used in this study. We implemented several existing and newly developed active learning algorithms and assessed their uses. The outcome is reported in the global ALC score, based on the Area under the average Learning Curve of the AUC (Area Under the Curve) score. Results showed that when the same number of annotated samples was used, active learning strategies could generate better classification models (best ALC-0.7715) than the passive learning method (random sampling) (ALC-0.7411). Moreover, to achieve the same classification performance, active learning strategies required fewer samples than the random sampling method. For example, to achieve an AUC of 0.79, the random sampling method used 32 samples, while our best active learning algorithm required only 12 samples, a reduction of 62.5% in manual annotation effort.
Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Mori, Takayuki; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi
Human teaching is a social interaction that supports reciprocal and dynamical feedback between the teacher and the student. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a region of particular interest due to its demonstrated role in social interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the PFC activity simultaneously in two individuals playing the role of a teacher and student in a video game teaching-learning task. For that, we used two wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive interactions between teachers and students. Fifteen teacher-student pairs in total (N = 30) participated in this study. Each teacher was instructed to teach the video game to their student partner, without speaking. The PFC activity was simultaneously evaluated in both participants using a wearable 16-channel NIRS system during the video game teaching-learning task. Two sessions, each including a triplet of a 30-s teaching-learning task, were performed in order to evaluate changes in PFC activity after advancement of teaching-learning state. Changes in the teachers' left PFC activity between the first and second session positively correlated with those observed in students (r = 0.694, p = 0.004). Moreover, among teachers, multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between the left PFC activity and the assessment gap between one's own teaching and the student's understanding (β = 0.649, p = 0.009). Activity in the left PFC changed synchronously in both teachers and students after advancement of the teaching-learning state. The left PFC of teachers may be involved in integrating information regarding one's own teaching process and the student's learning state. The present observations indicate that simultaneous recording and analysis of brain activity data during teacher-student interactions may be useful in the field of educational neuroscience.
Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Mori, Takayuki; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi
Human teaching is a social interaction that supports reciprocal and dynamical feedback between the teacher and the student. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a region of particular interest due to its demonstrated role in social interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the PFC activity simultaneously in two individuals playing the role of a teacher and student in a video game teaching–learning task. For that, we used two wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices in order to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive interactions between teachers and students. Fifteen teacher–student pairs in total (N = 30) participated in this study. Each teacher was instructed to teach the video game to their student partner, without speaking. The PFC activity was simultaneously evaluated in both participants using a wearable 16-channel NIRS system during the video game teaching–learning task. Two sessions, each including a triplet of a 30-s teaching–learning task, were performed in order to evaluate changes in PFC activity after advancement of teaching–learning state. Changes in the teachers’ left PFC activity between the first and second session positively correlated with those observed in students (r = 0.694, p = 0.004). Moreover, among teachers, multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between the left PFC activity and the assessment gap between one’s own teaching and the student’s understanding (β = 0.649, p = 0.009). Activity in the left PFC changed synchronously in both teachers and students after advancement of the teaching–learning state. The left PFC of teachers may be involved in integrating information regarding one’s own teaching process and the student’s learning state. The present observations indicate that simultaneous recording and analysis of brain activity data during teacher–student interactions may be useful in the field of educational neuroscience. PMID:28119650
For the specific requirements of the 14nm and 20nm site applications a new CD map approach was developed at the AMTC. This approach relies on a well established machine learning technique called recursive partitioning. Recursive partitioning is a powerful technique which creates a decision tree by successively testing whether the quantity of interest can be explained by one of the supplied covariates. The test performed is generally a statistical test with a pre-supplied significance level. Once the test indicates significant association between the variable of interest and a covariate a split performed at a threshold value which minimizes the variation within the newly attained groups. This partitioning is recurred until either no significant association can be detected or the resulting sub group size falls below a pre-supplied level.
McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual. PMID:22375897
McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.
Caceffo, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rodolfo
The constructivist theory indicates that knowledge is not something finished and complete. However, the individuals must construct it through the interaction with the physical and social environment. The Active Learning is a methodology designed to support the constructivism through the involvement of students in their learning process, allowing…
Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian
This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu
This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…
Spence, Ian; Stan-Spence, Aileen
Learned helplessness is an insidious condition involving undeveloped executive functioning, lack of persistence, and an undeveloped sense of connecting new words or concepts into a web of meanings. Remedial teaching in most small-group, diagnostic/prescriptive settings encourages continued learned helplessness because students are dependent on the…
Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.
Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman
Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of 'acids and bases'. Sample The sample of this study was 45 high-school students (average age 17 years) from two different classes, which were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) and control groups (n = 25), in a high school in Turkey. Design and methods A pre-test consisting of 25 items was applied to both experimental and control groups before the treatment in order to identify student prerequisite knowledge about their proficiency for learning 'acids and bases'. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the pre-test scores for groups and no significant difference was found between experimental (ME = 40.14) and control groups (MC = 41.92) in terms of mean scores (F 1,43 = 2.66, p > 0.05). The experimental group was taught using an active-learning curriculum developed by the authors and the control group was taught using traditional course content based on teacher-centered instruction. After the implementation, 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' scores were collected for both groups. Results ANOVA results showed that students' 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' post-test scores differed significantly in terms of groups (F 1,43 = 102.53; p < 0.05). Additionally, in this study 54 misconceptions, 14 of them not reported in the literature before, were observed in the following terms: 'acid and base theories'; 'metal and non-metal oxides'; 'acid and base strengths'; 'neutralization'; 'pH and pOH'; 'hydrolysis'; 'acid-base equilibrium'; 'buffers'; 'indicators'; and 'titration'. Based on the achievement test and individual interview results, it was found that high-school students in the experimental group had fewer misconceptions and understood the
Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.
Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593
Park, Mary Kay
Using a grounded theory method, this dissertation seeks to discover how relationships impact organizational generative learning. An organization is a socially constructed reality and organizational learning is situated in the process of co-participation. To discover the link between relationships and generative learning this study considers the…
Johnson, Scott D.; Suriya, Chanidprapa; Won Yoon, Seung; Berrett, Jared V.; La Fleur, Jason
This study of distance education students enrolled in a masters program taught entirely online describes the community building process of virtual learning teams as they form, establish roles and group norms, and address conflict. Topics include interaction within groups; factors that guided group process and decision making; collaboration; use of…
Margoliash, Daniel; Schmidt, Marc F.
The study of song learning and the neural song system has provided an important comparative model system for the study of speech and language acquisition. We describe some recent advances in the bird song system, focusing on the role of off-line processing including sleep in processing sensory information and in guiding developmental song…
M-learning is learning supported by mobile devices and intelligent user interfaces. Compared to the prior generation a few years ago, storage capacity and screen size of mobile devices as well as transfer speed of wireless connections have significantly increased. Equipped with mobile devices, learners can conduct learning activities at anytime…
Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja
Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…
Kuczma, R. M.
Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…
van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe
Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…
Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel
Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…
Describes a student learning activity used to teach the meaning of percentage composition, mole concept, selective precipitation, and limiting factors. Presents two word problems and their solutions. (CW)
Aird, H. M.
An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises
function of semantic, graphic and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 471-480. LaBerge , D. Attention...and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-278. LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in perceptual and...Univ A. Stevens , Holt Beranek & Newman, Cambridge, 1A D. Stone, SUY, Albany P. Suppes, Stanford Uuiv H. Swaminathan, Univ of Massachusetts K. Tatsuoka
At a recent conference sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association on Professional Learning Communities in Science, I was reminded how crucial it is for teachers to continually examine their practice. As one new to teaching physics, you may be overwhelmed by the task of helping your students develop accurate understanding of the concepts that are the essence of physics while still maintaining some semblance of order in your classroom. Consider your thoughts about some of the following questions as a way to begin to examine your practice: 1) Have you identified the most important models or ideas you want your students to develop or are you simply following the curriculum outlined in the chapters of your text or those mandated by your state or institution? 2) Have you developed a storyline on which you want the concepts to be built or are you presenting physics as a set of facts, formulas, and problems to be solved? 3) Are you confident in your content knowledge or do you feel that you are just staying one day ahead of your students? 4) Do you have assessment strategies developed to probe for understanding throughout the concept development or do you rely mainly on chapter tests and summative assessments? 5) Do you feel you work in isolation or are you collaborating with colleagues to examine the practices that are most effective for motivating learners while managing the day-to-day requirements of teaching?.
Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G
Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the behavioural effects of tutors in terms of subject-matter expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence on students' learning process and on their final achievement. The extent of students' learning at each PBL phase was estimated by tracking the number of relevant concepts recalled at the end of each learning phase, while student achievement was based on students' ability to describe and elaborate upon the relationship between relevant concepts learned. By using Analysis of Covariance, social congruence of the tutor was found to have a significant influence on learning in each PBL phase while all of the tutor-related behaviours had a significant impact on student achievement. The results suggest that the ability of tutors to communicate informally with students and hence create a less threatening learning environment that promotes a free flow exchange of ideas, has a greater impact on learning at each of the PBL phases as compared to tutors' subject-matter expertise and their ability to explain concepts in a way that is easily understood by students. The data presented indicates that these tutor-related behaviours are determinants of learning in a PBL curriculum, with social congruence having a greater influence on learning in the different PBL phases.
Schaap, Harmen; Baartman, Liesbeth; de Bruijn, Elly
Learning in vocational schools and workplaces are the two main components of vocational education. Students have to develop professional competences by building meaningful relations between knowledge, skills and attitudes. There are, however, some major concerns about the combination of learning in these two learning environments, since vocational…
Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Girardi-de-Mendonça, José Márcio; de Morais-Pinto, Neila Maria; Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Pinto-Porto, Cláudia; Moreira, Tânia; Hoffmann, Leandro Marcial Amaral
The vertiginous transformations of the contemporary societies have been raising questions concerning aspects of professional education. Such questions have been raised in a more and more incisive way. This debate gains a new shape when applied to health work, where theory and practice cannot be dissociated, and where the development of an integral vision of the human being and the amplification of the concept care are essential for a proper performance. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the main methodological transformations in the education process of health professionals, with emphasis to active teaching-learning methodologies.
Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret
This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…
Landerl, Karin; Willburger, Edith
In a large sample (N = 439) of literacy impaired and unimpaired elementary school children the predictions of the temporal processing theory of dyslexia were tested while controlling for (sub)clininal attentional deficits. Visual and Auditory Temporal Order Judgement were administered as well as three subtests of a standardized attention test. The…
Pacheco, Patricio H.; Correa, Rafael D.
A registration procedure based data tracking classroom activities students formed into teams, which are immersed in basic learning processes, particularly physical sciences is presented. For the analysis of the data various mathematical tools to deliver results in numerical indicators linking their learning, performance, quality of relational nexus to transformation their emotions. The range of variables under observation and further study, which is influenced by the evolution of the emotions of the different teams of students, it also covers the traditional approach to information delivery from outside (teaching in lecture) or from inside each team (abilities of pupils) to instructional materials that enhance learning inquiry and persuasion.
Lou, Xinghua; Schiegg, Martin; Hamprecht, Fred A
One distinguishing property of life is its temporal dynamics, and it is hence only natural that time lapse experiments play a crucial role in modern biomedical research areas such as signaling pathways, drug discovery or developmental biology. Such experiments yield a very large number of images that encode complex cellular activities, and reliable automated cell tracking emerges naturally as a prerequisite for further quantitative analysis. However, many existing cell tracking methods are restricted to using only a small number of features to allow for manual tweaking. In this paper, we propose a novel cell tracking approach that embraces a powerful machine learning technique to optimize the tracking parameters based on user annotated tracks. Our approach replaces the tedious parameter tuning with parameter learning and allows for the use of a much richer set of complex tracking features, which in turn affords superior prediction accuracy. Furthermore, we developed an active learning approach for efficient training data retrieval, which reduces the annotation effort to only 17%. In practical terms, our approach allows life science researchers to inject their expertise in a more intuitive and direct manner. This process is further facilitated by using a glyph visualization technique for ground truth annotation and validation. Evaluation and comparison on several publicly available benchmark sequences show significant performance improvement over recently reported approaches. Code and software tools are provided to the public.
Bartoli, Alberto; De Lorenzo, Andrea; Medvet, Eric; Tarlao, Fabiano
We consider the automatic synthesis of an entity extractor, in the form of a regular expression, from examples of the desired extractions in an unstructured text stream. This is a long-standing problem for which many different approaches have been proposed, which all require the preliminary construction of a large dataset fully annotated by the user. In this paper, we propose an active learning approach aimed at minimizing the user annotation effort: the user annotates only one desired extraction and then merely answers extraction queries generated by the system. During the learning process, the system digs into the input text for selecting the most appropriate extraction query to be submitted to the user in order to improve the current extractor. We construct candidate solutions with genetic programming (GP) and select queries with a form of querying-by-committee, i.e., based on a measure of disagreement within the best candidate solutions. All the components of our system are carefully tailored to the peculiarities of active learning with GP and of entity extraction from unstructured text. We evaluate our proposal in depth, on a number of challenging datasets and based on a realistic estimate of the user effort involved in answering each single query. The results demonstrate high accuracy with significant savings in terms of computational effort, annotated characters, and execution time over a state-of-the-art baseline.
Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta
This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…
Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter
This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…
Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard
Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…
Marenzi, I.; Zerr, S.
This paper discusses the development of LearnWeb2.0, a search and collaboration environment for supporting searching, organizing, and sharing distributed resources, and our pedagogical setup based on the multiliteracies approach. In LearnWeb2.0, collaborative and active learning is supported through project-focused search and aggregation, with…
Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Akira
Japanese National Institutes of Technology have revealed a plan to strongly promote e-Learning and active learning under the common schematization of education in over 50 campuses nationwide. Our e-Learning and ICT-driven education practiced for more than fifteen years were highly evaluated, and is playing a leading role in promoting e-Learning…
Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate
Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…
Guedes, Glauteice Freitas; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Silva, Gilberto Tadeu Reis da
This study aimed to understanding the meaning attributed by teaching staff throughout the traineeship from nursing under graduation course in intensive care on the teaching and learning process. It's a study of phenomenological qualitative approach. The data were obtained through the following guiding question: 'How do you live the teaching-learning process at the ICU traineeship?'. From the subjects' descriptions, four open categories came up: 'An awakening to ICU', 'A searching for how to teaching Nursing in Intensive Care', 'A connection between the teaching staff and the students' and 'A meaningful experience'. This study showed that this living experience, which is shared, permits an approaching and the meeting of the teaching staff with the students in this setting, facilitating the teaching-learning process.
White, A. S.; Censlive, M.; Neilsen, D.
This paper investigates how control theory could be applied to learning processes in engineering education. The initial point for the analysis is White's Double Loop learning model of human automation control modified for the education process where a set of governing principals is chosen, probably by the course designer. After initial training the student decides unknowingly on a mental map or model. After observing how the real world is behaving, a strategy to achieve the governing variables is chosen and a set of actions chosen. This may not be a conscious operation, it maybe completely instinctive. These actions will cause some consequences but not until a certain time delay. The current model is compared with the work of Hollenbeck on goal setting, Nelson's model of self-regulation and that of Abdulwahed, Nagy and Blanchard at Loughborough who investigated control methods applied to the learning process.
Rangachari, P K
An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In stage 1, students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In stage 2, each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the other reports and prepared detailed critiques. In stage 3, each report was discussed at sessions where the lead discussant was selected at random. All students participated in the peer review process. The written critiques were collated and returned to each group, who were asked to resubmit their revised reports within 2 wk. In stage 4, final submissions accompanied by rebuttals were graded. Student responses to a questionnaire were highly positive. They recognized the individual steps in the standard peer review, appreciated the complexities involved, and got a first-hand experience of some of the inherent variabilities involved. The absence of formal presentations and the opportunity to read each other's reports permitted them to study issues in greater depth.
Mayhew, Stephen D; Li, Sheng; Kourtzi, Zoe
Learning is known to facilitate our ability to detect targets in clutter and optimize brain processes for successful visual recognition. Previous brain-imaging studies have focused on identifying spatial patterns (i.e., brain areas) that change with learning, implicating occipitotemporal and frontoparietal areas. However, little is known about the interactions within this network that mediate learning-dependent improvement in complex perceptual tasks (i.e., discrimination of visual forms in clutter). Here we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous EEG-fMRI to identify the learning-dependent changes in spatiotemporal brain patterns that mediate enhanced behavioral sensitivity in the discrimination of global forms after training. We measured the observers' choices when discriminating between concentric and radial patterns presented in noise before and after training. Similarly, we measured the choices of a pattern classifier when predicting each stimulus from EEG-fMRI signals. By comparing the performance of human observers and classifiers, we demonstrated that learning alters sensitivity to visual forms and EEG-fMRI activation patterns related to distinct visual recognition processes. In particular, behavioral improvement after training was associated with changes in (1) early processes involved in the integration of global forms in higher occipitotemporal and parietal areas, and (2) later processes related to categorical judgments in frontal circuits. Thus, our findings provide evidence that learning acts on distinct visual recognition processes and shapes feedforward interactions across brain areas to support performance in complex perceptual tasks.
Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F
Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.
Jensen, Jamie L; Kummer, Tyler A; d M Godoy, Patricia D
The "flipped classroom" is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process.
Jensen, Jamie L.; Kummer, Tyler A.; Godoy, Patricia D. d. M.
The “flipped classroom” is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process. PMID:25699543
Metacognition in the form of metacognitive knowledge (MK) -in this case, beliefs about learning-provides a database from which the learner can select strategies for the regulation of learning. However, strategic regulation presupposes that the learner is aware that learning is not progressing well, or fluently, or has failed. This awareness takes the form of metacognitive experiences (ME), that is, feelings, estimates, or judgments related to the features of the learning task, of the cognitive processing as it takes place, or of its outcome. The critical feature of ME is their affective character which gives them access both to the cognitive and the affective regulatory loop of behavior. Being part of the affective loop, ME are related to motivation and self-processes; being part of the cognitive loop, they are connected to MK and to metacognitive skills, the latter being declarative and procedural knowledge. Thus, ME offer awareness that links the present with the past learning experiences and facilitates or inhibits self-regulation of learning in the present as well as in the future.
DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth
Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory.
Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi
Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201
Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.
A multidisciplinary approach based on concepts from sociology, educational psychology, statistical physics, and computational science is developed for the theoretical description of teaching-learning processes that take place in the classroom. The emerging model is consistent with well-established empirical results, such as the higher achievements reached working in collaborative groups and the influence of the structure of the group on the achievements of the individuals. Furthermore, another social learning process that takes place in massive interactions among individuals via the Internet is also investigated.
Bordogna, C M; Albano, E V
A multidisciplinary approach based on concepts from sociology, educational psychology, statistical physics, and computational science is developed for the theoretical description of teaching-learning processes that take place in the classroom. The emerging model is consistent with well-established empirical results, such as the higher achievements reached working in collaborative groups and the influence of the structure of the group on the achievements of the individuals. Furthermore, another social learning process that takes place in massive interactions among individuals via the Internet is also investigated.
Essig, A; Caplan, S R
Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows.
Alves, Elcilene Andreíne Terra Durgante; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen
The aim of this study was to identijf how nursing students perceive and experience the learning process during curricular practice in a hospital setting. A qualitative, retrospective, documentary study was developed in an undergraduate nursing course. Data were comprised of 162 posts made by 34 students in the online discussion forum of the Learning Management System Moodle, during the first half of 2011. The following themes emergedfrom t he thematic content analysis: "nursing students' understanding about the professional practice," and "the teaching and learning process in the perspective of nursing students." The study demonstrated that the forum was a place for reporting experiences such as the description of the physical area, performing procedures, perception of nursing care activities, conJlicts with peers, coping with death and learning evaluation. The online discussion forum needs to be used by professors as a space of interaction so as to contribute to professional training.
Peters, Andrew J; Chen, Simon X; Komiyama, Takaki
The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are not fully understood. Here we addressed this issue by using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of the same population of hundreds of layer 2/3 neurons while mice learned a forelimb lever-press task over two weeks. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons were identified by transgenic labelling. Inhibitory neuron activity was relatively stable and balanced local excitatory neuron activity on a movement-by-movement basis, whereas excitatory neuron activity showed higher dynamism during the initial phase of learning. The dynamics of excitatory neurons during the initial phase involved the expansion of the movement-related population which explored various activity patterns even during similar movements. This was followed by a refinement into a smaller population exhibiting reproducible spatiotemporal sequences of activity. This pattern of activity associated with the learned movement was unique to expert animals and not observed during similar movements made during the naive phase, and the relationship between neuronal activity and individual movements became more consistent with learning. These changes in population activity coincided with a transient increase in dendritic spine turnover in these neurons. Our results indicate that a novel and reproducible activity-movement relationship develops as a result of motor learning, and we speculate that synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex underlies the emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity patterns for learned movements. These results underscore the profound influence of learning on the way that the cortex produces movements.
Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse
Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…
This article describes how teachers effectively manage learning through active engagement of all students throughout each class period. A case study is presented which demonstrates how students learn through active and reflective engagement with ideas, the environment, and other learners (National Middle School Association, 2010). The case study…
Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique
The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…
Braxton, John M.; Jones, Willis A.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Hartley, Harold V., III
Active learning, which entails any class activity that "involves students doing things and thinking about the things that they are doing," stands as an important pedagogical practice. Discussion, the types of questions faculty ask students in class, role playing, cooperative learning, debates, and the types of questions faculty ask on examinations…
Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.
Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…
Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.
This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…
Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.
Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…
Hunter, William J.
In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…
For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…
Lee, Eunjeong; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.; de Water, Ed; Gerritsen, Hans; Bakker, Mattijs C.; Kalwij, Jan A. W.; van Goudoever, Tjerk; Buster, Wietze H.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.
To meet an increasing need to examine the neurophysiological underpinnings of behavior in rats, we developed a behavioral system for studying sensory processing, attention and discrimination learning in rats while recording firing patterns of neurons in one or more brain areas of interest. Because neuronal activity is sensitive to variations in…
Oermann, Marilyn H
Many creative teaching strategies have been developed in recent years in nursing and other fields to promote active learning. These strategies foster development of problem solving, critical thinking, and communication skills, and they encourage students to work collaboratively with peers. However, in nurse educators' rush to embrace active learning, lecture has been viewed negatively by some faculty. Rather than positioning active learning against lecture, another approach is to integrate active learning within lecture, gaining the benefits of both methods. An integrated approach also takes into consideration the situation of teaching large groups of students. This article examines benefits of an integrated approach to teaching and presents strategies for active learning intended for use with lecture.
Berry, Stacy Jane
There has been an increased emphasis for college instruction to incorporate more active and collaborative involvement of students in the learning process. These views have been asserted by The Association of American Colleges (AAC), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and The National Research Counsel (NRC), which are advocating for the…
Heinze, Sibylle; Sartory, Gudrun; Müller, Bernhard W; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Jüptner, Markus
Successful and unsuccessful intention to learn words was assessed by means of event-related functional MRI. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants were scanned while being given two word lists to read and another seven to learn with immediate recall. Neural activation patterns were segregated according to whether words were subsequently recalled or forgotten and these conditions were contrasted with each other and reading. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits with regard to neural recruitment of right hippocampus and of cerebellar structures during successful verbal learning. Furthermore, a reversal of activated structures was evident in the two groups: Controls showed activation of right frontal and left middle temporal structures during the unsuccessful intention to learn. During successful learning, there was additional activation of right superior parietal lobule. In contrast, patients showed activation of right superior parietal lobule during unsuccessful and successful intention to learn. There were additional frontal and left middle temporal lobe activations during successful learning. We conclude that increased parietal activity may reflect a mechanism which compensates for the lack of hippocampal and cerebellar contributions to verbal learning in schizophrenia.
Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gerome C; Lavisse, Dominique; Perrin, Philippe P
This study aimed to assess the efficiency of a motor skill learning method intended to promote learning course personalization through an increase in cognitive processing deployment in motor-handicapped persons. Thirty-three secondary school students volunteered to participate in an archery motor skill learning session, 11 motor-handicapped (MH(1)) and 11 able-bodied (AB) teenagers following a standard learning method, and 11 motor-handicapped teenagers following a cognitive enriched learning method (MH(2)) based on the use of an individually written and illustrated document. The results showed that MH(1) displayed lower performances than AB, both in terms of the mental representations of the movements expected and performed and of efficiency of the movement. On the other hand, MH(2) performances were higher than MH(1) for all these parameters, and similar to those of AB at the end of the learning session. Personalization of the learning course allowed optimization of the learning potential in motor-handicapped teenagers to resolve the difficulties inherent to their handicap.
Holden, William R.
This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…
Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde
This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…
Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.
This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…
Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.
Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…
This article discusses how information technologies and globalization have opened new avenues and horizons for educators and learners. It discusses different experiences of using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in teaching learning process the world over in the age of globalization. It focuses on the ways these new trends have…
Inamullah, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Ud Din, M. Naseer
Teachers play a vital role in the classroom environment. Interaction between teacher and students is an essential part of the teaching/learning process. An educator, Flanders originally developed an instrument called Flanders Interaction Analysis (FIA). The FIA system was designed to categorize the types, quantity of verbal interaction and direct…
This article illustrates how coaching students to think about their study processes and to monitor their learning can really pay off. Grazyna Niezgoda, a veteran instructor at New York City College of Technology, is reviewing an algebra quiz in front of a crowded section of developmental mathematics--a noncredit course for students who have failed…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to further studies of theoretical and conceptual understanding of teachers' team learning processes, with a main focus on team work, team atmosphere, and collective reflections. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study was designed as a multi-case study in a research and development…
Merriam, Sharan B.; Ntseane, Gabo
Transformational learning as presented by Jack Mezirow has been critiqued for its Western, rational, and cognitive orientation. This qualitative study was conducted in the African nation of Botswana and examines how that culture shaped the process. In-depth interviews were held with 12 adults who acknowledged having an experience that had…
Biggs, John B.
This manual describes the theory behind the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and explains what the subscale and scale scores mean. The SPQ is a 42-item self-report questionnaire used in Australia to assess the extent to which a tertiary student at a college or university endorses different approaches to learning and the motives and strategies…
Norwood, Glenda R.
In addition to identifying the causes and physical effects of various nutritional deficiencies, this discussion describes the effects of each deficiency on the learning process. The recommended daily food intake for children and teenagers is also noted. Eight types of nutritional deficiency are discussed in detail: (1) malnutrition (both…
Aksal, Fahriye A.
The research study aims to underline the development of a new scale on online learning and teaching process based on factor analysis. Further to this, the research study resulted in acceptable scale which embraces social interaction role, interaction behaviour, barriers, capacity for interaction, group interaction as sub-categories to evaluate…
This document describes the development and implementation of an open learning course for shift operators who work in British process industries. The course was developed collaboratively during 1979-82 by B.P. Chemicals Ltd. and Grimsby College of Technology and Arts, using the Business and Technician Education Council certification program.…
de la Fuente, Jesus; Lopez-Medialdea, Ana Maria
Introduction: Advising in Educational Psychology from the perspective of RDI takes on a stronger investigative, innovative nature. The model proposed by De la Fuente et al (2006, 2007) and Education & Psychology (2007) was applied to the field of improving teaching-learning processes at a school. Hypotheses were as follows: (1) interdependence…
Zhu, Suning; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.
A high-impact practice is to incorporate experiential learning projects when teaching difficulty subject matters so as to enhance students' understanding and interest in the course content. But, there is limited research on how to design and execute such projects. Therefore, we propose a framework based on the processes described by the Project…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
Although commonly cited as explanations for patterns of sibling similarity and difference, observational learning and sibling deidentification processes have rarely been examined directly. Using a person-oriented approach, we identified patterns in adolescents' perceptions of sibling influences and connected these patterns to sibling similarities…
Havy, Melanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry
Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a…
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.
Scientific literacy has been defined as the foremost challenge of this decade (AAAS, 2012). The Geological Society of American in its position statement postis that due to the systemic nature of the discipline of earth science, it is the most effective way to engage students in STEM disciplines. Given that the most common place for exposure to earth sciences is at the freshman level for non majors, we decided to transform a freshman introductory geology course to an active, student centered course, using an inquiry based approach. Our focus was to ensure the students saw the earth sciences as broadly applicative field, and not an esoteric science. To achieve this goal, we developed a series of problems that required the students to apply the concepts acquired through their self guided learning into the different topics of the course. This self guided learning took the form of didactic content uploaded into the learning management system (the various elements used to deliver the content were designed video clips, short text based lectures, short formative assessments, discussion boards and other web based discovery exercises) with the class time devoted to problem solving. A comparison of student performance in the active learning classroom vs. a traditional classroom as measured on a geoscience concept inventory (the questions were chosen by a third party who was not teaching either courses) showed that the the students in the active learning classroom scored 10% higher on the average in comparison to the traditional class. In addition to this heightened performance, the students in the active classroom also showed a higher degree of content retention 8 weeks after the semester had ended. This session will share the design process, some exercises and efficacy data collected.
The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…
Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.
Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…
Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David
Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.
Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel
Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative.
Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel
Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative. PMID:25994679
Csábi, Eszter; Németh, Dezso
The role of sleep in different memory processes is debated. Probably it plays an active role in the memory consolidation or possibly it prevents forgetting by protecting against interference or it makes the memory performance more efficient by facilitating the forgetting. The beneficial effect of sleep in explicit memory is well demonstrated, while the role of sleep in implicit mechanisms has not been comprehensively characterized so far. There are several factors which affect the appearance of sleep effect, such as the structure, the length and the complexity of sequence being used, the awareness of the sequence, the length of the learning blocks and the offline period. Besides the classical sleep deprivation methods with healthy participants, examining patients with sleep disorders could be a new method of the investigation of the sleep effect which enables us to enrich our knowledge not only about the sleep-dependent memory consolidation but also the cognitive dysfunction related to sleep pathologies. This new line of research can help the development of more effective rehabilitation programs.
Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie
This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…
Hamamé, Carlos M.; Cosmelli, Diego; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Aboitiz, Francisco
Background Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d') and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP) components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30–60 Hz) and alpha (8–14 Hz) frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes. PMID:21541280
Thwaits, Anne Y.
What is the nature of art/science collaborations in museums? How do art objects and activities contribute to the successes of science centers? Based on the premise that art exhibitions and art-based activities engage museum visitors in different ways than do strictly factual, information-based displays, I address these questions in a case study that examines the roles of visual art and artists in the Exploratorium, a museum that has influenced exhibit design and professional practice in many of the hands-on science centers in the United States and around the world. The marriage of art and science in education is not a new idea---Leonardo da Vinci and other early polymaths surely understood how their various endeavors informed one another, and some 20th century educators understood the value of the arts and creativity in the learning and practice of other disciplines. When, in 2010, the National Science Teachers Association added an A to the federal government's ubiquitous STEM initiative and turned it into STEAM, art educators nationwide took notice. With a heightened interest in the integration of and collaboration between disciplines comes an increased need for models of best practice for educators and educational institutions. With the intention to understand the nature of such collaborations and the potential they hold, I undertook this study. I made three site visits to the Exploratorium, where I took photos, recorded notes in a journal, interacted with exhibits, and observed museum visitors. I collected other data by examining the institution's website, press releases, annual reports, and fact sheets; and by reading popular and scholarly articles written by museum staff members and by independent journalists. I quickly realized that the Exploratorium was not created in the way than most museums are, and the history of its founding and the ideals of its founder illuminate what was then and continues now to be different about this museum from most others in the
Bays, Brett C.; Visscher, Kristina M.; Le Dantec, Christophe C.; Seitz, Aaron R.
In studies of perceptual learning (PL), subjects are typically highly trained across many sessions to achieve perceptual benefits on the stimuli in those tasks. There is currently significant debate regarding what sources of brain plasticity underlie these PL-based learning improvements. Here we investigate the hypothesis that PL, among other mechanisms, leads to task automaticity, especially in the presence of the trained stimuli. To investigate this hypothesis, we trained participants for eight sessions to find an oriented target in a field of near-oriented distractors and examined alpha-band activity, which modulates with attention to visual stimuli, as a possible measure of automaticity. Alpha-band activity was acquired via electroencephalogram (EEG), before and after training, as participants performed the task with trained and untrained stimuli. Results show that participants underwent significant learning in this task (as assessed by threshold, accuracy, and reaction time improvements) and that alpha power increased during the pre-stimulus period and then underwent greater desynchronization at the time of stimulus presentation following training. However, these changes in alpha-band activity were not specific to the trained stimuli, with similar patterns of posttraining alpha power for trained and untrained stimuli. These data are consistent with the view that participants were more efficient at focusing resources at the time of stimulus presentation and are consistent with a greater automaticity of task performance. These findings have implications for PL, as transfer effects from trained to untrained stimuli may partially depend on differential effort of the individual at the time of stimulus processing. PMID:26370167
Singh, Vijay A.; Pathak, Praveen; Pandey, Pratyush
Few phenomena are as complex as the teaching-learning (TL) process. The instruction efficiency and information on the state of knowledge of the student group are some key variables in this process. Guided by Shannon’s definition of information we propose an entropy based performance index ( Sp) for monitoring the teaching-learning process. Our index is based on item response curves (IRCs) which have been recently employed in physics education research. Our proposed index is an explicit function of the ability θ. A preliminary survey indicates that Sp is low (high) for high (low) ability student groups. We propose a simple model to explain this. We have also carried out a number of controlled studies to study the dependence of Sp on student ability, peer instruction and collaborative learning. Our studies indicate that Sp plays a role analogous to entropy in statistical mechanics, with student ability being akin to inverse temperature, peer instruction to an ordering (magnetic) field and collaborative learning to interacting components.
Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio
Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.
A report on learning psychology and its relationship to the study of school learning emphasizes the increasing interaction between theorists and educational practitioners, particularly in attempting to learn which variables influence the instructional process and to find an appropriate methodology to measure and evaluate learning. "Learning…
Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy; Sinclair, Christine M.
Peer Instruction (PI) is an evidence based pedagogy commonly used in undergraduate physics instruction. When asked questions designed to test conceptual understanding, it has been observed that the proportion of students choosing the correct answer increases following peer discussion; however, relatively little is known about what takes place during these discussions or how they are beneficial to the processes of learning physics [M. C. James and S. Willoughby, Am. J. Phys. 79, 123 (2011)]. In this paper a framework for analyzing PI discussions developed through the lens of the "resources model" [D. Hammer, Am. J. Phys. 64, 1316 (1996); D. Hammer et al., Information Age Publishing (2005)] is proposed. A central hypothesis for this framework is that the dialogue with peers plays a crucial role in activating appropriate cognitive resources, enabling the students to see the problem differently, and therefore to answer the questions correctly. This framework is used to gain greater insights into the PI discussions of first year undergraduate physics students at the University of Edinburgh, UK, which were recorded using Livescribe Smartpens. Analysis of the dialogues revealed three different types of resource activation corresponding to increasing cognitive grain size. These were activation of knowledge elements, activation of linkages between knowledge elements, and activation of control structures (epistemic games and epistemological frames). Three case studies are examined to illustrate the role that peer dialogue plays in the activation of these cognitive resources in a PI session. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.
Nokia, Miriam S; Anderson, Megan L; Shors, Tracey J
Chemotherapy, especially if prolonged, disrupts attention, working memory and speed of processing in humans. Most cancer drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier also decrease adult neurogenesis. Because new neurons are generated in the hippocampus, this decrease may contribute to the deficits in working memory and related thought processes. The neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits are generally unknown. A possible mediator is hippocampal oscillatory activity within the theta range (3-12 Hz). Theta activity predicts and promotes efficient learning in healthy animals and humans. Here, we hypothesised that chemotherapy disrupts learning via decreases in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity. Temozolomide was administered to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in a cyclic manner for several weeks. Treatment was followed by training with different types of eyeblink classical conditioning, a form of associative learning. Chemotherapy reduced both neurogenesis and endogenous theta activity, as well as disrupted learning and related theta-band responses to the conditioned stimulus. The detrimental effects of temozolomide only occurred after several weeks of treatment, and only on a task that requires the association of events across a temporal gap and not during training with temporally overlapping stimuli. Chemotherapy did not disrupt the memory for previously learned associations, a memory independent of (new neurons in) the hippocampus. In conclusion, prolonged systemic chemotherapy is associated with a decrease in hippocampal adult neurogenesis and theta activity that may explain the selective deficits in processes of learning that describe the 'chemobrain'.
Liao, W.; Rosenhahn, B.; Yang, M. Ying
Complex activity modeling and identification of anomaly is one of the most interesting and desired capabilities for automated video behavior analysis. A number of different approaches have been proposed in the past to tackle this problem. There are two main challenges for activity modeling and anomaly detection: 1) most existing approaches require sufficient data and supervision for learning; 2) the most interesting abnormal activities arise rarely and are ambiguous among typical activities, i.e. hard to be precisely defined. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model complex activities and detect anomalies by using non-parametric Gaussian Process (GP) models in a crowded and complicated traffic scene. In comparison with parametric models such as HMM, GP models are nonparametric and have their advantages. Our GP models exploit implicit spatial-temporal dependence among local activity patterns. The learned GP regression models give a probabilistic prediction of regional activities at next time interval based on observations at present. An anomaly will be detected by comparing the actual observations with the prediction at real time. We verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model on the QMUL Junction Dataset. Furthermore, we provide a publicly available manually labeled ground truth of this data set.
Schertzer, D.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Tassin, B.; Thevenot, D.
Water cycle is a very good example of a complex geosystem which has many societal impacts and drivers. A permanent and ubiquitous question is how to increase public awareness and understanding of its extreme behaviours, as well as of the related uncertainties. For instance, CEREVE is highly solicited to help the general public, particularly the youth, and the local politicians to get better acquainted with the new water culture in general and with flood risks in particular, in the nearby county Val-de-Marne. Since 2001, May is the month of the "Festival de l'Oh"(which sounds like "Festival de l'Eau", i.e. the water festival co-organized by the county council and city of Paris. "Oh » at the same time partly displays the chemical composition of water and is an exclamation for atonishment). This festival starts with the Scientific Days of Environment that involve researchers and students of the county, as well as collaborators of all around the world. This conference is open to the public who can be informed from the latest research developments, in particular with the help of some general synthesis and panel discussions. On the other hand, (young) researchers can present their own works to a large public. This conference is followed by a Professional Forum where students, heads of water public services or private operators can meet. In the framework of the water festival preparation, there are several water forums for the secondary schools. All along the year, there are regular pedagogical activities for secondary schools, in particular in the framework of Water Houses scattered across the county. We will discuss the importance to better evaluate the effective impact of these pedagogical events on the public awareness and understanding, and to make the learning process more adaptive and interactive, as well as to better address the underlying fundamental problems, e.g. the present limitations of current modelling and data processing.
Joanisse, Marc F; McClelland, James L
The field of formal linguistics was founded on the premise that language is mentally represented as a deterministic symbolic grammar. While this approach has captured many important characteristics of the world's languages, it has also led to a tendency to focus theoretical questions on the correct formalization of grammatical rules while also de-emphasizing the role of learning and statistics in language development and processing. In this review we present a different approach to language research that has emerged from the parallel distributed processing or 'connectionist' enterprise. In the connectionist framework, mental operations are studied by simulating learning and processing within networks of artificial neurons. With that in mind, we discuss recent progress in connectionist models of auditory word recognition, reading, morphology, and syntactic processing. We argue that connectionist models can capture many important characteristics of how language is learned, represented, and processed, as well as providing new insights about the source of these behavioral patterns. Just as importantly, the networks naturally capture irregular (non-rule-like) patterns that are common within languages, something that has been difficult to reconcile with rule-based accounts of language without positing separate mechanisms for rules and exceptions.
Gaines, Daniel M.; Wilkes, Don M.; Kusumalnukool, Kanok; Thongchai, Siripun; Kawamura, Kazuhiko; White, John H.
Reinforcement learning techniques have been successful in allowing an agent to learn a policy for achieving tasks. The overall behavior of the agent can be controlled with an appropriate reward function. However, the policy that is learned will be fixed to this reward function. If the user wishes to change his or her preference about how the task is achieved the agent must be retrained with this new reward function. We address this challenge by combining Spreading Activation Networks and Reinforcement Learning in an approach we call SAN-RL. This approach provides the agent with a causal structure, the spreading activation network, relating goals to the actions that can achieve those goals. This enables the agent to select actions relative to the goal priorities. We combine this with reinforcement learning to enable the agent to learn a policy. Together, these approaches enable the learning of a configurable behaviors, a policy that can be adapted to meet the current preferences. We compare the approach with Q-learning on a robot navigation task. We demonstrate that SAN-RL exhibits goal-directed behavior before learning, exploits the causal structure of the network to focus its search during learning and results in configurable behaviors after learning.
Molnar, Alex; Roy, Will
This book contains 65 specific activities designed to help disadvantaged students learn to use language more skillfully and develop the ability to function well in the school environment. The descriptions of the activities are referred to as shoe box labs and generally include the title of the activity, instructions for performing the activity,…
Previous work suggests that, when attended, pictures may be processed more readily than words. The current study extends this research to assess potential differences in processing between these stimulus types when they are actively ignored. In a dual-task paradigm, facilitated recognition for previously ignored words was found provided that they appeared frequently with an attended target. When adapting the same paradigm here, previously unattended pictures were recognized at high rates regardless of how they were paired with items during the primary task, whereas unattended words were later recognized at higher rates only if they had previously been aligned with primary task targets. Implicit learning effects obtained by aligning unattended items with attended task-targets may apply only to conceptually abstract stimulus types, such as words. Pictures, on the other hand, may maintain direct access to semantic information, and are therefore processed more readily than words, even when being actively ignored. PMID:28122022
There is considerable evidence from the physics education literature that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts. A better teaching method is to use the active learning environment, which can be created using interactive lecture demonstrations. Based on the active learning methodology and within the framework of the UNESCO mandate in physics education and introductory physics, the ALOP project (active learning in optics and photonics) was started in 2003, to provide a focus on an experimental area that is adaptable and relevant to research and educational conditions in many developing countries. This project is discussed in this paper.
Brown, Liana E; Wilson, Elizabeth T; Goodale, Melvyn A; Gribble, Paul L
There are reciprocal connections between visual and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. Although recent studies have provided intriguing new insights, in comparison with volume of research on the visual control of movement, relatively little is known about how movement influences vision. The motor system is perfectly suited to learn about environmental forces. Does environmental force information, learned by the motor system, influence visual processing? Here, we show that learning to compensate for a force applied to the hand influenced how participants predicted target motion for interception. Ss trained in one of three constant force fields by making reaching movements while holding a robotic manipulandum. The robot applied forces in a null [null force field (NFF)], leftward [leftward force field (LFF)], or [rightward force field (RFF)] direction. Training was followed immediately with an interception task. The target accelerated from left to right and Ss's task was to stab it. When viewing time was optimal for prediction, the RFF group initiated their responses earlier and hit more targets, and the LFF group initiated their responses later and hit fewer targets, than the NFF group. In follow-up experiments, we show that motor learning is necessary, and we rule out the possibility that explicit force direction information drives how Ss altered their predictions of visual motion. Environmental force information, acquired by motor learning, influenced how the motion of nearby visual targets was predicted.
Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan
Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making.
Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob
Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…
Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.
This environmental education program consists of two levels: primary and intermediate. The learning materials are activity based and incorporate process and subject area skills with knowledge and concern for the environment. The program is also interdisciplinary including activities and skills from art, language arts, mathematics, music, science,…
Sarason, Yolanda; Banbury, Catherine
University faculty are increasingly called on to be less of a sage on the stage and more a guide on the side. This discussion introduces the underlying philosophy and assumptions of active learning theory. With this shift in pedagogical philosophy, there has been an increasing call for tools that actively engage students in the learning process. A…
Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities dealing with chemistry. Basic concepts about chemistry are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, demonstrations, worksheet exercises…
Based on the idea that active participation stimulates the processes by which learning takes place, this document provides teachers and students with a variety of information and learning activities dealing with energy. Concepts about energy are presented through the use of laboratory experiments, demonstrations, worksheet exercises and individual…
Bodemer, Daniel; Ploetzner, Rolf; Bruchmuller, Katrin; Hacker, Sonja
When learners explore dynamic and interactive visualisations they are often not able to interact with them in a systematic and goal-oriented way. Frequently, even supporting learners in processes of discovery learning does not lead to better learning outcomes. This can be due to missing pre-requisite knowledge such as the coherent mental…
Rissanen, A. J.
Lifelong learning and diverse technical information are challenges for designing curricula. The Finnish National Defence University (NDU) provides undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in academic and military disciplines according to the Bologna process. Technology is one of the major learning lines at the NDU, but basic scientific education…
This study explores how non-native speakers of English think of words to enter into library databases when they begin the process of searching for information in English. At issue is whether or not language learning takes place when these students use library databases. Language learning in this study refers to the use of strategies employed by…
Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron
Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…
Krout, John A.; Bergman, Elizabeth; Bianconi, Penny; Caldwell, Kathryn; Dorsey, Julie; Durnford, Susan; Erickson, Mary Ann; Lapp, Julia; Monroe, Janice Elich; Pogorzala, Christine; Taves, Jessica Valdez
This article provides an overview of the activities included in a 3-year, multidisciplinary, intergenerational service-learning project conducted as part of a Foundation for Long-Term Care Service Learning: Linking Three Generations grant. Courses from four departments (gerontology, psychology, occupational therapy, and health promotion and…
Inquiry-based learning is a topic of growing interest in the mathematical community. Much of the focus has been on using these methods in calculus and higher-level classes. This article describes the design and implementation of a set of inquiry-based learning activities in a Math for Liberal Arts course at a small, private, Catholic college.…
Shoval, Ella; Shulruf, Boaz
The goal of this study is to identify learners who are most likely to benefit from a small group cooperative learning strategy, which includes tasks involving movement activities. The study comprised 158 learners from five second and third grade classes learning about angles. The research tools included structured observation of each learner and…
Keen, Cheryl H.; Woods, Robert
In this article, we interpreted, in light of Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, interviews with 13 educators regarding their work with marginalized adult learners in prisons in the northeastern United States. Transformative learning may have been aided by the educators' response to unplanned activating events, humor, and respect, and…
Cronk, Rob; And Others
Describes two learning activities: (1) high school students design and construct a wind powered monohull vessel to travel a predetermined distance in the least amount of time; and (2) sixth graders learn about energy by doing gas and electric meter reading. (Author/JOW)
Osorio Gomez, Luz Adriana; Duart, Josep M.
In order to get a better understanding of subject design and delivery using a hybrid approach, we have studied a hybrid learning postgraduate programme offered by the University of the Andes, Bogota, Colombia. The study analyses students' perceptions of subject design and delivery, with particular reference to learning activities and the roles of…
Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace
This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.
Kissock, Craig, Ed.
This handbook, and the VITAL Science Series videotapes, contain 12 lessons that are examples of some of the many ways of organizing elementary school classrooms for science instruction. The videotapes that are available separately demonstrate full class and small group activities, the use of learning centers, cooperative learning, and outdoor…
Markant, Douglas B.; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gureckis, Todd M.; Xu, Fei
Despite widespread consensus among educators that "active learning" leads to better outcomes than comparatively passive forms of instruction, it is often unclear why these benefits arise. In this article, we review research showing that the opportunity to control the information experienced while learning leads to improved memory…
Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.
The similarities and differences of Canada and the United States are explored in this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Ten learning objectives are given which encourage students to examine: 1) the misconceptions Americans and Canadians have about each other and their ways of life; 2) the effect and influence of French and English exploration and…
Bobich, Joseph A.
This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side".…
James, Giovanna; Milligan, Jerry L.
Fourteen holistic, meaning-based reading and writing activities appropriate for students with learning disabilities are described, along with the theoretical background of the paradigm. As children experiment, approximate, and discover language naturally and socially, their immersion in authentic spoken and written language facilitates learning to…
Kuczma, R. M.
Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…
Lafond, Celia; Bovey, Nadia Spang
For the last six years, the university has been offering a Tutorial Programme for learning French, combining intensive courses and highly individualised learning activities. The programme is based on an ethnolinguistic approach and it is continuously monitored. It aims at rapid progress through contact with the local population, real-life…
Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming
This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.
Berry, Stacy Jane
There has been an increased emphasis for college instruction to incorporate more active and collaborative involvement of students in the learning process. These views have been asserted by The Association of American Colleges (AAC), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and The National Research Counsel (NRC), which are advocating for the modification of traditional instructional techniques to allow students the opportunity to be more cooperative (Task Group on General Education, 1988). This has guided educators and facilitators into shifting teaching paradigms from a teacher centered to a more student-centered curriculum. The present study investigated achievement outcomes and attitudes of learners in a large enrollment (n ~ 200), introductory geology course using a student centered learning cycle format of instruction versus another similar section that used a traditional lecture format. Although the course is a recruiting class for majors, over 95% of the students that enroll are non-majors. Measurements of academic evaluation were through four unit exams, classroom communication systems, weekly web-based homework, in-class activities, and a thematic collaborative poster/paper project and presentation. The qualitative methods to investigate the effectiveness of the teaching design included: direct observation, self-reporting about learning, and open-ended interviews. By disaggregating emerging data, we tried to concentrate on patterns and causal relationships between achievement performance and attitudes regarding learning geology. Statistical analyses revealed positive relationships between student engagement in supplemental activities and achievement mean scores within and between the two sections. Completing weekly online homework had the most robust relationship with overall achievement performance. Contrary to expectations, a thematic group project only led to modest gains in achievement performance, although the social and professional gains could be
Assessment is a powerful learning tool that can enhance learning and education. The process of student assessment should align with curricular goals and educational objectives. Identifying the assessment strategies necessary for the proper evaluation of students' progress within individual programs is as important as establishing curricular content and delivery methods. The purpose of this paper is to discuss elements to be considered in assessment design and implementation as well as common challenges encountered during this process. Elements to be considered during assessment design include purpose of assessment, domains to be tested, and characteristics of the assessment tools to be employed. Assessment tools are evaluated according to four main characteristics: relevance, feasibility, validity, and reliability. Based on the evidence presented in the literature, the use of a variety of assessment tools is recommended to match diverse domains and learning styles. The assessment cycle concludes with the evaluation of the results and, based on these, the institution, program, or course can make changes to improve the quality of education. If assessment design aligns with educational outcomes and instructional methods, it improves the quality of education and supports student learning.
Giebel, S; Rainer, M
Models for financial asset dynamics usually take into account their inherent unpredictable nature by including a suitable stochastic component into their process. Unknown (forward) values of financial assets (at a given time in the future) are usually estimated as expectations of the stochastic asset under a suitable risk-neutral measure. This estimation requires the stochastic model to be calibrated to some history of sufficient length in the past. Apart from inherent limitations, due to the stochastic nature of the process, the predictive power is also limited by the simplifying assumptions of the common calibration methods, such as maximum likelihood estimation and regression methods, performed often without weights on the historic time series, or with static weights only. Here we propose a novel method of "intelligent" calibration, using learning neural networks in order to dynamically adapt the parameters of the stochastic model. Hence we have a stochastic process with time dependent parameters, the dynamics of the parameters being themselves learned continuously by a neural network. The back propagation in training the previous weights is limited to a certain memory length (in the examples we consider 10 previous business days), which is similar to the maximal time lag of autoregressive processes. We demonstrate the learning efficiency of the new algorithm by tracking the next-day forecasts for the EURTRY and EUR-HUF exchange rates each.
The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…