Griffith, John R.
Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…
Taylor, William; And Others
The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…
Active learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as inquiry and discovery, in which students are actively engaged in the learning process. This article describes several strategies that can be used in secondary-or college-level world geography courses. The goal of these activities is to foster development of a spatial perspective in…
Phillips, Janet M
Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.
Weaver, Mary G
Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety of learning environments, engaging students in the learning process by having them play an active role. With some planning, preparation, and imagination, active learning strategies can be incorporated into bloodborne pathogen presentations. The purpose of this article is to define active learning, describe how to develop a program using active learning strategies, and provide some examples of bloodborne pathogen presentations that have already been developed. Several sources are identified that can provide the school nurse with information regarding bloodborne pathogens. Information about how computers can be integrated into the bloodborne pathogen presentation is also presented.
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…
Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.
Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…
Cooper, Leslie; Weaver, Mary G.
Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety…
This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.
Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.
This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.
Gleason, Brenda L.; Peeters, Michael J.; Resman-Targoff, Beth H.; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan
Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences. PMID:22171114
Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.
A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.
Montrezor, Luís H.
The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…
The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games.
Sokoloff, David R.
There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among…
Montrezor, Luís H
The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them.
Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed
The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…
Nicholson, Anita Christine
This study examined differences in the effects of three active-learning teaching strategies (case-based learning, simulation, and simulation with narrative pedagogy) on the outcomes of nursing student performance of intervention activities, performance retention of intervention activities, student satisfaction, self-confidence, and educational…
Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai
The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…
Medical educators often deliver complex material in a format that does not allow the positive learning engagement recommended by cognitive researchers and theorists. Intentional engagement and active learning pedagogies change the nature of learning, while simultaneously improving knowledge gain and recall abilities. Students find the work more interesting and thereby put more effort into it. Historical perspective reveals that medical faculty need to make changes in their teaching methodologies. However, transforming pedagogical practice is difficult, as medical faculty have not had much exposure to pedagogical theory or training. While simple steps can be taken to alter basic lecture formatting, these steps may be unfamiliar to medical faculty. Seven methods for adapting parts of lectures are described. Practice with such methods may engender exploration of epistemological and cognitive aspects of deeper understanding.
Alarcon, Hugo; Zavala, G.; Fernandez, R.; Benegas, J.
It is evident that the most effective active-learning strategies to improve physics learning at the college level have been developed in the United States. Recently, some universities in Latin America have begun adopting such methods as a part of institutional projects, or motivated by national projects led by education authorities. In this work we will present two cases, a large-scale implementation of Tutorials in Introductory Physics (1) in Mexico supported by the institution as a part of a change in its educational model, and a medium-scale implementation of this method in Chile supported by the national government. In both experiences, the professors involved in the educational experience have previously participated in a training workshop that prepared them for implementing this strategy in the classroom. The training workshop, described elsewhere (2), was designed also under active learning premises, so teachers completed the proposed activities in the same way as their students will do. We will present the first results of these two projects. References: (1) McDermott, L. C., Shaffer, P. S., & PER (1998). "Tutorials in Introductory Physics", Prentice Hall, translated as "Tutoriales para Física Introductoria" (2001) Prentice Hall, Buenos Aires.. (2) Zavala, G., Alarcón, H. and Benegas, J. (2005). "Innovative training of in-service teachers for active learning: A short teacher development course based on Physics Education Research", accepted for publication, J. of Sc. Teach. Ed. This work has been partially supported by Tecnológico de Monterrey through the Chair in Physics Education Research and by MECE Educación Superior Program (Chile).
Myers, Brian E.; Barrick, R. Kirby; Samy, Mohamed M.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess Egyptian Agricultural Technical School (ATS) teachers' implementation of active learning strategies in their classrooms. Methods: The Stages of Concern Questionnaire was administered to 230 participants in active learning workshops. After eliminating headmasters, supervisors and people no longer…
Sokoloff, David R.
There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among the characteristics of these curricula are: (1) use of a learning cycle in which students are challenged to compare predictions—discussed with their peers in small groups—to observations of the physical world, (2) use of guided hands-on work to construct basic concepts from observations, and (3) use of computer-based tools. It has been possible to change the lecture and laboratory learning environments at a large number of universities, colleges, and high schools without changing the structure of the introductory course. For example, in the United States, nearly 200 physics departments have adopted RTP, and many others use pre-publication, open-source versions or have adopted the RTP approach to develop their own labs. Examples from RTP and ILDs (including optics magic tricks) are described in this paper.
Robinson, Michael A.
Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.
Park, Mary Kay
Using a grounded theory method, this dissertation seeks to discover how relationships impact organizational generative learning. An organization is a socially constructed reality and organizational learning is situated in the process of co-participation. To discover the link between relationships and generative learning this study considers the…
Green, Linda Schwartz; Casale-Giannola, Diane
Research indicates that students of all ages and demographics benefit from active learning strategies. The challenge is translating what we know into what we do. Award-winning educators Linda Schwartz Green and Diane Casale-Giannola build that bridge with more than 40 easy-to-implement strategies for today's inclusive classroom. This practical…
Peters, Sabine; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Raijmakers, Maartje E J
Learning from feedback is an important aspect of executive functioning that shows profound improvements during childhood and adolescence. This is accompanied by neural changes in the feedback-learning network, which includes pre-supplementary motor area (pre- SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), and the basal ganglia. However, there can be considerable differences within age ranges in performance that are ascribed to differences in strategy use. This is problematic for traditional approaches of analyzing developmental data, in which age groups are assumed to be homogenous in strategy use. In this study, we used latent variable models to investigate if underlying strategy groups could be detected for a feedback-learning task and whether there were differences in neural activation patterns between strategies. In a sample of 268 participants between ages 8 to 25 years, we observed four underlying strategy groups, which were cut across age groups and varied in the optimality of executive functioning. These strategy groups also differed in neural activity during learning; especially the most optimal performing group showed more activity in DLPFC, SPC and pre-SMA/ACC compared to the other groups. However, age differences remained an important contributor to neural activation, even when correcting for strategy. These findings contribute to the debate of age versus performance predictors of neural development, and highlight the importance of studying individual differences in strategy use when studying development.
Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.
This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…
Rissanen, A. J.
Lifelong learning and diverse technical information are challenges for designing curricula. The Finnish National Defence University (NDU) provides undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in academic and military disciplines according to the Bologna process. Technology is one of the major learning lines at the NDU, but basic scientific education…
LoPresto, Michael C.; Slater, Timothy F.
Although traditional lectures are still the dominant form of undergraduate instruction, there have been relatively few studies comparing various learner-centered and active learning teaching strategies to one another in order to guide professors in making informed instructional decisions. To study the impact of different active learning…
Modla, Virginia B.; Wake, Donna Glenn
The authors detail technology-based active literacy strategies that they employed with preservice teachers to enhance their skill and comfort level in providing appropriate technology-supported literacy instruction to future students. They examine four theoretical and pragmatic threads to include in course design: active learning, open-ended…
Steinhardt, Sarah J; Clark, John E; Kelly, William N; Hill, Angela M
Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students' abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses.
Clark, John E.; Kelly, William N.; Hill, Angela M.
Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students’ abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses. PMID:28289294
Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter
High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.
Since the first series of National Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) Institutes for Teachers of Physics in Summer, 1987, the Activity Based Physics Group (ABP) has presented numerous professional development institutes and workshops to thousands of high school, college and university faculty, sponsored by National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and others. An overview of these programs and details of our instructional strategies will be presented. Some common features of these include: (1) motivating participants through introduction to active learning research literature, including exposure to conceptual evaluations and student learning gains in traditional and active learning courses, (2) exposing participants to active learning strategies through intensive hands-on work using classroom tested curricular materials, (3) relying on these materials to enhance teacher knowledge and correct misconceptions---when necessary, (4) providing opportunities to practice active learning instruction with other participants and (5) distributing or facilitating procurement of equipment and supplies needed to get started. Recently, ABP group members have been working with physics educators from other countries to introduce active learning strategies in the developing world. New programs such as Active Learning in Optics and Photonics (ALOP, UNESCO) and Physware (ICTP/UNESCO/IUPAP), that support active learning using low-cost equipment, have been developed for this purpose. To date, ALOP workshops have been presented to over 500 secondary and college faculty in Ghana, Tunisia, Morocco, India, Tanzania, Brazil, Mexico, Zambia, Cameroon, Colombia, Nepal and Chile, and the ALOP Training Manual has been translated into French and Spanish. The first Physware workshop, held at ICTP in Trieste in 2009, had 32 participants most of whom were from developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. These programs will be described. )
The demands in higher education are on the rise. Charged with teaching more content, increased class sizes and engaging students, educators face numerous challenges. In design education, educators are often torn between the teaching of technology and the teaching of theory. Learning the formal concepts of hierarchy, contrast and space provide the…
Swiderski, Suzanne M.
High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…
Suggests that using K-W-L as an active learning strategy in a traditional lecture classroom setting can facilitate interaction between professor, students and subject matter. Considers how this method fosters a sense of community between professor, the discipline, and students even in large classes. Concludes that one of the advantages of active…
Ross, Michael R.; Fulton, Robert B.
Describes an analytical chemistry course restructured around the use of cooperative groups to help students become active learners in a non-competitive environment. Five years of experience with the course indicates that the syllabus covers almost exactly the same content as old courses and that test scores compare favorably on the national level.…
Rapid changes in the nursing field and high demand for practicing nurses put pressure on nursing faculty to educate increasing numbers of nursing students, often without corresponding increases in resources. Although the use of active and cooperative instruction methods in the classroom has been associated with improved student learning, these practices require increased effort on the part of both faculty and students. In addition, little is known about whether these methods influence student nurses' use of these more elaborative processing strategies in their independent study. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to identify the impact of incorporating active and cooperative classroom instructional activities on student preference for teaching methods and use of learning strategies in independent study. A convenience sample of beginning baccalaureate nursing students at a large Mid-Atlantic University was randomly assigned by the registrar to two class sections. Students in one section received primarily active/cooperative instruction, while the other received primarily traditional lecture-based instruction. Results indicated that student nurses exposed to active/cooperative instructional methods had an increased preference for these methods after a semester of instruction, while those exposed to traditional instruction had a higher preference for traditional methods. In addition, students participating in active class instruction reported increased preference for more elaborative independent study strategies, although overall preference for both groups indicated a reliance on surface study strategies of memorization and recall. Implications for use of instruction and student testing methodologies are presented.
Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.
The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…
Pepper, Kaye; Blackwell, Sarah; Monroe, Ann; Coskey, Shawn
In this study, researchers investigated the influence of modeling active learning strategies in an introductory foundations teacher preparation course: 1) on teacher candidates' perceptions of participating in active learning in the college classroom, 2) on participants' acquisition of course content, and 3) on participants' later use of active…
Millis, Barbara J.
As numerous research studies suggest, teachers who desire increased student learning should adopt active learning. This article explores the research, defines active learning, discusses its value, offers suggestions for implementing it, and provides six concrete examples of active learning approaches: Thinking-Aloud Pair Problem-Solving;…
Haidet, Paul; Fecile, Mary Lynn
Team-based learning (TBL) is an innovative teaching method, originally pioneered in business education, which has been increasingly used in medical settings. TBL allows a single teacher to incorporate small groups into a lecture hall or classroom and simultaneously conduct activities with all of the groups. Its focus on application of basic knowledge to solve complex real-world problems is ideally suited for basic science and clinical teaching. Application in medical education settings has demonstrated TBL to result in a number of favorable knowledge, skills, and attitudinal outcomes. We introduce the TBL method and summarize experience to date in health sciences education. We look forward to increasing use of the method to teach oncology content.
Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G.
Introduction Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. Aim To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Materials and Methods Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic ‘gout’, they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students’ and faculty’s responses were collected on a Likert scale. Results Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. Discussion The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. Conclusion PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning
Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail
Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…
Pauwels, Edouard; Lajaunie, Christian; Vert, Jean-Philippe
BackgroundDynamical models used in systems biology involve unknown kinetic parameters. Setting these parameters is a bottleneck in many modeling projects. This motivates the estimation of these parameters from empirical data. However, this estimation problem has its own difficulties, the most important one being strong ill-conditionedness. In this context, optimizing experiments to be conducted in order to better estimate a system¿s parameters provides a promising direction to alleviate the difficulty of the task.ResultsBorrowing ideas from Bayesian experimental design and active learning, we propose a new strategy for optimal experimental design in the context of kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology. We describe algorithmic choices that allow to implement this method in a computationally tractable way and make it fully automatic. Based on simulation, we show that it outperforms alternative baseline strategies, and demonstrate the benefit to consider multiple posterior modes of the likelihood landscape, as opposed to traditional schemes based on local and Gaussian approximations.ConclusionThis analysis demonstrates that our new, fully automatic Bayesian optimal experimental design strategy has the potential to support the design of experiments for kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology.
Norman, Donald A.
This paper describes an experimental course in which the author taught students to improve their learning skills. It is a first step toward constructing a systematic body of knowledge about learning strategies. The course covered four topics, chosen because they were complex enough to require several weeks to make progress, but simple enough that…
Previous studies on the interactive response system (IRS) have generally adopted the lecture method to facilitate teaching and learning, while few have made efforts to investigate the learning effects of instructional methods and IRS activities on learning and teaching. The purpose of the present study was therefore to explore whether the use of…
Cleveland, Lisa M; Carmona, Elenice Valentim; Paper, Bruce; Solis, Linda; Taylor, Bonnie
Faced with limited resources, nurse educators are challenged with transforming nursing education while preparing enough qualified nurses to meet future demand; therefore, innovative approaches to teaching are needed. In this article, we describe the development of an innovative teaching activity. Baby Boy Jones is a Web-delivered, case-based learning activity focused on neonatal infection. It was created using e-learning authoring software and delivered through a learning management system.
Fried, Stephen B.; Mehrotra, Chandra M.
Covering 10 topical areas, this annotated bibliography offers a guide to journal articles, book chapters, monographs, and books useful for teaching diversity and aging through active learning. Active learning experiences may help expand students' awareness of elements of their own diversity, broaden their world view, and enhance their culturally…
Roehl, Amy; Reddy, Shweta Linga; Shannon, Gayla Jett
"Flipping" the classroom employs easy-to-use, readily accessible technology in order to free class time from lecture. This allows for an expanded range of learning activities during class time. Using class time for active learning versus lecture provides opportunities for greater teacher-to-student mentoring, peer-to-peer collaboration…
Lewis, Elizabeth; Baker, Dale; Watts, Nievita Bueno; Lang, Michael
In this article we describe current educational research underlying a comprehensive model for building a scientific classroom discourse community. We offer a professional development activity for a school-based professional learning community, providing specific science instructional strategies within this interactive teaching model. This design…
More instructors at every educational level are developing online courses and adding online components to face-to-face courses on an ever-broadening array of topics each semester. This paper provides recommendations for designing and maintaining online learning environments that encourage active learning, interaction, and academic integrity based…
Patton, Cheryl M.
Traditional higher education instruction involves an authoritarian educator who is charged with delivering information in lecture format to passive students. Within the past few decades, a new approach has gained popularity. Active learning allows the students to become more involved in their own learning. The educator becomes more of a…
Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)
Berry, Stacy Jane
There has been an increased emphasis for college instruction to incorporate more active and collaborative involvement of students in the learning process. These views have been asserted by The Association of American Colleges (AAC), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and The National Research Counsel (NRC), which are advocating for the modification of traditional instructional techniques to allow students the opportunity to be more cooperative (Task Group on General Education, 1988). This has guided educators and facilitators into shifting teaching paradigms from a teacher centered to a more student-centered curriculum. The present study investigated achievement outcomes and attitudes of learners in a large enrollment (n ~ 200), introductory geology course using a student centered learning cycle format of instruction versus another similar section that used a traditional lecture format. Although the course is a recruiting class for majors, over 95% of the students that enroll are non-majors. Measurements of academic evaluation were through four unit exams, classroom communication systems, weekly web-based homework, in-class activities, and a thematic collaborative poster/paper project and presentation. The qualitative methods to investigate the effectiveness of the teaching design included: direct observation, self-reporting about learning, and open-ended interviews. By disaggregating emerging data, we tried to concentrate on patterns and causal relationships between achievement performance and attitudes regarding learning geology. Statistical analyses revealed positive relationships between student engagement in supplemental activities and achievement mean scores within and between the two sections. Completing weekly online homework had the most robust relationship with overall achievement performance. Contrary to expectations, a thematic group project only led to modest gains in achievement performance, although the social and professional gains could be
Holbert, K. E.; Karady, G. G.
The introduction of computer-equipped classrooms into engineering education has brought with it a host of opportunities and issues. Herein, some of the challenges and successes for creating an environment for active learning within computer-based classrooms are described. The particular teaching approach developed for undergraduate electrical…
Brands, Michael W.; Schumacher, Lori
To address the challenge of increasing opportunities for active learning into a medical physiology course with 190 students enrolled, we chose an integrated approach. This was facilitated by the availability of a patient simulator facility at the School of Nursing at the Medical College of Georgia, and an 20-min simulation of acute hemorrhage on…
Berry, Stacy Jane
There has been an increased emphasis for college instruction to incorporate more active and collaborative involvement of students in the learning process. These views have been asserted by The Association of American Colleges (AAC), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and The National Research Counsel (NRC), which are advocating for the…
Schumaker, Jean B.
One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…
Nierenberg, D W
While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."
Bostrom, Lena; Lassen, Liv M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the field of learning, learning style, meta-cognition, strategies and teaching by classifying different levels of the learning process. The paper aims to present an attempt to identify how students' awareness of learning style and teachers' matched instruction might affect students' learning and…
This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…
Casale-Giannola, Diane; Green, Linda Schwartz
Motivating adolescents to learn can be a challenge! Often distracted and easily bored, these kids are also critical thinkers capable of thriving in the classroom while learning 21st century skills. How do we hold their attention and develop their abilities? Research shows that all students--regardless of learning style, disability category, or…
Abdul Razzak, Nina
Highly-traditional education systems that mainly offer what is known as "direct instruction" usually result in graduates with a surface approach to learning rather than a deep one. What is meant by deep-learning is learning that involves critical analysis, the linking of ideas and concepts, creative problem solving, and application…
George, John; Dale, Kathy
Collaborative learning strategies can improve the learning of subject matter in content area classrooms, but they are only one aspect among many that influence how much learning will take place in a class period. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) is an effective teaching/learning strategy to use with content area material. Much of the…
Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…
Sun, Yanli; Zhang, Xia; Plaza, Antonio; Li, Jun; Dópido, Inmaculada; Liu, Yi
Hyperspectral remote sensing allows for the detailed analysis of the surface of the Earth by providing high-dimensional images with hundreds of spectral bands. Hyperspectral image classification plays a significant role in hyperspectral image analysis and has been a very active research area in the last few years. In the context of hyperspectral image classification, supervised techniques (which have achieved wide acceptance) must address a difficult task due to the unbalance between the high dimensionality of the data and the limited availability of labeled training samples in real analysis scenarios. While the collection of labeled samples is generally difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, unlabeled samples can be generated in a much easier way. Semi-supervised learning offers an effective solution that can take advantage of both unlabeled and a small amount of labeled samples. Spectral unmixing is another widely used technique in hyperspectral image analysis, developed to retrieve pure spectral components and determine their abundance fractions in mixed pixels. In this work, we propose a method to perform semi-supervised hyperspectral image classification by combining the information retrieved with spectral unmixing and classification. Two kinds of samples that are highly mixed in nature are automatically selected, aiming at finding the most informative unlabeled samples. One kind is given by the samples minimizing the distance between the first two most probable classes by calculating the difference between the two highest abundances. Another kind is given by the samples minimizing the distance between the most probable class and the least probable class, obtained by calculating the difference between the highest and lowest abundances. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a real hyperspectral data set collected by the airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Indian Pines region in Northwestern Indiana. In the
The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.
A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…
Barkin, Barbara; And Others
Intended for regular classroom teachers with learning disabled children in their classes, the manual provides information and/or teaching ideas in 34 areas. Most sections are organized into three parts--examples of student behaviors, a discussion, and suggestions. Individual sections deal with the following areas: allergy, associative…
This essay provides a critical analysis of the Community Service-Learning in Women's Issues (CSLWI) course and its impact on California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) students and the Long Beach community-based organizations (CBOs) that they worked with between 2008 and 2013. Specifically, it offers a pedagogical approach to creating…
Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia
In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…
This research aims to get acquainted with the effectiveness of the active learning strategy in improving the acoustic awareness skills and understanding what is heard by the basic stage students in Jordan by answering the two following questions: This research has been applied to a sample of 60 students from the basic third grade in Al-Ahnaf Ben…
Wisdom, Thomas N.; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L.
When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results…
McNaughton, David; Hamlin, Dawn; McCarthy, John; Head-Reeves, Darlene; Schreiner, Mary
The importance of parent-teacher communication has been widely recognized; however, there is only limited research on teaching effective listening skills to education professionals. In this study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used to examine the effect of instruction on the active listening skills of preservice education…
Biazak, Janna E.; Marley, Scott C.; Levin, Joel R.
Contemporary embodiment theory's indexical hypothesis predicts that engaging in text-relevant activity while listening to a story will: (1) enhance memory for enacted story content; and, (2) result in relatively greater memory enhancement for enacted atypical events than for typical ones ([Glenberg and Robertson, 1999] and [Glenberg and Robertson,…
Hardell, Traci Lee
The nursing shortage remains of great concern to the nursing profession and to nursing educators. With the projected need for Registered Nurses high and the attrition rate in nursing programs remaining high, a focus on retention of qualified nursing students may be needed. One way to contribute to enhanced retention is using active learning…
Tipton, Tom, Ed.
Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)
This study was conducted with the purpose of analyzing high school students' approach to problem solving activities, namely the metacognitive abilities and the strategies they employ. The results show that although students apply basic strategies well, they use a trial-and-error approach, they give-up when faced with difficulties and have…
McInerney, Jody R.
A quasi-experimental mixed methods action research study was conducted at a K-12 virtual charter school with 103 high school chemistry students to investigate the relationship between participation in online synchronous lessons, student understanding of chemistry concepts and success on laboratory assignments. The study examined the impact of different instructional strategies on student success on chemistry labs as defined by lab completion rates, lab performance and concept understanding. The data show students who participated in the synchronous lessons were more successful in labs than those who did not. Different instructional strategies yielded different levels of student engagement and information gathered about student learning during synchronous lessons.
This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.
Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)
Bellebaum, C; Kobza, S; Ferrea, S; Schnitzler, A; Pollok, B; Südmeyer, M
Studies on classification learning suggested that altered dopamine function in Parkinson's Disease (PD) specifically affects learning from feedback. In patients OFF medication, enhanced learning from negative feedback has been described. This learning bias was not seen in observational learning from feedback, indicating different neural mechanisms for this type of learning. The present study aimed to compare the acquisition of stimulus-response-outcome associations in PD patients OFF medication and healthy control subjects in active and observational learning. 16 PD patients OFF medication and 16 controls were examined with three parallel learning tasks each, two feedback-based (active and observational) and one non-feedback-based paired associates task. No acquisition deficit was seen in the patients for any of the tasks. More detailed analyses on the learning strategies did, however, reveal that the patients showed more lose-shift responses during active feedback learning than controls, and that lose-shift and win-stay responses more strongly determined performance accuracy in patients than controls. For observational feedback learning, the performance of both groups correlated similarly with the performance in non-feedback-based paired associates learning and with the accuracy of observed performance. Also, patients and controls showed comparable evidence of feedback processing in observational learning. In active feedback learning, PD patients use alternative learning strategies than healthy controls. Analyses on observational learning did not yield differences between patients and controls, adding to recent evidence of a differential role of the human striatum in active and observational learning from feedback.
Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe
The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…
Vanderelst, Dieter; Ahn, René M C; Barakova, Emilia I
Animals use heuristic strategies to determine from which conspecifics to learn socially. This leads to directed social learning. Directed social learning protects them from copying non-adaptive information. So far, the strategies of animals, leading to directed social learning, are assumed to rely on (possibly indirect) inferences about the demonstrator's success. As an alternative to this assumption, we propose a strategy that only uses self-established estimates of the pay-offs of behavior. We evaluate the strategy in a number of agent-based simulations. Critically, the strategy's success is warranted by the inclusion of an incremental learning mechanism. Our findings point out new theoretical opportunities to regulate social learning for animals. More broadly, our simulations emphasize the need to include a realistic learning mechanism in game-theoretic studies of social learning strategies, and call for re-evaluation of previous findings.
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…
Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Acee, Taylor W.; Jung, JaeHak
Learning strategies are a bit difficult to define since the nomenclatures used in cognitive educational psychology as well as in strategic and self-regulated learning have not yet been standardized across and within these fields of study. The self-regulated use of learning strategies helps enable students to take more responsibility for their own…
Cajski, Christopher A.
Language learning strategies (LLS), here defined as specific actions or mental procedures that assist in fulfilling language learning goals, have attracted increasing attention as one of the factors that impact second language acquisition. A key reason for their appeal is that language learning strategies can be manipulated to an extent that most…
Edmondson, Amy C
Many executives believe that all failure is bad (although it usually provides Lessons) and that Learning from it is pretty straightforward. The author, a professor at Harvard Business School, thinks both beliefs are misguided. In organizational life, she says, some failures are inevitable and some are even good. And successful learning from failure is not simple: It requires context-specific strategies. But first leaders must understand how the blame game gets in the way and work to create an organizational culture in which employees feel safe admitting or reporting on failure. Failures fall into three categories: preventable ones in predictable operations, which usually involve deviations from spec; unavoidable ones in complex systems, which may arise from unique combinations of needs, people, and problems; and intelligent ones at the frontier, where "good" failures occur quickly and on a small scale, providing the most valuable information. Strong leadership can build a learning culture-one in which failures large and small are consistently reported and deeply analyzed, and opportunities to experiment are proactively sought. Executives commonly and understandably worry that taking a sympathetic stance toward failure will create an "anything goes" work environment. They should instead recognize that failure is inevitable in today's complex work organizations.
Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin
The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.
Ax, Ellen; Kohls, Robert
This document offers instructions to trainers on the use of more than 100 learning aids, learning activities, and evaluation techniques that are helpful in working with trainees. The strategies described will be useful not only in trainer/trainee situations (which imply active participation on the part of the trainee) but also in teacher/student…
Salmerón, Ladislao; Kintsch, Walter; Cañas, José J
In two experiments, we identified two main strategies followed by hypertext readers in selecting their reading orders. The first consisted in selecting the text semantically related to the previously read section (coherence strategy), and the second in choosing the most interesting text, delaying reading of less interesting sections (interest strategy). Comprehension data revealed that these strategies affected learning differently as a function of the reader's prior knowledge. For low-knowledge readers, the coherence strategy supported better learning of the content. This effect seems to rely on the improvement of reading order coherence induced by this strategy. By contrast, for intermediate-knowledge readers the coherence and the interest strategies benefited comprehension equally. In both cases, learning was supported through the active processing induced by these strategies. Discussion focuses on resolving inconsistencies in the literature concerning whether or not hypertext supports better comprehension than does traditional linear texts.
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.
The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…
The current study investigated the differences across the varying levels of EFL learners in the frequency and choice of learning strategies. Using a reading test, questionnaire, and parametric statistical analysis, the findings yielded up discrepancies among the participants in the implementation of language-learning strategies concerning their…
"Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…
Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.
Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…
Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin
To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…
Peterson, Susan S.
In recent years, articles about second language learning strategies and about second language pronunciation instruction have been on the increase. Surprisingly, there appears to be no published study to date that focuses on the relationship between pronunciation and learning strategies. This exploratory study focuses solely on documenting and…
Pilcher, Jobeth W
Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.
Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) often experience significant difficulty with academic content at the secondary level due to weaknesses in reading comprehension, written expression, math skills, and vocabulary learning skills. This article will highlight the usefulness of learning strategies for ensuring success of students with LD in the…
Wisdom, Thomas N; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L
When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results showed that participants combined multiple sources of information to guide learning, including payoffs of peers' solutions, popularity of solution elements among peers, similarity of peers' solutions to their own, and relative payoffs from individual exploration. Furthermore, performance was positively associated with imitation rates at both the individual and group levels. When peers' payoffs were hidden, popularity and similarity biases reversed, participants searched more broadly and randomly, and both quality and equity of exploration suffered. We conclude that when peers' solutions can be effectively compared, imitation does not simply permit scrounging, but it can also facilitate propagation of good solutions for further cumulative exploration.
Multimedia construction is a complex and theoretically valid process for developing higher order thinking that can be implemented as a teaching activity and optionally associated with formal assessment in many ways. This paper explores the associated learning strategy--learning through multimedia construction, through research and reflective…
Luoma, Markku; Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka
The factors contributing to organizational learning in police units in Finland and elsewhere were examined to find strategies to improve the prerequisites of learning and compare linear and nonlinear methods of modeling organizational learning prerequisites. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the 281 staff members of five police…
Shmais, Wafa Abu
Reports on current English language learning strategies used by Arabic-speaking English-majors enrolled at a University in Palestine. Results showed that gender and proficiency had no significant differences on the use of strategies. Recommends that more training should be given in using cognitive, memory and compensation strategies by embedding…
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T
It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.
In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)
Reflexivity, defined as the self-applied process of learning, the use of self and others as active signs in the learning process, is examined through relevant literature in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) instruction. When EFL learners are encouraged to stand back and examine the way they learn and why they learn this way, reflexivity…
Moravec, Marin; Williams, Adrienne; Aguilar-Roca, Nancy; O'Dowd, Diane K.
Actively engaging students in lecture has been shown to increase learning gains. To create time for active learning without displacing content we used two strategies for introducing material before class in a large introductory biology course. Four to five slides from 2007/8 were removed from each of three lectures in 2009 and the information…
Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.
The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.
International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.
This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…
Morris, P. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.
Access to computers and interactive toys such as X Box have had impacts on learning strategies. New types of simulations and entertainment approaches will be increasingly important to reach out and encourage careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines including space science. Examples of effective tools are planetarium shows and CD’s and DVD’s that can be distributed to teachers, students and the general public. Planetarium shows are no longer restricted to fixed dome venues but are increasingly being adapted to portable domes that have the advantage of transporting the activity to a school, community event or neighborhood center. Groups of individuals who may not normally consider a planetarium show as a family or group event are exposed to a learning experience which is also entertaining. Selected planetarium shows are available in languages other than English, including Spanish. Hands-on interactive activities are available that will enhance the experience of the attendees. Pre and post testing have shown [Sumners et al., 2006, 2008] that these activities are effective for improving STEM knowledge. New planetarium technology includes using a Wii controller for navigating through buildings. These so far have been applied to games but could be applied to a virtual tour of the space station, for example. CD’s and DVD’s are important for augmenting the activities of the planetarium shows as they provide additional learning activities that can be used either in the home, the classroom or as an enhancement for planetarium events. Simulations on the Sun, planetary or solar events, related games such as TIC TAC TOE are easily incorporated. It is important to provide additional support for the teachers that will enable them to incorporate the data into their curriculum and state mandated achievement levels.
Service-learning is a teaching strategy used by Texas middle schools that combines classroom learning with community activities and where both students and teachers plan activities and projects that meet a well defined school or community need. These activities strengthen academic learning by addressing learning objectives, allowing students to…
Cheng, Eric C. K.
This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…
This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…
Edmunds, Alan L.
Describes the Cognitive Credit Card, an individualized approach to helping students with learning disabilities select and apply appropriate learning strategies. The CCC is a credit card-sized laminated set of cognitive or metacognitive cues for a specific topic. Feedback from students, teachers, and parents has been highly positive. (DB)
Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca
Summarizes ideas gathered from classroom experiences and from colleagues encountered in cooperative learning workshops and presents them as answers to questions from workshop participants who have been exposed to the basic principles and methods of cooperative learning. Information for college instructors covers forming teams, dealing with…
Sull, Donald N
Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.
Moukperian, Sharon; Woloshyn, Vera
Using self-study methodology, we describe one professor's efforts to support students' academic learning by integrating three, evidence-based learning strategies and associated metacognitive dialogue about their use in a first-year, lecture-based course. Learning strategies included the activation/provision of prior knowledge, narratives and…
Christensen, C M
Companies find it difficult to change strategy for many reasons, but one stands out: strategic thinking is not a core managerial competence at most companies. Executives hone their capabilities by tackling problems over and over again. Changing strategy, however, is not usually a task that they face repeatedly. Once companies have found a strategy that works, they want to use it, not change it. Consequently, most managers do not develop a competence in strategic thinking. This Manager's Tool Kit presents a three-stage method executives can use to conceive and implement a creative and coherent strategy themselves. The first stage is to identify and map the driving forces that the company needs to address. The process of mapping provides strategy-making teams with visual representations of team members' assumptions, those pictures, in turn, enable managers to achieve consensus in determining the driving forces. Once a senior management team has formulated a new strategy, it must align the strategy with the company's resource-allocation process to make implementation possible. Senior management teams can translate their strategy into action by using aggregate project planning. And management teams that link strategy and innovation through that planning process will develop a competence in implementing strategic change. The author guides the reader through the three stages of strategy making by examining the case of a manufacturing company that was losing ground to competitors. After mapping the driving forces, the company's senior managers were able to devise a new strategy that allowed the business to maintain a competitive advantage in its industry.
Lunenburg, Frederick C.; Irby, Beverly J.
Teacher behavior research has shown that teacher behaviors, as well as specific teaching strategies, make a difference with regard to student achievement. Ten durable instructional strategies are discussed: set induction, stimulus variation, reinforcement, questioning, recognizing attending behavior, lecturing or direct instruction, planned…
Ramsier, R. D.
Describes an approach to incorporate active learning strategies into the first semester of a university-level introductory physics course. Combines cooperative and peer-based methods inside the classroom with project-based learning outside the classroom in an attempt to develop students' transferable skills as well as improving their understanding…
Two studies examined undergraduates' metacognitive awareness of six empirically-supported learning strategies. Study 1 results overall suggested an inability to predict the learning outcomes of educational scenarios describing the strategies of dual-coding, static-media presentations, low-interest extraneous details, testing, and spacing; there was, however, weak endorsement of the strategy of generating one's own study materials. In addition, an independent measure of metacognitive self-regulation was correlated with scenario performance. Study 2 demonstrated higher prediction accuracy for students who had received targeted instruction on applied memory topics in their psychology courses, and the best performance for those students directly exposed to the original empirical studies from which the scenarios were derived. In sum, this research suggests that undergraduates are largely unaware of several specific strategies that could benefit memory for course information; further, training in applied learning and memory topics has the potential to improve metacognitive judgments in these domains.
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…
Kean, Ang Chooi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Yunus, Melor Md
The paper examines the influence of incorporating information and communication technology (ICT) tools to help learners to promote learning awareness and self-monitoring skills. An open-ended online questionnaire survey was administered to 15 course participants at the conclusion of the course. The data were analysed on the basis of the percentage…
Alvarado, Amy Edmonds; Herr, Patricia R.
This book explores the concept of using everyday objects as a process initiated both by students and teachers, encouraging growth in student observation, inquisitiveness, and reflection in learning. After "Introduction: Welcome to Inquiry-Based Learning using Everyday Objects (Object-Based Inquiry), there are nine chapters in two parts. Part 1,…
Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora
There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…
A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…
Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B
There has been renewed interest in the role of strategies in sensorimotor learning. The combination of new behavioral methods and computational methods has begun to unravel the interaction between processes related to strategic control and processes related to motor adaptation. These processes may operate on very different error signals. Strategy learning is sensitive to goal-based performance error. In contrast, adaptation is sensitive to prediction errors between the desired and actual consequences of a planned movement. The former guides what the desired movement should be, whereas the latter guides how to implement the desired movement. Whereas traditional approaches have favored serial models in which an initial strategy-based phase gives way to more automatized forms of control, it now seems that strategic and adaptive processes operate with considerable independence throughout learning, although the relative weight given the two processes will shift with changes in performance. As such, skill acquisition involves the synergistic engagement of strategic and adaptive processes.
I compare the evolutionary dynamics of two success-biased social learning strategies, which, by definition, use the success of others to inform one's social learning decisions. The first, "Compare Means", causes a learner to adopt cultural variants with highest mean payoff in her sample. The second, "Imitate the Best", causes a learner to imitate the single most successful individual in her sample. I summarize conditions under which each strategy performs well or poorly, and investigate their evolution via a gene-culture coevolutionary model. Despite the adaptive appeal of these strategies, both encounter conditions under which they systematically perform worse than simply imitating at random. Compare Means performs worst when the optimal cultural variant is usually at high frequency, while Imitate the Best performs worst when suboptimal variants sometimes produce high payoffs. The extent to which it is optimal to use success-biased social learning depends strongly on the payoff distributions and environmental conditions that human social learners face.
Brown, John Seely; And Others
Different kinds of basic knowledge and strategies necessary for comprehension are examined in three radically different domains: (1) the stories, (2) mathematical problems, and (3) electronic circuits. From analyzing the comprehension processes in these different domains, similarities have emerged in the role of planning knowledge and the…
Willingham, Daniel T.
Researchers have asked college students how they study, and the results show that most use four inefficient strategies that do not often work: (1) reading assigned chapter, trying to understand individual sentences as he goes but not necessarily ensuring he's got the overall gist; (2) marking what he takes to be important points with a…
The aim of this study is to investigate students' use of cognitive learning strategies in inquiry-based computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). A process-oriented interview framework on cognitive activity, self-regulation and motivation, and a coding category for analysing cognitive learning strategies and cognitive self-regulation was…
1972). Can we affect cognitive skills through visual media? An hypothesis and initial findings. AV Communications Review, 20, 401-422. Suggests that...O’Neil and C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Cognitive and Affective Learning Strategies. New York: Academic Press. Masson, Michael E. J. (1982, April). A...metacognitive strategies in performing procedural tasks and that this may be affected by mode of presentation of task instructions. 18 Schorr, F. L
To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution.
Intended for educators who work with or plan to establish a school-based enterprise (SBE) in their school, this guide provides tools and strategies to establish and operate an SBE that provides a context for students to learn a range of academic and career-oriented skills. Section 1 suggests steps educators can take to help their enterprise--an…
Mengistie, Solomon Melesse
The present study tries to investigate the contribution of primary school teachers' peer- and self- assessment for effective implementation of active learning in their actual classrooms. In this study, areas in which self-reflection and peer assessment include three broad categories, such as methods of teaching and learning, instructional resource…
Minskoff, Esther; Allsopp, David
This book presents the "active learner" instructional approach to working with secondary school students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This approach combines the diagnostic prescriptive approach with principles of individualization, direct instruction, strategy instruction, and integration of…
Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline
This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…
Learning strategies are considered to be one of the key factors affecting the learning process, its effectiveness and study results. They are important for lifelong learning of foreign languages and as a learning skill they represent a priority in the process of European globalization and integration. Moreover, learning strategies as a foreign…
Nielsen, Siw Graabraek
The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…
Cellular learning refers to both arrangement of shop equipment and addition of new course materials for a contemporary manufacturing curriculum. The concept is an accumulation of ideas and strategies for the instruction and training of students. It also provides a method for consolidating old equipment and adding group technology. (CH)
Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…
Pineda, Jorge E.
This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…
Myers, John J.; And Others
Offers several strategies for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Suggests sample exercises including (1) a scavenger hunt; (2) a reaction wheel; (3) cooperative brainstorming and classification; (4) a "pair of pairs" exercise; and (5) a three-step interview. Explains that the examples are starting points that have been used in…
Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed
The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…
This digest discusses second language learning strategies--specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques students used to improve their progress in apprehending, internalizing, and using the second language. The first section discusses characteristics of good language learners. The second section highlights research findings that suggest…
Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning.
Voss, Joel L.; Galvan, Ashley; Gonsalves, Brian D.
Memory retrieval can involve activity in the same sensory cortical regions involved in perception of the original event, and this neural "reactivation" has been suggested as an important mechanism of memory retrieval. However, it is still unclear if fragments of experience other than sensory information are retained and later reactivated during…
Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.
A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…
Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling
The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…
Jonassen, David H.
Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)
Halpern, Daniel; Oh, Kyong Eun; Tremaine, Marilyn; Chiang, James; Bemis, Karen; Silver, Deborah
The following study investigates the range of strategies individuals develop to infer and interpret cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. We focus on the identification of mental representations and problem-solving processes made by 11 individuals with the goal of building training applications that integrate the strategies developed by the participants in our study. Our results suggest that although spatial transformation and perspective-taking techniques are useful for visualizing cross-section problems, these visual processes are augmented by analytical thinking. Further, our study shows that participants employ general analytic strategies for extended periods which evolve through practice into a set of progressively more expert strategies. Theoretical implications are discussed and five main findings are recommended for integration into the design of education software that facilitates visual learning and comprehension.
Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni
This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.
To create rich learning experiences, it is important to engage students from the very beginning of a course and lay the foundation for constructing a community of active learners. The activities described here using "organism cards" connect students' previous knowledge to course goals and address key themes in biology while initiating…
Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…
Moore, Tami L.; Mendez, Jesse P.
Students succeed in college by engaging with faculty, peers, and the community. Institutional leaders can utilize organizational learning strategies to learn what works to support civic learning outcomes and student success.
Gharbavi, Abdullah; Mousavi, Seyyed Ahmad
The primary focus of research on employment of language learning strategies has been on identification of adoption of different learning strategies. However, the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency levels was ignored in previous research. The present study was undertaken to find out whether there are any relationship…
Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.
The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…
Conti, Gary J.; McNeil, Rita C.
This study investigated the relationship of learning strategy preference to personality type. Learning strategy preference was identified with the "A"ssessing "T"he "L"earning Strategies of "A"dult"S" (ATLAS), and personality type was measured with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The…
REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science
Shen, Yanxia; Song, JuLei
With the attention paid to the English learning strategy training in China, more and more researchers and experts conduct empirical experiments in English classroom to test the reliability or apply the language learning strategies into learning and teaching practice. In this study, it shows distributing research on English learning strategy…
Web-based learning promotes computer-mediated interaction and student-centred learning in most higher education institutions. To fulfil their academic requirements, students develop appropriate strategies to support learning. Purposes of this study were to: (1) examine the relationship between students study strategies (assessed by Learning and…
Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.
Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we present a framework to design biology instruction that incorporates all active learning strategies. We review active learning research in undergraduate biology courses, present a framework for organizing active learning strategies, and provide clear implications and future research for designing instruction in introductory undergraduate biology courses.
Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.
Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.
The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of
Lin, Su-Wei; Tai, Wen-Chun
This study investigated how various mathematics learning strategies affect the mathematical literacy of students. The data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data of Taiwan. The PISA learning strategy survey contains three types of learning strategies: elaboration, control, and…
Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M
Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.
Weigel, Fred K; Bonica, Mark
As educators strive toward improving student learning outcomes, many find it difficult to instill their students with a deep understanding of the material the instructors share. One challenge lies in how to provide the material with a meaningful and engaging method that maximizes student understanding and synthesis. By following a simple strategy involving Active Learning across the 3 primary domains of Bloom's Taxonomy (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), instructors can dramatically improve the quality of the lesson and help students retain and understand the information. By applying our strategy, instructors can engage their students at a deeper level and may even find themselves enjoying the process more.
Zhou, Shou-Han; Oetomo, Denny; Tan, Ying; Mareels, Iven; Burdet, Etienne
It is well known that the central nervous system automatically reduces a mismatch in the visuomotor coordination. Can the underlying learning strategy be modified by environmental factors or a subject's learning experiences? To elucidate this matter, two groups of subjects learned to execute reaching arm movements in environments with task-irrelevant visual cues. However, one group had previous experience of learning these movements using task-relevant visual cues. The results demonstrate that the two groups used different learning strategies for the same visual environment and that the learning strategy was influenced by prior learning experience.
The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…
Ducote, Richard L.
Describes Collin County Community College's commitment to an active/experiential learning philosophy and the role of the college's learning resources center (LRC) in promoting learner-centered education and lab experiences throughout the curriculum. Discusses the LRC's Alternative Learning Center, which uses computers and other technology to…
Ma, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hyun-Hwa
An authentic learning strategy fostering students' active learning was studied using the scenario of a real-world project. Students from two different classes at two different universities worked as clients or consultants to develop an apparel sourcing strategy. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 44 undergraduates enrolled in…
Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M
Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms.
Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace
This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…
Lycke, Kirsten Hofgaard; Grøttum, Per; Strømsø, Helge I
Kelson and Distlehorst (2000) state the PBL outcomes should be discussed on a broad basis including a useable knowledge base, skills in problem solving, self-directed learning and collaboration. The present research compares students in a PBL programme and in a traditional program on learning strategies, mental models and outcomes. Learning strategies and metal models of learning were measured for two student groups in 2001 using an adaptation of Vermunt's (1994) "Inventory of learning styles". Learning outcomes were measured for the same groups in 2002 using a test of medical knowledge. PBL-students showed significantly more self-regulated learning and more constructive conceptions of learning. No significant differences in learning outcomes were found between the two groups. Students in the PBL-programme perceived students as more active contributors to group learning process and made use of a broader range of resources than students in the traditional programme. The findings confirm effects of educational programmes on student learning strategies (Vermetten 1999) and also confirm lack of significant differences in medical knowledge (Albanese 2000, Colliver 2000, Norman & Schmidt 2000, Wiers-Jensen & Aasland 2004). The curricular influence on students' learning strategies challenges educators to design approaches that promote lifelong learning skills as well as disciplinary knowledge.
Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael
Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.
Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…
AD-A091 847 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/6 5 /10 ’i ABILITY ANO STRATEGY DIFFERENCES IN MAP LEARNING U’ AUG Ao C STASZ ;.0014-78-C-0042 UNCLASSIFIlED...Richard Elster Dept. of Administrative Sciences Naval Postqraduate School fouterey, CA 93940 5 Er. Pat Federico lavil Personnel R&D Center -an Dieqo...32508 N-1569-ON AAMLLIrU A&ID SIRAIGV 1C/0780 PAGE 28 Dr. Gary Eoock Cpecatioas Research Departmeat Code 55PK Nav1 Postqrad~ate School acaterey, CA
Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…
Troscianko, Jolyon; Lown, Alice E.; Hughes, Anna E.; Stevens, Martin
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns) and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels) over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms) and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms). PMID:24040046
Troscianko, Jolyon; Lown, Alice E; Hughes, Anna E; Stevens, Martin
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns) and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey more effectively. The overall value of a camouflage strategy may, therefore, reflect both its ability to prevent detection by predators and resist predator learning. We conducted four experiments with humans searching for hidden targets of different camouflage types (disruptive, distractive, and background matching of various contrast levels) over a series of touch screen trials. As with previous work, disruptive coloration was the most successful method of concealment overall, especially with relatively high contrast patterns, whereas potentially distractive markings were either neutral or costly. However, high contrast patterns incurred faster decreases in detection times over trials compared to other stimuli. In addition, potentially distractive markings were sometimes learnt more slowly than background matching markings, despite being found more readily overall. Finally, learning effects were highly dependent upon the experimental paradigm, including the number of prey types seen and whether subjects encountered targets simultaneously or sequentially. Our results show that the survival advantage of camouflage strategies reflects both their ability to avoid initial detection (sensory mechanisms) and predator learning (perceptual mechanisms).
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…
Muelling, Katharina; Boularias, Abdeslam; Mohler, Betty; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Peters, Jan
Learning a complex task such as table tennis is a challenging problem for both robots and humans. Even after acquiring the necessary motor skills, a strategy is needed to choose where and how to return the ball to the opponent's court in order to win the game. The data-driven identification of basic strategies in interactive tasks, such as table tennis, is a largely unexplored problem. In this paper, we suggest a computational model for representing and inferring strategies, based on a Markov decision problem, where the reward function models the goal of the task as well as the strategic information. We show how this reward function can be discovered from demonstrations of table tennis matches using model-free inverse reinforcement learning. The resulting framework allows to identify basic elements on which the selection of striking movements is based. We tested our approach on data collected from players with different playing styles and under different playing conditions. The estimated reward function was able to capture expert-specific strategic information that sufficed to distinguish the expert among players with different skill levels as well as different playing styles.
Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.
Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…
Teacher trainees are questioned about their strategic and emotional relationships with a key area of their future activity, learning. Characteristics of German teacher trainees are identified through comparisons with German students on a related course of study (educational science), and through comparisons with Swedish teacher trainees. N = 875…
Willard-Holt, Colleen; Weber, Jessica; Morrison, Kristen L.; Horgan, Julia
This mixed-methods study investigates the perspectives of twice-exceptional students on learning strategies that have been recommended for them in the literature. Have the strategies recommended in the literature been implemented? Do students perceive the strategies to be beneficial in helping them learn? Participants represented a broad range of…
This study investigated the patterns of language learning strategy use among 120 female Arabic-speaking students majoring in English at a university in Qatar. Perceptions of strategy use were measured by the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, ESL/EFL Student Version). The study found that (1) this group of EFL learners featured medium…
Palethorpe, Rob; Wilson, John P.
Purpose: This study aims to highlight the value of stressful and challenging environments as a strategy to enhance learning and to provide an inventory of strategies for use in cases where participants experience anxiety-related blockages to learning. Design/methodology/approach: This article adopted a qualitative research strategy which consisted…
Blake, J; Goodman, J
Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom.
Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…
Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie
A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.
Carnahan, Christi; Basham, James; Musti-Rao, Shobana
Active engagement is critical to promote learning for students with autism. Although evidence-based strategies exist for promoting engagement for individual students with autism, there are few strategies designed for use with small groups. This study used an ABCAC design to assess the effects of a low-technology use strategy, namely interactive…
Brown, H. Douglas
This book aims to empower students and teachers to take a fresh look at the learning process. It guides students to become aware of their learning styles and to develop strategies to make their language learning successful. The book includes the following features: questionnaires in every chapter to help learners assess their learning styles;…
Aubrey, Robert; Cohen, Paul M.
This book discusses wisdom as an organizational strategy for developing human potential in learning organizations. It explores learning at four levels: (1) where the learning revolution is going; (2) why wisdom is a paradigm for the new economy; (3) what organizations are doing to enhance learning; and (4) how to assess one's own learning…
Although e-learning has improved in quality, reach and learning impact over the past decade, it can be argued that it has not yet lived up to its potential to transform workplace learning. In the drive to increase effectiveness, interest has grown in blended learning, an instructional strategy that combines the use of web-technologies with more…
Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.
Oermann, Marilyn H
Many creative teaching strategies have been developed in recent years in nursing and other fields to promote active learning. These strategies foster development of problem solving, critical thinking, and communication skills, and they encourage students to work collaboratively with peers. However, in nurse educators' rush to embrace active learning, lecture has been viewed negatively by some faculty. Rather than positioning active learning against lecture, another approach is to integrate active learning within lecture, gaining the benefits of both methods. An integrated approach also takes into consideration the situation of teaching large groups of students. This article examines benefits of an integrated approach to teaching and presents strategies for active learning intended for use with lecture.
Sinhaneti, Kantatip; Kyaw, Ei Kalayar
This study was conducted to investigate the role of RL (rote learning) in VLSs (vocabulary learning strategies) of Burmese EFL (English as a foreign language) students. The research addresses the need of the concrete understanding of the role of RL strategy in vocabulary learning as well as Burmese EFL learners' perspectives on RL strategy among…
This study has investigated the effects of learning strategy instruction on conceptual learning, and student satisfactions in an introductory physics course at university level. In this study, pretest-posttest and quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group was used. A total of 36 sophomore students majoring in mathematics…
Helping students develop multiple intelligences and achieve content mastery requires teachers to design meaningful active learning experiences. Active learning uses the active engagement of the students' thinking processes in learning and applying knowledge. By designing active strategies that engage each student's strongest learning skills, a…
Hatch, J. Amos
"Learning as a subversive activity" is about working with public school students to debunk the shallow conception that achievement equals learning. That means exposing the power relations that keep in place such a narrow definition of what counts and exploring the implications of those powerful forces for students' lives and for society at large.…
Oh, Jina; De Gagné, Jennie Chang; Kang, Jeongae
The use of film in nursing and medical education has been supported as an effective instructional method. The purpose of this article is to identify and synthesize the available studies on teaching-learning strategies to be used with film for prelicensure students. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published in the English language between January 1990 and March 2012. Twenty-seven articles met the selection criteria for this review and were analyzed. After in-depth discussion about and investigation of the relevant literature, we narrowed down three teaching-learning strategies: reflective activities, practical activities, and evaluative activities. The synthesis of the identified teaching-learning strategies provides a data point for the development of more effective evidence-based learning activities for prelicensure students. Future studies should focus on the examination of teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes, as well as the evaluation of using film, to achieve nursing competencies appropriate to role preparation.
Arbilly, Michal; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon
Variation in learning abilities within populations suggests that complex learning may not necessarily be more adaptive than simple learning. Yet, the high cost of complex learning cannot fully explain this variation without some understanding of why complex learning is too costly for some individuals but not for others. Here we propose that different social foraging strategies can favor different learning strategies (that learn the environment with high or low resolution), thereby maintaining variable learning abilities within populations. Using a genetic algorithm in an agent-based evolutionary simulation of a social foraging game (the producer-scrounger game) we demonstrate how an association evolves between a strategy based on independent search for food (playing a producer) and a complex (high resolution) learning rule, while a strategy that combines independent search and following others (playing a scrounger) evolves an association with a simple (low resolution) learning rule. The reason for these associations is that for complex learning to have an advantage, a large number of learning steps, normally not achieved by scroungers, are necessary. These results offer a general explanation for persistent variation in cognitive abilities that is based on co-evolution of learning rules and social foraging strategies.
Dirette, Diane Powers; Anderson, Michele A
Deficits in working memory are pervasive, resistant to remediation and significantly impact a persons ability to perform activities of daily living. Internal strategies are effective for improving working memory. Learning style preferences may influence the use of various internal working memory strategies. This study compares the use of internal working memory strategies among four different learning style preferences; converger, diverger, assimilator and accommodator. A non-experimental group design was used to compare the use of internal working memory strategies and learning style preferences among 110 adults. There were some significant differences in the types of strategies used according to learning style preferences. Knowing the learning style preference of clients may help occupational therapists better tailor cognitive rehabilitation treatments to meet the client's needs.
Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad
This article reports the results of an investigation into Iranian EFL learners' perceived use of language learning strategies (LLSs) overall, the six strategy categories (memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social) as well as the 50 individual strategies appearing in Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language…
Rieskamp, Jorg; Otto, Philipp E.
The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select strategies from their repertoire is still lacking. The proposed strategy selection learning (SSL) theory predicts a strategy selection process on the basis…
Hawley, Wayne R; Witty, Christine F; Daniel, Jill M; Dohanich, Gary P
One principle of the multiple memory systems hypothesis posits that the hippocampus-based and striatum-based memory systems compete for control over learning. Consistent with this notion, previous research indicates that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in modulating the preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy over a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Interestingly, in the hippocampus, greater activity and higher protein levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme that synthesizes acetylcholine, are associated with better performance on hippocampus-based learning and memory tasks. With this in mind, the primary aim of the current study was to determine if higher levels of ChAT and the high-affinity choline uptake transporter (CHT) in the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a hippocampus-based place learning strategy on a task that also could be solved by relying on a striatum-based stimulus--response learning strategy. Results confirmed that levels of ChAT in the dorsal region of the hippocampus were associated with a preference for a place learning strategy on a water maze task that could also be solved by adopting a stimulus-response learning strategy. Consistent with previous studies, the current results support the hypothesis that the cholinergic system of the hippocampus plays a role in balancing competition between memory systems that modulate learning strategy preference.
Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg
Decision makers often have to learn from experience. In these situations, people must use the available feedback to select the appropriate decision strategy. How does the ability to select decision strategies on the basis of experience change with age? We examined younger and older adults' strategy selection learning in a probabilistic inference task using a computational model of strategy selection learning. Older adults showed poorer decision performance compared with younger adults. In particular, older adults performed poorly in an environment favoring the use of a more cognitively demanding strategy. The results suggest that the impact of cognitive aging on strategy selection learning depends on the structure of the decision environment.
This paper is a first report from the project "Activity Learning and Cooperation," financed by the Swedish Board of Education. The aim of the project is to establish a theoretical basis for a field study of locally initiated experiments using various teaching strategies. More specifically, this paper is restricted to a discussion of the…
He, Mingfeng; Pan, Xiaowen; Mu, Xiaojia; Feng, Lin
Armando Ticona Bustillos and Paulo Murilo C. de Oliveira first combined learning strategy with Penna model using a third bit string to represent knowledge. There are two forms of learning strategy in their model: individual learning through trial-and-error and social learning through copying knowledge from others. Based on the Bustillos-Oliveira model, we propose a new learning strategy:. (1) Individual learning ability depending on knowledge, through which the individual learning ability is not a constant but in direct proportion to the knowledge level of individual;. (2) Double-direction Social learning, under this, not only the young can learn from the elder, but also the elder can learn from the young;. (3) The age-dependent learning capacity, we make the learning capacity a variable in inverse proportion to the age, unlike which has been represented in Bustillos and Oliveira's model as a constant. Under this new learning strategy represented above, we get different result in the level of knowledge of individuals from B-O model.
Munger, Roger; Gutowski, Amanda
This article makes a case for teaching project management strategies in service-learning courses. The authors describe three specific documents students can create to help them manage a service-learning project and then present strategies that can help students manage their project teams. Such skills, the authors argue, provide the tools students…
Inglés, Cándido J.; Martínez-Monteagudo, María C.; Pérez Fuentes, Maria C.; García-Fernández, José M.; Molero, María del Mar; Suriá-Martinez, Raquel; Gázquez, José J.
The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship among emotional intelligence (EI) and learning strategies, identifying different emotional intelligence profiles and determining possible statistically significant differences in learning strategies through the identified profiles. Thousand and seventy-one Spaniards secondary school students…
Jones, Alexander Harris
This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…
Nahavandi, Naemeh; Mukundan, Jayakaran
The present study aimed at understanding the language learning strategy use of Iranian EFL learners' about learning a foreign language. The main purpose of the study was to understand if there was any relationship between proficiency level, gender and extra education in language institutes and strategy use. To achieve this end, 369 engineering…
The purpose of the study was to investigate language learning strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at different educational levels and explored the influence of age on the use of language learning strategies. A total of 1,023 students participated in the study. Out of the participants, there were 250 primary students…
Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina
This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…
Baker, William; Boonkit, Kamonpan
Presently, the importance of culture and context is becoming a significant feature of research in the field of learning strategies. To date, there has been little research into learning strategies utilized for reading and writing in Asian EAP (English for Academic Purposes) contexts, and in particular in the Thai context. With this in mind, this…
This paper attempts to tap the relationship between metacognitive strategy training and vocabulary learning of college students through a five week training program. It aims to answer the following question: Can metacognitive strategy training facilitate vocabulary learning of Chinese college students? Both questionnaire and tests were used in the…
Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit
This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…
A study investigated how students of English as a second language (ESL) improved their use of learning strategies through awareness-raising in group interviews and informal training. Subjects were 68 Taiwanese university students in two freshman English classes. Subjects responded to an English learning strategy questionnaire in the beginning and…
Gillis, M. K.; Olson, Mary W.
The study reported in this paper examined the effects of teaching learning strategies integrated with courses content on the study habits, attitudes, and mastery of course content of 122 students. Students enrolled in the experimental section of a freshman level course were taught learning strategies and course content; students in another section…
Dumford, Amber D.; Cogswell, Cindy A.; Miller, Angie L.
Learning strategies have been shown to be an important part of success in the classroom, but little research exists that examines differences across major fields concerning the use and faculty emphasis of learning strategies. This study uses data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement to explore…
Alomyan, Hesham Raji
This paper reports a study, which investigated whether different instructional strategies might interact with individual's cognitive style in learning. A web-based learning package was designed employing three strategies, Interactive Concept Maps, Illustration with Embedded Text and Text-Only. Group Embedded Figure Test was administered to 178…
Tasci, Guntay; Yurdugul, Halil
This study aims to develop a measurement tool to measure the quality of using learning strategies. First, the quality of using learning strategies was described based on the literature. The 32 items in the 5-point Likert scale were then administered to 320 prospective teachers, and they were analysed with exploratory factor analysis using…
Ting, Kuang-yun; Chao, Mie-sheng
This study analyzes vocational college students' self-regulated strategies for blended learning. It investigates whether there are any differences in self-regulated learning strategies among students with gender and achievement variables. Twenty-two students at a vocational college in an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context participated in…
Geary, Elizabeth K; Kraus, Marilyn F; Rubin, Leah H; Pliskin, Neil H; Little, Deborah M
That learning and memory deficits persist many years following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial due to inconsistent objective evidence supporting subjective complaints. Our prior work demonstrated significant reductions in performance on the initial trial of a verbal learning task and overall slower rate of learning in well-motivated mTBI participants relative to demographically matched controls. In our previous work, we speculated that differences in strategy use could explain the differences in rate of learning. The current study serves to test this hypothesis by examining strategy use on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition. Our present findings support the primary hypothesis that mTBI participants under-utilize semantic clustering strategies during list-learning relative to control participants. Despite achieving comparable total learning scores, we posit that the persisting learning and memory difficulties reported by some mTBI patients may be related to reduced usage of efficient internally driven strategies that facilitate learning. Given that strategy training has demonstrated improvements in learning and memory in educational and occupational settings, we offer that these findings have translational value in offering an additional approach in remediation of learning and memory complaints reported by some following mTBI.
Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca; Dodd, Regan
This study examined undergraduate and graduate students' perceptions of the impact of in-class learning activities, out-of-class learning activities, and instructional materials on their learning. Using survey methodology, students anonymously assessed their perceptions of in-class activities, out-of-class activities, and instructional materials…
Gomes, José Duarte Cardoso; Figueiredo, Mauro Jorge Guerreiro; Amante, Lúcia da Graça Cruz Domingues; Gomes, Cristina Maria Cardoso
Gaming activities are an integral part of the human learning process, in particular for children. Game-based learning focuses on motivation and children's engagement towards learning. Educational game-based activities are becoming effective strategies to enhance the learning process. This paper presents an educational activity focusing to merge…
This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…
Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin
Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…
Marshall, Stephen J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss and demonstrate the relevance of a new conceptual framework for leading and managing the development of learning and teaching to e.learning strategy development. Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing and discussing the research literature on e.learning in higher education institutions from…
Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.
In the last years, knowledge and learning management have made a significant impact on the IT research community. "Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies Beyond Tools" presents learning and knowledge management from a point of view where the basic tools and applications are provided by open source technologies.…
Multilinguals appear to become better at learning additional languages the more languages they know, and in particular, to be faster at learning grammar. This study investigates the use of grammar learning strategies in 144 participants who knew between 2 and 12 languages each, using a language background questionnaire, a set of 40 grammar…
Myers, John; Lemon, Carolyn
Discusses cooperative learning in the social studies classroom, highlighting the Jigsaw Strategy--a cooperative learning technique used to encourage students to interact, exchange ideas with peers, and gain confidence in the learning process. Presents an example of its use from a grade seven unit on Canada's native people. (GEA)
Kesici, Sahin; Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin
Dealing with students' attitudinal problems related to statistics is an important aspect of statistics instruction. Employing the appropriate learning strategies may have a relationship with anxiety during the process of statistics learning. Thus, the present study investigated multivariate relationships between self-regulated learning strategies…
Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang
Guided by the Model of Domain Learning (MDL), the study was designed to explore the extent of interrelations among prior knowledge, learning strategies, interests, physical engagement, and learning outcomes in a sixth-grade (N = 91) volleyball unit. Pearson product-moment correlations and a path analysis were conducted for the research purpose.…
Shin, Sunny; Brodsky, Igor E
The innate immune system plays a critical role in defense against microbial infection and employs germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors to detect broadly conserved microbial structures or activities. Pattern recognition receptors of the nucleotide binding domain/leucine rich repeat (NLR) family respond to particular microbial products or disruption of cellular physiology, and mediate the activation of an arm of the innate immune response termed the inflammasome. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that are inducibly assembled in response to the contamination of the host cell cytosol by microbial products. Individual NLRs sense the presence of their cognate stimuli, and initiate assembly of inflammasomes via the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and the effector pro-enzyme caspase-1. Inflammasome activation leads to rapid release of pro-inflammatory mediators of the IL-1 family as well as the release of intracellular alarmins due to a lytic form of programmed cell death termed pyroptosis. Over the past 15 years, a great deal has been learned about the mechanisms that drive inflammasome activation in response to infection by diverse pathogens. However, pathogens have also evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress host defenses, and the mechanisms by which pathogens evade inflammasome activation are not well-understood. Here, we will discuss emerging evidence on how diverse pathogens evade inflammasome activation, and what these studies have revealed about inflammasome biology. Deeper understanding of pathogen evasion of inflammasome activation has the potential to lead to development of novel classes of immunomodulatory factors that could be used in the context of human inflammatory diseases.
Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh
The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…
Sung, Han-Yu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Ya-Chi
In this study, a problem-posing strategy is proposed for supporting collaborative mobile learning activities. Accordingly, a mobile learning environment has been developed, and an experiment on a local culture course has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Three classes of an elementary school in southern Taiwan…
Zipp, Genevieve; Maher, Catherine
Background and Purpose: Regardless of our discipline educators seek to create environments that actively engage students in their learning journey. One teaching and learning strategy that has emerged in higher education is mind mapping (MM). The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the prevalence of MM usage in a health science…
Dalgarno, Barney; Kennedy, Gregor; Bennett, Sue
Discovery-based learning designs incorporating active exploration are common within instructional software. However, researchers have highlighted empirical evidence showing that "pure" discovery learning is of limited value and strategies which reduce complexity and provide guidance to learners are important if potential learning…
Trukhacheva, Nina; Pupyrev, Nicola
New educational technologies prove to be capable of solving many problems in the medical training. Students do not see e-Learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. Innovations in e-Learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-Learning into medical education can catalyze the shift towards applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. This survey analyzes possibilities to effectively use e-Learning in medical education, and what steps are to be made in that direction.
The article outlines six strategies for teaching handwriting to learning disabled elementary students with differing instructional needs. A rationale for the use of each strategy is followed by a step-by-step description of the teaching procedure. Strategy goals include the following: (1) teaching the manuscript alphabet through letter pictures to…
Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others
Three studies were performed to investigate the effects of training versus instructions in the acquisition of cognitive learning strategies. Groups of undergraduate students were taught to use one or more strategies. The amount and type of training differed for each of the experimental groups. Strategies taught included the method of loci,…
Djigunovic, Jelena Mihaljevic
This highly technical and quantitatively-based study aims to investigate the strategy-affect interaction. The language learning strategies of the subjects were examined to find out the range and frequency of strategy use. The findings served as the basis for investigating the interactions with four affective learner factors: anxiety, self-concept,…
Pedersen, Daphne E.
In this article, the author describes the use of active and collaborative learning strategies in an undergraduate sociological theory course. A semester-long ethnographic project is the foundation for the course; both individual and group participation contribute to the learning process. Assessment findings indicate that students are able, through…
Shoval, Ella; Shulruf, Boaz
The goal of this study is to identify learners who are most likely to benefit from a small group cooperative learning strategy, which includes tasks involving movement activities. The study comprised 158 learners from five second and third grade classes learning about angles. The research tools included structured observation of each learner and…
Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.
National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other’s experiences in active learning. PMID:28232588
Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E
National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other's experiences in active learning.
Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.
Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…
Texas Child Care, 1996
Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)
The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…
Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J
Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.
Sadeghi, Karim; Khonbi, Zainab Abolfazli
This study investigated the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and reasons for learning English among Iranian EFL students who began learning English at different ages. The participants (N = 33, both male and female) were divided into two groups of younger beginners (who began learning English before age 9; N = 16) and older beginners (who…
Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard
This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.
ranging from the income level to age and her preference order over a set of products (e.g. movies in Netflix ). The ranking task is to learn a map- ping...learners in RankBoost. However, in both cases, the proposed strategy selects the samples which are estimated to produce a faster convergence from the...steps in Section 5. 2. Related Work A number of strategies have been proposed for active learning in the classification framework. Some of those center
Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett
Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144
Poorman, Susan G; Mastorovich, Melissa L
The authors discuss the use of several metacognitive strategies that can help turn test reviews into an active learning experience. With these strategies, test reviews can provide students with valuable tools to enhance their thinking and help them better prepare for the high-level thinking test questions that are seen on nursing examinations.
O'Shea, H S
This article focuses on the practical aspects of clinical teaching. The teacher, preceptor, and mentor roles are defined and developed within the framework of adult learning principles. Guidelines for determining learning goals, choosing learning activities, facilitating learning during clinical practice, and evaluating knowledge and skill levels of both novice and experienced practitioners are included.
Many children are in dire need of differentiated instruction to support their unique learning needs. Differentiated instruction seeks to maximize each student's growth by recognizing that students have different ways of learning, different interests, different ways of responding to instruction, and preferred ways of learning or expressing…
Corner, Patricia Doyle; Bowden, Stephen; Clark, Delwyn; Collins, Eva; Gibb, Jenny; Kearins, Kate; Pavlovich, Kathryn
This article describes a case competition that reflects the four elements of a grounded learning exercise. These elements include creating a real-world experience, optimizing learning transfer, integrating theory and practice, and shifting learning responsibility to the students. The authors also provide details on implementing this exercise in an…
Edwards, Janine C; Stapley, Jonathan; Akins, Ralitsa; Silenas, Rasa; Williams, Josie R
Two qualitative case studies focus on the allocation of CDC funds distributed during 2002 for bioterrorism preparedness in two Texas public health regions (each as populous and complex as many states). Lessons learned are presented for public health officials and others who work to build essential public health services and security for our nation. The first lesson is that personal relationships are the cornerstone of preparedness. A major lesson is that a regional strategy to manage funds may be more effective than allocating funds on a per capita basis. One regional director required every local department to complete a strategic plan as a basis for proportional allocation of the funds. Control of communicable diseases was a central component of the planning. Some funds were kept at the regional level to provide epidemiology services, computer software, equipment, and training for the entire region. Confirmation of the value of this regional strategy was expressed by local public health and emergency management officials in a focus group 1 year after the strategy had been implemented. The group members also pointed out the need to streamline the planning process, provide up-to-date computer networks, and receive more than minimal communication. This regional strategy can be viewed from the perspective of adaptive leadership, defined as activities to bring about constructive change, which also can be used to analyze other difficult areas of preparedness.
Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann
Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…
Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.
The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determine the origin of a glacially-derived deposit: was the deposit the result of (1) glacial outwash from meltwater; or (2) the result of an ice dam breach at the head of the valley? Lessons learned from MMAMA 2012 science operations include: (1) current rover science operations scenarios tested in this environment provide adequate data to yield accurate derivative products such as geologic maps; (2) instrumentation should be selected based on both engineering and science goals; and chosen during, rather than after, mission definition; and (3) paralleling the tactical and strategic science processes provides significant efficiencies that impact science return. The MER-model concept of operations utilized, in which rover operators were sufficiently facile with science intent to alter traverse and sampling plans during plan execution, increased science efficiency, gave the Science Backroom time to develop mature hypotheses and science rationales, and partially alleviated the problem of data flow being greater than the processing speed of the scientists.
Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza
The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…
Lungu, Ovidiu; Monchi, Oury; Albouy, Geneviève; Jubault, Thomas; Ballarin, Emanuelle; Burnod, Yves; Doyon, Julien
Motor sequences can be learned using an incremental approach by starting with a few elements and then adding more as training evolves (e.g., learning a piano piece); conversely, one can use a global approach and practice the whole sequence in every training session (e.g., shifting gears in an automobile). Yet, the neural correlates associated with such learning strategies in motor sequence learning remain largely unexplored to date. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral activity of individuals executing the same 8-element sequence after they completed a 4-days training regimen (2 sessions each day) following either a global or incremental strategy. A network comprised of striatal and fronto-parietal regions was engaged significantly regardless of the learning strategy, whereas the global training regimen led to additional cerebellar and temporal lobe recruitment. Analysis of chunking/grouping of sequence elements revealed a common prefrontal network in both conditions during the chunk initiation phase, whereas execution of chunk cores led to higher mediotemporal activity (involving the hippocampus) after global than incremental training. The novelty of our results relate to the recruitment of mediotemporal regions conditional of the learning strategy. Thus, the present findings may have clinical implications suggesting that the ability of patients with lesions to the medial temporal lobe to learn and consolidate new motor sequences may benefit from using an incremental strategy.
Karns, Gary L.
The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…
Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin
When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…
The literature highlights key benefits from debate as a teaching-learning strategy for developing critical thinking and analytical skills while fostering teamwork and communication. Authors report that this method of teaching-learning has been implemented successfully in nursing and occupational therapy programs and would benefit other academic programs in the health sciences, particularly in courses that cover controversial issues. Although there are disadvantages to using the debate as a teaching-learning strategy, the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. In conclusion, debating is an effective pedagogical strategy because of the level of responsibility for learning and active involvement required by all student debaters. Moreover, it provides an experience by which students can develop competencies in researching current issues, preparing logical arguments, actively listening to various perspectives, differentiating between subjective and evidence-based information, asking cogent questions, integrating relevant information, and formulating their own opinions based on evidence. After the debate is over, students also report that the experience is FUN!
Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Chen, Ching-Ju; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi
Health education is the teaching by healthcare professionals of healthcare-related knowledge and skills to students in order that these students learn to help patients self-manage their disease and maintain health. This article introduces a new strategy in health education known as the learning portfolio and presents the theoretical basis and function of the learning portfolio and the current application of this approach in academic and health education. The learning portfolio is a learner-centric approach that collects evidence related to an individual's learning process systematically. This approach helps educators understand learner needs and conditions, while allowing the learner to observe his / her learning process in a manner that promotes self-reflection, continual inspection, and behavioral modification throughout the learning process. The results enhance the motivation of learners and strengthen their care confidence in accomplishing learning tasks.
Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui
The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.
In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…
Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic
An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item
Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.
A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…
Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…
McNamara, Danielle S.
There is a heightened understanding that metacognition and strategy use are crucial to deep, long-lasting comprehension and learning, but their assessment is challenging. First, students' judgments of what their abilities and habits and measurements of their performance often do not match. Second, students tend to learn and comprehend differently…
Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Cownden, D; Enquist, M; Eriksson, K; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Ghirlanda, S; Lillicrap, T; Laland, K N
Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (for example, trial-and-error learning) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.
Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani
Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…
Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.; Bullock, Terry, Ed.
The ninth yearbook of innovative learning strategies presents the following articles, grouped in three major sections. The first section, Program Models, contains: (1) "Cooperative Learning in a Study Skills Course" (Corrine Plotkin); (2) "Peer Tutor Preparation: A Guide to Training" (Kathy Carpenter); (3) "A Community…
Service-learning is a powerful pedagogy in which community service is an integral part of classroom education. Including a service component in a chemistry course requires flexibility and creativity on the part of the instructor as well as the institution. This paper suggests some strategies that can make service-learning more feasible for…
Asher, James J.
Described in this article are five pilot studies that explored the effects of the learning strategy of the total physical response under a variety of conditions using Japanese and Russian with adults and children. Some general conclusions suggest that dramatic facilitation in learning listening skills for a second language is related to acting out…
Teacher-student interactions are at the core of the teaching-learning process. There is research evidence showing that a teacher's caring behavior is strongly related to students' attitudes and engagement in physical education (PE). This article discusses practical strategies that PE teachers can employ to create a caring learning environment,…
Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan
We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.
Ebert, Kenneth B.; Burnett, Jane
This report documents the Strategies to Advance the Internalization of Learning (SAIL) program developed at Michigan State University (MSU) to promote international, comparative, and cross-cultural learning and cross-cultural understanding in the university community. A total of 350 foreign and U.S. students who had international experience…
Two case studies of the specific vocabulary learning strategies used by native Chinese-speakers learning English as a Second Language (ESL) at Beijing Normal University are presented and discussed. Subjects were two university students identified as "good" and "poor" language learners. They read two passages, one with about…
Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…
Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…
Weldy, Teresa G.
Purpose: This study aims to explore a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for learning and managing knowledge to make performance improvements and gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Various similarities are identified in the literature that are indicative of a…
Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others
This study compared the effectiveness of techniques for teaching cognitive learning strategies. Training was found superior to simple instructions with: (1) the method of loci for serial recall learning; and (2) short-answer test on easy reading material, but not with difficult readings or multiple-choice tests. (Author/RD)
Sagy, John; Ravi, R.; Ananthasayanam, R.
The present study attempts to gauge the effect of individualized instructional methods as a reinforcement strategy for mastery learning. Among various individualized instructional methods, the study focuses on PIM (Programmed Instructional Method) and CAIM (Computer Assisted Instruction Method). Mastery learning is a process where students achieve…
Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon
Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…
The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…
Thoe, Ng Khar
Instructional strategies determine the approaches an educator may take to achieve learning objectives. Research has shown that sets of strategies or instructional models anchored on social constructivist learning theories were found to be effective in enhancing active participation. It is particularly influential and meaningful in many areas of…
Platte, Stephen A.
Discusses a method of finding and implementing articles from among the sizeable amount of professional literature regarding cooperative learning. Describes the application of three teaching models (1) jigsaw, (2) group investigation, and (3) cybernetics that apply cooperative learning to elementary and secondary social studies instruction. (SG)
Reviews literature on laboratory and field-based studies of cooperative learning, emphasizing field-tested methods that can increase the repertoire of effective teaching methodology. Several cooperative learning methods are summarized: student teams achievement divisions, teams-games-tournament, team-assisted individualization, circles of…
Hasebrook, Joachim P.; Rudolph, Dirk W.
Education is already a big business. E-learning, by making it easy to import information and skills to anyone, anywhere, anytime, and for any purpose will grow the education market. The big winners will be those vendors that identify and serve emerging and sometimes hidden markets. The biggest growth segments unleashed by e-learning are education…
Bouffard, Suzanne; Goss, Claire Brown; Weiss, Heather
The focus on the achievement gap and growing debate about No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reauthorization have sparked increased recognition that schools alone cannot meet the learning needs of American children. There is growing interest at all levels in identifying non-school supports and opportunities that both complement learning in schools and…
Butler, Kathleen A.
Focusing on individual learning styles as a major component of intentional teaching, this discussion points out advantages for teachers who provide options based on students' learning styles in the classroom. Particular attention is given to the model of Style Differentiated Instruction (SDI) which developed from the research on styles, higher…
Lawwill, Kenneth Stuart
Writing-to-learn strategies have been well documented in the promotion of student learning (Poirrier, 1997c). Less is known about how teachers come to use these strategies in every day instruction. This study is a description of the experiences of one science teacher at a large suburban high school who shared writing-to-learn strategies with his department to promote the use of these strategies in daily instruction of his colleagues. The strategies involved (1) improving reading comprehension using paraphrasing, (2) activating prior knowledge using generic questions: who, what, where, when, why, & how, and (3) writing before and after other classroom activities to activate prior knowledge and then better integrate new information. The strategies were shared during informal meetings at lunch. Participation was voluntary. Of the eighteen faculty members, four chose to implement the strategies on a longer-term basis. Follow-up analysis in subsequent years, showed that the strategies were still in use and that the colleagues who used the strategies had passed them on to newly inducted members of the department. Results were discussed with regards to how teachers acquire or decline the incorporation of new teaching ideas in the normal course of their work in collegial settings.
Lah, Norma Che; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Hassan, Ruhaya
The study explores chunking strategies applied in Short Term Memory (STM) by upper secondary students of mixed chemistry learning abilities. The aim of the study is to observe variations in chunking strategies utilized by these students when learning the Periodic Table of Elements in the Form Four Chemistry syllabus. Findings show that students…
El Hajji, Mohamed; El Bouzaidi, Rachid Drissi; Douzi, Hassan; Khouya, El Hassane
In a changing Moroccan educational landscape, Addressing teaching development needs is becoming a major issue in vocational work-linked Training. In this context, this paper present a new blended learning strategy based on the flipped classroom, using a social learning platform as support. Through this strategy, we increased the time dedicated to…
Pelton, Julie A.
In this study, I set out to gain a better understanding of the learning strategies typically used by sociology majors, whether and to what extent they engage in metacognitive strategies, and whether teaching about learning results in students reporting greater use of self-regulatory behaviors. I discuss the importance of self-regulated learning…
Kikas, Eve; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa
Two types of assessment instruments were developed to assess middle school students' learning strategies, and their effectiveness in predicting various learning outcomes was examined. The participants were 565 middle school students. Three subscales (rehearsal, organization, elaboration) from the "Motivated Strategies for Learning…
Hoffmann, F.; Kriegel, K.; Icking, C.; Klein, R.
We provide a competitive strategy for a mobile robot with vision, that has to explore an unknown simple polygon starting from and returning to a given point on the boundary. Our strategy creates a tour that does not exceed in length 133 times the length of the optimal watchman route. This paper is the first to describe a complete strategy and to give a proof for such a constant competitive factor.
Kleinheksel, Karen A.; Summy, Sarah E.
This article on using mnemonics with students having learning and behavior problems first offers a case study of a 7th grade student and then describes the letter strategy, the keyword mnemonic method, and the pegword method. Seven steps for implementing mnemonic strategies are offered. An inset reviews the research literature on using mnemonic…
Strijker, Allard; Collis, Betty
Based on research in ten projects in a university, corporate learning, and military context, a set of dimensions is found that can help decision makers to develop strategies for reuse (Strijker, 2004). This article describes how these dimensions and their relation with human and technical aspects can be used in a reuse strategy. The dimensions can…
Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru
This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…
Marland, P. W.; Store, R. E.
Examines some traditional instructional strategies used to improve textual materials for learning at a distance, including advance organizers, overviews, pretests, objectives, and inserted questions, together with devices in typography and graphics. Research in each area is reviewed and guidelines are given for using each strategy. An extensive…
Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John
Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning…
This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…
This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task-Based Learning (TBL) would shape or change students' use of oral communication strategies. Students' problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis…
Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.; Saleh, Issa M., Ed.
"Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning" examines the challenges involved in the development of modern curriculum models, teaching strategies, and assessments in science education in order to prepare future students in the 21st century economies. This comprehensive collection of research brings together science educators,…
White, Chris M.; Koehler, Derek J.
Choice strategies for selecting among outcomes in multiple-cue probability learning were investigated using a simulated medical diagnosis task. Expected choice probabilities (the proportion of times each outcome was selected given each cue pattern) under alternative choice strategies were constructed from corresponding observed judged…
Bloom, Barbara; Coulter, Karen
Learning disabled adolescents can be helped to make sense of large amounts of material by a systematic study approach that builds on memory strategy. Such a strategy includes building on meaningful associations and recollections and using specific memory aids (such as kinesthetic, visual, and auditory rehearsal). (CL)
This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…
Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz
The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…
Halpern, Daniel; Oh, Kyong Eun; Tremaine, Marilyn; Chiang, James; Bemis, Karen; Silver, Deborah
The following study investigates the range of strategies individuals develop to infer and interpret cross-sections of three-dimensional objects. We focus on the identification of mental representations and problem-solving processes made by 11 individuals with the goal of building training applications that integrate the strategies developed by the…
Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Yi
Teachers experience difficulty demonstrating prediction strategies and leading discussions in traditional classrooms. It is also unclear whether online discussion can contribute to reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to create an online reading system to investigate whether learners can acquire reading strategies and enhance their…
Carbonero Martín, Miguel Angel; Navarro Zavala, Josmer Coromoto
The present research focuses on the design and testing of a training program in learning strategies for Mathematics in Higher Education students. This research displays a quasiexperimental-sequential design with a non-equivalent control group. The research aims at revealing the effect of this training program both on the student's competence in learning strategies and on academic performance in this curricular area. There have been 176 students taking part in this research (74 students forming the experimental group and 72 forming the control group). The obtained results permit to assess the program efficiency as regards both trained strategies handling and specific performance improvement.
Rendell, L.; Boyd, R.; Cownden, D.; Enquist, M.; Eriksson, K.; Feldman, M. W.; Fogarty, L.; Ghirlanda, S.; Lillicrap, T.; Laland, K. N.
Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why it pays to copy, and how best to do so. To address these questions we organised a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (e.g. trial-and-error) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied exclusively on social learning, and weighted information according to the time since acquisition. PMID:20378813
As our understanding of practice development becomes more sophisticated, we enhance our understanding of how the facilitation of learning in and from practice, can be more effectively achieved. This paper outlines an approach for enabling and maximizing learning within practice development known as 'Active Learning'. It considers how, given establishing a learning culture is a prerequisite for the sustainability of PD within organisations, practice developers can do more to maximize learning for practitioners and other stakeholders. Active Learning requires that more attention be given by organisations committed to PD, at a corporate and strategic level for how learning strategies are developed in the workplace. Specifically, a move away from a heavy reliance on training may be required. Practice development facilitators also need to review: how they organise and offer learning, so that learning strategies are consistent with the vision, aims and processes of PD; have skills in the planning, delivery and evaluation of learning as part of their role and influence others who provide more traditional methods of training and education.
Forte, Imogene; Schurr, Sandra
This workbook includes high-interest activities, lessons, and projects to further students' interest in and understanding of important exploratory and enrichment topics essential to a balanced middle grades program. The workbook includes lessons and activities that encourage students to learn more about the arts. Instructional strategies are…
The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…
Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.
Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…
Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J
Background Medical students face many challenges when learning within clinical environments. How students plan to use their time and engage with learning opportunities is therefore critical, as it may be possible to highlight strategies that optimize the learning experience at an early stage in the rotation. The aim of the study was to describe the learning drivers and proposed learning strategies of medical students for a clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology. Methods A descriptive study of personal learning plans completed by students at the start of their clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology was undertaken. Data relating to students’ learning strategies were obtained from the personal learning plans completed by students. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used. Results The desire to obtain a good examination result was the most significant reason why the rotation was important to students (n=67/71, 94%). Students struggled to create a specific and practical learning outcome relevant to their career interest. Target scores of students were significantly higher than their reported typical scores (P<0.01). Textbooks were rated as likely to be the most helpful learning resource during the rotation. Bedside tutorials were rated as likely to be the most useful learning activity and small group learning activities were rated as likely to be more useful than lectures. Most students intended to study the course material linked to their clinical program rather than the classroom-based tutorial program. Conclusion The main learning driver for medical students was academic achievement, and the proposed learning strategy favored by medical students was linking their study plans to clinical activities. Medical educators should consider strategies that foster more intrinsic drivers of student learning and more student-oriented learning resources and activities. PMID:27570470
Most studies evaluating the effectiveness of strategy training for L2/FL learners have been product-oriented, i.e. they have quantitatively measured improvements in learners' test scores following the completion of a strategy training programme. However, such evaluation methods are only partial, and they must be supplemented by a qualitative…
Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.
The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…
White, Chris M; Koehler, Derek J
Choice strategies for selecting among outcomes in multiple-cue probability learning were investigated using a simulated medical diagnosis task. Expected choice probabilities (the proportion of times each outcome was selected given each cue pattern) under alternative choice strategies were constructed from corresponding observed judged probabilities (of each outcome given each cue pattern) and compared with observed choice probabilities. Most of the participants were inferred to have responded by using a deterministic strategy, in which the outcome with the higher judged probability is consistently chosen, rather than a probabilistic strategy, in which an outcome is chosen with a probability equal to its judged probability. Extended practice in the learning environment did not affect choice strategy selection, contrary to reports from previous studies, results of which may instead be attributable to changes with practice in the variability and extremity of the perceived probabilities on which the choices were based.
Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor
Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes.
The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.
Grossman, Sue; Williston, Judy
Describes strategies teacher educators and supervisors can use to help early childhood teachers learn appropriate teaching practices. Methods, techniques, and strategies discussed include modeling, observing teachers in action, discussing sample scenarios, providing direct instruction, readings, writing assignments, and supervised practice.…
Finley, Fred N.; Smith, Edward L.
Compares group differences in strategy learning, use, and transfer to a more complex task for two groups of elementary students (N=48). Asked to perform three tasks in classifying igneous rocks, the groups differed in whether they received advice on the use of a specific strategy for performing each task. (CS)
Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching
Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…
Bugge, Liv Susanne; Wikan, Gerd
Many countries face a challenge in recruiting teachers. At the same time, the labour market is changing and the demand for re-education is increasing. In this situation, lifelong learning is seen as relevant and higher education institutions are asked to offer flexible and decentralised study programmes in order to accommodate the need for formal…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
In two experiments, students (10 learning disabled ninth graders and 45 nondisabled seventh graders) were taught the hardness levels of minerals according to either a keyword-pegword mnemonic, a questioning procedure, or free study. Mnemonic students significantly outrecalled both questioning and free-study students regardless of students'…
Steinberg, Alan; And Others
This instructional package, designed for educable mentally impaired students, focuses on the vocational area of graphics. Contained in this document are nine learning modules organized into a finishing and bindery unit. Maintenance of a Challenge power cutter, operation of a hand electric stapler, and packaging with kraft paper are examples of…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
The use of the "keyword" method as a tool for improving memory in learning disabled students is explained. The keyword method consists of two stages: an acoustical link stage and a stage in which the student is provided with a picture of the keyword interacting with the appropriate response term. The method can be modified for use in…
Dewar, Tammy; Whittington, Dave
Describes an experiment that looked at how adult learners made use of their Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]), a personality assessment tool, type to cope with the challenges of learning in an online environment. Presents results of the experiment, and draws tentative conclusions. Provides notes related to the four psychological dimensions of…
Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others
Jigsaw, a cooperative learning technique, was evaluated for its effects on fifth- and sixth-grade students' attitudes and behaviors with regard to themselves, peers and school. Few affective gains were found, although participants in Jigsaw rated their classes as less competitive. (Author/DWH)
Sandahl, Sheryl S
A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to work collaboratively as members of interprofessional health care teams on behalf of patients. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision making, and group processing skills. This study incorporated a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group to examine the effect of collaborative testing as a learning strategy on student learning and retention of course content as well as group process skills and student perceptions of their learning and anxiety. The setting was a baccalaureate nursing program; the sample consisted of two groups of senior students enrolled in Medical-Surgical Nursing II. Student learning, as measured by unit examination scores, was greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Retention of course content, as measured by final examination scores, was not greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Student perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with students reporting increased learning as a result of the collaborative testing experiences. Despite the lack of data to support increased retention, collaborative testing may be a learning strategy worth implementing in nursing education. Students reported more positive interactions and collaboration with their peers, skills required by the professional nurse.
MacFarlane, Geoff R.; Markwell, Kevin W.; Date-Huxtable, Elizabeth M.
Based on the criteria of Ramsden (1992) of contextual factors that encourage a deep approach to learning, an independent, open-ended field-based activity for students of behavioural ecology was designed and implemented. The project was designed to create an authentic learning activity that allowed responsible choice in the method and content…
Bailey, Don; And Others
Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…
Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija
The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…
Hock, Michael F.; Mellard, Daryl F.
Results from randomized controlled trials of learning strategies instruction with 375 adult basic education (AE) participants are reported. Reading outcomes from whole group strategic instruction in one of four learning strategies were compared to outcomes of reading instruction delivered in the context of typical adult education units on social studies, history, and science. Both experimental and control conditions experienced high attrition and low attendance, resulting in only 105 control and 100 experimental participants’ data in outcome analyses for the trials of the four learning strategies. Reading outcomes for these completers were not significantly different between experimental and control conditions, and each group achieved minimal gains. We discuss possible reasons for the non-significant effect from the intervention, including insufficient instructional dosage. PMID:22121409
Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi
Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed.
Goll, Paulette S.
This article investigates the process of remembering and presents techniques to improve memory retention. Examples of association, clustering, imagery, location, mnemonic devices and visualization illustrate strategies that can be used to encode and recall information from the long-term memory. Several memory games offer the opportunity to test…
Styslinger, Mary E.
Some students with Asperger syndrome comprehend text effortlessly, but many others struggle to make meaning of what they read. The unique characteristics of students with Asperger mean teachers must think strategically about how to ensure that they become proficient readers. The author offers seven strategies that teachers can employ to improve…
US Agency for International Development, 2005
In recent years, development has become a cornerstone of the U.S. national security strategy, along with defense and diplomacy. The challenge of development is broader and more multifaceted than it has ever been. It involves not only traditional development--the achievement of economic, social, and political progress--but the added challenges of…
Liyanage, Indika; Birch, Gary; Grimbeek, Peter
Previous studies (Liyanage, 2003a, 2003b, 2004) by one of the authors indicated that ethnicity and religion jointly predict the metacognitive, cognitive and social affective strategies of ESL learners in Sri Lanka. The current study further examines which of these two variables (ethnicity or religion) is more important in determining the…
Continuing the conversation began in the book "Invitations," this book further explores the full universe of an effective language arts and literacy program across the curriculum. Filled with an array of field-tested teaching ideas, detailed strategies, reviews of theory, teacher-crafted lessons, and lists of annotated resources, the book presents…
Grantmakers for Education, 2014
In 2011, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) partnered with the Monitor Institute to develop the K-12 Education Strategy Landscape Tool--an asset mapping tool that used interactive data visualization to provide a clear picture of the who, what, where, and when of education grantmaking. The prototype launched in January of 2012. Over a dozen funders…
Duong, Tuan Anh
Fully-parallel hardware neural network implementations may be applied to high-speed recognition, classification, and mapping tasks in areas such as vision, or can be used as low-cost self-contained units for tasks such as error detection in mechanical systems (e.g. autos). Learning is required not only to satisfy application requirements, but also to overcome hardware-imposed limitations such as reduced dynamic range of connections.
Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.
Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.
This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614
Hartfield, Perry J.
In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…
The traditional science lecture, where an instructor delivers a carefully crafted monolog to a large audience of students who passively receive the information, has been a popular mode of instruction for centuries. Recent evidence on the science of teaching and learning indicates that learner-centered, active teaching strategies can be more effective learning tools than traditional lectures. Yet most colleges and universities retain lectures as their central instructional method. This article highlights several simple collaborative teaching techniques that can be readily deployed within traditional lecture frameworks to promote active learning. Specifically, this article briefly introduces the techniques of: reader's theatre, think-pair-share, roundtable, jigsaw, in-class quizzes, and minute papers. Each technique is broadly applicable well beyond neuroscience courses and easily modifiable to serve an instructor's specific pedagogical goals. The benefits of each technique are described along with specific examples of how each technique might be deployed within a traditional lecture to create more active learning experiences.
Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M
Service learning is recognized as a valuable pedagogy involving experiential learning, reflection, and reciprocal learning. Students develop critical thinking and social awareness by using the crucial activity of reflecting upon their experiential learning with community partners. The purpose of this paper is to demystify the process of reflection by identifying best practices to enhance reflection and offering suggestions for grading. By understanding "the what" and "the how" of reflection, educators can implement service learning experiences designed to include the essential component of reflection. Strategies for facilitating meaningful reflection are described including descriptions of what students should reflect upon and how to initiate reflection through writing, reading, doing, and telling. Grading rubrics are suggested to facilitate evaluation of student reflection. When properly implemented, service learning encourages students to be good citizens of the world. By using best practices associated with reflection, students can be challenged to think critically about the world and how their service can achieve community goals.
Austin, Michael J
This analysis describes the nature of a learning organization, defines the boundaries of evidence-informed practice, identifies the elements of knowledge management, and specifies the elements of the transfer of learning. A set of principles are presented to guide managers in transforming human service organizations into learning organizations along with a set of implementation strategies that can inform participants of the values and benefits of knowledge management. This analysis features concepts and principles adapted and synthesized from research in diverse fields, such as evidence-based health care and the for-profit sector related to learning organizations, knowledge management, and the transfer of learning.
Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that…
Pombo, Lucia; Loureiro, Maria Joao; Moreira, Antonio
This study examines students' views on a blended learning module developed and offered at the University of Aveiro. The paper presents the module and the strategies, tools, activities and assessment. In order to examine the effectiveness of the module, data were collected from reflections, postings and questionnaires. Findings document students'…
Kukolja Taradi, S.; Taradi, M.
The goal of the present study was to determine whether an active learning/teaching strategy facilitated with mobile technologies can improve students' levels of memory retention of key physiological concepts. We used a quasiexperimental pretest/posttest nonequivalent group design to compare the test performances of second-year medical students (n…
Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton
This document, which is based on 3 years of research on 14 school-to-work programs across the United States, outlines pedagogical strategies for work-based learning. Pedagogy is defined as the organization of the social activities, organizational structures, and cultural practices by which newcomers, such as student interns, come to acquire and…
Self-regulation has gained worldwide popularity in the field of language teaching research with the help of recent interest in the active role of learners in the classroom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies of the students in an ELT program and their Grade Point Average (GPA)…
Olvera-Cortés, María Esther; García-Alcántar, Iván; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; Cervantes, Miguel
The participation key role of the hippocampus in place learning ability as well as the decline of cognitive functions associated with aging, have been established in experimental and clinical studies. On the other hand, hippocampal theta activity has been proposed as a part of the cerebral phenomena underlying hippocampal-dependent learning processes. In the present study, the relative power of low, high, and maximal frequency components of hippocampal CA1 theta activity during a 6-day training period (four daily trials; basal, searching, and platform stages) and the probe trial of a place learning paradigm (Morris water maze) were analyzed in young and aged rats. An increase in high frequency, and a decrease in low frequency relative power of theta activity during the searching stage, which were correlated with shorter swimming path lengths and predominant hippocampal-dependent allocentric strategies, were observed in young rats as became trained in place learning and memory tasks, in the Morris water maze; while, under these conditions, no changes in theta activity and predominant non hippocampal-dependent egocentric strategies occurred in the old rats. Besides, an overall (theta activity recorded during the three behavioral stages) increase of low frequency and an overall decrease of high frequency theta bands in the old group as compared to the young group were observed. These electrophysiological data suggest that old rats process information relevant for cognitive functions in a different manner, possibly leading to the use of different learning strategies, than young rats.
This article reviews the rationales underpinning learning cities, examines the related conceptual development that arises from the literature, reviews progress made in building learning cities in international communities and synthesises the major strategies adopted. The article also points out the challenges and barriers, and it concludes with…
Nielsen, Siw G.
This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…
Sahragard, Rahman; Khajavi, Yaser; Abbasian, Reza
The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between field of study, learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among university students majoring in the fields of arts and humanities, science, engineering, social sciences, and English as a foreign language. To this end, 376 university students completed the…
Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.
This study investigated the language learning strategy use of 55 ESL students with differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds enrolled in a college Intensive English Program (IEP). The IEP is a language learning institute for pre-admissions university ESL students, and is an important step in developing not only students' basic Interpersonal…
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh
The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…
So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying
This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…
Jie, Li; Xiaoqing, Qin
This study focuses on the relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies in the EFL context in China. The study presents two kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative study, the subjects consisted of 187 second-year undergraduates. Two self-reported inventories, the Chinese version of MBTI-G and a…
Borkowski, John G.; And Others
The ability of nursery school and first-grade children to learn and transfer a mediational strategy utilizing prepositional relationships between paired-associate objects was investigated under several strategy training conditions. (Author/JMB)
Rao, S P; DiCarlo, S E
Active involvement in the learning process has been suggested to enhance creative thinking, judgement, interpretation, and problem-solving skills. Therefore, educators are encouraged to create an active-learning environment by incorporating active-learning strategies into the class. However, there is very little documentation of the effectiveness of active-learning strategies. Furthermore, faculty are often reluctant to incorporate new strategies without documentation of the effectiveness of these strategies. To address this concern, we compared the performance of two individual classes on an identical respiratory physiology examination. One class was taught respiratory physiology using active-learning strategies. The other class was taught respiratory physiology using the traditional lecture format. The results document that students who learned using active-learning strategies did significantly better (P < 0.05) on the respiratory physiology examination than students who learned by the traditional lecture format (61 +/- 2.2 vs. 86 +/- 1.0). Thus, by actively involving students in the learning process, academic performance is enhanced.
Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian
This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…
Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chiung-Sui
This paper explores students' learning styles in relation to learning strategies in web-based learning environments, and in particular, how academic discipline and gender differences affect learning styles and learning strategies in web-based learning for college students in Taiwan. The results show that regardless of learning strategy, academic…
Larson, Celia O.; And Others
The present experiment tested a strategy, developed from principles on general text processing, for learning technical material. The effectiveness of cooperative learning was examined as a technique for learning technical information. Results showed that cooperative learning and technical learning strategies were effective for acquiring structural…
MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison
Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning.
The main objective of this study is to identify the development of students' self-reported use of metacognitive learning strategies during high school. Therefore, the study analyses the differential development patterns of 1,432 students, between grade 10 and 12, in a longitudinal sample. The results suggest that, from a global perspective, there…
Schnotz, Wolfgang; Ludewig, Ulrich; Ullrich, Mark; Horz, Holger; McElvany, Nele; Baumert, Jürgen
Reading for learning frequently requires integrating text and picture information into coherent knowledge structures. This article presents an experimental study aimed at analyzing the strategies used by students for integrating text and picture information. Four combinations of texts and pictures (text-picture units) were selected from textbooks…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the training and learning strategies adopted by family businesses in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: In order to implement the study a database of family businesses was compiled. A number of sources were used to compile the database. Primary data from a stratified random sample of independent…
Snapp-Childs, Winona; Corbetta, Daniela
Learning to walk is a dynamic process requiring the fine coordination, assembly, and balancing of many body segments at once. For the young walker, coordinating all these behavioral levels may be quite daunting. In this study, we examine the whole-body strategies to which infants resort to produce their first independent steps and progress over…
Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Corry, Michael
Discusses effective designs, management tactics, and strategies to produce ideal asynchronous network discussions that allow contemplation and encourage the development of critical thinking. A model of an online collaborative learning community is applied to implement the designs. A sample of online collaborative moderation guidelines is…
Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.
Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…
Scope and Method of Study: The scope of this study was the decision making styles and the learning strategies preferences among entrepreneurs. The study utilized a descriptive research design. Internet was utilized as a data collection tool, Participant in the study were 240 entrepreneurs from the Oklahoma state, Tulsa county members of the SBA.…
Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael
The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…
In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…
The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers' methodology, the students' learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study…
Roselli, Nestor D.
Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to…
Nuttall, Alice E.
It was hypothesized that subjects who were trained in selected task-related learning strategies would exhibit significantly increased performance and academic motivation over untrained subjects. Students in an associate degree management course (n=54) participated in either treatment or control groups. Both groups received training in…
Tan, Kym; Dawson, Vaille; Venville, Grady
This research investigates the use of cognitive organisers as a self-regulated learning strategy by gifted and talented science students in a Year 9 class at a metropolitan high school in Perth, Western Australia. The case study research design incorporates three primary methods of data collection including participant observation in classrooms,…
Akbari, Ramin; Hosseini, Kobra
The present study was conducted to investigate the existence of any possible relationship between the use of language learning strategies and multiple intelligences' scores of foreign language learners of English. Ninety subjects participated in the study. To measure the participants' multiple intelligence scores, MIDAS, a commercially designed…
Dawson, Sandra A.
This paper discusses the risk communication goals, strategy, planning process and product development for the New Horizons mission, including lessons from the Cassini mission that were applied in that effort, and presents lessons learned from the New Horizons effort that could be applicable to future missions.
Bender, William N.; Larkin, Martha J.
This guide to reading instruction for elementary and middle school students with learning difficulties covers a wide variety of practical instructional strategies founded in research and proven effective in classrooms. An introductory chapter notes the growing national emphasis on reading skills, especially research-based reading programs and the…
Wong, Lillian L. C.; Nunan, David
This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation into the learning styles and strategies of effective and ineffective language learners. Subjects for the study were one hundred and ten undergraduate university students in Hong Kong. They were categorized as "more effective" or "less effective" learners, on the…
Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia
The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…
Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis
The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…
Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis
The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N=120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30=male and 30=female)…
Van Matre, Nicholas H.; And Others
Two experiments were conducted with college students as subjects in an effort to determine the note taking strategy most effective for learning from lecture. In one experiment students listened to a lecture while engaging in either parallel or distributed note taking. The information density of the lecture and the lecture presentation speed were…
Shumaker, Melody G.
This descriptive study utilized frequency data to identify and describe the learning strategy preferences of English as a Second Language learners at an Intensive English Institute in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Qualitative data were gathered by journals, observations, and interviews. Additionally, feedback from teacher observations were gathered. The 36…
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to start the process of exploring how to optimise connections between the strategic needs of an organisation as directed by top management and its learning management structures and strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The article takes a broad brush approach to a complex and large subject area that is…
Cahill, Susan M.
This article presents a case story of how an occupational therapist worked with Joe, a junior high student with Asperger's Syndrome, to develop better organizational skills. Self-regulated learning strategies were used to teach Joe how to keep track of his assignments as well as his grades. In addition, the case story provides a clear example of…
Bajic, Daniel; Rickard, Timothy C.
The transition from algorithmic to memory-based performance is a core component of cognitive skill learning. There has been debate about the temporal dynamics of strategy execution, with some models assuming a race (i.e., independent, capacity unconstrained parallel processing) between algorithm and retrieval, and others assuming a choice…
Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed
This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…
Holland, Wayne; Salama, Alzira
Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the learning process associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) integration strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a comparative case study methodology, utilising qualitative data through in-depth interviews with top management responsible for…
Everett, Susan; Moyer, Richard
Trade books can be used in all phases of the learning cycle to support effective teaching and learning. Romance and Vitale (1992) found that texts and other nonfiction science books can be effective tools for teaching reading, as the science activities give learners a purpose for their reading. In this article, the authors share ways to…
Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen
Problem Statement: Motivation plays an important role in explaining students' academic achievement. In an effort to explain students' purposes for learning and the reasons they engage in a learning activity, different achievement goal models (dichotomous, trichotomous, and 2x2) have been proposed over time. The present study aimed to extend…
Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.
Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593
Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula
This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…
Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia
This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…
Heisel, Marsel A.
This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…
Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn
This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…
Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M
Associative memory for auditory-cued events involves specific plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) that facilitates responses to tones which gain behavioral significance, by modifying representational parameters of sensory coding. Learning strategy, rather than the amount or content of learning, can determine this learning-induced cortical (high order) associative representational plasticity (HARP). Thus, tone-contingent learning with signaled errors can be accomplished either by (1) responding only during tone duration ("tone-duration" strategy, T-Dur), or (2) responding from tone onset until receiving an error signal for responses made immediately after tone offset ("tone-onset-to-error", TOTE). While rats using both strategies achieve the same high level of performance, only those using the TOTE strategy develop HARP, viz., frequency-specific decreased threshold (increased sensitivity) and decreased bandwidth (increased selectivity) (Berlau & Weinberger, 2008). The present study challenged the generality of learning strategy by determining if high motivation dominates in the formation of HARP. Two groups of adult male rats were trained to bar-press during a 5.0kHz (10s, 70dB) tone for a water reward under either high (HiMot) or moderate (ModMot) levels of motivation. The HiMot group achieved a higher level of correct performance. However, terminal mapping of A1 showed that only the ModMot group developed HARP, i.e., increased sensitivity and selectivity in the signal-frequency band. Behavioral analysis revealed that the ModMot group used the TOTE strategy while HiMot subjects used the T-Dur strategy. Thus, type of learning strategy, not level of learning or motivation, is dominant for the formation of cortical plasticity.
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.
Margaryan, Anoush; Littlejohn, Allison; Milligan, Colin
The research reported here is an exploratory qualitative study aimed at identifying professionals' self-regulatory strategies underpinning the planning and attainment of learning goals in the workplace and showing how a number of organizational factors affect these strategies. The rationale for the study is that existing research tells us…
This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…
Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Gilmore, Hannah; Romero, Eduardo; Madabhushi, Anant
The treatment and management of early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is hindered by the difficulty in identifying patients who require adjuvant chemotherapy in contrast to those that will respond to hormonal therapy. To distinguish between the more and less aggressive breast tumors, which is a fundamental criterion for the selection of an appropriate treatment plan, Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests are typically employed. While informative, these gene expression tests are expensive, tissue destructive, and require specialized facilities. Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade, the common scheme employed in breast cancer grading, has been shown to be correlated with the Oncotype DX risk score. Unfortunately, studies have also shown that the BR grade determined experiences notable inter-observer variability. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the mitotic index. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) classifier to identify mitotic figures from whole slides images of ER+ breast cancer, the hypothesis being that the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier would correlate with the corresponding Oncotype DX risk categories. The mitosis detector yielded an average F-score of 0.556 in the AMIDA mitosis dataset using a 6-fold validation setup. For a cohort of 174 whole slide images with early stage ER+ breast cancer for which the corresponding Oncotype DX score was available, the distributions of the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier was found to be significantly different between the high vs low Oncotype DX risk groups (P < 0.01). Comparisons of other risk groups, using both ODX score and histological grade, were also found to present significantly different automated mitoses distributions. Additionally, a support vector machine classifier trained to separate low/high Oncotype DX risk categories using the mitotic count determined by the DL classifier yielded a 83.19% classification
Adey, Philip; Shayer, Michael
A few years ago the authors wrote a book (Shayer and Adey 1981) in which a model of the way children learn was used to explain why many children had difficulty with some key concepts in science. The book was greeted with the criticism from some quarters that they were labelling children and being deterministic about what they could and could not do. Some teachers found comfort in the book since it provided a theoretical foundation for their everyday experience that, however they may try to make certain ideas relevant, or practical, the ideas remained difficult for many pupils. And some teachers took the message as an opportunity to shrug their shoulders and say 'I always said it was impossible to teach density to 3F, now I have an excuse not even to try'. What the authors will attempt to do in the article, with respect to certain key concepts in physics, is show that (i) to describe an existing situation is not to say it cannot be changed (although describing may be a necessary prerequisite to changing it), and (ii) not only can density be taught to 3F 'in some intellectually honest form' (Bruner 1963), but that in so doing one has the possibility of assisting pupils to develop their general reasoning powers, which could have value far beyond physics.
Hoffman, Alan, Ed.; Moon, Jeannette B., Ed.
Designed to assist secondary teachers and school systems in classroom instruction, in staff development workshops, and in curriculum design, this manual contains classroom and resource materials that have proven useful in teaching legal education. Although developed specifically for educators in Georgia, the activities can easily be used by…
This study investigated language learning strategies used by 418 EFL learners in Taiwan and looked for relationships between learning strategy use and the patterns of strategy use based on language proficiency. The participants reported using compensation strategies most frequently and affective strategies least frequently. The most frequently…
Kisanga, Dalton; Ireson, Gren
Tanzanian Higher learning institutions (HLIs) are faced with challenges of adopting e-learning in education. This study involved experts in e-learning to examine barriers of adopting e-learning and the best strategies to address them. Data were gathered from a series of semi-structured interviews with e-learning experts from two HLIs in Tanzania.…
Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D Yves
All of us regularly face situations that require the integration of the available information at hand with the established rules that guide behavior in order to generate the most appropriate action. But where individuals differ from one another is most certainly in terms of the different strategies that are adopted during this process. A previous study revealed differential brain activation patterns for the implementation of well established higher-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules depending on inter-individual strategy differences (Wolfensteller and von Cramon, 2010). This raises the question of how these strategies evolve or which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie these inter-individual strategy differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study revealed striking strategy-effects across regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the implementation of higher-order S-R rules at an early stage of learning. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex displayed a quantitative strategy-effect, such that activation during rule integration based on a mismatch was related to the degree to which participants continued to rely on rule integration. A quantitative strategy ceiling effect was observed for the left inferior frontal junction area. Conversely, the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed a qualitative strategy-effect such that participants who at a later point relied on an item-based strategy showed stronger activations in this region compared to those who continued with the rule integration strategy. Together, the present findings suggest that a certain amount of rule integration is mandatory when participants start to learn higher-order rules. The more efficient item-based strategy that evolves later appears to initially require the recruitment of additional cognitive resources in order to shield the currently relevant S-R association from interfering information.
Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia
Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…
Gravani, Maria N.
The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…
Vittrup, Ann-Charlotte; Davey, Anna
This article discusses a case study that was initiated by a Graduate Nurse Coordinator of an acute care inpatient hospital in Australia. It outlines the conceptualisation and creative implementation of a structured group problem based learning activity which was a component of a Graduate Nurse Program. The learning activity was based on the beliefs that knowledge acquisition today is an active process and should focus on the learner developing strategies to obtain, review and manage information. The learning activity implemented in this case study was valuable as it recognised the benefits that can be gained for the Graduate Nurse by ensuring the context of their teaching and learning activities is grounded in practical experiences. The learning activity aimed to prepare Graduate Nurses to cope with the multiple challenges faced as they enter the nursing profession by enhancing their skills of inquiry, problem solving and reasoning. The evaluation of this case study found that the incorporation of structured group problem based learning did promote the achievement of these educational outcomes with Graduate Nurses displaying critical thinking, clinical judgment and knowledge acquisition skills. An unexpected benefit of this activity for Graduate Nurses was the enhancement of clinical practice behaviours, such as communication and interactive skills. This case study describes the positive outcomes not only for Graduates Nurses in the application of their learning but also the wider benefits which can be gained for the organisation, patient care standards and the health care team. It is anticipated that this article will be an inspiration to others who are interested in implementing innovative teaching strategies into Graduate Nurse Programs.
Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus
Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…
Javid, Choudhary Z.; Al-thubaiti, Turki S.; Uthman, Awwadh
It is reported that language learning is a creative and dynamic process and the learners are active partners in this process. This trend in language teaching motivated the researchers to investigate the learners' individual differences and the identification of language learning strategies (LLS) has become a major area of interest in this regard…
Wang, Li-Chun; Chen, Ming-Puu
Learning to program is difficult for novices, even for those undergraduates who have majored in computer science. The study described in this paper has investigated the effects of game strategy and preference-matching on novice learners' flow experience and performance in learning to program using an experiential gaming activity. One hundred and…
Bock, Marjorie A.
This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (SODA) on the social interaction skills of 4 elementary school children with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the abilities of 4 children with AS to participate in cooperative learning activities,…
Reynolds, Heather L.; Kearns, Katherine Dowell
Backward course design is a compelling strategy for achieving results-based, student-centered learning. The backward course-design approach is first to identify student-learning outcomes, then the means of assessing the outcomes, and lastly the classroom activities that would support the learning outcomes. With demonstrated success at improving…
From effective learning research, there is a general consensus that hands-on experiences help students to learn. The question that this paper seeks to answer is what it is about these activities that fosters student learning. In a review of the literature, three factors have been identified as making a significant contribution to this strategy's…
Vacas Pérez, Juan Crisostomo; Mérida Serrano, Rosario; Molina Recio, Guillermo; Mesa Blanco, María del Pilar
The objective of this research focuses on the framework of teaching strategies, by acknowledging learning styles as first determination and, in relation to the changes that these are going through, identifying the teaching strategies best rated and preferred by the students. This is a prospective open cohort study with the students of Nursing Diploma 2007/2010 of the Universidad de Córdoba. Once the population was identified in the first year (first analysis), annual measurings were undertaken every year during their training. In order to study the learning styles, the questionnaire CHAEA was administered and a scale from 1 to 10 (1 = highest, 10 = lowest) was used to determine the preferences for learning strategies. The results show the variability of the learner (up to 11 styles). However, the dominant style is the reflective, followed by the theoretical and the pragmatic. The least developed was the active style. As the years of training go by, a tendency towards a dual style (reflective-theoretical) can be observed. In relation to teaching strategies, the preferred ones were those set in professional areas, workshops and debates. Relevant changes were also seen as they advanced in their training. The results establish a specific significant relationship between learning styles and teaching strategies.
Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek
Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…
A lesson structure for one-time bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions based on an active learning technique was developed. Active learning is discussed, and the "jigsaw method" is described. BI sessions presented to junior- and senior-level college students are examined, and considerations for librarians wishing to incorporate active…
Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)
This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…
This book outlines 101 tried-and-true strategies for making teaching more effective. Grounded in research from the cognitive sciences and best classroom practices, the strategies are divided into the following areas: "Beginning With What Students Know: Activating Prior Knowledge" (e.g., visual sequencing, speaking categorically, and guided…
Day-Black, Crystal; Merrill, Earline B; Konzelman, Lois; Williams, Tammie T; Hart, Natalie
Serious games have "re-emerged" as innovative teaching-learning strategies that researchers have shown to be effective in improving student learning outcomes. "Serious games" refer to games that are driven by educational goals, not entertainment. The use of serious games as part of the teaching-learning experience in nursing education fits into the philosophy and strategies of active learning. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, realism, and entertainment not more readings and Powerpoint supplements in the classroom to support learning. Nursing faculty at a mid-Atlantic Historical Black College and University introduced "serious gaming" technology into a Community Health Nursing course by using two web-based gamed simulations, Outbreak at WatersEdge: A Public Health Discovery Game, and EnviroRisk. This innovation proved to be effective in reinforcing learning and improving student learning outcomes.
Fowler, Susan B
Educators who teach or facilitate understanding of research need to overcome the barrier that nurses may not value research for practice, as identified by Pravikoff, Tanner, and Pierce (2005), with innovative, interactive strategies to align with requirements for the 21st century. Educators need to generate a perception that research is useful, rewarding, fun, and worthwhile. Educators of research need to extend beyond academic learning and continue to develop and implement innovative strategies in clinical education programs (Berman, 2013). Research is a skill that requires a foundation of knowledge and its applicability to practice or 'real life'.
Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David
This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…
Tang, Mailing; Tian, Jianrong
This study, using Horwitz's Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, investigated learners' beliefs about language learning and their choice of strategy categories among 546 graduate students in China. The correlation between learners' beliefs and their strategy categories use was examined.…
Haghi, Eshrat Bazarmaj; Pasand, Parastou Gholami
The significance of using language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies in particular is quite clear to both language learners and language specialists. Being familiar with and making use of a range of different vocabulary learning strategies is a great aid for EAP learners in dealing with unknown words. The present…
Nguyen, Ngan; Godwyll, Francis
This study employed the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), version 7.0 (ESL/EFL) developed by Oxford (1990) to examine differences in language-learning strategy use. It focused on how learner factors such as gender, age, nationality, and proficiency level influence the choice of language-learning strategies. The participants were 75…
Subramaniam, Bathuma; Palanisamy, Kalaimakal
This study explores the usage of language learning strategies in private secondary Schools in Malaysia. Hypothesis was made that most of the students do not practice the language learning strategies completely and accurately. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between language learning strategies and practices of the…
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Dantas, Alessandra K; Shinagawa, Adriana; Deboni, Maria Cristina Z
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate three learning methods for teaching basic oral surgical skills. Thirty predoctoral dental students without any surgical knowledge or previous surgical experience were divided into three groups (n=10 each) according to instructional strategy: Group 1, active learning; Group 2, text reading only; and Group 3, text reading and video demonstration. After instruction, the apprentices were allowed to practice incision, dissection, and suture maneuvers in a bench learning model. During the students' performance, a structured practice evaluation test to account for correct or incorrect maneuvers was applied by trained observers. Evaluation tests were repeated after thirty and sixty days. Data from resulting scores between groups and periods were considered for statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer) with a significant level of a=0.05. Results showed that the active learning group presented the significantly best learning outcomes related to immediate assimilation of surgical procedures compared to other groups. All groups' results were similar after sixty days of the first practice. Assessment tests were fundamental to evaluate teaching strategies and allowed theoretical and proficiency learning feedbacks. Repetition and interactive practice promoted retention of knowledge on basic oral surgical skills.
Mesquita, Isabel; Coutinho, Patrícia; De Martin-Silva, Luciana; Parente, Bruno; Faria, Mário; Afonso, José
This study aimed to examine the indirect teaching strategies adopted by a coach educator in terms of promoting student-coaches' engagement in a positive and active learning environment. The participants were an expert coach educator and seven student-coaches from an academic coaching setting. A mix method approach was used to collect data. Whilst video-recording and participant observations were used to collect data from the lessons, focus groups were adopted to recall the perceptions of student-coaches. The results showed that indirect teaching strategies (i.e., asking questions, showing signs of autonomy by monitoring the pace at which they completed tasks and actively engaging in the search for solutions to tasks) implemented by the coach educator promoted a supportive and challenging learning environment which, in turn, encouraged student-coaches to be more actively involved in the lessons. Additionally, the affective aspects of the relationship established with student-coaches (tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical contact and humor) led them to feel confident in exposing their doubts and opinions, and in learning in a more autonomous manner. Moreover, the practical lessons proved to be crucial in helping student-coaches to reach broader and deeper forms of understanding by allowing the application of theory to coaching practice. In conclusion, this study reinforces the value of indirect teaching strategies to stimulate an active learning environment. It further highlights the value of practical learning environments to better prepare neophyte coaches for dealing with the complex and dynamic nature of their professional reality. Key pointsBoth instructional and affective teaching indirect strategies used by the coach educator promoted a positive and challenging learning environment to student-coaches.The directness profile used by this coach educator (questioning, giving autonomy for problem solving and responsibility to regulate
Mesquita, Isabel; Coutinho, Patrícia; De Martin-Silva, Luciana; Parente, Bruno; Faria, Mário; Afonso, José
This study aimed to examine the indirect teaching strategies adopted by a coach educator in terms of promoting student-coaches’ engagement in a positive and active learning environment. The participants were an expert coach educator and seven student-coaches from an academic coaching setting. A mix method approach was used to collect data. Whilst video-recording and participant observations were used to collect data from the lessons, focus groups were adopted to recall the perceptions of student-coaches. The results showed that indirect teaching strategies (i.e., asking questions, showing signs of autonomy by monitoring the pace at which they completed tasks and actively engaging in the search for solutions to tasks) implemented by the coach educator promoted a supportive and challenging learning environment which, in turn, encouraged student-coaches to be more actively involved in the lessons. Additionally, the affective aspects of the relationship established with student-coaches (tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical contact and humor) led them to feel confident in exposing their doubts and opinions, and in learning in a more autonomous manner. Moreover, the practical lessons proved to be crucial in helping student-coaches to reach broader and deeper forms of understanding by allowing the application of theory to coaching practice. In conclusion, this study reinforces the value of indirect teaching strategies to stimulate an active learning environment. It further highlights the value of practical learning environments to better prepare neophyte coaches for dealing with the complex and dynamic nature of their professional reality. Key points Both instructional and affective teaching indirect strategies used by the coach educator promoted a positive and challenging learning environment to student-coaches. The directness profile used by this coach educator (questioning, giving autonomy for problem solving and responsibility to
Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata
Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…
Wang, Jin; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan
The automaticity level and attention priority/strategy are two major theories that have attempted to explain the mechanism underlying the Stroop effect. Training is an effective way to manipulate the experience with the two dimensions (ink color and color word) in the Stroop task. In order to distinguish the above two factors (the automaticity or attention/strategy), we revised the training paradigm of MacLeod's study (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 14(1):126-135, 1988) by adding a control condition for the Stroop task on Chinese. We found that with training, the changing pattern for the Stroop effect was similar in Stroop tasks in novel symbols and in Chinese, showing markedly increasing interference and marginally decreasing facilitation. The current findings support the strategy-based learning account at early stages of novel learning of written symbols.
Glesener, G. B.
Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and
Bell, Bradford S; Kozlowski, Steve W J
This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex, computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees' metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety. Implications for development of an integrated theory of active learning, learner-centered design, and research extensions are discussed.
Chase, T M
Enhancing the effectiveness of patient education efforts is a key goal for any health care provider involved in patient care. Nurses have limited time to review many important topics of education for patients in the rehabilitation process. Assessing the learning style of patients and then focusing teaching strategies to meet those individual styles can increase motivation, improve retention, and make the teaching-learning session more effective. This article will provide the reader with some practical information, usable tools, and additional resources to meet Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) standards and improve the delivery of patient education. Nurses attuned to the individual needs of patients, including learning styles, will find that this article has important information that can be applied to the clinical setting.
MacCullagh, Lois; Bosanquet, Agnes; Badcock, Nicholas A
People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach. Students with dyslexia described engaging in learning activities intensively, frequently and strategically. They reported challenges and strengths relating to study skills, lectures, assessments, technology and support services. They also described helpful strategies including self-directed adaptive techniques, provisions from lecturers and assistance from the university. These findings suggest that students with dyslexia experience broad challenges at university, but helpful strategies may be available. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wagner, Elissa A
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application.
Tang, Jinhui; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Chua, Tat-Seng
User interaction is an effective way to handle the semantic gap problem in image annotation. To minimize user effort in the interactions, many active learning methods were proposed. These methods treat the semantic concepts individually or correlatively. However, they still neglect the key motivation of user feedback: to tackle the semantic gap. The size of the semantic gap of each concept is an important factor that affects the performance of user feedback. User should pay more efforts to the concepts with large semantic gaps, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a semantic-gap-oriented active learning method, which incorporates the semantic gap measure into the information-minimization-based sample selection strategy. The basic learning model used in the active learning framework is an extended multilabel version of the sparse-graph-based semisupervised learning method that incorporates the semantic correlation. Extensive experiments conducted on two benchmark image data sets demonstrated the importance of bringing the semantic gap measure into the active learning process.
Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.
Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This article considers the concepts of "learning style" and "learning strategy". The former connotes an inbuilt trait which tends to remain fundamental to the way an individual approaches learning. The latter refers to a set of consciously-acquired and applied approaches or tactics designed to achieve a learning task. The article relates these…
Background: The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). Aim: The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from…
Byun, Chong Hyun Christie
The importance of active learning in the classroom has been well established in the field of Economic education. This paper examines the connection between active learning and performance outcomes in an Economics 101 course. Students participated in single play simultaneous move game with a clear dominant strategy, modeled after the Prisoner's…
Bliss, David A.
The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was launched in August, 2003, and renamed to the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2004. Two years of observing the universe in the wavelength range from 3 to 180 microns has yielded enormous scientific discoveries. Since this magnificent observatory has a limited lifetime, maximizing science viewing efficiency (ie, maximizing time spent executing activities directly related to science observations) was the key operational objective. The strategy employed for maximizing science viewing efficiency was to optimize spacecraft flexibility, adaptability, and use of observation time. The selected approach involved implementation of a multi-engine sequencing architecture coupled with nondeterministic spacecraft and science execution times. This approach, though effective, added much complexity to uplink operations and sequence development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages Spitzer s operations. As part of the uplink process, Spitzer s Mission Sequence Team (MST) was tasked with processing observatory inputs from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) into efficiently integrated, constraint-checked, and modeled review and command products which accommodated the complexity of non-deterministic spacecraft and science event executions without increasing operations costs. The MST developed processes, scripts, and participated in the adaptation of multi-mission core software to enable rapid processing of complex sequences. The MST was also tasked with developing a Downlink Keyword File (DKF) which could instruct Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on how and when to configure themselves to receive Spitzer science data. As MST and uplink operations developed, important lessons were learned that should be applied to future missions, especially those missions which employ command-intensive operations via a multi-engine sequence architecture.
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…
Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.
This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…
Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.
The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…
Weir, Jennifer Anne
The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.
Brandi, Ulrik; Iannone, Rosa Lisa
The article examines learning strategies at the enterprise level, conceptualising them into three main dimensions: learning systems and incentives, connecting to the affective dimension of learning which behavioural learning addresses effectively; skills' development, chiefly addressing the cognitive dimension of learning to which cognitive and…
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
This report contains 17 profiles that illustrate the successful strategies, environments, and activities taking place within the School to Work/Vocational Technical Education arena in Arizona. (Currently, there are 130,908 students in 251 schools in the state participating in these programs.) The profiles include many types of activities, from a…
Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu
In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.
White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.
Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D
Thirty-six children between 9 and 12 years of age were invited to share their ideas on how to socially include classmates with learning or intellectual disabilities at school. Participants generated 80 strategies which were categorized into seven major themes. Thematic categories focused on the need for teachers to intervene in academic and social situations, child-to-child instructional strategies, being supportive, focusing on similarities between children with and without disabilities, modelling appropriate behaviors and intervening in negative interactions, structured inclusive activities, and noninclusive activities. Participants were aware of the challenges experienced by classmates with disabilities, and recognized the need to work with classmates and teachers towards the social inclusion of children with intellectual and learning disabilities. Educational implications are addressed.
The introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) as an innovative strategy is often challenging to both teaching staff and students. This is particularly the case when it is only used on one module within a programme. This case study reports on an evaluation of the experiences of students and staff in the first cohort introduced to problem-based…
Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…
Platt, Robert, Jr.
Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.
Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth
Digital technology provides opportunities for using mobile learning strategies in healthcare environments. To realise the vision of the National Workforce Development Strategy there needs to be innovation of health professionals to further develop knowledge and skills of clinical supervisors to access and gain an understanding of the value of mobile learning at the workplace. The use of digital technology by clinical supervisors was explored in 2012 as part of a teaching development grant to evaluate the use of Web 2.0 technology to develop a community of practice about clinical supervision. Prior to developing the virtual network of clinical supervisors, feedback about the use of Web 2.0 technology by clinicians was sought via an online survey. Over 90% of respondents used social media, 85% understood what a blog and wiki were and approximately half of the respondents used smart phones. More than one-third indicated they would participate in a virtual community of practice and would like to receive information about clinical facilitation at least once per week. Findings indicate both inhibitors and opportunities for workforce development within healthcare environments that need to be addressed. Support of graduate-ready nurses can be achieved through an integrated outlook that enables health professionals within organisations to undertake mobile learning in situ. A flexible and collaborative approach to continuing professional development within organisations could enhance practice development and could positively impact on workforce development.
Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.; Pramesti, G.
This research aims to describe the process of implementation collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy for improving students’ attention to mathematics lesson. Data which is collected in this research are students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement. The result of this research showed that the learning steps by using collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy which can improve students’ attention are: 1) pre activity: the teacher delivers the purpose of the learning, successful criteria, apperception, and motivation. 2) main activity: the teacher gives the background of learning activity, explains learning materials at a glance, divides students discuss, the teacher observes and guides students to the problem solving, present their discussion result, gives feedback, the students do AfL problem and the answer is collected and result will be given before next meeting. 3) post activity: the teacher with students concludes the material. Test result, the percentage of students who complete the examination in the second cycle is 77.27%. Based on those results can be concluded that the implementation of collaborative learning using AfL through giving feedback can improve students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement of XI IPA Students MA Al-Islam Jamsaren Surakarta academic year 2013/2014.
Fischer, Sebastian; Braun, Claudia; Kibele, Armin
In the past, studies and book recommendations on relay starts in swimming have been predominantly focused on the change-over time (COT) as a performance criterion. Aside from the circular backswing start with parallel foot placement, few studies have analysed differences in the take-off movement including step approaches as well. Although trends could be identified, the results remained still somewhat inconclusive. In contrast, no study has examined as has examined whether a reduction of COT in between wall contact of the income swimmer and the take-off of the outgoing swimmer is an optimal relay start strategy, as advocated by various swimming experts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare two different relay start strategies: offensive strategy minimizing COT and conservative strategy to maximize horizontal peak force (HPF). In this regard, a learning intervention with 24 elite-level swimmers (12 females, 12 male) was conducted to compare both strategies regarding relay start time, HPF and COT. Subjects were randomly assigned to two feedback groups: COT versus HPF at take-off. The results of this study showed a clear advantage for HPF feedback for relay start performance measured by wall contact of the incoming swimmer and head passage at 7.5 m of the outgoing swimmer. In addition, similar reductions in COTs were found in both training groups. In conclusion, swimmers should focus on force production rather than minimizing COT. For the latter, deteriorating consequences for force production must be considered.
FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl
Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305
and to receive feedback upon which to base further modifications. The modified strategies were then syn- thesized into a 15 week (2½ hrs/week) learning ... improved learning performance). 2. Many students have such strong conflicting emotional and motivational reactions to learning that they find it difficult to...strategy informat ion . 5. Feedback on strategy a; ltc~ tio n—~To give students a basis for modifying t h e t r strategie~a they are provided with
The classroom environment can be an acoustically difficult atmosphere for students to learn effectively, sometimes due in part to poor acoustical properties. Noise and reverberation have a substantial influence on room acoustics and subsequently intelligibility of speech. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA, 1995) developed minimal standards for noise and reverberation in a classroom for the purpose of providing an adequate listening environment. A lack of adherence to these standards may have undesirable consequences, which may lead to poor academic performance. The purpose of this capstone project is to develop a protocol to measure the acoustical properties of reverberation time and noise levels in elementary classrooms and present the educators with strategies to improve the learning environment. Noise level and reverberation will be measured and recorded in seven, unoccupied third grade classrooms in Lincoln Parish in North Louisiana. The recordings will occur at six specific distances in the classroom to simulate teacher and student positions. The recordings will be compared to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards for noise and reverberation. If discrepancies are observed, the primary investigator will serve as an auditory consultant for the school and educators to recommend remediation and intervention strategies to improve these acoustical properties. The hypothesis of the study is that the classroom acoustical properties of noise and reverberation will exceed the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards; therefore, the auditory consultant will provide strategies to improve those acoustical properties.
Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; P<0.001) and in geriatric nutrition knowledge for all participants (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 4.6+/-4.6; P<0.001). So the results indicated that cooperative learning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.
Nossal, S. M.; Watson, L. E.; Jacob, A. T.; Reading, J. A.
The Physics Learning Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a supportive learning environment for introductory physics students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble or for feeling isolated at the University. Physics is a gateway course for many undergraduate science majors such as biology, physics, geophysics, atmospheric science, and astronomy, and for pre-health professions. Many students struggle with their physics courses due to factors including large class sizes, isolation and lack of study partners, and/or lack of confidence in mathematical problem solving skills. Our students include those with learning disabilities, no high school physics, weak math backgrounds, and/or on academic probation. We also work with students who may be feeling isolated, such as students from historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, first generation college students, returning adults, international students, and students from small rural schools. Many of our students are also part of retention programs such as the TRIO program, the Academic Advancement Program, the McNair Scholars Program, and the McBurney Disability Resource Center. The Physics Learning Program's Peer Mentor Tutor program is run in conjunction with similar programs for chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin. We will discuss strategies we use for creating an inclusive learning environment that engages students in their learning. Such strategies include small group instruction, ongoing training of the tutors, teaching problem solving skills, and creating a welcoming atmosphere.
Wells, Carole V.; Grabert, Christy
Educational experiences need to (1.) increase student activities inside and outside the classroom; (2.) promote knowledge acquisition and educational performance; (3.) increase group-based and cooperative learning; and, (4.) assist students in developing solutions to real-world, complex problems. To address these issues, this research blended…
Naffziger, Sue C.; Steele, Martha M.; Varner, Bruce O.
This action research project evaluated a program of activities to increase the engagement of high school students in their learning. The targeted population consisted of freshman, sophomore, and senior students in a middle class community in central Illinois. The lack of student engagement that posed a problem in academic progress was documented…
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J
Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Scarlatos, Lori L.; Scarlatos, Tony
Games are widely recognized for their potential to enhance students' learning. Yet they are only rarely used in classrooms because they cannot be modified to meet the needs of a particular class. This article describes a novel approach to creating educational software that addresses this problem: provide an interface specifically for teachers that…
Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent
Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…