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Sample records for active lever presses

  1. Differential acquisition of lever pressing in inbred and outbred mice: comparison of one-lever and two-lever procedures and correlation with differences in locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    McKerchar, Todd L; Zarcone, Troy J; Fowler, Stephen C

    2005-11-01

    Recent progress in mouse genetics has led to an increased interest in developing procedures for assessing mouse behavior, but relatively few of the behavioral procedures developed involve positively reinforced operant behavior. When operant methods are used, nose poking, not lever pressing, is the target response. In the current study differential acquisition of milk-reinforced lever pressing was observed in five inbred strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129X1/SvJ, C3H/HeJ, and BALB/cJ) and one outbred stock (CD-1) of mice. Regardless of whether one or two levers (an "operative" and "inoperative" lever) were in the operant chamber, a concomitant variable-time fixed-ratio schedule of milk reinforcement established lever pressing in the majority of mice within two 120-min sessions. Substantial differences in lever pressing were observed across mice and between procedures. Adding an inoperative lever retarded acquisition in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129X1/SvJ, and C3H/HeJ mice, but not in CD-1 and BALB/cJ mice. Locomotor activity was positively correlated with number of lever presses in both procedures. Analyses of durations of the subcomponents (e.g., time to move from hopper to lever) of operant behavior revealed further differences among the six types of mice. Together, the data suggest that appetitively reinforced lever pressing can be acquired rapidly in mice and that a combination of procedural, behavioral, and genetic variables contributes to this acquisition.

  2. Differential Acquisition of Lever Pressing in Inbred and Outbred Mice: Comparison of One-Lever and Two-Lever Procedures and Correlation with Differences in Locomotor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKerchar, Todd L.; Zarcone, Troy J.; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in mouse genetics has led to an increased interest in developing procedures for assessing mouse behavior, but relatively few of the behavioral procedures developed involve positively reinforced operant behavior. When operant methods are used, nose poking, not lever pressing, is the target response. In the current study differential…

  3. Differential activation of accumbens shell and core dopamine by sucrose reinforcement with nose poking and with lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, V; Cucca, F; Frau, R; Di Chiara, G

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the role of modus operandi in the changes of nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) transmission in sucrose reinforcement, extracellular DA was monitored by microdialysis in the NAc shell and core of rats trained on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule to respond for sucrose pellets by nose poking and lever pressing respectively. After training, rats were tested on three different sessions: sucrose reinforcement, extinction and passive sucrose presentation. In rats responding by nose poking dialysate DA increased in the shell but not in the core under reinforced as well as under extinction sessions. In contrast, in rats responding by lever pressing dialysate DA increased both in the accumbens shell and core under reinforced and extinction sessions. Response non-contingent sucrose presentation increased dialysate DA in the shell and core of rats trained to respond for sucrose by nose poking as well as in those trained by lever pressing. In rats trained to respond for sucrose by nose poking on a FR5 schedule dialysate DA also increased selectively in the NAc shell during reinforced responding and in both the shell and core under passive sucrose presentation. These findings, while provide an explanation for the discrepancies existing in the literature over the responsiveness of shell and core DA in rats responding for food, are consistent with the notion that NAc shell and core DA encode different aspects of reinforcement.

  4. Blocking in autoshaped lever-pressing procedures with rats.

    PubMed

    Holland, Peter C; Asem, Judith S A; Galvin, Connor P; Keeney, Caitlin Hepps; Hsu, Melanie; Miller, Alexandra; Zhou, Vivian

    2014-03-01

    Rats will approach and contact a lever whose insertion into the chamber signals response-independent food delivery. This "autoshaping" or "sign-tracking" phenomenon has recently attracted considerable attention as a platform for studying individual differences in impulsivity, drug sensitization, and other traits associated with vulnerability to drug addiction. Here, we examined two basic stimulus selection phenomena-blocking and overshadowing-in the autoshaped lever pressing of rats. Blocking and overshadowing were decidedly asymmetrical. Previously reinforced lever-extension conditioned stimuli (CSs) completely blocked conditioning to auditory cues (Exps. 1 and 2), and previously nonreinforced lever-extension CSs overshadowed conditioning to auditory cues. By contrast, conditioning to lever-extension CSs was not blocked by either auditory (Exp. 3) or lever-insertion (Exp. 4) cues, and was not overshadowed by auditory cues. Conditioning to a lever-insertion cue was somewhat overshadowed by the presence of another lever, especially in terms of food cup behavior displayed after lever withdrawal. We discuss several frameworks in which the apparent immunity of autoshaped lever pressing to blocking might be understood. Given evidence that different brain systems are engaged when different kinds of cues are paired with food delivery, it is worth considering the possibility that interactions among them in learning and performance may follow different rules. In particular, it is intriguing to speculate that the roles of simple cue-reinforcer contiguity, as well as of individual and aggregate reinforcer prediction errors, may differ across stimulus classes.

  5. Differential Suppression by Punishment of Nonconsummatory Licking and Lever Pressing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Gary C.; Herring, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the differential effects of shock punishment on nonconsummatory licking (dry licking) and lever pressing. Results support a motivationally based theory of punishment involving the role of incentive stimuli associated with the particular responses studied. (Editor/RK)

  6. Lever attacking and pressing as a function of conditioning and extinguishing a lever-press avoidance response in rats.

    PubMed

    Pear, J J; Hemingway, M J; Keizer, P

    1978-03-01

    Six experimental rats were conditioned to press one of two available levers to avoid shock. The levers registered bites as well as presses. For four of these rats, shock was contingent on lever bites when a specified time period had elapsed after the previous shock. An extinction period, in which only periodic noncontingent shocks were presented, followed avoidance training. Six yoked-control rats received the same sequence of shocks as did the corresponding experimental rats in both the conditioning and extinction phases. All six experimental rats repeatedly bit the avoidance lever. Four bit it more than the nonavoidance lever during conditioning, and five bit it more during extinction. Five of the six experimental rats consistently bit the levers many more times during each session than did their respective control rats, suggesting that avoidance conditioning facilitated lever biting. Rates of lever biting and pressing by all of the experimental rats and by some of the control rats were highest immediately following shock throughout both phases. During later portions of the intervals following shock, characteristic effects of conditioning and extinction were observed. This finding suggests that extinction of avoidance behavior by unavoidable shock presentations can be demonstrated more readily when shock-elicited responding is extricated from the data.

  7. Response Induction during the Acquisition and Maintenance of Lever Pressing with Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Rogelio; Bruner, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of lever pressing by rats and the occurrence of unreinforced presses at a location different from that of the reinforced response were studied using different delays of reinforcement. An experimental chamber containing seven identical adjoining levers was used. Only presses on the central (operative) lever produced food pellets.…

  8. An affordance analysis of unconditioned lever pressing in rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Felipe; Sanabria, Federico; Jiménez, Ángel Andrés; Covarrubias, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of lever height on lever pressing that was not explicitly reinforced - i.e., operant-level responding. Two rodent species were used as subjects, rats (Experiment 1) and hamsters (Experiment 2), aiming to compare the behavioral support offered by one lever at various heights relative to the subjects' body size. Results showed that lever height had a substantial effect on response rate. The rate of lever pressing varied similarly for rats and hamsters as a function of lever height, when lever height was re-scaled relative to body size. The distribution of inter-response times showed that lever pressing was organized in bouts separated by pauses. This pattern of responding was accurately described in both experiments by a mixture of two exponential distributions. These findings support an analysis of affordances in non-human species.

  9. Acquisition and Maintenance of Lever Pressing with Prolonged Exposure to Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansickel, Andrea; White, Victoria; Byrne, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated acquisition and extinction of free-operant responding when rats' lever presses produced sucrose pellets after resetting delays of 10 or 20 s. Presses on a second lever cancelled any scheduled food deliveries. Although previous research using 60-s delays failed to demonstrate maintenance of responding across repeated…

  10. Response Induction During the Acquisition and Maintenance of Lever Pressing with Delayed Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Rogelio; Bruner, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of lever pressing by rats and the occurrence of unreinforced presses at a location different from that of the reinforced response were studied using different delays of reinforcement. An experimental chamber containing seven identical adjoining levers was used. Only presses on the central (operative) lever produced food pellets. Groups of 3 rats were exposed to one of seven different tandem random-interval (RI) fixed-time (FT) schedules. The average RI duration was the complement of the FT duration such that their sum yielded a nominal 32-s interreinforcement interval on average. Response rate on the operative lever decreased as the FT value was lengthened. The spatial distribution of responses on the seven levers converged on the operative lever when the FT was 0 or 2 s and spread across the seven levers as the FT value was lengthened to 16 or 32 s. Presses on the seven levers were infrequent during the FT schedule. Both operative- and inoperative-lever pressing intertwined in repetitive patterns that were consistent within subjects but differed between subjects. These findings suggest that reinforcer delay determined the response-induction gradient. PMID:17725050

  11. Response-food delay gradients for lever pressing and schedule-induced licking in rats.

    PubMed

    Pellón, Ricardo; Pérez-Padilla, Angeles

    2013-06-01

    Eight food-deprived Wistar rats developed stable patterns of lever pressing and licking when exposed to a fixed-time 30-s schedule of food pellet presentation. The rats were trained to lever press by presenting the lever 10 s before the programmed food delivery, with the food pellet being delivered immediately upon a lever press. The operant contingency was then removed and the lever was inserted through the entire interfood interval, being withdrawn with food delivery and reinserted 2 s later. On successive phases of the study, a protective contingency postponed food delivery if responses (lever presses or licks) occurred within the last 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, or 25 s of the interfood interval. Lever pressing was reduced at much shorter response-food delays than those that reduced licking. These results demonstrate that reinforcement contributes to the maintenance of different response patterns on periodic schedules, and that different responses are differentially sensitive to delays.

  12. Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus on autoshaped lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stephen E; Wheeler, Daniel S; Holland, Peter C

    2012-04-23

    Neutral cues paired with rewards often appear to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues have been reported to modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), serve as conditioned reinforcers in the establishment of new learning, and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose delivery was not contingent on lever pressing, both CeA- and sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Despite their showing little evidence of impairments in autoshaped lever pressing, these same CeA-lesioned rats showed significant deficits in the expression of PIT in a subsequent phase of the experiment. The lack of impaired autoshaping in CeA-lesioned rats contrasts with effects previously reported for conditioned orienting responses (ORs) and for other putative measures of incentive learning including PIT and conditioned approach to visual cues.

  13. Effects of ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, on the acquisition of the lever-press response in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M A; Nadal, R A; Silvestre, J S; Ferré, N S

    1995-02-01

    We analyzed the effects of ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, on the acquisition of the lever-press response in the Skinner box and on motor performance both in the open field and in the inclined screen. Ninety-six adult male Wistar rats were assigned at random to eight different groups (n = 12). The first four groups received an acute intraperitoneal (IP) injection of: (a) physiological saline, (b) 4 mg/kg ketamine, (c) 8 mg/kg ketamine, or (d) 12 mg/kg ketamine, and the subjects were tested in a free lever-press response shaping in the Skinner box. The second four groups received the same substances and doses as the first four, but the subjects were tested for locomotor activity in an open field and tested immediately afterwards for motor performance in an 80 degrees inclined screen. Results showed that ketamine impaired the acquisition of the lever-press response in a dose-dependent manner, with no effects on ambulation in the open field nor on length of stay in the inclined screen. These results suggest that ketamine effects on the acquisition of the lever-press response cannot be attributed to a motor impairment, indicating a possible specific effect of ketamine on the associative learning acquisition.

  14. Lever pressing responses under a fixed-ratio schedule of mice with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Yuji; Nishizawa, Kayo; Kai, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2011-02-02

    In order to investigate the relationship between dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and operant behavior in mice, mice with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens were tested for their performance in lever pressing tasks under FR schedules with 8 ratios from FR5 to FR120. The mice were given one 20-mg food pellet per completed FR schedule in FR5, FR10, and FR20; they were given 2 pellets in FR40, and one more cumulatively in the rest of the schedules. Before the 6-OHDA injection surgery, all mice were trained to press a lever under all FR schedules. Then, 6-OHDA or ascorbate was injected into the nucleus accumbens. Postoperatively, the mice were tested under each FR schedule, with 3 sessions per schedule. 6-OHDA-treated mice exhibited an increase in lever pressing latency, i.e., the time interval between the last presentation of the reward and the next lever press, and a decrease in inter-response intervals, i.e., the time interval between 2 lever presses excluding lever pressing latency, irrespective of the FR ratios. Furthermore, in these 6-OHDA-treated mice, the number of lever presses during the first 300s of the session decreased under FR schedules with low ratios (5, 10, and 20). Open field activity, food motivation, and the amount of food consumed were not affected by dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that the dopamine system in the nucleus accumbens had an important role in the control of lever pressing latency and inter-response intervals under FR reinforcement schedules.

  15. Roles of nucleus accumbens and basolateral amygdala in autoshaped lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stephen E; Wheeler, Daniel S; Holland, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    Initially-neutral cues paired with rewards are thought to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues may serve as secondary reinforcers to establish new learning, modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens (ACb) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing in rats. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose was delivered independently of the rats' behavior, sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Bilateral ACb lesions impaired the initial acquisition of sign-tracking but not its terminal levels. In contrast, BLA lesions produced substantial deficits in terminal levels of sign-tracking. Furthermore, whereas ACb lesions primarily affected the probability of lever press responses, BLA lesions mostly affected the rate of responding once it occurred. Finally, disconnection lesions that disrupted communication between ACb and BLA produced both sets of deficits. We suggest that ACb is important for initial acquisition of consummatory-like responses that incorporate hedonic aspects of the reward, while BLA serves to enhance such incentive salience once it is acquired.

  16. Increased lever pressing for amphetamine after pimozide in rats: implications for a dopamine theory of reward.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; Wise, R A

    1975-02-14

    Low and high doses of a dopamine blocking agent had effects on lever pressing for intravenous amphetamine reward which resembled the effects of reward reduction and reward termination, respectively. Noradrenaline blockade had no such effects. A role in central mediation of reward perception is suggested for dopamine but not for noradrenaline.

  17. Effects of orbitofrontal cortex lesions on autoshaped lever pressing and reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stephen E

    2014-10-15

    A cue associated with a rewarding event can trigger behavior towards the cue itself due to the cue acquiring incentive value through its pairing with the rewarding outcome (i.e., sign-tracking). For example, rats will approach, press, and attempt to "consume" a retractable lever conditioned stimulus (CS) that signals delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US). Attending to food-predictive CSs is important when seeking out food, and it is just as important to be able to modify one's behavior when the relationships between CSs and USs are changed. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with lever CSs, the present study investigated the effects of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions on sign-tracking and reversal learning. Insertion of one lever was followed by sucrose delivery upon retraction, and insertion of another lever was followed by nothing. After the acquisition phase, the contingencies between the levers and outcomes were reversed. Bilateral OFC lesions had no effect on the acquisition of sign-tracking. However, OFC-lesioned rats showed substantial deficits in acquiring sign-tracking compared to sham-lesioned rats once the stimulus-outcome contingencies were reversed. Over the course of reversal learning, OFC-lesioned rats were able to reach comparable levels of sign-tracking as sham-lesioned rats. These findings suggest that OFC is not necessary for the ability of a CS to acquire incentive value and provide more evidence that OFC is critical for modifying behavior appropriately following a change in stimulus-outcome contingencies.

  18. Effect of amphetamine on sucrose-reinforced lever pressing: interaction with food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Samson, H H

    1986-07-01

    Rats were trained to lever press on a Fixed Ratio Schedule 8 using sucrose reinforcement in one of two feeding conditions: ad lib food and water available in the home cage; reduced feeding in order to maintain the animals at 80% of their free feeding body weight. The effect of three doses of d-amphetamine (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg) on lever pressing was examined for each feeding condition. A systematic decrease in responding as dose increased was found in the ad lib feeding condition while only the highest dose had any effect on responding in the food restricted animals. Thus, it appeared that the effect of food deprivation was to shift the amphetamine dose-response curve to the right.

  19. Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Grimes, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block. Also, at each variable-interval duration, a block of sessions was conducted with a schedule that imposed a variable-ratio 4 response requirement after each variable interval (i.e., a tandem variable-time variable-ratio 4 schedule). The total rate of lever pressing increased as a function of the rate of reinforcement and as a result of imposing the variable-ratio requirement. Analysis of log survivor plots of interresponse times indicated that lever pressing occurred in bouts that were separated by pauses. Increasing the rate of reinforcement increased total response rate by increasing the rate of initiating bouts and, less reliably, by lengthening bouts. Imposing the variable-ratio component increased response rate mainly by lengthening bouts. This pattern of results is similar to that reported previously with key poking as the response. Also, response rates within bouts were relatively insensitive to either variable. PMID:14674726

  20. Effects of contingent and noncontingent nicotine on lever pressing for liquids and consumption in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Hanan; Martin, Jeffrey; Vitouchanskaia, Cristina; Dar, Reuven; Shalev, Uri

    2017-01-05

    Nicotine has been proposed to be a primary reinforcer and a reinforcement enhancer. To date, no studies have examined whether nicotine enhances consummatory behaviors or only operant responding (appetitive behaviors). Experiments were designed to test whether contingent and noncontingent nicotine enhance lever pressing for and consumption of fluids in water-deprived rats. Animals were water-deprived throughout all experiments. They were trained to press two levers under a variable interval (VI-20, 1-35s). Their lever pressing and water consumption were measured after noncontingent subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine (1mg/kg), and in 3 choice conditions (water and quinine solution (18µg/ml); water and nicotine (32µg/ml) solution; quinine (18µg/ml) and nicotine (32µg/ml) solutions) where nicotine was thus delivered contingently upon lever pressing. The effects of nicotine (1mg/kg; s.c.) on the consumption of water in a time-limited free access (1h) paradigm were assessed. Nicotine significantly increased lever pressing and the number of earned reinforcements on both levers in the two choice conditions and when administered s.c. compared to all groups that did not receive nicotine. However, under no condition did animals consume more fluids than baseline. Under the time-limited free access condition nicotine reduced water consumption. Although our findings do not support a reinforcing effect for nicotine, they are consistent with the incentive-amplification hypothesis. Its relevance for human smoking is yet unclear.

  1. Electromechanical lever blocks for active vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zago, Lorenzo; Genequand, Pierre M.

    2000-04-01

    This paper is a follow-up of a presentation at the Smart Structures Symposium of 1998. There we described an innovative technical solution which provides a combined passive damping and isolation interface with the appropriate transmissibility characteristics between a vibrating base and a sensitive payload, typically an optical terminal/telescope. The particularity of the solution is primarily found in the implementation of energy dissipation by means linear electromagnetic linear motors leveraged by means of flexure elements, to constitute an integrated resistor-damped electromechanic lever block, which we called MEDI (Mechanical Elastic element for Damping and Isolation). Passive viscous damping with attenuation of the order of -20 dB at 50 Hz with respect to a hard fixation, is obtained by simply short- circuiting the electro-magnetic motor. The study and test program presented here extends the application of MEDIs to active vibration reduction systems. The study, contracted by the European Space Agency, aimed at investigating the possibility of using the MEDI as an active isolator for scientific experiments in the International Space Station. By controlling the current in the electromagnetic motor in closed loop with the signal from specially designed force sensor (with extremely low noise), we achieved attenuation of the order of -15 dB at 1 Hz, -30 dB at 10 Hz, -50 dB at 30 Hz, with the isolation slope starting as low as 0.1 Hz.

  2. Temporal distributions of schedule-induced licks, magazine entries, and lever presses on fixed- and variable-time schedules.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Patterson, Angela E; Kendig, Michael D; Harris, Justin A

    2015-01-01

    In this article, schedule-induced drinking (SID) refers to increased drinking by hungry rats exposed to intermittent delivery of food pellets. Two major accounts of SID differ in their explanation of why such drinking tends be concentrated soon after pellet delivery. Temporal discrimination theories propose that drinking is a form of displacement activity that occurs when a pellet is least likely. Adventitious reinforcement theories propose that drinking is displaced to early in an interpellet interval (IPI) by magazine-directed behavior that occurs toward the end of an IPI. The main aim of this study was to examine the latter response-competition account by recording distributions of both licking and magazine entries as SID developed when pellets were delivered to different groups either on a fixed-time (FT 30 s) or on a variable-time schedule (VT 30 s), as in Experiment 1. Although VT 30-s schedules produced essentially flat distributions of magazine entries, licking still tended to be concentrated early in an IPI. Furthermore, there was no indication (Experiments 1 and 2) that magazine entry distributions developed ahead of licking distributions. Experiment 3 examined distributions of lever presses instead of licks: Initially high rates of lever pressing declined both with response-independent schedules (FT and VT) and when a minimal response-dependency was introduced (recycling conjunctive schedule), yet this response also tended to be most frequent soon after pellet delivery. Overall, the data were generally consistent with temporal conditioning theories.

  3. Effects of muscimol, amphetamine, and DAMGO injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on food-reinforced lever pressing by undeprived rats.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Thomas R; Wirtshafter, David

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that large increases in food intake in nondeprived animals can be induced by injections of both the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), while injections of the catecholamine agonist amphetamine have little effect. In the current study we examined whether injections of these drugs are able to increase food-reinforced lever pressing in nondeprived rats. Twelve subjects were trained to lever press on a continuous reinforcement schedule while food deprived and were then tested after being placed back on ad libitum feeding. Under these conditions, responding was markedly increased by injections of either muscimol or DAMGO, although the onset of the effects of the latter drug was delayed by 30-40 min. In contrast, amphetamine injections failed to increase reinforced lever pressing, although they did enhance responding on a non-reinforced lever, presumably reflecting alterations in behavioral activation. These results demonstrate that stimulation of GABA(A) and μ-opioid receptors within the AcbSh is able to promote not only food intake, but also food-directed operant behavior. In contrast, stimulation of AcbSh dopamine receptors may enhance behavioral arousal, but does not appear to specifically potentiate behaviors directed toward food procurement.

  4. The effect of daily caffeine exposure on lever-pressing for sucrose and c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens in the rat.

    PubMed

    Retzbach, Edward P; Dholakia, Paulomi H; Duncan-Vaidya, Elizabeth A

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that caffeine exposure increases the motivation to consume drugs of abuse. As such, it may also enhance the motivation to consume palatable food. Because caffeine is a common constituent in over-the-counter weight-loss supplements, it is important to better understand the relationship between caffeine and food intake. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of daily intermittent caffeine exposure on lever pressing for sucrose in rats and to assess the impact of caffeine on neuronal activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male Sprague-Dawley rats that received either saline or caffeine (1, 5, 20mg/kgi.p.) daily were tested on a fixed ratio 4 schedule for sucrose in operant chambers for 10days and then again following a 5-day treatment withdrawal period. After behavioral testing, a subset of the animals was sacrificed to measure the impact of caffeine on neuronal activation in the NAc using c-Fos as a marker. There was a significant increase in active lever presses for sucrose in the rats that had received 5mg/kg of caffeine when compared with the saline group. This treatment effect was no longer present after the withdrawal period. Acute, but not chronic, caffeine exposure elevated c-Fos expression in the NAc. These data suggest that intermittent daily caffeine exposure increases lever pressing for sucrose in rats, but leaves no lasting effect.

  5. Examining the reinforcement-enhancement effects of phencyclidine and its interactions with nicotine on lever-pressing for a visual stimulus.

    PubMed

    Swalve, Natashia; Barrett, Scott T; Bevins, Rick A; Li, Ming

    2015-09-15

    Nicotine is a widely-abused drug, yet its primary reinforcing effect does not seem potent as other stimulants such as cocaine. Recent research on the contributing factors toward chronic use of nicotine-containing products has implicated the role of reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine. The present study investigates whether phencyclidine (PCP) may also possess a reinforcement-enhancement effect and how this may interact with the reinforcement-enhancement effect of nicotine. PCP was tested for two reasons: (1) it produces discrepant results on overall reward, similar to that seen with nicotine and (2) it may elucidate how other compounds may interact with the reinforcement-enhancement of nicotine. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for brief visual stimulus presentations under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement and then were tested with nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) and/or PCP (2.0mg/kg) over six increasing FR values. A selective increase in active lever-pressing for the visual stimulus with drug treatment was considered evidence of a reinforcement-enhancement effect. PCP and nicotine separately increased active lever pressing for a visual stimulus in a dose-dependent manner and across the different FR schedules. The addition of PCP to nicotine did not increase lever-pressing for the visual stimulus, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The effect of PCP may be driven largely by its locomotor stimulant effects, whereas the effect of nicotine was independent of locomotor stimulation. This dissociation emphasizes that distinct pharmacological properties contribute to the reinforcement-enhancement effects of substances.

  6. Effects of reinforcement rate and delay on the acquisition of lever pressing by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, C A; Avila, R; Acuña, L; Gallardo, L M

    1998-01-01

    The acquisition of lever pressing by naive rats, in the absence of shaping, was studied as a function of different rates and unsignaled delays of reinforcement. Groups of 3 rats were each exposed to tandem schedules that differed in either the first or the second component. First-component schedules were either continuous reinforcement or random-interval 15, 30, 60 or 120 s; second-component schedules were fixed-time 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 s. Rate of responding was low under continuous immediate reinforcement and higher under random-interval 15 s. Random interval 30-s and 60-s schedules produced lower rates that were similar to each other. Random-interval 120 s controlled the lowest rate in the immediate-reinforcement condition. Adding a constant 12-s delay to each of the first-component schedule parameters controlled lower response rates that did not vary systematically with reinforcement rate. The continuous and random-interval 60-s schedules of immediate reinforcement controlled higher global and first-component response rates than did the same schedules combined with longer delays, and first-component rates showed some graded effects of delay duration. In addition, the same schedules controlled higher second-component response rates in combination with a 1-s delay than in combination with longer delays. These results were related to those from previous studies on acquisition with delayed reinforcement as well as to those from similar reinforcement procedures used during steady-state responding. PMID:9465413

  7. Visual and auditory cue integration for the generation of saccadic eye movements in monkeys and lever pressing in humans.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter H; Kwak, Michelle C; Slocum, Warren M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined how effectively visual and auditory cues can be integrated in the brain for the generation of motor responses. The latencies with which saccadic eye movements are produced in humans and monkeys form, under certain conditions, a bimodal distribution, the first mode of which has been termed express saccades. In humans, a much higher percentage of express saccades is generated when both visual and auditory cues are provided compared with the single presentation of these cues [H. C. Hughes et al. (1994) J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., 20, 131-153]. In this study, we addressed two questions: first, do monkeys also integrate visual and auditory cues for express saccade generation as do humans and second, does such integration take place in humans when, instead of eye movements, the task is to press levers with fingers? Our results show that (i) in monkeys, as in humans, the combined visual and auditory cues generate a much higher percentage of express saccades than do singly presented cues and (ii) the latencies with which levers are pressed by humans are shorter when both visual and auditory cues are provided compared with the presentation of single cues, but the distribution in all cases is unimodal; response latencies in the express range seen in the execution of saccadic eye movements are not obtained with lever pressing.

  8. Effects of prenatal stress on lever-press acquisition with delayed reinforcement in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Natalie R; Salm, A K; Anderson, Karen G

    2012-03-01

    The prenatally stressed (PS) rat shows enhanced conditioned fear and increased behavioral inhibition in response to footshock compared to control (CON) rats. It is unclear whether this facilitated learning will occur only with aversive stimulation, or if it will also be observed in the context of positive reinforcement. There are limited and inconsistent data regarding sex differences and the impact of prenatal stress on learning. The present study was designed to examine lever-press acquisition with a 10-s delay to food reinforcement in male and female PS and CON rats. Overall, twice as many PS male rats acquired the lever-press response than the PS female rats, CON male rats, and CON female rats. PS male rats also earned significantly more reinforcers and responded on the operative lever at a significantly greater rate than the other three rat groups. These findings suggest that PS rats exhibit altered learning with a task involving positive reinforcement, and this effect of PS is sex specific for male rats.

  9. Upcoming food-pellet reinforcement alters rats' lever pressing for liquid sucrose delivered by a progressive-ratio schedule.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; King, Brent M.; Uran, Erin L.

    2003-06-30

    The present study investigated whether rats' responding for liquid-sucrose reinforcement delivered by a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule would be altered by the addition of food-pellet reinforcement available subsequent to the PR schedule. In Experiment 1, six rats lever pressed for 1% sucrose reinforcers delivered by a PR 3 schedule. In Experiment 2, six rats lever pressed for 5% sucrose delivered by a PR 5 schedule. In both experiments, baseline sessions consisted of 40min of exposure to the PR schedule. In the first treatment condition, a 25-min period of food-pellet reinforcement, delivered by a random-interval 60-s schedule, immediately followed the initial 40min. In the second treatment condition, the 25-min period of food-pellet reinforcement became available when 10min elapsed without the subject completing a ratio on the PR schedule. Results from both experiments showed that upcoming food-pellet reinforcement increased the number of ratios subjects completed on the PR schedule. Portions of the present results represent a partial replication of results reported by Baron and Derenne [J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 73 (2000) 291], who used a similar procedure. They also augment a growing body of research on positive induction.

  10. Striatal dopamine release in the rat during a cued lever-press task for food reward and the development of changes over time measured using high-speed voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Taizo

    2005-09-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neuronal activity in the primate is thought to be related to the error in predicting reward delivery. Dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens has been shown to increase in relation to drug/food-seeking behaviour. It is not known how the release of dopamine in the striatum corresponds to the many distinct steps of a rewarded, cued task (e.g. recognizing the cue, executing the behaviour, anticipating the reward, receiving the reward) and how dopamine release then changes over time as task performance improves. To investigate dopamine release during a rewarded, cued task and the development of changes in dopamine release over time, changes in extracellular striatal dopamine concentration during a rewarded, cued lever-press task were measured a few days every week for 5 months using high-speed in vivo voltammetry. Rats were trained to press a lever after a tone to obtain a food reward. The reaction time for the lever press decreased gradually as training continued. Changes in dopamine concentration were measured in the anterior striatum (ventral portion) during the task performance after an initial 6-day familiarization period, in which the animals learned that a lever press yielded food, and a 5-week period for surgery, recovery, and electrode preparation. During the task performance, dopamine concentration started to increase just after the cue, peaked near the time of the lever press, and returned to basal levels 1-2 s after the lever press. This pattern of changes in dopamine concentration was observed over the 5 months of testing, the peak dopamine concentration increasing steadily until peaking at week 7, at which time the task performance had not yet improved significantly from week 2. By week 13, task performance had significantly improved and peak dopamine concentration had begun to subside. Thus, the increase in dopamine concentration after the cue was highest while the task was not yet perfected and subsided toward the end of the

  11. [Effects of variable-interval punishment on lever pressing maintained by variable-ratio reinforcement in the rat].

    PubMed

    Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement and punishment on response suppression under variable-ratio reinforcement and variable-interval punishment schedules were investigated. In the baseline period, lever pressing in rats was maintained by a variable-ratio food reinforcement schedule. In the punishment condition, responding was punished by a grid shock under a variable-interval schedule. Baseline and punishment conditions alternated, and were continued until the response stabilized. Three rats were given five or six punishment rates with a fixed reinforcement rate and another three rats were given four or five reinforcement rates with a fixed punishment rate. The results indicated that the responses were either completely suppressed or not suppressed at all. When the punishment rate increased or the reinforcement rate decreased, the response was suppressed completely. Whereas when the punishment rate decreased or the reinforcement rate increased, the responses were not suppressed. These results agree with the predictions of the molar theory.

  12. Gamma-butyrolactone's discriminability and effect on low rates of lever pressing by rats: alone and in combination with D-amphetamine and naloxone.

    PubMed

    McIntire, K D; Cleary, J; Weinfurter, S

    1988-05-01

    Three studies examined gamma-butyrolactone (Gbl) for benzodiazepine-like effects on low rates of food reinforced lever pressing by rats. A fourth study established Gbl's discriminative properties. Additionally, d-amphetamine or naloxone was administered with Gbl to test hypotheses of Gbl's neurochemical mechanisms of action. In Experiment 1, Gbl caused a dose-related decrease in lever pressing during a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule. Contrary to previous reports, neither d-amphetamine nor naloxone reversed the depressive effects of a high dose of Gbl on behavior. In Experiment 2, Gbl increased lever pressing which had been suppressed in the presence of a tone correlated with response-independent foot-shock (conditioned suppression). These results are consistent with, and extend, previous findings of benzodiazepine-like antipunishment effects of Gbl. However, in Experiment 3, when brief electric shocks were presented after each lever press, Gbl did not increase lever pressing. These results show the limited generality of Gbl's antipunishment effect compared to broad spectrum anxiolytics. Experiment 4, a drug discrimination study, showed rats readily discriminated 150 and 125 mg/kg Gbl from saline. However, neither d-amphetamine nor naloxone generalized to the Gbl lever. Amphetamine partially blocked the discriminative properties of 150 mg/kg Gbl, whereas naloxone had little effect on Gbl's discriminative properties. Thus, there is some support for a direct catecholaminergic role in Gbl-related seizures and little support for opioid receptor participation. The results of Experiments 1 and 4 indicate that Gbl's effects on behavior are complex, and are not accounted for by hypotheses involving only catecholamine and/or opioid mechanisms of action.

  13. Effect of cyproheptadine and combinations of cyproheptadine and amphetamine on intermittently reinforced lever-pressing in rats.

    PubMed

    Graeff, F G

    1976-10-20

    Effects of the tryptamine antagonist, cyproheptadine, as well as of amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide, and combinations of cyproheptadine with amphetamine on lever-pressing behavior of rats were determined. A multiple, fixed-interval, 2 min fixed-ratio, 15 response schedule of water presentation was used. The three drugs affected fixed-interval fixed-ratio responding in a rate-dependent way, lower rates being more increased whereas higher rates were relatively more decreased. Cyproheptadine increased low response rates to a lesser extent than amphetamine, but increased high response rates that were little affected or only decreased by amphetamine. The combination of cyproheptadine and amphetamine increased response rates to a higher extent than either of the drugs alone. In addition, the rate-suppressant effects of the highest doses of amphetamine were also enhanced by cyproheptadine. These results show that cyproheptadine can increase nonpunished responding and suggest that cyproheptadine and amphetamine act synergistically, but through different mechanisms, upon multiple fixed-interval fixed-ratio performance.

  14. Shoulder Muscular Demand During Lever-Activated Vs Pushrim Wheelchair Propulsion in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Philip Santos; Lee, Sharon E; Mulroy, Sara J; Haubert, Lisa Lighthall; Bontrager, Ernest L; Gronley, JoAnne K; Perry, Jacquelin

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The high demand on the upper limbs during manual wheelchair (WC) use contributes to a high prevalence of shoulder pathology in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Lever-activated (LEVER) WCs have been presented as a less demanding alternative mode of manual WC propulsion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoulder muscle electromyographic activity and propulsion characteristics in manual WC users with SCI propelling a standard pushrim (ST) and LEVER WC design. Methods: Twenty men with complete injuries (ASIA A or B) and tetraplegia (C6, n = 5; C7, n = 7) or paraplegia (n = 8) secondary to SCI propelled ST and LEVER WCs at 3 propulsion conditions on a stationary ergometer: self-selected free, self-selected fast, and simulated graded resistance. Average velocity, cycle distance, and cadence; median and peak electromyographic intensity; and duration of electromyography of anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles were compared between LEVER and ST WC propulsion. Results: Significant decreases in pectoralis major and supraspinatus activity were recorded during LEVER compared with ST WC propulsion. However, anterior deltoid and infraspinatus intensities tended to increase during LEVER WC propulsion. Participants with tetraplegia had similar or greater anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and infraspinatus activity for both ST and LEVER WC propulsion compared with the men with paraplegia. Conclusions: Use of the LEVER WC reduced and shifted the shoulder muscular demands in individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of LEVER WC propulsion on long-term shoulder function. PMID:19086715

  15. Rhesus leg muscle EMG activity during a foot pedal pressing task on Bion 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, J. A.; Riazansky, S. N.; Goulet, C.; Badakva, A. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Recktenwald, M. R.; McCall, G.; Roy, R. R.; Fanton, J. W.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2000-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to perform a foot lever pressing task for a food reward. EMG activity was recorded from selected lower limb muscles of 2 animals before, during, and after a 14-day spaceflight and from 3 animals during a ground-based simulation of the flight. Integrated EMG activity was calculated for each muscle during the 20-min test. Comparisons were made between data recorded before any experimental manipulations and during flight or flight simulation. Spaceflight reduced soleus (Sol) activity to 25% of preflight levels, whereas it was reduced to 50% of control in the flight simulation. During flight, medial gastrocnemius (MG) activity was reduced to 25% of preflight activity, whereas the simulation group showed normal activity levels throughout all tests. The change in MG activity was apparent in the first inflight recording, suggesting that some effect of microgravity on MG activity was immediate.

  16. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers.

  17. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  18. Posterior hypothalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation restores locomotion in rats with haloperidol-induced akinesia but not skilled forelimb use in pellet reaching and lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Young, C K; Whishaw, I Q; Bland, B H

    2011-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH) facilitates locomotion in control rats, and rats were made akinetic by dopaminergic blockade via haloperidol or dopamine depletion by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. These findings suggest that PH stimulation might be a promising treatment for akinesia associated with dopamine loss in Parkinson's disease. The present study further examined the positive effects of PH stimulation on behavior by characterizing its potential facilitatory effects on tasks that require skilled movements. Rats were trained to reach for food pellets with a forelimb (skilled reaching) or press a bar in an operant conditioning task for food. PH stimulation in undrugged rats not only facilitated locomotion in each of the tasks, but also impaired performance of the skilled movement components of the tasks. Haloperidol reduced locomotion and skilled movement, and PH stimulation only restored locomotion. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that PH stimulation selectively facilitates locomotor behavior and may have limited use in restoring impairments in skilled movements and consummatory behavior that results from dopaminergic depletion.

  19. Phase-dependent activity of neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus with saccharin intake in a cue-guided lever-manipulation task.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryuhei; Kato, Risako; Fujita, Satoshi; Shimada, Jun; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward. Changes in neural activity during saccharin intake were observed in 56% (51 of 91) of the recorded neurons; the firing rates increased in 21 neurons and decreased in 23 neurons. Seven neurons both increased and decreased their firing rates during saccharin intake. Changes in firing rates during the reward-waiting stage between task termination and saccharin intake were also observed in 73% (37 of 51) of the neurons that responded to saccharin intake. Increased activity during saccharin intake did not correlate with increased activity during lever-manipulation or activity during the reward-waiting stage. However, decreased activity during saccharin intake was correlated with activity during the reward-waiting stage. These results suggest that rTRN neurons have phase-dependent changes in their activity and regulate the thalamic activities. Furthermore, the decreased activity of rTRN neurons before reward may contribute to refine somatosensory and motor information processing in the thalamic nuclei depending on the status of mind such as expectation and attention.

  20. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  1. Lightweight Seat Lever Operation Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, a Shuttle crew member was unable to operate the backrest lever for the lightweight seat in microgravity. It is essential that crew members can adjust this backrest lever, which is titled forward during launch and then moved backward upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crew members during an inadvertent crash landing situation. JSCs Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) performed an evaluation of the seat controls and provided recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The original Shuttle seats were replaced with new lightweight seats whose controls were moved, with one control at the front and the other at the back. The ABF designed a 12-person experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by suited subjects, when controls were placed in the front and back of the lightweight seat. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results showed that, in general, the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with only about half the amount of force that they were able to exert on the lever at the front position. In addition, the results also showed that subjects wearing the pressurized suit were unable to reach the seat lever when it was located at the back. The pull forces on the front lever diminished about 50% when subjects wore pressurized suits. Based on these results from this study, it was recommended that the levers should not be located in the back position. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the levers at the front of the seat could be modified or adjusted to increase the leverage for crew members wearing pressurized launch/escape suits.

  2. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  3. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  4. Resistor-damped electromechanical lever blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zago, Lorenzo; Genequand, Pierre M.; Kjelberg, Ivar

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents an innovative technical solution which provides a combined damping and isolation interface with the appropriate transmissibility characteristics between a vibrating base and a sensitive payload, typically an optical terminal/telescope. The novelty of the solution is primarily found in the implementation of uncoupling and magnification of the incurred vibrations by means of flexures combined with the implementation of energy dissipation by means of a linear electro-magnetic actuator to constitute a passive integrated resistor-damped electromechanic lever block. By means of frictionless flexible lever systems, the amplitude of the payload vibrations is adapted to the optimal range of the actuator with a magnification by a factor ranging typically between 10 and 30. Passive viscous damping is obtained by simply short-circuiting the electro-magnetic motor and can be adapted by setting the impedance of the shorting connection. The desired stiffness is provided by the passive springs of the elastic motor suspension and by the stiffness of the lever flexure blades. The mobile mass of the motors also provide a reaction mass which, like damping and stiffness, is amplified by the square of the lever factor. A theoretical model of resistor-damped electromechanical lever blocks has been established. A particular property is it the good attenuation of excited vibrations only over a set frequency range. Above this range the interface properties rejoin the ones of a rigid connection. This performance makes this type of isolators particularly suitable for integration into multi-layer vibration control systems where sensitive equipment is protected by a mix of passive and active damping/isolation devices acting optimally at different frequency ranges. Experiments performed with a dummy load (80 Kg) representative of a satellite based optical terminal demonstrated the efficiency of the system in protecting the payload by passive damping for vibration excitations

  5. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  6. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  7. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  8. ICSU press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) has established a publishing arm called ICSU Press. The Press is intended to complement the publishing activities of its member scientific unions in several ways: initiate special publications of research findings and new journals of reviews or research; advise, or act as publishers for, members requesting such service; and engage in copublishing ventures with international bodies outside of ICSU whose goals are consistent with ICSU's.Plans for ICSU Press also include preparation of television programs in cooperation with BBC-2 in Britain and PBS and ABC in the United States.

  9. Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.

  10. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  11. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  12. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  13. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  14. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  15. 14. INTERIOR OF MAIN DECKNOTE LEVERS FROM CEILING CONTROLLED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF MAIN DECK--NOTE LEVERS FROM CEILING CONTROLLED BY OPERATOR. LEFT HAND LEVER CONTROLLED THROTTLE, RIGHT HAND LEVER CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. The Effect of Active Recovery on Power Performance During the Bench Press Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Felipe A. S.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Julio, Ursula F.; Menegon, Elton M.; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate concentration and power performance. Twelve male subjects were submitted to a maximal strength test in the the bench press, a maximal aerobic test in the bench step, and to four sets of bench press exercise performed as fast and as long as possible, using 80% of maximal strength when active or passive recovery was performed. The maximum number of repetitions, mean and peak power in eccentric and concentric phases were computed and blood lactate concentration was measured. Comparisons for the variables were made using a two-way variance analysis (recovery type and set numer) with repeated measures in the second factor. When significant differences were detected (p < 0.05), a Tukey post-hoc test was used. There was a main effect of set number on maximum number of repetitions (p < 0.05) (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 3 and 4; 3 > 4). Mean and peak power in both eccentric and concentric phases also differed across sets (1 > 2, 3, and 4; 2 > 4). There was also a main effect for the recovery type, with lower values (p < 0.05) observed for the active recovery compared to the passive one. It can be concluded that active recovery resulted in lower lactate concentration, but did not improve power performance in the bench press exercise. PMID:25031684

  17. Optical lever calibration in atomic force microscope with a mechanical lever.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Régnier, Stéphane

    2008-09-01

    A novel method that uses a small mechanical lever has been developed to directly calibrate the lateral sensitivity of the optical lever in the atomic force microscope (AFM). The mechanical lever can convert the translation into a nanoscale rotation angle with a flexible hinge that provides an accurate conversion between the photodiode voltage output and torsional angle of a cantilever. During the calibration, the cantilever is mounted on a holder attached on the lever, which brings the torsional axis of the cantilever and rotation axis of the lever into line. By making use of its nanomotion on the Z-axis and using an external motion on the barrier, this device can complete the local and full-range lateral sensitivity calibrations of the optical lever without modifying the actual AFM or the cantilevers.

  18. The prediction of filter belt press dewatering efficiency for activated sludge by experimentation on filtration compression cells.

    PubMed

    Olivier, J; Vaxelaire, J

    2004-12-01

    The filter belt press is commonly used to dewater activated sludge. However, little research has been done on this process and the prediction of its efficiency. Experimentation has been carried out in a filtration compression cell (FCC) and in a pilot scale filter belt press. It offers a way of determining filter belt press efficiency thanks to simple laboratory research. The pressure distribution around the pressing roller was measured inside the pilot scale filter belt press. It showed progressive increase (up to a certain maximum value: plateau), which was followed by a rapid decrease. The impact of the progressive increase of applied pressure onto the dry solid sludge content was observed in FCC. Similar dry solid contents were obtained from both the above laboratory devices when the application of the pressure is comparable (in time and increasing rate).

  19. The Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1993-07-01

    The Lever oscillator has been specifically designed for use with quartz resonator sensors. The use of quartz resonators as sensors is of particular interest and depending on the sensing environment, e.g., liquid, the oscillator design is both critical and difficult due to the wide dynamic range of resonator resistance possible due to damping of the resonator. Standard oscillator designs do not work well as sensor oscillators. An oscillator design will be presented that allows both frequency and loss (R{sub m}) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  20. Manual shift control lever device and self-contained electronic control for transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.F.

    1986-09-09

    A unitized shift control lever device is described for the remote activation of an electrically controlled transmission comprising: a housing; a manually operable range selector lever pivotally supported in the housing for selective movements to predetermined operating positions respectively indicative of a required operating condition of an associated electrically controlled transmission; means in the housing providing a source of radiations; radiation controlled switching means for generating discrete control signals in response to the presence and non-presence of the radiations; means interposed in the radiation path between the source and the switching means operable in response to the movement of the range selector lever for selectively determining the presence or non-presence of the radiations with respect to the switching means at each range selector position of the lever; and electronic circuit control means having input connections for receiving the generated signals and output connections adapted for connection with electrically activated condition controlling devices on the transmission.

  1. Measuring How Muscles Function in Levers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that examines the lever systems that function in the chelae of the American lobster. Involves calculating the mechanical and distance advantages of the crusher and pincer chelae and estimating the actual forces generated by the contraction of the muscles and the magnitude of the forces transmitted around the fulcrum to the tip…

  2. Graphic Arts--Offset Press Operator/Duplicating Machine. TI-622. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Robert F.

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for a graphic arts activity on offset press operator/duplicating machine. Purpose stated for the activity is to provide the student with an understanding of the basic operation involved in the production of printed matter in the graphic communications industry through the…

  3. DETAIL OF STANDARD INTERLOCKING MACHINE OPERATING LEVERS. LOCKING MECHANISM IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF STANDARD INTERLOCKING MACHINE OPERATING LEVERS. LOCKING MECHANISM IS BELOW FLOOR. BOXES BEHIND SOME LEVERS HOUSE ELECTRICAL CONTACTS FOR SIGNALS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  4. Direct measurements of the coordination of lever arm swing and the catalytic cycle in myosin V.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; Muretta, Joseph M; Swenson, Anja M; Davis, Jonathon P; Thomas, David D; Yengo, Christopher M

    2015-11-24

    Myosins use a conserved structural mechanism to convert the energy from ATP hydrolysis into a large swing of the force-generating lever arm. The precise timing of the lever arm movement with respect to the steps in the actomyosin ATPase cycle has not been determined. We have developed a FRET system in myosin V that uses three donor-acceptor pairs to examine the kinetics of lever arm swing during the recovery and power stroke phases of the ATPase cycle. During the recovery stroke the lever arm swing is tightly coupled to priming the active site for ATP hydrolysis. The lever arm swing during the power stroke occurs in two steps, a fast step that occurs before phosphate release and a slow step that occurs before ADP release. Time-resolved FRET demonstrates a 20-Å change in distance between the pre- and postpower stroke states and shows that the lever arm is more dynamic in the postpower stroke state. Our results suggest myosin binding to actin in the ADP.Pi complex triggers a rapid power stroke that gates the release of phosphate, whereas a second slower power stroke may be important for mediating strain sensitivity.

  5. A wheelchair with lever propulsion control for climbing up and down stairs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kai; Eguchi, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes a novel stair-climbing wheelchair based on lever propulsion control using the human upper body. Wheelchairs are widely used as supporting locomotion devices for people with acquired lower limb disabilities. However, steps and stairs are critical obstacles to locomotion, which restrict their activities when using wheelchairs. Previous research focused on power-assisted, stair-climbing wheelchairs, which were large and heavy due to its large actuators and mechanisms. In the previous research, we proposed a wheelchair with lever propulsion mechanism and presented its feasibility of climbing up the stairs. The developed stair-climbing wheelchair consists of manual wheels with casters for planar locomotion and a rotary-leg mechanism based on lever propulsion that is capable of climbing up stairs. The wheelchair also has a passive mechanism powered by gas springs for posture transition to shift the user's center of gravity between the desired positions for planar locomotion and stair-climbing. In this paper, we present an advanced study on both climbing up and going down using lever propulsion control by the user's upper body motion. For climbing down the stairs, we reassembled one-way clutches used for the rotary-leg mechanism to help a user climb down the stairs through lever operation. We also equipped the wheelchair with sufficient torque dampers. The frontal wheels were fixed while climbing down the stairs to ensure safety. Relevant experiments were then performed to investigate its performance and verify that the wheelchair users can operate the proposed lever propulsion mechanism.

  6. PRESS40: a project for involving students in active seismic risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Rosa Girardi, Maria

    2016-04-01

    To memorialize the anniversary of the 1976 Friuli earthquake, the Istituto Statale di Istruzione Superiore "Magrini Marchetti" in Gemona del Friuli (NE Italy), with the collaboration of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), has promoted the PRESS40 Project (Prevenzione Sismica nella Scuola a 40 anni dal terremoto del Friuli, that in English sounds like "Seismic Prevention at School 40 years later the Friuli earthquake"). The project has developed in the 2015-2016 school year, starting from the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake, and it aims to disseminate historical memory, seismic culture and awareness of seismic safety in the young generations, too often unconscious of past experiences, as recent seismic hazard perception tests have demonstrated. The basic idea of the PRESS40 Project is to involve the students in experimental activities to be active part of the seismic mitigation process. The Project is divided into two main parts, the first one in which students learn-receive knowledge from researchers, and the second one in which they teach-bring knowledge to younger students. In the first part of the project, 75 students of the "Magrini Marchetti" school acquired new geophysical data, covering the 23 municipalities from which they come from. These municipalities represent a wide area affected by the 1976 Friuli earthquake. In each locality a significant site was examined, represented by a school area. At least, 127 measurements of ambient noise have been acquired. Data processing and interpretation of all the results are still going on, under the supervision of OGS researchers.The second part of the project is planned for the early spring, when the students will present the results of geophysical survey to the younger ones of the monitored schools and to the citizens in occasion of events to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake.

  7. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.

  8. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  9. Power lever apparatus for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    McCombs Jr., H. L.

    1985-05-21

    In a turbine engine having a compressor with a bleed valve and a variable geometry apparatus is responsive to an operational control member for regulating the flow rate of fuel supplied the turbine engine as a function of atmospheric pressure and the temperature of air supplied to the compressor corresponding to movement of a power lever by an operator to a desired operation of the turbine engine. The power lever has an indicator member fluidically connected to a follower member linked to the operational control member. The fluidic connection is responsive to operational parameters of the turbine engine and limits the rotational input to the follower member when the rate of fuel flow could cause stalling and the development of an unacceptable operating temperature or overspeed condition in the turbine engine.

  10. Engineering a lever into the kinesin neck.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, M; Cross, R A

    1998-11-06

    To probe for a lever arm action in the kinesin stepping mechanism, we engineered a rodlike extension piece into the tail of rat kinesin at various points close to the head-tail junction and measured its effects on the temperature dependence of velocity in microtubule gliding assays. The insert comprised two contiguous alpha-actinin triple-coil repeats and was predicted to fold into a stiff rodlike module about 11 nm long. The effects of this module were greater the closer it was placed to the head-tail junction. When inserted distal to the head-tail junction, at Asn401 in the dimeric K partial differential401GST, the insert had no effect. When inserted closer to the heads at Val376 into K partial differential376GST, the insert slowed progress below 22 degreesC but accelerated progress to approximately 125% of wild type above 22 degreesC. The most dramatic effect of the synthetic lever occurred when it was inserted very close to the head-neck junction, at Glu340 into the single-headed construct K partial differential340GST. This construct was immotile without the insert, but motile with it, at about 30% of the velocity of the dimeric control. The alpha-actinin module thus confers some gain-of-function when inserted close to the head-neck junction but not when placed distal to it. The data exclude the presence of a lever arm C-terminal to Val376 in the kinesin tail but suggest that a short-throw lever arm may be present, N-terminal to Val376 and contiguous with the head-neck junction at Ala339.

  11. A method for measurement of static lever arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xianglu; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Wu, Wei; Hu, Feng; Zheng, JiaXing

    2016-01-01

    Lever arm effect has to be considered in transfer alignment technology. Between static lever arm and dynamic lever arm, the former has larger amplitude, and it is the major error source in transfer alignment. How to measure and solve it become an important problem. This paper takes vehicle as a rigid body. Assume that static lever arm does not change in a short time, based on two inertial measurement units(IMU), data are measured and constituted several matrixes properly. After that, by using least square method, static lever arm is solved finally. Simulation experiments are implemented, results show that static lever arm can be solved effectively. Further study shows that, the precision of the method can be improved by preprocessing low pass filter.

  12. Regulatory light chain mutants linked to heart disease modify the cardiac myosin lever arm.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sikkink, Laura A

    2013-02-19

    Myosin is the chemomechanical energy transducer in striated heart muscle. The myosin cross-bridge applies impulsive force to actin while consuming ATP chemical energy to propel myosin thick filaments relative to actin thin filaments in the fiber. Transduction begins with ATP hydrolysis in the cross-bridge driving rotary movement of a lever arm converting torque into linear displacement. Myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binds to the lever arm and modifies its ability to translate actin. Gene sequencing implicated several RLC mutations in heart disease, and three of them are investigated here using photoactivatable GFP-tagged RLC (RLC-PAGFP) exchanged into permeabilized papillary muscle fibers. A single-lever arm probe orientation is detected in the crowded environment of the muscle fiber by using RLC-PAGFP with dipole orientation deduced from the three-spatial dimension fluorescence emission pattern of the single molecule. Symmetry and selection rules locate dipoles in their half-sarcomere, identify those at the minimal free energy, and specify active dipole contraction intermediates. Experiments were performed in a microfluidic chamber designed for isometric contraction, total internal reflection fluorescence detection, and two-photon excitation second harmonic generation to evaluate sarcomere length. The RLC-PAGFP reports apparently discretized lever arm orientation intermediates in active isometric fibers that on average produce the stall force. Disease-linked mutants introduced into RLC move intermediate occupancy further down the free energy gradient, implying lever arms rotate more to reach stall force because mutant RLC increases lever arm shear strain. A lower free energy intermediate occupancy involves a lower energy conversion efficiency in the fiber relating a specific myosin function modification to the disease-implicated mutant.

  13. How does lever length and the position of its axis of rotation influence human performance during lever wheelchair propulsion?

    PubMed

    Fiok, Krzysztof; Mróz, Anna

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate empirically how lever length and its axis of rotation position influences human performance during lever wheelchair propulsion. In order to fulfill this goal, a dedicated test stand allowing easy implementation of various lever positions was created. In the experiment, 10 young, healthy, male subjects performed 8 tests consisting of propulsion work with levers of different lengths and lever axis of rotation positions. During tests heart rate, oxygen consumption and EMG assessment of 6 muscles was carried out. Measurements of power output on the test stand were done as well. Together with oxygen consumption analysis, this allowed calculation of human work efficiency. The results show significant (p<0.05 and p<0.001) differences between lever configurations when comparing various parameters values. From the carried out experiments, the authors conclude that levers' length and their axis of rotation position significantly influence human performance during lever wheelchair propulsion. For the examined subjects, placing the levers' axis of rotation close behind the back wheels axis of rotation offered advantageous work conditions.

  14. Simulation model of a lever-propelled wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Ota, Yuki; Hase, Kazunori; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchair efficiency depends significantly on the individual adjustment of the wheelchair propulsion interface. Wheelchair prescription involves reconfiguring the wheelchair to optimize it for specific user characteristics. Wheelchair tuning procedure is a complicated task that is performed usually by experienced rehabilitation engineers. In this study, we report initial results from the development of a musculoskeletal model of the wheelchair lever propulsion. Such a model could be used for the development of new advanced wheelchair approaches that allow wheelchair designers and practitioners to explore virtually, on a computer, the effects of the intended settings of the lever-propulsion interface. To investigate the lever-propulsion process, we carried out wheelchair lever propulsion experiments where joint angle, lever angle and three-directional forces and moments applied to the lever were recorded during the execution of defined propulsion motions. Kinematic and dynamic features of lever propulsion motions were extracted from the recorded data to be used for the model development. Five healthy male adults took part in these initial experiments. The analysis of the collected kinematic and dynamic motion parameters showed that lever propulsion is realized by a cyclical three-dimensional motion of upper extremities and that joint torque for propulsion is maintained within a certain range. The synthesized propulsion model was verified by computer simulation where the measured lever-angles were compared with the angles generated by the developed model simulation. Joint torque amplitudes were used to impose the torque limitation to the model joints. The results evidenced that the developed model can simulate successfully basic lever propulsion tasks such as pushing and pulling the lever.

  15. History of Extension Work in Virginia Prior to Smith-Lever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillison, John; Sutphin, Cathy M.

    1999-01-01

    Before the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, agricultural schools begun in 11 Virginia congressional districts in 1908 performed a great deal of extension work, such as agricultural demonstrations, youth activities, and home economics programs. This helped pave the way for formal extension programs established by the legislation. (SK)

  16. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  17. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  18. A backbone lever-arm effect enhances polymer mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Klukovich, Hope M; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B; Kean, Zachary S; Lenhardt, Jeremy M; Craig, Stephen L

    2013-02-01

    Mechanical forces along a polymer backbone can be used to bring about remarkable reactivity in embedded mechanically active functional groups, but little attention has been paid to how a given polymer backbone delivers that force to the reactant. Here, single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to directly quantify and compare the forces associated with the ring opening of gem-dibromo and gem-dichlorocyclopropanes affixed along the backbone of cis-polynorbornene and cis-polybutadiene. The critical force for isomerization drops by about one-third in the polynorbornene scaffold relative to polybutadiene. The root of the effect lies in more efficient chemomechanical coupling through the polynorbornene backbone, which acts as a phenomenological lever with greater mechanical advantage than polybutadiene. The experimental results are supported computationally and provide the foundation for a new strategy by which to engineer mechanochemical reactivity.

  19. A backbone lever-arm effect enhances polymer mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klukovich, Hope M.; Kouznetsova, Tatiana B.; Kean, Zachary S.; Lenhardt, Jeremy M.; Craig, Stephen L.

    2013-02-01

    Mechanical forces along a polymer backbone can be used to bring about remarkable reactivity in embedded mechanically active functional groups, but little attention has been paid to how a given polymer backbone delivers that force to the reactant. Here, single-molecule force spectroscopy was used to directly quantify and compare the forces associated with the ring opening of gem-dibromo and gem-dichlorocyclopropanes affixed along the backbone of cis-polynorbornene and cis-polybutadiene. The critical force for isomerization drops by about one-third in the polynorbornene scaffold relative to polybutadiene. The root of the effect lies in more efficient chemomechanical coupling through the polynorbornene backbone, which acts as a phenomenological lever with greater mechanical advantage than polybutadiene. The experimental results are supported computationally and provide the foundation for a new strategy by which to engineer mechanochemical reactivity.

  20. Lever-type two-cycle internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, E.C.; Wenzel, S.T.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a lever type internal combustion engine. It comprises power cylinders arranged in side-by-side opposed pairs and disposed in a first horizontal plane, each provided with a piston and a piston rod pivotally connected at an inner end with the piston, a crankshaft supported for rotation about an axis lying in a second horizontal plane disposed in spaced parallel relationship with and below the first horizontal plane, and a lever system whereby the power cylinder pistons drive the crankshaft, the lever system, one for each pair of opposed power cylinders, comprising an elongate level arm pivotally interconnected at a first end with the outer ends of the piston rods, means including guide members disposed below the crankshaft for constraining a second end of the lever arm for up and down movement in a direction perpendicular to the first and second horizontal planes, and means for operatively connecting the lever arm at a point intermediate its first and second ends to the crankshaft, whereby the lever arm functions as a lever of the second class between the piston rods and the crankshaft the constrained second end thereof functioning as the fulcrum therefor.

  1. 16. VIEW OF LEVER CONNECTED TO CHAIN (BRIDGE IN CLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF LEVER CONNECTED TO CHAIN (BRIDGE IN CLOSED POSITION), LOOKING WEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-15

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  4. The influence of bar diameter on neuromuscular strength and activation: inferences from an isometric unilateral bench press.

    PubMed

    Fioranelli, Douglas; Lee, C Matthew

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two different bar diameters on neuromuscular activation and strength. The bar diameters used reflected a standard Olympic bar (28 mm (1.1 inch); THIN) and a larger fat bar (51 mm [2 inch]; THICK). Eighteen healthy men (age 25.0 +/- 1 years) were assessed for their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during a unilateral isometric bench press exercise with the 2 bar types at 2 different joint angles (angle 1 and angle 2; elbow joint at approximately 45 and 90 degrees , respectively). Additionally, on a separate day, subjects performed three 10-second isometric repetitions at an intensity of 80% MVC using the 2 different bars at angle 1 and angle 2. Electromyographic recordings were collected in the pectoralis major and the muscles of the forearm flexor region at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz during the second day of testing. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in MVC between bars and also examine between bar differences in electromyographic activity for each muscle group at each joint angle. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. MVC was not different between bar types, although there was a main effect of joint angle on MVC such that it was greater at angle 2. There was a main effect of bar at both angles for the forearm muscles and at angle 1 for the pectoralis such that electromyographic activity was greater with THIN. Our data do not support the hypothesis that bar diameter influences performance during an isometric bench press exercise. However, higher electromyographic activity with THIN suggests greater neuromuscular activation with a standard Olympic bar as opposed to a larger diameter "fat" bar. Although our data do not support the use of a fat bar for increasing neuromuscular activation, these findings should be confirmed in other resistance training exercises.

  5. Hydraulic Presses,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-09

    flow of metal ( piercing in the ring, etc.) - 20-30 kgf/mm2. The efficiency of press, which considers losses to fluid friction in the conduit/manifold...the strong wear of the friction surfaces, have the low coefficient of friction , be - inert with respect to the material of mating members and working...stump or knock, impregnated with grease. Such sealings/packings/compactions have the <. high coefficient of friction , require rapid the suspenders and

  6. Multiplying optical tweezers force using a micro-lever.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chin-Te; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hwang, Jiann-Lih; Chung, Tien-Tung; Baldeck, Patrice L

    2011-10-10

    This study presents a photo-driven micro-lever fabricated to multiply optical forces using the two-photon polymerization 3D-microfabrication technique. The micro-lever is a second class lever comprising an optical trapping sphere, a beam, and a pivot. A micro-spring is placed between the short and long arms to characterize the induced force. This design enables precise manipulation of the micro-lever by optical tweezers at the micron scale. Under optical dragging, the sphere placed on the lever beam moves, resulting in torque that induces related force on the spring. The optical force applied at the sphere is approximately 100 to 300 pN, with a laser power of 100 to 300 mW. In this study, the optical tweezers drives the micro-lever successfully. The relationship between the optical force and the spring constant can be determined by using the principle of leverage. The arm ratio design developed in this study multiplies the applied optical force by 9. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation of spring property.

  7. Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Josephson, Matthew P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-09-13

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons ( 1971 ) Nature 233 , 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution.

  8. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  9. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An electromyographic comparison of a modified version of the plank with a long lever and posterior tilt versus the traditional plank exercise.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Fontana, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare core muscle activation of the tradition prone plank with a modified version performed with a long-lever and posterior-tilt using surface electromyography. To further determine if a specific component of this modified plank was more effective than the other in enhancing muscle activity, the plank with a long lever and the plank with a posterior pelvic tilt were studied individually. Nineteen participants performed all four variations of the plank for 30 seconds in a randomized order with 5-minute rest between exercise bouts. Compared to the traditional prone plank, the long-lever posterior-tilt plank displayed a significantly increased activation of the upper rectus abdominis (p < 0.001), lower abdominal stabilizers (p < 0.001), and external oblique (p < 0.001). The long-lever plank showed significantly greater activity compared to the traditional plank in the upper rectus abdominis (p = 0.015) and lower abdominal stabilizers (p < 0.001), while the posterior tilt plank elicited greater activity in the external oblique (p = 0.028). In conclusion, the long-lever posterior-tilt plank significantly increases muscle activation compared to the traditional prone plank. The long-lever component tends to contribute more to these differences than the posterior-tilt component.

  11. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-03-18

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions.

  12. Response inhibition is impaired by developmental methylmercury exposure: Acquisition of low-rate lever-pressing☆

    PubMed Central

    Newland, M. Christopher; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Heath, John C.; Donlin, Wendy D.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental methylmercury (MeHg) exposure produces response perseveration on discrimination reversal procedures, disrupts sensitivity to reinforcement, and enhances sensitivity to dopamine agonists – a profile suggesting a deficit in behavioral inhibition. To examine inhibition, we examined MeHg’s effects on the acquisition and persistence of low-rate lever-pressing following a history of high-rate responding. Additionally, we examined whether chronic exposure to selenium protects against MeHg’s developmental neurotoxicity. Female rats were exposed in utero via maternal exposure to drinking water containing 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm or 5 ppm of Hg as MeHg, producing approximately 0 μg/kg/day, 40 μg/kg/day, or 400 μg/kg/day of Hg. The mothers (during gestation) and the offspring (throughout life) consumed a purified diet containing 0.06 ppm or 0.6 ppm of Se (as sodium selenite), forming a 2 (lifespan diet) × 3 (developmental MeHg) factorial design. Adult offspring lever-pressed under two schedules of reinforcement. A differential reinforcement of high-rate (DRH) schedule imposed rigid response requirements that remained constant through the study. A high-rate percentile schedule (PCNT-H) incorporated a flexible criterion that reinforced short interresponse times using an adjusting criterion that was sensitive to recent performance. After high-rate responding stabilized, the PCNT-H schedule was abruptly inverted by reinforcing long interresponse times. Acquisition of low-rate responding was impaired in the MeHg-exposed rats because of intrusions of high-rate response bursts. DRH response rates did not change. Dietary selenium did not influence MeHg’s effects. High-rate operant behavior perseverated, suggesting that gestational MeHg exposure impairs response inhibition – an effect that extends results previously reported using choice procedures or spatial and visual discrimination reversals. PMID:23721962

  13. Gear-shift lever having variable thickness walls

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.

    1988-01-03

    A one-piece elongated tubular transmission gear shift lever, is described comprising a tubular connector part at a first end of the gear shift lever, whereby the tubular connector part is adapted to be secured to a pivot means; a spherical part extending from the connector part, the connector part and the spherical part having a first wall thickness; a cylindrical part extending from the spherical part in a direction opposite the tubular connector part, the cylindrical part having a second wall thickness less than the first wall thickness; a tapered part extending from the cylindrical part; and a threaded part extending from the tapered part, the threaded part formed at a second end of the gear shift lever opposite the first end, whereby a gear shift knob may be attached.

  14. Press Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  15. 5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO RAISE IT AND HOOK WHICH KEPT IT IN THE 'OFF' POSITION; ALSO SEEN ARE THE LARGE BLOCKS SUSPENDED FROM THE CAP FRAME WHICH HOLD THE TRUCK WHEELS TO CENTER THE CAP - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  16. The Relationship between State Policy Levers and Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Berry, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    To address conceptual and methodological shortcomings in the extant literature on student mobility, this study employs event history modeling to describe and explain how state policy levers, specifically state grant aid, relates to mobility and baccalaureate degree completion. We find that state grant aid reduces mobility, but less so than…

  17. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, "LAWRENCE LEVERING BECKEL (BRIDGE BUILT BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, "LAWRENCE LEVERING BECKEL (BRIDGE BUILT BY HIM AND HIS FATHER, CHAS. N. BECKEL AT EASTON)," original ca. 1885, photographer unknown. Collection of Historic Bethlehem Inc., Bethlehem, PA, Negative Nos. 3550 or 4504. - Walnut Street Bridge, Formerly spanning Saucon Creek, Hellertown, Northampton County, PA

  18. DETAIL OF TRACTION CABLE ENGAGEMENT DEVICE. SMALL, KNOBBED LEVER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TRACTION CABLE ENGAGEMENT DEVICE. SMALL, KNOBBED LEVER ON BUCKET HANGER WAS PULLED DOWN BY A CAMEL (FIXED CAM RAIL AT CENTER) AS BUCKET ROLLED PAST IT, CAUSING A CLAMP TO CLOSE AGAINST TRACTION CABLE. A SIMILAR CAMEL (NO LONGER EXTANT) DISENGAGED CLAMP ON RECEIVING SIDE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  19. SECOND FLOOR OF OPERATOR'S ROOM, WITH THROTTLE LEVER ABOVE TORQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR OF OPERATOR'S ROOM, WITH THROTTLE LEVER ABOVE TORQUE CONVERTER SWITCH, AT LEFT. MAGNETIC SOLENOID IS IN CENTER, HYDRAULIC BRAKE PUMP IS IN UPPER RIGHT, LOOKING WEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  20. 26. VIEW FROM EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, LEVERS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW FROM EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, LEVERS FOR GASOLINE ENGINE OPERATION FOR BRIDGE AND THEIR CONNECTIONS TO CONTROL RODS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWING-SPAN; new bridge located in background - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  1. 25. VIEW EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, (left) ORIGINAL LEVERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, (left) ORIGINAL LEVERS FOR GASOLINE ENGINE OPERATION OF SWING-SPAN, (right) PANEL F ELECTRIC OPERATION OF GATES AND SWING-SPAN; new bridge located in background - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  2. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  3. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  4. Theory and applications of optical fiber lever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuomo, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of optical fiber lever concepts is illustrated leading to several designs found useful in air and water applications. In particular, this technology has led to the development of underwater detectors of the pressure and pressure gradient kind. In addition, an optical microphone with features not found in condenser microphones has been utilized in the measurement of pressure fluctuations in high speed boundary layers requiring sensors of small size, extended bandwidth, wide dynamic range, and high temperature capability. Finally, similar concepts have been applied to the design of scale model acoustic arrays intended for acoustic imaging applications in the megahertz frequency range.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Nisin and Natamycin Incorporated Sodium Caseinate Extrusion-Blown Films: A Comparative Study with Heat-Pressed/Solution Cast Films.

    PubMed

    Colak, Basak Yilin; Peynichou, Pierre; Galland, Sophie; Oulahal, Nadia; Prochazka, Frédéric; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial edible films based on sodium caseinate, glycerol, and 2 food preservatives (nisin or natamycin) were prepared by classical thermomechanical processes. Food preservatives were compounded (at 65 °C for 2.5 min) with sodium caseinate in a twin-screw extruder. Anti-Listeria activity assays revealed a partial inactivation of nisin following compounding. Thermoplastic pellets containing food preservatives were then used to manufacture films either by blown-film extrusion process or by heat-press. After 24 h of incubation on agar plates, the diameters of K. rhizophila growth inhibition zones around nisin-incorporated films prepared by solution casting (control), extrusion blowing or heat pressing at 80 °C for 7 min of nisin-containing pellets were 15.5 ± 0.9, 9.8 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Since heat-pressing for 7 min at 80 °C of nisin-incorporated pellets did not further inactivate nisin, this indicates that nisin inactivation during extrusion-blowing was limited. Moreover, the lower diameter of the K. rhizophila growth inhibition zone around films prepared with nisin-containing pellets compared to that observed around films directly prepared by solution casting confirms that nisin inactivation mainly occurred during the compounding step. Natamycin-containing thermoplastic films inhibited Aspergillus niger growth; however, by contrast with nisin-containing films, heat-pressed films had higher inhibition zone diameters than blown films, therefore suggesting a partial inactivation of natamycin during extrusion-blowing.

  6. Reciprocating pellet press

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Charles W.

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  7. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  8. Repetitive behavior and increased activity in mice with Purkinje cell loss: a model for understanding the role of cerebellar pathology in autism.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren A; Goldowitz, Dan; Mittleman, Guy

    2010-02-01

    Repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity are common features of developmental disorders, including autism. Neuropathology of the cerebellum is also a frequent occurrence in autism and other developmental disorders. Recent studies have indicated that cerebellar pathology may play a causal role in the generation of repetitive and hyperactive behaviors. In this study, we examined the relationship between cerebellar pathology and these behaviors in a mouse model of Purkinje cell loss. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras between Lc/+ mutant embryos and +/+ embryos. Lc/+ mice lose 100% of their Purkinje cells postnatally due to a cell-intrinsic gain-of-function mutation. Through our histological examination, we demonstrated that Lc/+<-->+/+ chimeric mice have Purkinje cells ranging from zero to normal numbers. Our analysis of these chimeric cerebella confirmed previous studies on Purkinje cell lineage. The results of both open-field activity and hole-board exploration testing indicated negative relationships between Purkinje cell number and measures of activity and investigatory nose-poking. Additionally, in a progressive-ratio operant paradigm, we found that Lc/+ mice lever-pressed significantly less than +/+ controls, which led to significantly lower breakpoints in this group. In contrast, chimeric mice lever-pressed significantly more than controls and this repetitive lever-pressing behavior was significantly and negatively correlated with total Purkinje cell numbers. Although the performance of Lc/+ mice is probably related to their motor deficits, the significant relationships between Purkinje cell number and repetitive lever-pressing behavior as well as open-field activity measures provide support for a role of cerebellar pathology in generating repetitive behavior and increased activity in chimeric mice.

  9. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  10. Management of personal safety risk for lever operation in mechanical railway signal boxes.

    PubMed

    Muffett, Bob; Wilson, John R; Clarke, Theresa; Coplestone, Anthony; Lowe, Emma; Robinson, John; Smith, Stuart

    2014-03-01

    Despite increased implementation of computer control systems in managing and regulating rail networks, mechanical signal boxes using lever operation will be in place for years to come. A rolling risk assessment programme identified a number of levers in mechanical signal boxes within the UK rail network which potentially presented unacceptable personal safety risk to signallers. These levers operate both points and signals and the risk is primarily the weights which have to be moved when pulling and pushing the levers. Operating difficulties are often compounded by the design and condition of lever frames, the linkages to the points/signals, maintenance regimes, the workspace and the postures and strategies adopted by signallers. Lever weights were measured as from 15 kg to 180 kg at over 160 boxes, using a specially designed and constructed device. Taken together with examination of injury and sickness absence data, interviews and field observations, and biomechanical computer modelling, the measurement programme confirmed the potential risks. A risk management programme has been implemented, comprising lever weight measurement, training of operations staff, a structured maintenance regime and renewal or redesign for boxes/levers where, after maintenance, a criterion weight level is still exceeded. For a feasible management programme, the first alert (or 1st action) value for further assessment is 55 kg, a second action level requiring specified maintenance is 80-99 kg, and a third action level requiring the lever to be signed out of use is 100 kg.

  11. University Presses: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Robert B.

    Historical information on university presses and their problems are considered. University presses in the United States have their roots in 15th century England when the Oxford University Press was established in 1478. The first U.S. press to use the term "university press" was Cornell University; the press operated from 1869 until it…

  12. CMB cluster lensing: Cosmography with the longest lever arm

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wayne; Holz, Daniel E.; Vale, Chris

    2007-12-15

    We discuss combining gravitational lensing of galaxies and the cosmic microwave background by clusters to measure cosmographic distance ratios, and hence dark energy parameters. Advantages to using the cosmic microwave background as the second source plane, instead of galaxies, include a well-determined source distance, a longer lever arm for distance ratios, typically up to an order of magnitude higher sensitivity to dark energy parameters, and a decreased sensitivity to photometric redshift accuracy of the lens and galaxy sources. Disadvantages include higher statistical errors, potential systematic errors, and the need for disparate surveys that overlap on the sky. Ongoing and planned surveys, such as the South Pole Telescope in conjunction with the Dark Energy Survey, can potentially reach the statistical sensitivity to make interesting consistency tests of the standard cosmological constant model. Future measurements that reach 1% or better precision in the convergences can provide sharp tests for future supernovae distance measurements.

  13. High-temperature fiber-optic lever microphone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Cuomo, Frank W.; Nguyen, Trung D.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Clevenson, Sherman A.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a fiber-optic lever microphone, capable of operating continuously at temperatures up to 538 C (1000 F) are described. The design is based on the theoretical sensitivities of each of the microphone system components, namely, a cartridge containing a stretched membrane, an optical fiber probe, and an optoelectronic amplifier. Laboratory calibrations include the pistonphone sensitivity and harmonic distortion at ambient temperature, and frequency response, background noise, and optical power transmission at both ambient and elevated temperatures. A field test in the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus at Langley Research Center, in which the microphone was subjected to overall sound-pressure levels in the range of 130-160 dB and at temperatures from ambient to 538 C, revealed good agreement with a standard probe microphone.

  14. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  15. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  16. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  2. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine;...

  3. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine;...

  4. Preliminary study of lever-based optical driven micro-actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Li, Yi-Hsiung; Lin, Chin-Te; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Tien-Tung; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a novel type of optically driven lever-based micro-actuator fabricated using two-photon polymerization 3D-microfabrication technique. The lever is composed of a beam, an arch, and a sphere. First, optical tweezers is applied on the spheres to demonstrate the actuation of the lever. A spring is jointed at the lever for verifying the induced forces. Under the dragging by laser focusing, the lever simultaneously turns and results a torque like a mechanical arm. Then, the demonstration of a photo-driven micro-transducer with a mechanical arm and a gear is preformed. The experimental result indicates that our design enables precise manipulation of the mirco-actuator by optical tweezers at micron scale. This study provides a possibility for driving micron-sized structured mechanisms, such as connecting rods, valves. It is expected to contribute on the investigation of "Lab-on-a-chip".

  5. Impact of ultraviolet radiation treatments on the physicochemical properties, antioxidants, enzyme activity and microbial load in freshly prepared hand pressed strawberry juice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Stamminger, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice.

  6. Differences in unilateral chest press muscle activation and kinematics on a stable versus unstable surface while holding one versus two dumbbells.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jeffrey M; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Oppenheimer, Nicole E; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were recruited to test two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the pectoralis major, middle trapezius, external oblique, and internal oblique were recorded and compared. Differences in range of motion (ROM) were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Four separate conditions of unilateral bench press were tested while lifting on a: flat bench with one dumbbell, flat bench with two dumbbells, COR Bench with one dumbbell, and COR Bench with two dumbbells. The results imply that there are no differences in EMG amplitude or ROM between the COR bench and traditional bench. However, greater ROM was found to be utilized in the single dumbbell condition, both in the COR bench and the flat bench.

  7. Differences in unilateral chest press muscle activation and kinematics on a stable versus unstable surface while holding one versus two dumbbells

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jeffrey M.; Oppenheimer, Nicole E.; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were recruited to test two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the pectoralis major, middle trapezius, external oblique, and internal oblique were recorded and compared. Differences in range of motion (ROM) were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Four separate conditions of unilateral bench press were tested while lifting on a: flat bench with one dumbbell, flat bench with two dumbbells, COR Bench with one dumbbell, and COR Bench with two dumbbells. The results imply that there are no differences in EMG amplitude or ROM between the COR bench and traditional bench. However, greater ROM was found to be utilized in the single dumbbell condition, both in the COR bench and the flat bench. PMID:26528421

  8. The Greenwood School Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Jane

    1984-01-01

    A turn-of-the-century printing press motivates elementary students to write. Children write, edit, and print their own stories on the Greenwood School Press. This self-supporting enterprise introduces children to various aspects of writing and producing literature. (DF)

  9. Press Relations: Carter's Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Although different philosophies may motivate presidential-press relations, causing frequent friction or adversity, there is nevertheless a strong degree of cooperation and collaboration between the press and a president of the United States. This interdependence has been particularly evident in recent administrations, and it progresses…

  10. Lyndon Johnson's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    Because President Lyndon Johnson understood well the publicity value of the American news media, he sought to exploit them. He saw reporters as "torch bearers" for his programs and policies and used the presidential press conference chiefly for promotional purposes. Although he met with reporters often, his press conferences were usually…

  11. High School Press Pressures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Luella P.

    History shows that the high school press suffers through cycles that reflect economic factors and cultural climates within communities, states, and the nation. The direction of that cycle in the 1960s and early 1970s was toward more open, free-flowing information by a vigorous student press, but those economic and cultural signs now are pointing…

  12. The characteristics of variable speed inchworm stage using lever mechanism by different materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Soo Chang; Park, Jeong Woo; Jung, Yoong Ho; Lee, Deug Woo

    2008-11-01

    Currently, piezoelectric actuators which have attractive features such as high output force, high positioning resolution, high stiffness and quick response have been used in many ultra precision stages. But their positioning ranges are very small. This very limited displacement severely restricts the actuator's immediate implementation for long-range positioning. This paper shows a variable speed inchworm type stage with hinge structures as lever mechanism for nanometer resolution with large dynamic range and studies on characteristics of it. The inchworm stage has hinge structure levers which can shift their pivot position. And it can amplify/reduce output displacement using mechanical advantage with a lever. Especially we suggest guide-line of design according this work that was performed using different materials of stages (Aluminium and Stainless Steel). As the results of simulations, the larger lever ratio is, the smaller stiffness of lever portion is. As the results of experiments, when we input voltage into the inchworm stage, output displacement of each lever is different according to material. Hysteresis of stage could also present that grow according as lever rate rises and stiffness of material. In the case of feeding speed, Aluminium with less hardness showed excellent responsiveness, hence excellent feed performance results.

  13. Characterization of radiation-induced performance decrement using a two-lever shock-avoidance task

    SciTech Connect

    Burghardt, W.F. Jr.; Hunt, W.A.

    1985-07-01

    Rats were trained to perform a task involving responses on two levers. Responding on an avoidance lever delayed the onset of electrical footshock for 20 sec and responding on a warning lever turned on a light for 60 sec. When the light was on, the task on the avoidance lever was changed from unsignaled shock avoidance to signaled shock avoidance by preceding the shocks with 5-sec warning tones. The animals preferred the signaled avoidance condition. After 100 Gy of /sup 60/Co irradiation, the animals were less able to avoid shock, an effect from which the animals recovered somewhat over 90 min. The response rate on the avoidance lever remained at or above control rates, while the response rate on the warning lever showed an initial increase, followed by a decrease below baseline. The data suggest that under these experimental conditions a subject will not respond appropriately to avoid shock or acquire cues that can facilitate the avoidance of shock. The effects, however, do not reflect an inability to perform the required movements but instead appear to reflect some characteristic of the task associated with a particular lever.

  14. STS-104 Pre-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    George Diller, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Jim Halsell, Shuttle Program Launch Integration Manager, Dave King, NASA Director of Shuttle Processing, Michael Hawes, Deputy Associate Administrator for ISS, and John Weems, Launch Weather Officer, in this STS-104 press conference. An overview is given of the launch and mission activities, International Space Station activities during the mission, and the weather forecast for the launch. The men then answer questions from the press.

  15. Two Sides of a Coin: Fluxus and Something Else Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Dick

    1992-01-01

    Outlines briefly the process by which the Fluxus community coalesced. Recounts the birthing of Something Else Press, Inc., and the transformation of aspects of the press' objectives into Printed Editions. Discusses the parallel concerns shared by Something Else Press and Fluxus publication activities as well as their divergent agendas and…

  16. Effect of administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist BTMPS, during nicotine self-administration, on lever responding induced by context long after withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brandon J; Pearson, Laura S; Buccafusco, Jerry J

    2010-02-01

    The use-dependent, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (BTMPS) was studied for its potential to reduce the self-administration of nicotine in rats, as well as to reduce context-induced recidivistic-like behavior after a six-week period of cessation. Rats were allowed to self-administer nicotine (FR1 schedule) inside an operant chamber with a response lever active on a 24 h basis for 14 days. After the self-administration phase, the rats were returned to standard maintenance cages for a period of six weeks. At the end of six weeks the rats were returned to the operant chambers for 7 days and lever responses were recorded under conditions identical to the original self-administration phase, except that lever responses were not rewarded. Daily administration (s.c.) of BTMPS produced a dose-dependent decrease in the self-administration of nicotine 55-80% compared to control animals, and significantly decreased context-induced lever responding initiated six weeks after cessation (35-78% reduction vs. controls). Decreasing the BTMPS regimen to administration once every 3 days was not effective in reducing nicotine self-administration, but lever responding induced during the return to the operant chambers 6 weeks later was significantly decreased (40% reduction vs. controls). Therefore BTMPS can selectively reduce both self-administration of nicotine and long-term recidivistic-like behavior depending upon the dose regimen. Since BTMPS does not evoke anti-nicotinic effects under normal physiological conditions, these data support a proof of concept for the safe use of such compounds in the treatment of tobacco abuse.

  17. 20. VIEW OF NEWER 7LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF NEWER 7-LEVER INTERLOCKING MACHINE IN FOREGROUND, NEXT TO ORIGINAL INTERLOCKING MACHINE, THIRD FLOOR - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cranberry press cake extracts alone or in combination with β-lactams against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cranberry fruits possess many biological activities partly due to their various phenolic compounds; however the underlying modes of action are poorly understood. We studied the effect of cranberry fruit extracts on the gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus to identify specific cellular processes involved in the antibacterial action. Methods Transcriptional profiles of four S. aureus strains grown in broth supplemented or not with 2 mg/ml of a commercial cranberry preparation (Nutricran®90) were compared using DNA arrays to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. Ethanol extracted pressed cakes from fresh fruits also produced various fractions and their effects on marker genes were demonstrated by qPCR. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most effective cranberry fraction (FC111) were determined against multiple S. aureus strains and drug interactions with β-lactam antibiotics were also evaluated. Incorporation assays with [3H]-radiolabeled precursors were performed to evaluate the effect of FC111 on DNA, RNA, peptidoglycan (PG) and protein biosynthesis. Results Treatment of S. aureus with Nutricran®90 or FC111 revealed a transcriptional signature typical of PG-acting antibiotics (up-regulation of genes vraR/S, murZ, lytM, pbp2, sgtB, fmt). The effect of FC111 on PG was confirmed by the marked inhibition of incorporation of D-[3H]alanine. The combination of β-lactams and FC111 in checkerboard assays revealed a synergistic activity against S. aureus including strain MRSA COL, which showed a 512-fold drop of amoxicillin MIC in the presence of FC111 at MIC/8. Finally, a therapeutic proof of concept was established in a mouse mastitis model of infection. S. aureus-infected mammary glands were treated with amoxicillin, FC111 or a combination of both; only the combination significantly reduced bacterial counts from infected glands (P<0.05) compared to the untreated mice. Conclusions The cranberry fraction FC111

  20. Mechanical efficiency of two commercial lever-propulsion mechanisms for manual wheelchair locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lui, Jordon; MacGillivray, Megan K; Sheel, A William; Jeyasurya, Jeswin; Sadeghi, Mahsa; Sawatzky, Bonita Jean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the mechanical efficiency (ME) of two commercially available lever-propulsion mechanisms for wheelchairs and (2) compare the ME of lever propulsion with hand rim propulsion within the same wheelchair. Of the two mechanisms, one contained a torsion spring while the other used a roller clutch design. We hypothesized that the torsion spring mechanism would increase the ME of propulsion due to a passive recovery stroke enabled by the mechanism. Ten nondisabled male participants with no prior manual wheeling experience performed submaximal exercise tests using both lever-propulsion mechanisms and hand rim propulsion on two different wheelchairs. Cardiopulmonary parameters including oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (En) were determined. Total external power (Pext) was measured using a drag test protocol. ME was determined by the ratio of Pext to En. Results indicated no significant effect of lever-propulsion mechanism for all physiological measures tested. This suggests that the torsion spring did not result in a physiological benefit compared with the roller clutch mechanism. However, both lever-propulsion mechanisms showed decreased VO2 and HR and increased ME (as a function of slope) compared with hand rim propulsion (p < 0.001). This indicates that both lever-propulsion mechanisms tested are more mechanically efficient than conventional hand rim propulsion, especially when slopes are encountered.

  1. A Guide to Press Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibre Box Association, Chicago, IL.

    Stressing that a positive press-relations program can be extremely helpful to businesses, this publication offers suggestions for establishing press contacts, preparing press releases, holding press conferences, illustrating a story, preparing materials for use in radio and television broadcasts, and developing policies to be followed in emergency…

  2. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  3. America's Enduring Ethnic Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzolf, Marion

    Studies of the history of newspapers in the United States have virtually ignored the ethnically oriented, foreign language press. This gap in journalistic investigation should be filled by considering the two conflicting roles which ethnic newspapers fill: assimilation of the ethnic group into the mainstream of American culture and maintenance and…

  4. Meet the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Brian L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To field questions from a room of students simulating a press conference. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 10 participation points. To receive all 10 points, students must (1) address three questions from the lectern and ask three questions from their seat (3 points), (2) respond thoroughly to each question by providing a…

  5. Defining the University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Reports discussion at the annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses (AAUP) on such topics as overproduction, government support, "on demand" publishing, profitability, library photocopying, and selection in library acquisitions, as they relate to the roles of librarians and publishers. (JPF)

  6. There is no trade-off between speed and force in a dynamic lever system.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Matthew J

    2011-06-23

    Lever systems within a skeleton transmit force with a capacity determined by the mechanical advantage, A. A is the distance from input force to a joint, divided by the distance from the joint to the output force. A lever with a relatively high A in static equilibrium has a great capacity to generate force but moves a load over a small distance. Therefore, the geometry of a skeletal lever presents a trade-off between force and speed under quasi-static conditions. The present study considers skeletal dynamics that do not assume static equilibrium by modelling kicking by a locust leg, which is powered by stored elastic energy. This model predicts that the output force of this lever is proportional to A, but its maximum speed is independent of A. Therefore, no trade-off between force and velocity exists in a lever system with spring-mass dynamics. This demonstrates that the motion of a skeleton depends on the major forces that govern its dynamics and cannot be inferred from skeletal geometry alone.

  7. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction.

  8. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  9. The azimuthal path of myosin V and its dependence on lever-arm length.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John H; Beausang, John F; Sweeney, H Lee; Goldman, Yale E

    2012-02-01

    Myosin V (myoV) is a two-headed myosin capable of taking many successive steps along actin per diffusional encounter, enabling it to transport vesicular and ribonucleoprotein cargos in the dense and complex environment within cells. To better understand how myoV navigates along actin, we used polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to examine angular changes of bifunctional rhodamine probes on the lever arms of single myoV molecules in vitro. With a newly developed analysis technique, the rotational motions of the lever arm and the local orientation of each probe relative to the lever arm were estimated from the probe's measured orientation. This type of analysis could be applied to similar studies on other motor proteins, as well as other proteins with domains that undergo significant rotational motions. The experiments were performed on recombinant constructs of myoV that had either the native-length (six IQ motifs and calmodulins [CaMs]) or truncated (four IQ motifs and CaMs) lever arms. Native-length myoV-6IQ mainly took straight steps along actin, with occasional small azimuthal tilts around the actin filament. Truncated myoV-4IQ showed an increased frequency of azimuthal steps, but the magnitudes of these steps were nearly identical to those of myoV-6IQ. The results show that the azimuthal deflections of myoV on actin are more common for the truncated lever arm, but the range of these deflections is relatively independent of its lever-arm length.

  10. Ergonomic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Light-Weight Seat Lever Position and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, J.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During a Shuttle flight in the early part of 1999, one of the crewmembers was unable to operate the backrest lever for the light-weight seat in microgravity. It is essential that the crewmembers are able to adjust this back-rest lever, which is titled forward 2 degrees from vertical during launch and then moved backwards to 10 degrees aft of vertical upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crewmembers during an inadvertent crash landing situation. The original Shuttle seats, which had seat controls located on the front left and right sides of the seat, were replaced recently with the new light-weight seats. The controls for these new, seats were moved to the night side with one control at the front and the other at the back. While it was uncertain whether the problem encountered was unique to that crewmember or not it was clear to the personnel responsible for maintaining the Shuttle seats that not knowing the cause of the problem posed a safety concern for NASA. Hence the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) of the Johnson Space Center was requested to perform an evaluation of the seat controls and provide NASA with appropriate recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The ABF designed an experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by subjects, wearing an unpressurized or pressurized crew launch escape suit, when controls were placed in the front and back (on the right side) of the light-weight seat. Single-axis load cells were attached to the seat levers, which measured the maximum static pull forces that were exerted by the subjects. Twelve subjects, six male and six female, participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results from this study showed that as a whole (or in general), the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with

  11. A Lever for Life: How I Lost 150 Pounds and Learned the Catalytic Power of School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The quotation, attributed to the Greek mathematician Archimedes, about the power of levers to move the world has been quoted many times with slight variations, but usually the point is the same: "With the right lever, one can move the earth." However, the actual quotation attributed to Archimedes comes in the writings of another Greek…

  12. Improving the quality and longevity of the valve-gear lever of VAZ automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, A. K.; Bogdanova, N. V.; Krishtal, M. A.

    1990-12-01

    The basic causes of the scouring of the nitrided layer are its increased brittleness as a result of supersaturation with nitrogen, the presence of stress raisers on the effective surface of the lever (increased roughness), and the insufficient extent to which the surface layers of the components of the camshaft couple are worn in.

  13. [Equivalent Lever Principle of Ossicular Chain and Amplitude Reduction Effect of Internal Ear Lymph].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia

    2015-04-01

    This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air.

  14. Mediation, Translation and Local Ecologies: Understanding the Impact of Policy Levers on FE Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spours, Ken; Coffield, Frank; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the views of managers and tutors on the role of policy "levers" on teaching, learning, and inclusion in colleges of Further Education (FE) in our research project, "The impact of policy on learning and inclusion in the Learning and Skills Sector (LSS)." Using data from five research visits conducted over…

  15. The influence of the dynamic transformation of a sliding lever on aiming errors.

    PubMed

    Heuer, H; Sülzenbrück, S

    2012-04-05

    Human movements are quickly adjusted to variations of inertial load. However, this adjustment does not always imply a full compensation, so that kinematic movement characteristics vary. The present experiment served to explore the consequences of a complex dynamic transformation, implemented by a sliding first-order lever, on the endpoint distributions of goal-directed movements. Whereas the endpoint distributions were clearly affected by the inertial anisotropy of the arm, there was no effect of the dynamic transformation of the lever, neither on the parameters of endpoint distributions nor on the covariations of endpoints of successive movements (error propagation). However, when the lever was used, the effect of the inertial anisotropy of the arm on movement amplitudes was reduced, accompanied by a longer movement time overall, in particular for movements with higher inertial load of the arm. These observations suggest an interaction of the use of internal models and impedance control in the presence of variable inertial loads. Most likely the influence of the dynamic transformation of the sliding lever is absorbed by increased joint impedance, which also reduces the influence of the inertial anisotropy of the arm which otherwise is (incompletely) compensated based on an internal model of the dynamic transformation of the arm.

  16. Haptic Feedback and Students' Learning about Levers: Unraveling the Effect of Simulated Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Eric N.; Minogue, James; Jones, M. Gail; Cowley, Jennifer; Krebs, Denise

    2009-01-01

    While there has been extensive experimental research on haptics, less has been conducted on cross-modal interactions between visual and haptic perception and even less still on cross-modal applications in instructional settings. This study looks at a simulation on the principles of levers using both visual and haptic feedback: one group received…

  17. Technological and physiological characteristics of a newly developed hand-lever drive system for wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Engel, P; Seeliger, K

    1986-10-01

    It may be concluded that, by use of the newly developed Swing-Turn-gear system, mobility of the disabled person using wheelchairs outdoors can be improved. The qualities of the drive gear in push and pull action, the free wheel, the full selection of frequency, and the range of moving the hand levers represent important progress in wheelchair engineering research. The handrim drive is an alternative, especially for indoor use. But, for the first time, an indoor wheelchair can be offered as a combination vehicle for both indoor and outdoor use. The acceptance of the new wheelchair integrated Swing-Turn-gear is much better than the conspicuous hand-lever drive in standard outdoor wheelchairs. At present, the German wheelchair manufacturer, MEYRA Vlotho, is preparing the new hand-lever drive system for production. Initially, the drive system will be adapted to a standard indoor wheelchair made by this company. Development of a lever drive system is also in progress in the United States, which employs force transmission characteristics in one direction.

  18. In vivo orientation of single myosin lever arms in zebrafish skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C; Shelden, Eric A; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2014-09-16

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1/GFP

  19. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1

  20. Myosin VI undergoes a 180 degrees power stroke implying an uncoupling of the front lever arm.

    PubMed

    Reifenberger, Jeff G; Toprak, Erdal; Kim, Hyeongjun; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Selvin, Paul R

    2009-10-27

    We simultaneously measure both the step size, via FIONA, and the 3-D orientation, via DOPI, of the light-chain domain of individual dimeric myosin VIs. This allows for the correlation of the change in orientation of the light chain domain to the stepping of the motor. Three different pairs of positions were tested using a rigid bifunctional rhodamine on the calmodulin of the IQ domain. The data for all three labeling positions support the model that the light chain domain undergoes a significant rotation of approximately 180 degrees . Contrary to an earlier study [Sun, Y. et al. (2007) Mol Cell 28, 954-964], our data does not support a model of multiple angles of the lever arm of the lead head, nor "wiggly" walking on actin. Instead, we propose that for the two heads of myosin VI to coordinate their processive movement, the lever arm of the lead head must be uncoupled from the converter until the rear head detaches. More specifically, intramolecular strain causes the myosin VI lever arm of the lead head to uncouple from the motor domain, allowing the motor domain to go through its product-release (phosphate and ADP) steps at an unstrained rate. The lever arm of the lead head rebinds to the motor and attains a rigor conformation when the rear head detaches. By coupling the orientation and position information with previously described kinetics, this allows us to explain how myosin VI coordinates its heads processively while maintaining the ability to move under load with a (semi-) rigid lever arm.

  1. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  2. PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRESS SHOP. SEVEN BLISS PRESSES STAMP OUT A VARIETY OF CARTRIDGE AND SHELL CASINGS. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TRANSFORMED FROM A MONEY-LOSING OPERATION TO A PROFIT CENTER UNDER THE FIRST WORKER-MANAGED QUALITY CIRCLE IN THE PLANT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. STS-104 Flight Crew Post-Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Joel Wells, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the STS-104 crew, Commander Steven Lindsey, Pilot Charles Hobaugh, and Mission Specialists Mike Gernhardt, Jim Reilly, and Janet Kavandi, in this post-landing press conference. Commander Lindsey makes a brief statement about the mission and each crewmember's role in the activities. The crew then answers questions from the press.

  4. The CIA and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Bernardo A.

    The involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with both United States and foreign news media has been recorded in numerous publications. This report reviews the important aspects of the CIA-press relationships as they have appeared in print and discusses the implications of these relationsihps for the credibility of the press. Media…

  5. Press Secretaries: A Brief Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Hines E., III

    The role of press secretary has attained a new significance during the past ten years because of presidential efforts to concentrate the focus of news on the White House. Originally intended to serve the public, the press secretary is now an important government official who not only conveys information but also explains and defends presidential…

  6. Characterizing piezoscanner hysteresis and creep using optical levers and a reference nanopositioning stage

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, H.; Regnier, S.

    2009-04-15

    A method using atomic force microscope (AFM) optical levers and a reference nanopositioning stage has been developed to characterize piezoscanner hysteresis and creep. The piezoscanner is fixed on a closed-loop nanopositioning stage, both of which have the same arrangement on each axis of the three spatial directions inside the AFM-based nanomanipulation system. In order to achieve characterization, the optical lever is used as a displacement sensor to measure the relative movement between the nanopositioning stage and the piezoscanner by lateral tracking a well-defined slope with the tapping mode of the AFM cantilever. This setup can be used to estimate a piezoscanner's voltage input with a reference displacement from the nanopositioning stage. The hysteresis and creep were accurately calibrated by the method presented, which use the current setup of the AFM-based nanomanipulation system without any modification or additional devices.

  7. Blockade of uptake for dopamine, but not norepinephrine or 5-HT, increases selection of high effort instrumental activity: Implications for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Samantha E; Errante, Emily E; Rosenbloom-Snow, Aaron; Somerville, Matthew; Rowland, Margaret; Tokarski, Kristin; Zafar, Nadia; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational symptoms are frequently seen in people with depression and other disorders. Depressed people show a decision bias towards selection of low effort activities, and animal tests of effort-related decision making are being used as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. The present studies investigated the ability of drugs that block dopamine transport (DAT), norepinephrine transport (NET), and serotonin transport (SERT) to modulate work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision making (i.e., a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats choose between working for a preferred food (high carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a PROG schedule vs. obtaining a less preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. The present studies focused on the effects of the selective DAT inhibitor GBR12909, the selective SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, and the selective NET inhibitors desipramine and atomoxetine. Acute and repeated administration of GBR12909 shifted choice behavior, increasing measures of PROG lever pressing but decreasing chow intake. In contrast, fluoxetine, desipramine and atomoxetine failed to increase lever pressing output, and actually decreased it at higher doses. In the behaviorally effective dose range, GBR12909 elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis, but fluoxetine, desipramine and atomoxetine decreased extracellular dopamine. Thus, blockade of DAT increases selection of the high effort instrumental activity, while inhibition of SERT or NET does not. These results have implications for the use of monoamine uptake inhibitors for the treatment of effort-related psychiatric symptoms in humans.

  8. Coupling of lever arm swing and biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Togashi, Akio; Sasaki, Takeshi N; Takano, Mitsunori; Sasai, Masaki; Terada, Tomoki P

    2014-04-01

    An important unresolved problem associated with actomyosin motors is the role of Brownian motion in the process of force generation. On the basis of structural observations of myosins and actins, the widely held lever-arm hypothesis has been proposed, in which proteins are assumed to show sequential structural changes among observed and hypothesized structures to exert mechanical force. An alternative hypothesis, the Brownian motion hypothesis, has been supported by single-molecule experiments and emphasizes more on the roles of fluctuating protein movement. In this study, we address the long-standing controversy between the lever-arm hypothesis and the Brownian motion hypothesis through in silico observations of an actomyosin system. We study a system composed of myosin II and actin filament by calculating free-energy landscapes of actin-myosin interactions using the molecular dynamics method and by simulating transitions among dynamically changing free-energy landscapes using the Monte Carlo method. The results obtained by this combined multi-scale calculation show that myosin with inorganic phosphate (Pi) and ADP weakly binds to actin and that after releasing Pi and ADP, myosin moves along the actin filament toward the strong-binding site by exhibiting the biased Brownian motion, a behavior consistent with the observed single-molecular behavior of myosin. Conformational flexibility of loops at the actin-interface of myosin and the N-terminus of actin subunit is necessary for the distinct bias in the Brownian motion. Both the 5.5-11 nm displacement due to the biased Brownian motion and the 3-5 nm displacement due to lever-arm swing contribute to the net displacement of myosin. The calculated results further suggest that the recovery stroke of the lever arm plays an important role in enhancing the displacement of myosin through multiple cycles of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting a unified movement mechanism for various members of the myosin family.

  9. The Press Research Centre, 1956-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press Research Centre, Krakow (Poland).

    In 1956, the Press Research Centre was established in Cracow, Poland by a group of journalists and publishers, for the purpose of instituting press research that would have practical applications. The aims of the Centre were to conduct studies on the history of the Polish press, the contemporary press, press readership, and editorial techniques.…

  10. Combined effects of methamphetamine and morphine on ambulatory activity in mice and continuous avoidance response in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1985-09-01

    Combined effects of methamphetamine and morphine were investigated by means of ambulatory activity in mice and continuous avoidance response in rats. Single administration of methamphetamine (0.5-2 mg/kg sc) or morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg sc) increased the ambulatory activity in a dose-dependent manner. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine and morphine were synergistic throughout the combined doses tested. Methamphetamine (0.13 and 0.5 mg/kg sc) produced an increase in frequency of lever-pressing and a decrease in shock rate, showing facilitation of the avoidance response, in a dose-dependent manner. Morphine tended to facilitate the avoidance response at lower doses (1.3 and 2.5 mg/kg sc), whereas, at higher doses (5 and 10 mg/kg sc), it elicited decrease in the frequency of lever-pressing and increase in the shock rate, showing suppressing of the avoidance response. The avoidance-facilitating effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by higher doses of morphine. The present results suggest that combined administration of methamphetamine and morphine shows synergistic effect on ambulatory activity in mice, and synergistic and antagonistic effects on the avoidance response in rats depending on the doses combined.

  11. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  12. STS-102 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Joel Wells, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Ron Dittemore, NASA Shuttle Program Manager, Tommy Holloway, NASA International Space Station Program Manager, Dave King, NASA Director of Shuttle Processing, and Captain Clif Stargardt, US Air Force Meteorologist, in this STS-102 prelaunch press conference. The men give an overview of the prelaunch processing for the Discovery Orbiter (such as the PRSD loading) and give a weather forecast for launch. They then answer questions from the press.

  13. Single myosin lever arm orientation in a muscle fiber detected with photoactivatable GFP.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Li, Jinhui; Ajtai, Katalin

    2009-02-03

    Myosin 2 is the molecular motor in muscle. It binds actin and executes a power stroke by rotating its lever arm through an angle of approximately 70 degrees to translate actin against resistive force. Myosin 2 has evolved to function optimally under crowded conditions where rates and equilibria of macromolecular reactions undergo major shifts relative to those measured in dilute solution. Hence, an important research objective is to detect in situ the lever arm orientation. Single-molecule measurements are preferred because they clarify ambiguities that are unavoidable with ensemble measurements; however, detecting single molecules in the condensed tissue medium where the myosin concentration exceeds 100 muM is challenging. A myosin light chain (MLC) tagged with photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) was constructed. The recombinant MLC physically and functionally replaced native MLC on the myosin lever arm in a permeabilized skeletal muscle fiber. Probe illumination volume was minimized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and PAGFP was sparsely photoactivated such that polarized fluorescence identified a single probe orientation. Several physiological states of the muscle fiber were characterized, revealing two distinct orientation populations in all states called straight and bent conformations. Conformation occupancy probability varies among fiber states with rigor and isometric contraction at extremes where straight and bent conformations predominate, respectively. Comparison to previous work on single rigor cross-bridges at the A-band periphery where the myosin concentration is low suggests molecular crowding in the A-band promotes occupancy of the straight myosin conformation [Burghardt, T. P., et al. (2007) Biophys. J. 93, 2226]. The latter may have a role in contraction because it provides additional free energy favoring completion of the cross-bridge power stroke.

  14. Determination of the electrostatic lever arm of carbon nanotube field effect transistors using Kelvin force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunel, David; Deresmes, Dominique; Mélin, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    We use Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) to study the electrostatic properties of single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor devices (CNTFETs) with backgate geometry at room temperature. We show that KFM maps recorded as a function of the device backgate polarization enable a complete phenomenological determination of the averaging effects associated with the KFM probe side capacitances, and thus, to obtain KFM measurements with quantitative character. The value of the electrostatic lever arm of the CNTFET is determined from KFM measurements and found in agreement with transport measurements based on Coulomb blockade.

  15. Displacement response, detection limit, and dynamic range of fiber-optic lever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Gang; Cuomo, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the evaluation of the displacement response, detection limit, and dynamic range of fiber-optic lever sensors in a general format to establish their dependence on fiber sizes, optoelectronic detector specifications, input power, and other relevant parameters. The formations for the normalized reflected optical power change are derived for the evaluation of the optimal sensor response, the linearity range, and the minimum detectable displacement. The theoretical models are verified by an experiment which determines sensor response, modulation index, reflected optical power change, and linear response range through dynamic measurement. The application of this theoretical model to the study of a fiber-optic microphone for acoustic pressure detection is considered.

  16. Hot off the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Stefani; Tart, Kimberly Thigpen; Hemminger, Laura; Schlegel, Barry; Stephan, Wendy; Pitman, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Recently published research can be paired with engaging activities to keep students informed about the rapidly changing world of science. "Environmental Health Perspectives" (EHP), a peer-reviewed environmental health research journal (published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health),…

  17. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  18. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O'Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  19. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  20. Apollo 13 Facts: Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Flight Director Gene Krantz gives an overview of the Apollo 13 mission as corrections are made in the power down checklist, passive thermal control, and orbital burns after the spacecraft runs into problems. He then answers questions from the press with the help of Tony England, Bill Peters, and Dick Thorson. Footage then shows newspaper headlines 'We're Not Concerned' and 'Getting Ready to Land' as people watch televisions to see if the astronauts landed safely. The press conference section of this video has sound, the headlines section does not.

  1. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  2. Processive steps in the reverse direction require uncoupling of the lead head lever arm of myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Julie; Isabet, Tatiana; Ropars, Virginie; Mukherjea, Monalisa; Pylypenko, Olena; Liu, Xiaoyan; Perez, Javier; Vachette, Patrice; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne M

    2012-10-12

    Myosin VI is the only known reverse-direction myosin motor. It has an unprecedented means of amplifying movements within the motor involving rearrangements of the converter subdomain at the C terminus of the motor and an unusual lever arm projecting from the converter. While the average step size of a myosin VI dimer is 30-36 nm, the step size is highly variable, presenting a challenge to the lever arm mechanism by which all myosins are thought to move. Herein, we present structures of myosin VI that reveal regions of compliance that allow an uncoupling of the lead head when movement is modeled on actin. The location of the compliance restricts the possible actin binding sites and predicts the observed stepping behavior. The model reveals that myosin VI, unlike plus-end directed myosins, does not use a pure lever arm mechanism, but instead steps with a mechanism analogous to the kinesin neck-linker uncoupling model.

  3. Myosin VI must dimerize and deploy its unusual lever arm in order to perform its cellular roles.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Monalisa; Ali, M Yusuf; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Daniel; Yang, Zhaohui; Sirkia, Helena; Ropars, Virginie; Houdusse, Anne; Warshaw, David M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2014-09-11

    It is unclear whether the reverse-direction myosin (myosin VI) functions as a monomer or dimer in cells and how it generates large movements on actin. We deleted a stable, single-α-helix (SAH) domain that has been proposed to function as part of a lever arm to amplify movements without impact on in vitro movement or in vivo functions. A myosin VI construct that used this SAH domain as part of its lever arm was able to take large steps in vitro but did not rescue in vivo functions. It was necessary for myosin VI to internally dimerize, triggering unfolding of a three-helix bundle and calmodulin binding in order to step normally in vitro and rescue endocytosis and Golgi morphology in myosin VI-null fibroblasts. A model for myosin VI emerges in which cargo binding triggers dimerization and unfolds the three-helix bundle to create a lever arm essential for in vivo functions.

  4. Law and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  5. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the newsletter "Gifted Education Press Quarterly" published during 1995. This newsletter addresses issues in the education of gifted children and youth. The major articles are: (1) "Using Today's Technology: Parents Can Help Challenge Gifted Children" (Adrienne O'Neill); (2)…

  6. The Alternative Press in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Daniel C.

    Presented is an analysis of what has been done regarding the preservation of alternative publications in microfilm. The alternative press was defined, for the purposes of this study, as "nonstandard, nonestablishment publications." Two projects undertaken to microfilm such publications, one by the Microphoto Division of Bell and Howell…

  7. The Schools and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann Chambers

    This book acquaints the school administrator with the need for good press relations and suggests ways to obtain such relations. A brief overview of the internal workings and concerns of a newspaper staff is presented. Methods of writing news copy for release and how to time releases for maximum news coverage are explained. Throughout the volume,…

  8. Censorship and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oettinger, Lauren

    The First Amendment rights provided to journalists--freedom of speech and of the press--are fundamental beliefs held by Americans. What students learn in the government class, however, may not be what they learn as editors-in-chief of student newspapers. U.S. schools are being charged with the censorship of student publications at an…

  9. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  10. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  11. Apollo 16 Press Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 spacecraft is scheduled for launch on Apr. 16, 1972 from Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida by the Saturn V launch vehicle. Crewmen are mission commander John W. Young, command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II and lunar module pilot Charles M. Duke Jr. Objectives of the mission, to last up to 12 days, as outlined by NASA: to perform selenological inspection, survey and sampling of materials in a preselected region of Descartes using a lunar roving' vehicle; deploy and activate Apollo surface experiments; develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment; obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites; and toconduct inflight experiments and photographic tasks in lunar orbit. Following launch, the spacecraft will reach Earth Parking Orbit and remain in orbit for about two and one-half revolutions prior to Translunar Injection. Next, the Command and Service Module docks with the Lunar Module and the spacecraft "coasts" to the moon. In orbit around the moon, the Command and Service Module/Lunar Module combination will descend to within 50,000 feet of the lunar surface before undocking. The Lunar Module will continue to descend while the Command and Service Module returns to an orbit approximately 60 miles high. Stay time on the lunar surface is scheduled for approximately 73 hours. The ascent stage of the Lunar Module then lifts the astronauts back into lunar orbit where they will dock with the Command/Service Module. The Lunar Module is jettisoned and Transearth Injection follows. Just prior to reentry into the earth's atmosphere, the Service Module is jettisoned, and the astronauts in the Command Module splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. The target point for end-of-mission splashdown is at 05 degrees 0 minutes north latitude and 158 degrees 40 minutes west longitude or approximately 985 nautical miles south of Honolulu, Hawaii. Splashdown is scheduled for Apr. 28, 1972 at 10:30 a.m. Hawaiian Standard Time (2:30 p.m. CST

  12. Gain compression effect on the modulation dynamics of an optically injection-locked semiconductor laser using gain lever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraute, J.-M.; Schires, K.; LaRochelle, S.; Grillot, F.

    2016-03-01

    The modulation response of an optically-injected gain lever semiconductor laser is studied and calculations show that a gain-lever laser operating under medium to strong optical injection provides a unique and robust configuration for ultra large bandwidth enhancement. Modulation bandwidths above nine times the relaxation oscillation frequency of the free-running laser can be reached using injection-locking conditions that are reasonable for practical applications. The impact of the gain compression on the modulation dynamic is discussed for the first time. This work is of prime importance for the development of directly-modulated broadband optical sources for high-speed operation at 40 Gbps and beyond.

  13. Making the Sour Sweet? Upcoming Food-Pellet Reinforcement Produces Positive Induction When Rats Press a Lever for Unsweetened Lemon Juice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Nurnberger, Jeri T.; Austin, David P.; Wright, Carol L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has suggested that rats increase their response rate for a low-valued reinforcer when a high-valued reinforcer will soon be available (i.e., positive induction) because the value of the low-valued substance has increased. The present study tested if such a procedure could be used to increase rats' responding for a non-reinforcing food.…

  14. STS-114: Discovery Post MMT Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This press conference focuses on the outcome of the Mission Management Team (MMT) meeting. The launch and status of the Space Shuttle Discovery is discussed. George Diller from NASA Public Affairs introduces the panel which consists of: Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Deputy Manager and Mike Wetmore, Director of Space Shuttle Processing at Nasa Kennedy Space Center. The news media asks questions about the history of the low level sensors in the hydrogen tank, the cryogenic atmosphere around the sensors, troubleshooting, astronaut activities, possible rollback procedures.

  15. LEVER: software tools for segmentation, tracking and lineaging of proliferating cells.

    PubMed

    Winter, Mark; Mankowski, Walter; Wait, Eric; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R

    2016-11-15

    The analysis of time-lapse images showing cells dividing to produce clones of related cells is an important application in biological microscopy. Imaging at the temporal resolution required to establish accurate tracking for vertebrate stem or cancer cells often requires the use of transmitted light or phase-contrast microscopy. Processing these images requires automated segmentation, tracking and lineaging algorithms. There is also a need for any errors in the automated processing to be easily identified and quickly corrected. We have developed LEVER, an open source software tool that combines the automated image analysis for phase-contrast microscopy movies with an easy-to-use interface for validating the results and correcting any errors.

  16. Levers and linkages: mechanical trade-offs in a power-amplified system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip S L; Claverie, Thomas; Patek, S N

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical redundancy within a biomechanical system (e.g., many-to-one mapping) allows morphologically divergent organisms to maintain equivalent mechanical outputs. However, most organisms depend on the integration of more than one biomechanical system. Here, we test whether coupled mechanical systems follow a pattern of amplification (mechanical changes are congruent and evolve toward the same functional extreme) or independence (mechanisms evolve independently). We examined the correlated evolution and evolutionary pathways of the coupled four-bar linkage and lever systems in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) ultrafast raptorial appendages. We examined models of character evolution in the framework of two divergent groups of stomatopods-"smashers" (hammer-shaped appendages) and "spearers" (bladed appendages). Smashers tended to evolve toward force amplification, whereas spearers evolved toward displacement amplification. These findings show that coupled biomechanical systems can evolve synergistically, thereby resulting in functional amplification rather than mechanical redundancy.

  17. Design and performance of a sub-nanoradian resolution autocollimating optical lever

    SciTech Connect

    Cowsik, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Kasturirengan, S.; Kumar, A. Senthil; Wagoner, K.

    2007-03-15

    Precision goniometry using optics has the advantage that it does not impose much stress on the object of investigation and, as such, is adopted extensively in gravitational wave detection, in torsion balances investigating fundamental forces, in specialized studies of biological samples, and it has potential applications in condensed matter physics. In this article we present the considerations that go into designing optical levers and discuss the performance of the instrument we have constructed. We motivate the design by considering an idealized setup and the limitations to the angular resolution induced by statistical fluctuations of the photon count rate and diffraction at the apertures. The effects of digitization of the count rate and of the spatial location of the photons on the image plane motivating the actual design are discussed next. Based on these considerations, we have developed an autocollimating optical lever which has a very high resolution and dynamic range. An array of 110 slits, of 90 {mu}m width and a pitch of 182 {mu}m, is located in the focal plane of a field lens, of focal length 1000 mm, and is illuminated by a CCFL tube. This array is imaged back onto the focal plane after retroreflection from a mirror placed just beyond the lens. The image is recorded on a linear charge-coupled device array at the rate of 1000 images/s and is processed through a special algorithm to obtain the centroid. The instrument has a centroid stability of {approx}3x10{sup -10} rad Hz{sup -1/2} and a dynamic range of {approx}10{sup 7}.

  18. Crossbridge and filament compliance in muscle: implications for tension generation and lever arm swing.

    PubMed

    Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W

    2010-12-01

    The stiffness of myosin heads attached to actin is a crucial parameter in determining the kinetics and mechanics of the crossbridge cycle. It has been claimed that the stiffness of myosin heads in the anterior tibialis muscle of the common frog (Rana temporaria) is as high as 3.3 pN/nm, substantially higher than its value in rabbit muscle (~1.7 pN/nm). However, the crossbridge stiffness measurement has a large error since the contribution of crossbridges to half-sarcomere compliance is obtained by subtracting from the half-sarcomere compliance the contributions of the thick and thin filaments, each with a substantial error. Calculation of its value for isometric contraction also depends on the fraction of heads that are attached, for which there is no consensus. Surprisingly, the stiffness of the myosin head from the edible frog, Rana esculenta, determined in the same manner, is only 60% of that in Rana temporaria. In our view it is unlikely that the value of such a crucial parameter could differ so substantially between two frog species. Since the means of the myosin head stiffness in these two species are not significantly different, we suggest that the best estimate of the stiffness of the myosin heads for frog muscle is the average of these data, a value similar to that for rabbit muscle. This would allow both frog and rabbit muscles to operate the same low-cooperativity mechanism for the crossbridge cycle with only one or two tension-generating steps. We review evidence that much of the compliance of the myosin head is located in the pliant region where the lever arm emerges from the converter and propose that tension generation ("tensing") caused by the rotation and movement of the converter is a separate event from the passive swinging of the lever arm in its working stroke in which the strain energy stored in the pliant region is used to do work.

  19. Apollo 11 preflight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The three prime crewmen of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission participate in a pre-flight press conference in the bldg 1 auditorium on July 5, 1969. Left to right, are Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; and Michael Collins, command module pilot. The box-like enclosure surrounding the three astronauts was part of elaborate precautions in effect to reduce the possibility of exposing the crewmen to infectious disease in the preflight period.

  20. STS-97 Prelaunch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bruce Buckingham, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Ron Dittemore, NASA Shuttle Program Manager, Bob Cabana, International Space Station (ISS) Manager, International Operations, NASA, Michael Vachon, Canadian Space Agency, David King, NASA Director of Shuttle Processing, and Lieutenant Ken Ferland, 45th Weather Squadron, US Air Force. They each give a brief statement on the STS-97 Endeavour mission, launch, and weather status and answer questions from the press.

  1. Trying to Make a Lever Work at Ages 1 to 4: The Development of "Functions" (Logico-Mathematical Thinking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Tsuguhiko

    2007-01-01

    To find out if children could make functions before age 4, 73 children aged 1 to 4 were encouraged to imitate the use of a lever to make a beanbag fly up. Functions are mental relationships that preoperational children can make between 2 things at a time in a unidirectional way (Piaget, Grize, Szeminska, & Bang, 1968/1977). The child's…

  2. 77 FR 9890 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Children, Youth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...-Lever 3(d) Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Sustainable Community Projects AGENCY: National... opportunity to compete for section 3(d) funds. The Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Sustainable... The mission of the CYFAR Program is to marshal resources of Land- Grant and Cooperative...

  3. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  4. 7 CFR 58.421 - Press.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... openings readily cleanable. The pressure device shall be the continuous type. Press cloths shall be maintained in good repair and in a sanitary condition. Single service press cloths shall be used only once....

  5. 7 CFR 58.421 - Press.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... openings readily cleanable. The pressure device shall be the continuous type. Press cloths shall be maintained in good repair and in a sanitary condition. Single service press cloths shall be used only once....

  6. 7 CFR 58.421 - Press.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... openings readily cleanable. The pressure device shall be the continuous type. Press cloths shall be maintained in good repair and in a sanitary condition. Single service press cloths shall be used only once....

  7. 7 CFR 58.421 - Press.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press. 58.421 Section 58.421 Agriculture Regulations... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.421 Press. The cheese press should be constructed of stainless steel and all joints welded and all surfaces, seams...

  8. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  9. Yale University Press: Disseminating "Lux et Veritas"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, John B.

    2010-01-01

    America's university presses are situated within a network of over one hundred universities, learned societies, and scholarly associations. According to a pamphlet put out by the American Association of University Presses, these presses "make available to the broader public the full range and value of research generated by university faculty."…

  10. The Small Book Press: A Cultural Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bill

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of small literary book publishers notes works of small-press authors (Thomas Paine, Washington Irving, Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, Upton Sinclair, Anais Nin); today's outstanding presses (Creative Arts Book Company, Persea Books, Full Court Press, Reed and Cannon Company, Tuumba Books); and role of little magazines. Thirty-seven…

  11. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  12. Attention that Indicators Receive in the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Maria; Barzano, Giovanna; Brumana, Emanuela; Cremonesi, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    With the release of each edition of Education at a Glance, the Office for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) prepares a press briefing to be used for the international press release and which individual countries in preparing their national press releases can also use. Similarly, the European Union prepares a summary, not for use at the…

  13. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  14. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    PubMed

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever.

  15. The arthroscopical and radiological corelation of lever sign test for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Alper; Cankaya, Deniz; Yilmaz, Serdar; Özdemir, Güzelali; Arslantaş, Emrah; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the lever sign test and the widely used basic tests of the Lachman, anterior drawer and pivot shift tests, both under anaesthesia and without anaesthesia, according to the gold standard diagnostic arthroscopic results in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The study included 117 patients, diagnosed with ACL tear which was definitively determined during an arthroscopic surgical procedure applied. Before anaesthesia and while under anaesthesia, the Lachman, anterior drawer, pivot shift and lever sign tests were applied to all patients. Evaluation was made of MR images for each patient and documented. The patients comprised 96 males and 21 females, witha mean age of 25.8 ± 5.9 years (range, 17-45 years). Total tear was determined in 82 cases, anteromedial (AM) bundle in 14, posterolateral (PL) bundle in 13 and elongation in 8. Pre-anaesthesia positivity was found in lever sign at 94.2 %, Lachman at 80.5 %, pivot shift at 62.3 % and anterior drawer at 60.1 %. These rates were determined after anaesthesia as lever sign 98.4 %, Lachman 88.7 %, pivot shift 88.3 % and anterior drawer 84.2 %. The lever sign test can be easily applied clinically and it seems to have higher sensitivity than the Lachman test which is the basis of classic information, it should be included in routine clinical practice. In the light of the results of this study, further studies are required to review the accepted view that the Lachmann test is the most reliable test.

  16. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xun; Torregrossa, Mary M; Sanchez, Hayde; Nairn, Angus C; Taylor, Jane R

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac), as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT) impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side) rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  17. Language as the Lever for Elementary-Level English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nora, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Improving the education of a growing sector of the school population--English language learners (ELLs)--is a pressing unmet need in the nation's current public education system (Gándara 1994; Genesee et al. 2006; Hood 2003). Another urgent educational need is to prepare students to live and work in an increasingly globally connected world.…

  18. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana’s health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has

  19. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-propellant Laser Propulsion with a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bin; Li Long; Tang Zhiping; Cai Jian

    2010-05-06

    Thrust performance of Liquid-propellant laser propulsion (LLP) is seriously influenced by factors like laser parameters, choice of propellants and ablation materials. For the purpose of studying these influences, series of impulse measuring experiments for various propellants and ablation materials were conducted. The key device is a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever, which covers a C{sub m} measuring range from 10{sup 3} Ns/MJ to about 1.6x10{sup 4} Ns/MJ. A Nd:YAG laser was used as the laser source. From the result, it is found that laser energy density plays an important role on LLP efficiency, higher energy density leads to higher C{sub m} and I{sub sp}. Highest C{sub m} of about 10{sup 4} Ns/MJ with the I{sub sp} of 3.57s was achieved by focusing the laser to the average energy density of 8.83x10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. Besides of that, it is also found that when the energy density is certainly high, C{sub m} of LLP increases stably with the increase of the propellant thickness, which gives a potential way to further improve the thrust performance in LLP.

  20. Practical design of the optical lever intracavity topology of gravitational-wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Danilishin, S. L.; Khalili, F. Ya.

    2006-01-15

    The quantum nondemolition (QND) intracavity topologies of gravitational-wave detectors proposed several years ago allow us, in principle, to obtain sensitivity significantly better than the standard quantum limit using relatively small amount of optical pumping power. In this article we consider an improved more practical version of the optical lever intracavity scheme. It differs from the original version by the symmetry which allows to suppress influence of the input light amplitude fluctuation. In addition, it provides the means to inject optical pumping inside the scheme without increase of optical losses. We consider also sensitivity limitations imposed by the local meter which is the key element of the intracavity topologies. Two variants of the local meter are analyzed, which are based on the spectral variation measurement and on the discrete sampling variation measurement, correspondingly. The former one, while can not be considered as a candidate for a practical implementation, allows, in principle, to obtain the best sensitivity and thus can be considered as an ideal 'asymptotic case' for all other schemes. The DSVM-based local meter can be considered as a realistic scheme but its sensitivity, unfortunately, is by far not so good just due to a couple of peculiar numeric factors specific for this scheme. From our point of view search of new methods of mechanical QND measurements probably based on improved DSVM scheme or which combine the local meter with the pondermotive squeezing technique, is necessary.

  1. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  2. Structural correlations: Design levers for performance and durability of catalyst layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Dutta, Monica; Wessel, Silvia; Colbow, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the catalyst layer (CL) is of vital importance in the large-scale deployment of PEMFCs. It is necessary to determine parameters that represent properties of catalysts layer and other cathode components for optimization of fuel cell performance and durability. The structure, morphology and surface chemistry of the catalyst powder affects the ionomer and catalyst interaction, ionomer dispersion in the catalyst layer and, for this reason, its morphology and chemistry. These, in turn, affect the catalyst layer effective properties such as thickness, porosity, tortuosity, diffusivity, conductivity and others, directly influencing electrode performance and durability. In this study, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and SEM are used to quantify surface species and morphology of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) tested under different accelerated stress test (AST) conditions. Correlations between composition, structure and morphological properties of cathode components and the catalyst layer have been developed and linked to catalyst layer performance losses. The key relationships between the catalyst layer effective properties and performance and durability provide design and optimization levers for making MEAs for different operating regimes.

  3. Five Policy Levers To Meet The Value Challenge In Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara

    2015-09-01

    The burden of cancer on public finances is a serious concern for policy makers. More people are developing cancer, and as standards of care have risen, more are surviving and requiring longer-term care. Precision medicine promises better outcomes but demands commensurately higher payments for care. As both incidence and per case costs rise, we suggest that the task of expanding access to high-quality cancer care poses a "value challenge" that policies in many countries are inadequate to meet. Policy makers should respond with a new approach. We explore questions that policy makers will need to consider regarding objectives, barriers, and levers for policy development. We use transparency and accountability as cornerstones of a new approach to promote value-based decision making. Although barriers to advancing this agenda are formidable, we recommend that governments define common standards for value-based accounting; serve as information brokers for evidence development; pioneer value-based procurement of goods and services; engage in deliberative democracy in cancer care; and educate communities to facilitate knowledge sharing between communities of patients, their caretakers, and researchers.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-propellant Laser Propulsion with a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Long; Tang, Zhi-ping; Cai, Jian

    2010-05-01

    Thrust performance of Liquid-propellant laser propulsion (LLP) is seriously influenced by factors like laser parameters, choice of propellants and ablation materials. For the purpose of studying these influences, series of impulse measuring experiments for various propellants and ablation materials were conducted. The key device is a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever, which covers a Cm measuring range from 103Ns/MJ to about 1.6×104 Ns/MJ. A Nd:YAG laser was used as the laser source. From the result, it is found that laser energy density plays an important role on LLP efficiency, higher energy density leads to higher Cm and Isp. Highest Cm of about 104Ns/MJ with the Isp of 3.57s was achieved by focusing the laser to the average energy density of 8.83×108W/cm2. Besides of that, it is also found that when the energy density is certainly high, Cm of LLP increases stably with the increase of the propellant thickness, which gives a potential way to further improve the thrust performance in LLP.

  5. Electromyographic analysis of shoulder muscles during press-up variations and progressions.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee; Waterman, Rosemary; Smith, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Due to the versatility of the press-up it is a popular upper extremity strengthening and rehabilitation exercise. Press-up programmes are often progressed by increasing weight-bearing load and using unstable bases of support. Despite the popularity of the press-up research examining press-up variations is limited. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of common press-up exercises on serratus anterior, infraspinatus, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles overall EMG activity. Twenty-one healthy individuals participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, infraspinatus, serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi muscles. Participants were tested under 7 static press-up conditions that theoretically progressively increase weight-bearing load and proprioceptive challenge while surface electromyographic activity was recorded. There was a high correlation between increased weight-bearing load and increased EMG activity for all muscles in stable base conditions. The introduction of the unstable base conditions resulted in an activation decline in all muscles. Within the two-armed press-up the Swiss ball resulted in decreased activation in all muscles except pectoralis major. Serratus anterior demonstrated the greatest activation as a percentage of maximum isometric contraction across all exercises. The findings of this study indicate that by varying the weight-bearing load and base of support whilst in the press-up position results in significantly different demands on shoulder and scapula muscles.

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats.

    PubMed

    Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M; Calu, Donna J; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Khuc, Thi; Pickel, James; Lupica, Carl R; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-06-20

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express GFP in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained to lever-press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, lever-pressing was extinguished and reinstatement of food seeking and mPFC neuronal activation was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or pellet priming (1-4 noncontingent pellets). Estrous cycle effects on reinstatement were also assessed in wild-type rats. Yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement was associated with Fos and GFP induction in mPFC; both reinstatement and neuronal activation were minimally affected by ovarian hormones in both c-fos-GFP and wild-type rats. c-fos-GFP transgenic rats were then used to assess glutamatergic synaptic alterations within activated GFP-positive and nonactivated GFP-negative mPFC neurons following yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. This reinstatement was associated with reduced AMPA receptor/NMDA receptor current ratios and increased paired-pulse facilitation in activated GFP-positive but not GFP-negative neurons. While ovarian hormones do not appear to play a role in stress-induced relapse of food seeking in our rat model, this reinstatement was associated with unique synaptic alterations in strongly activated mPFC neurons. Our paper introduces the c-fos-GFP transgenic rat as a new tool to study unique synaptic changes in activated neurons during behavior.

  7. A 3-lever discrimination procedure reveals differences in the subjective effects of low and high doses of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Harper, David N; Langen, Anna-Lena; Schenk, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies have suggested that the subjective effects of low doses of (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are readily differentiated from those of d-amphetamine (AMPH) and that the discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, respectively. Previous studies, however, have primarily examined responses to doses that do not produce substantial increases in extracellular dopamine. The present study determined whether doses of MDMA that produce increases in synaptic dopamine would also produce subjective effects that were more like AMPH and were sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of D1-like receptors. A three-lever drug discrimination paradigm was used. Rats were trained to respond on different levers following saline, AMPH (0.5mg/kg, IP) or MDMA (1.5mg/kg, IP) injections. Generalization curves were generated for a range of different doses of both drugs and the effect of the D1-like antagonist, SCH23390 on the discriminative stimulus effects of different doses of MDMA was determined. Rats accurately discriminated MDMA, AMPH and saline. Low doses of MDMA produced almost exclusive responding on the MDMA lever but at doses of 3.0mg/kg MDMA or higher, responding shifted to the AMPH lever. The AMPH response produced by higher doses of MDMA was attenuated by pretreatment with SCH23390. The data suggest that low doses and higher doses of MDMA produce distinct discriminative stimuli. The shift to AMPH-like responding following administration of higher doses of MDMA, and the decrease in this response following administration of SCH23390 suggests a dopaminergic component to the subjective experience of MDMA at higher doses.

  8. CSA/ASC Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Nicole Gignac, Senior Communications Advisor Canadian Space Agency (CSA), introduces the panel for this CSA/ASC press briefing. The panel consist of: Dr. Steve Maclean, CSA astronaut; Dr. Paul Cooper, Deputy General Manager, MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA); and Dr. Iain Christie, Director of Research and Development from NEPTEC. Maclean will fly on the STS-115 Mission in February of 2006. He presents pictures and talks about the crewmembers of the Space Shuttle Columbia and Space Shuttle Discovery. Maclean also discusses entry risks as it pertains to the leading edge wing of Discovery. Paul Cooper explains and shows a video presentation of Canadarm robotics. The briefing ends with Dr Christie explaining the sensitive three dimensional inspections are performed in space that looks for cracks in the leading edge wing of the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  9. Cold press sintering of simulated lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar basalt (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.

  10. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  11. [The press and family planning].

    PubMed

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R

    1987-01-01

    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.

  12. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied – in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry – neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  13. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Sader, John E; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied - in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry - neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  14. A within-subject between-apparatus comparison of impulsive choice: T-maze and two-lever chamber.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Paul J; Kuhn, Robin; Reilly, Mark P

    2015-07-01

    Whereas intertemporal choice procedures are a common method for examining impulsive choice in nonhuman subjects, the apparatus used to implement this procedure varies across studies. The purpose of the present study was to compare impulsive choice between a two-lever chamber and a T-maze. In Experiment 1, rats chose between a smaller, immediate reinforcer and a larger, delayed reinforcer, first in a two-lever chamber and then in a T-maze. Delay to the larger reinforcer changed in an ascending and descending order (0-32 s) across sessions. Experiment 2 examined the same between-apparatus comparison but under steady-state conditions with the delay fixed at 32 s. In Experiment 1, choice for the larger, delayed reinforcer was generally higher in the T-maze than in the two-lever chamber. Similarly in Experiment 2, steady-state choice for the larger, delayed reinforcer was higher in the T-maze. Choice for the 32-s delayed reinforcer was also greater in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that extended exposure to the delay is required for the T-maze to yield reliable impulsive choice data. While the reasons for the between-apparatus discrepancies are at present unknown, results from both experiments clearly demonstrate that the apparatus matters when assessing overall level and reliability of impulsive choice data.

  15. Ca(2+)-Induced Rigidity Change of the Myosin VIIa IQ Motif-Single α Helix Lever Arm Extension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchao; Chen, Yiyun; Deng, Yisong; Unarta, Ilona Christy; Lu, Qing; Huang, Xuhui; Zhang, Mingjie

    2017-04-04

    Several unconventional myosins contain a highly charged single α helix (SAH) immediately following the calmodulin (CaM) binding IQ motifs, functioning to extend lever arms of these myosins. How such SAH is connected to the IQ motifs and whether the conformation of the IQ motifs-SAH segments are regulated by Ca(2+) fluctuations are not known. Here, we demonstrate by solving its crystal structure that the predicted SAH of myosin VIIa (Myo7a) forms a stable SAH. The structure of Myo7a IQ5-SAH segment in complex with apo-CaM reveals that the SAH sequence can extend the length of the Myo7a lever arm. Although Ca(2+)-CaM remains bound to IQ5-SAH, the Ca(2+)-induced CaM binding mode change softens the conformation of the IQ5-SAH junction, revealing a Ca(2+)-induced lever arm flexibility change for Myo7a. We further demonstrate that the last IQ motif of several other myosins also binds to both apo- and Ca(2+)-CaM, suggesting a common Ca(2+)-induced conformational regulation mechanism.

  16. NASA/MSFC Large Stretch Press Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choate, M. W.; Nealson, W. P.; Jay, G. C.; Buss, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: A. assess and document the advantages/disadvantages of a government agency investment in a large stretch form press on the order of 5000 tons capacity (per jaw); B. develop a procurement specification for the press; and C. provide trade study data that will permit an optimum site location. Tasks were separated into four major elements: cost study, user survey, site selection, and press design/procurement specification.

  17. Vulnerability factors in anxiety determined through differences in active-avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kevin D; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2010-08-16

    The risk for developing anxiety disorders is greater in females and those individuals exhibiting a behaviorally inhibited temperament. Growth of behavioral avoidance in people is a significant predictor of symptom severity in anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Using an animal model, our lab is examining how the process of learning avoidant behavior may lead certain individuals to develop anxiety. Here we examined whether the known vulnerabilities of female sex and behaviorally inhibited temperament have individual or additive effects upon the acquisition of an active-avoidance response. A discrete trial lever-press escape-avoidance protocol was used to examine the acquisition of behavioral avoidance in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and behaviorally inhibited inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Overall, WKY rats of both sexes were indistinguishable in their behavior during the acquisition of an active-avoidance response, exhibiting quicker acquisition of reinforced responses both between and within session compared to SD rats. Further WKY rats emitted more non-reinforced responses than SD rats. Sex differences were evident in SD rats in both the acquisition of the reinforced response and the emission of non-reinforced responses, with SD females acquiring the response quicker and emitting more non-reinforced responses following lever presses that led to an escape from shock. As vulnerability factors, behavioral inhibition and female sex were each associated with more prevalent reinforced and non-reinforced avoidant behavior, but an additive effect of these 2 factors was not observed. These data illustrate the importance of genetics (both strain and sex) in the assessment and modeling of anxiety vulnerability through the acquisition of active-avoidance responses and the persistence of emitting those responses in periods of non-reinforcement.

  18. S-IV-B Aft Swing Arm Cam Lever Stop Strain Guage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swing arm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until liftoff. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center. This photo depicts a close up of the S-IV-B aft swing arm cam lever stop strain guage.

  19. The N terminus of monoamine transporters is a lever required for the action of amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Sucic, Sonja; Dallinger, Stefan; Zdrazil, Barbara; Weissensteiner, René; Jørgensen, Trine N; Holy, Marion; Kudlacek, Oliver; Seidel, Stefan; Cha, Joo Hwan; Gether, Ulrik; Newman, Amy H; Ecker, Gerhard F; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H

    2010-04-02

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates neurotransmission by removing serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In addition, it is the site of action of antidepressants (which block the transporter) and of amphetamines (which induce substrate efflux). We explored the functional importance of the N terminus in mediating the action of amphetamines by focusing initially on the highly conserved threonine residue at position 81, a candidate site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild type SERT, compared with its mutations SERT(T81A) and SERT(T81D), suggested structural changes in the inner vestibule indicative of an opening of the inner vestibule. Predictions from this model (e.g. the preferential accumulation of SERT(T81A) in the inward conformation, its reduced turnover number, and a larger distance between its N and C termini) were verified. Most importantly, SERT(T81A) (and the homologous mutations in noradrenaline and dopamine) failed to support amphetamine-induced efflux, and this was not remedied by aspartate at this position. Amphetamine-induced currents through SERT(T81A) were comparable with those through the wild type transporter. Both abundant Na(+) entry and accumulation of SERT(T81A) in the inward facing conformation ought to favor amphetamine-induced efflux. Thus, we surmised that the N terminus must play a direct role in driving the transporter into a state that supports amphetamine-induced efflux. This hypothesis was verified by truncating the first 64 amino acids and by tethering the N terminus to an additional transmembrane helix. Either modification abolished amphetamine-induced efflux. We therefore conclude that the N terminus of monoamine transporters acts as a lever that sustains reverse transport.

  20. Levers for Language Growth: Characteristics and Predictors of Language Trajectories between 4 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Cristina; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence is required as to when and where to focus resources to achieve the greatest gains for children’s language development. Key to these decisions is the understanding of individual differences in children’s language trajectories and the predictors of those differences. To determine optimal timing we must understand if and when children’s relative language abilities become fixed. To determine where to focus effort we must identify mutable factors, that is those with the potential to be changed through interventions, which are associated with significant differences in children’s language scores and rate of progress. Methods Uniquely this study examined individual differences in language growth trajectories in a population sample of children between 4 and 7 years using the multilevel model for change. The influence of predictors, grouped with respect to their mutability and their proximity to the child (least-mutable, mutable-distal, mutable-proximal), were estimated. Results A significant degree of variability in rate of progress between 4 and 7 years was evident, much of which was systematically associated with mutable-proximal factors, that is, those factors with evidence that they are modifiable through interventions with the child or family, such as shared book reading, TV viewing and number of books in the home. Mutable-distal factors, such as family income, family literacy and neighbourhood disadvantage, hypothesised to be modifiable through social policy, were important predictors of language abilities at 4 years. Conclusions Potential levers for language interventions lie in the child’s home learning environment from birth to age 4. However, the role of a family’s material and cultural capital must not be ignored, nor should the potential for growth into the school years. Early Years services should acknowledge the effects of multiple, cascading and cumulative risks and seek to promote child language development through the

  1. Drill Press Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a drill press. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as drill press operators. Contents include a sample…

  2. Linguistic Cohabitation: Frenglish in the Mauritius Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of Frenglish on the island of Mauritius. An examination of the local press over a nine-month period turned up ten categories of Frenglish. Frenglish in the Mauritian press highlights the uniqueness of local society by linguistically contextualizing broad ranges of social, economic, political, legal, and administrative life.…

  3. Teenagers as Victims in the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Gunvor; Lundstrom, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    Research into press reporting on young people has tended to concentrate on young people as offenders. In contrast, this article focuses on press coverage of teenagers as victims. Reports in two Swedish newspapers (a morning broadsheet and an evening tabloid) were studied over a period of four months and subjected to a qualitative analysis of…

  4. Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

  5. Freedom of the Press vs. Public Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno C., Jr.

    This book surveys the implications of freedom of the press for a constitutionally rooted public right of access to electronic and print media. Part one provides general perspectives on access to the media, including discussions of access in relation to the Supreme Court, to First Amendment history and theory, to current perceptions of the press,…

  6. In the Stocks: Perilous Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Linda P.; Loving, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Reviews some of the legal responsibilities of public relations practitioners in the preparation of press releases. Discusses legal criteria for judging the fraudulence of press releases and discusses the timeframe for fraudulent action. Concludes with lessons that practitioners need to understand. (SR)

  7. STS-99 Prelaunch Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This radar system produced unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. The mission was launched at 12:31 on February 11, 2000 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour, and led by Commander Kevin Kregel. The crew was Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Janet L. Kavandi, Janice E. Voss, Mamoru Mohri from the National Space Development Agency (Japanese Space Agency), and Gerhard P. J. Thiele from DARA (German Space Agency). This videotape shows a press briefing about a mechanical problem that the shuttle was having. There was discussion about possibly scrubbing the launch due to the problem with the Enhanced Master Events Controller. A problem with a fuel pump part had also become evident and there was discussion about the impact that this could have on the flight.

  8. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses. Progress report, No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  9. The emphasis given to evolution in state science standards: A lever for change in evolution education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, Gerald; Bilica, Kimberly

    2002-07-01

    This study analyzed the science frameworks of 49 states and the District of Colombia to determine the emphasis given to evolution in these documents at the middle and secondary levels. These concepts were species evolve over time, speciation, diversity of life, descent with modification from common ancestry, evidence of evolution, natural selection, pace and direction of evolution, and human evolution. Collectively, the 50 science frameworks emphasized evolution in a manner that suggests that if the public's support for standards-based curricula is a reality, the study of evolution will be emphasized in an unprecedented manner in the nation's schools in the near future. However, all concepts were not emphasized equally in these documents. For example, human evolution was included in only seven documents. The word evolution is absent from some standards. Despite these negatives, recent actions to improve existing standards or to adopt new standards that emphasize evolution have occurred. The metaphor lever of change is often used in the context of school reform. This metaphor suggests a simple system where one change can result in a desired outcome. However, in classrooms where curriculum decisions evolve constantly, multiple factors interact and reinforce one another in response to both internal and external contingencies that emerge. Educational change can not be reduced to a simple linear cause/effect situation. The change process involved is nonlinear where what goes in is not proportional to what comes out because of feedback loops and other factors that complicate results. This nonlinearity is reflected in the varied responses of teachers to specific contingencies. Yet, systems can be changed and nudged towards a structure where desired outcomes will emerge. Judicial rulings indicating that the teaching of evolution cannot be prohibited or equal time for creationism mandated, improved coverage of evolution in secondary school biology textbooks, the negative

  10. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.217 Mechanical power presses. (a... this section. (5) Excluded machines. Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers, hot bending and hot metal presses, forging presses and hammers, riveting machines and similar types...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.217 Mechanical power presses. (a... this section. (5) Excluded machines. Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers, hot bending and hot metal presses, forging presses and hammers, riveting machines and similar types...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.217 Mechanical power presses. (a... this section. (5) Excluded machines. Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers, hot bending and hot metal presses, forging presses and hammers, riveting machines and similar types...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.217 Mechanical power presses. (a... this section. (5) Excluded machines. Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers, hot bending and hot metal presses, forging presses and hammers, riveting machines and similar types...

  14. A seesaw-lever force-balancing suspension design for space and terrestrial gravity-gradient sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Pike, W. T.; Dou, Guangbin

    2016-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a seesaw-lever force-balancing suspension for a silicon gravity-gradient sensor, a gravity gradiometer, that is capable of operation over a range of gravity from 0 to 1 g. This allows for both air and space deployment after ground validation. An overall rationale for designing a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gravity gradiometer is developed, indicating that a gravity gradiometer based on a torsion-balance, rather than a differential-accelerometer, provides the best approach. The fundamental micromachined element, a seesaw-lever force-balancing suspension, is designed with a low fundamental frequency for in-plane rotation to response gravity gradient but with good rejection of all cross-axis modes. During operation under 1 g, a gravitational force is axially loaded on two straight-beams that perform as a stiff fulcrum for the mass-connection lever without affecting sensitive in-plane rotational sensing. The dynamics of this suspension are analysed by both closed-form and finite element analysis, with good agreement between the two. The suspension has been fabricated using through-wafer deep reactive-ion etching and the dynamics verified both in air and vacuum. The sensitivity of a gravity gradiometer built around this suspension will be dominated by thermal noise, contributing in this case a noise floor of around 10 E /√{Hz } (1 E = 10-9/s2) in vacuum. Compared with previous conventional gravity gradiometers, this suspension allows a gradiometer of performance within an order of magnitude but greatly reduced volume and weight. Compared with previous MEMS gravity gradiometers, our design has the advantage of functionality under Earth gravity.

  15. STS-8 onboard crew press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Six news reporters listen to a response from Astronaut Guion S. Bluford (note TV monitor) in a rare space-to-Earth press conference involving all the STS-8 crew. The participants are, left to right, Gary Schwitzer, Cable News Network; Morton Dean, CBS; Roy Neal, NBC; Lynn Sherr, ABC; Howard Benedict, Associated Press; Al Rossiter, United Press International. The astronauts on the monitor are Richard H. Truly, cneter left, crew commander; Daniel C. Brandenstein, lower left, pilot; and Dr. William E. Thornton, upper left, Guion S. Bluford, upper right; and Dale E. Gardner, all mission specialists.

  16. Study of Lever-Arm Effect Using Embedded Photogrammetry and On-Board GPS Receiver on Uav for Metrological Mapping Purpose and Proposal of a Free Ground Measurements Calibration Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.; Rabot, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) on-board photogrammetry knows a significant growth due to the democratization of using drones in the civilian sector. Also, due to changes in regulations laws governing the rules of inclusion of a UAV in the airspace which become suitable for the development of professional activities. Fields of application of photogrammetry are diverse, for instance: architecture, geology, archaeology, mapping, industrial metrology, etc. Our research concerns the latter area. Vinci-Construction- Terrassement is a private company specialized in public earthworks that uses UAVs for metrology applications. This article deals with maximum accuracy one can achieve with a coupled camera and GPS receiver system for direct-georeferencing of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) without relying on Ground Control Points (GCPs) measurements. This article focuses specially on the lever-arm calibration part. This proposed calibration method is based on two steps: a first step involves the proper calibration for each sensor, i.e. to determine the position of the optical center of the camera and the GPS antenna phase center in a local coordinate system relative to the sensor. A second step concerns a 3d modeling of the UAV with embedded sensors through a photogrammetric acquisition. Processing this acquisition allows to determine the value of the lever-arm offset without using GCPs.

  17. Apollo 13 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post flight press conference. They describe their mission and answer questions from the audience.

  18. Thermal Conductances of Pressed Copper Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes investigation of thermal conductivities of smooth copper contacts pressed together at liquid-helium temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for accurate thermal models for infrared detectors and other cryogenic instruments.

  19. Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Bacon, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Most silicic and some mafic magmas expand via second boiling if they crystallize at depths of about 10 km or less. The buildup of gas pressure due to second boiling can be relieved by expulsion of melt out of the region of crystallization, and this process of gas-driven filter pressing assists the crystallization differentiation of magmas. For gas-driven filter pressing to be effective, the region of crystallization must inflate slowly relative to buildup of pressure and expulsion of melt These conditions are satisfied in undercooled magmatic inclusions and in thin sheets of primitive magma underplating cooler magma reservoirs. Gas-driven filter pressing thereby adds fractionated melt to magma bodies. Gas-driven filter pressing is probably the dominant process by which highly evolved melts segregate from crystal mush to form aplitic dikes in granitic plutons; this process could also account for the production of voluminous, crystal-poor rhyolites.

  20. STS-105 Pre-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    George Diller, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Bill Gerstenmaier, Deputy Manager of the ISS Program, Dave King, NASA Director of Shuttle Processing, and Judy Konecky, Staff Meteorologist, in this STS-105 press conference. An overview is given of the success of the Expedition 2 crew, the expectations of the Expedition 3 crew, the launch countdown status, and the weather forecast for the Shuttle launch. They then answer questions from the press.

  1. STS-121: Discovery Post Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 17, 2006 Dean Acosta (NASA Press Secretary), Mike Griffin (Administrator), Bill Gerstenmaier (Associate Administrator of Space Operations), and Mike Leinbach (NASA Launch Director) expressed how proud they were to be a part of the STS-121/ Discovery team. They also explained how flawlessly the mission performed and how it was the best mission ever flown. They proceeded to answer numerous questions from the press.

  2. Design of a MEMS-based motion stage based on a lever mechanism for generating large displacements and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Shi, Hongliang; Dagalakis, Nicholas G.; Gupta, Satyandra K.

    2016-09-01

    Conventional miniaturized motion stages have a volume of 50-60 cm3 and a range of motion around 100 μm. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based motion stages have been good alternatives in some applications for small footprint, micron-level accuracy, and a lower cost. However, existing MEMS-based motion stages are able to provide a force of μN level, small displacements (less than tens of microns), and need additional features for practical applications like a probe or a stage. In this paper, a single degree of freedom motion stage is designed and analyzed for a larger displacement, a larger output force, a smaller out-of-plane deformation, and a bigger moving stage for further applications. For these purposes, the presented motion stage is designed with a thermal actuator, folded springs, and a lever, and it is experimentally characterized. Furthermore, three different types of flexure joints are investigated to characterize their capabilities and suitability to serve as the revolute joint of the lever: a beam, a cartwheel, and a butterfly flexure. The presented motion stage has a moving stage of 15 mm  ×  15 mm and shows a maximum displacement over 80 μm, and out-of-plane deformation under a weight of 120 μN less than 2 μm. The force generated by the actuator is estimated to be 68.6 mN.

  3. Low-resistivity bulk silicon prepared by hot-pressing boron- and phosphorus-hyperdoped silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Qingbin; Ni, Zhenyi; Zhu, Tiejun; Yang, Deren; Pi, Xiaodong; Koura, Setsuko

    2014-12-15

    Technologically important low-resistivity bulk Si has been usually produced by the traditional Czochralski growth method. We now explore a novel method to obtain low-resistivity bulk Si by hot-pressing B- and P-hyperdoped Si nanocrystals (NCs). In this work bulk Si with the resistivity as low as ∼ 0.8 (40) mΩ•cm has been produced by hot pressing P (B)-hyperdoped Si NCs. The dopant type is found to make a difference for the sintering of Si NCs during the hot pressing. Bulk Si hot-pressed from P-hyperdoped Si NCs is more compact than that hot-pressed from B-hyperdoped Si NCs when the hot-pressing temperature is the same. This leads to the fact that P is more effectively activated to produce free carriers than B in the hot-pressed bulk Si. Compared with the dopant concentration, the hot-pressing temperature more significantly affects the structural and electrical properties of hot-pressed bulk Si. With the increase of the hot-pressing temperature the density of hot-pressed bulk Si increases. The highest carrier concentration (lowest resistivity) of bulk Si hot-pressed from B- or P-hyperdoped Si NCs is obtained at the highest hot-pressing temperature of 1050 °C. The mobility of carriers in the hot-pressed bulk Si is low (≤  ∼ 30 cm{sup -2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) mainly due to the scattering of carriers induced by structural defects such as pores.

  4. The progressive ratio schedule as a model for studying the psychomotor stimulant activity of drugs in the rat.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, M; Chermat, R; Soubrie, P; Simon, P

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were trained to press a lever with food reinforcement according to a continuously reinforced schedule (CRF). Afterwards, rats were subjected to three experimental sessions (30 min each) during which responding was rewarded according to a progressive ratio schedule (following an initial 2-min CRF period, the number of presses necessary for the pellet delivery was doubled every second minute). Responding during the first half of each session, i.e., pressing for food, was maintained at a significant level, whereas it was almost suppressed during the second part of the session. As compared to controls (200 +/- 20 presses/30 min) animals given amfonelic acid (0.5, 1 mg/kg IP), methylphenidate (4, 8 mg/kg IP), caffeine (16 mg/kg IP), cocaine (4 mg/kg IP), oxolinic acid (32 mg/kg IP), nomifensine (4 mg/kg IP), DR 250 (2, 4 mg/kg IP) and d-amphetamine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg IP) showed an increased rate of responding ranging from 400 to 950 presses/30 min. In contrast, apomorphine, MK 486 + L-dopa, trihexyphenidyl, imipramine, salbutamol and diazepam did not increase responding. These results suggested that this test is highly sensitive for psychomotor stimulants and perhaps for their ability to enhance the reinforcing value of the reward or stimuli associated with the reward. Such activity seemed related to a catecholaminergic substrate since the increase of responding induced by amphetamine was blocked by pimozide, d,l-propranolol and prazosin.

  5. Altered activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance task

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xilu; Beck, Kevin D.; Myers, Catherine E.; Servatius, Richard J.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Altered medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala function is associated with anxiety-related disorders. While the mPFC-amygdala pathway has a clear role in fear conditioning, these structures are also involved in active avoidance. Given that avoidance perseveration represents a core symptom of anxiety disorders, the neural substrate of avoidance, especially its extinction, requires better understanding. The present study was designed to investigate the activity, particularly, inhibitory neuronal activity in mPFC and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of lever-press avoidance in rats. Neural activity was examined in the mPFC, intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) lateral (LA), basal (BA) and central (CeA) amygdala, at various time points during acquisition and extinction, using induction of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos. Neural activity was greater in the mPFC, LA, BA, and ITC during the extinction phase as compared to the acquisition phase. In contrast, the CeA was the only region that was more activated during acquisition than during extinction. Our results indicate inhibitory neurons are more activated during late phase of acquisition and extinction in the mPFC and LA, suggesting the dynamic involvement of inhibitory circuits in the development and extinction of avoidance response. Together, these data start to identify the key brain regions important in active avoidance behavior, areas that could be associated with avoidance perseveration in anxiety disorders. PMID:26441578

  6. Lateral/basolateral amygdala serotonin type-2 receptors modulate operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution via inhibition of principal neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.; Christian, Daniel T.; Fetzer, Jonathan A.; Chappell, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) forms an integral part of the neural circuitry controlling innate anxiety and learned fear. More recently, BLA dependent modulation of self-administration behaviors suggests a much broader role in the regulation of reward evaluation. To test this, we employed a self-administration paradigm that procedurally segregates “seeking” (exemplified as lever-press behaviors) from consumption (drinking) directed at a sweetened ethanol solution. Microinjection of the nonselective serotonin type-2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-m5HT) into the BLA reduced lever pressing behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion. This was associated with a significant reduction in the number of response-bouts expressed during non-reinforced sessions without altering the size of a bout or the rate of responding. Conversely, intra-BLA α-m5HT only modestly effected consumption-related behaviors; the highest dose reduced the total time spent consuming a sweetened ethanol solution but did not inhibit the total number of licks, number of lick bouts, or amount of solution consumed during a session. In vitro neurophysiological characterization of BLA synaptic responses showed that α-m5HT significantly reduced extracellular field potentials. This was blocked by the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin suggesting that 5-HT2-like receptors mediate the behavioral effect of α-m5HT. During whole-cell patch current-clamp recordings, we subsequently found that α-m5HT increased action potential threshold and hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, our findings show that the activation of BLA 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits behaviors related to reward-seeking by suppressing BLA principal neuron activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BLA modulates reward-related behaviors and provides specific insight into BLA contributions during operant self-administration of a sweetened ethanol solution

  7. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  8. Speaking of a Free Press: 200 Years of Notable Quotations about Press Freedoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Intended to summarize the ideals underlying the struggle for freedom of the press and to reinforce the basic Constitutional principles upon which the United States functions, this collection of quotations reflects the beliefs of prominent people throughout history who have championed press freedom, as well as the ideas of some who have opposed it.…

  9. AUPress: A Comparison of an Open Access University Press with Traditional Presses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparison of AUPress with three other traditional (non-open access) Canadian university presses. The analysis is based on the rankings that are correlated with book sales on Amazon.com and Amazon.ca. Statistical methods include the sampling of the sales ranking of randomly selected books from each press. The results of one-way…

  10. Graphic Arts: Book Three. The Press and Related Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farajollahi, Karim; And Others

    The third of a three-volume set of instructional materials for a graphic arts course, this manual consists of nine instructional units dealing with presses and related processes. Covered in the units are basic press fundamentals, offset press systems, offset press operating procedures, offset inks and dampening chemistry, preventive maintenance…

  11. Textbook Sales Drop, and University Presses Search for Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that textbook sales are falling at many university presses, a trend that has accelerated in the past couple of months. That's the word from press directors anxious about the decline but unsure what's causing it or how to stop it. Not every press has been affected. Two of the biggest players, Oxford University Press and…

  12. Velocity- and power-load relationships of the bench pull vs. bench press exercises.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, L; González-Badillo, J J; Pérez, C E; Pallarés, J G

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the velocity- and power-load relationships of the antagonistic upper-body exercises of prone bench pull (PBP) and bench press (BP). 75 resistance-trained athletes performed a progressive loading test in each exercise up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in random order. Velocity and power output across the 30-100% 1RM were significantly higher for PBP, whereas 1RM strength was greater for BP. A very close relationship was observed between relative load and mean propulsive velocity for both BP (R2=0.97) and PBP (R2=0.94) which enables us to estimate %1RM from velocity using the obtained prediction equations. Important differences in the load that maximizes power output (Pmax) and the power profiles of both exercises were found according to the outcome variable used: mean (MP), peak (PP) or mean propulsive power (MPP). When MP was considered, the Pmax load was higher (56% BP, 70% PBP) than when PP (37% BP, 41% PBP) or MPP (37% BP, 46% PBP) were used. For each variable there was a broad range of loads at which power output was not significantly different. The differing velocity- and power-load relationships between PBP and BP seem attributable to the distinct muscle architecture and moment arm levers involved in these exercises.

  13. Experiment study on the cutting property of hot press Zinc Sulfide by single point diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihao; Tong, Yi; Lian, Weiyan; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Hao

    2014-08-01

    Microscopic morphology and XRD spectra of Hot Press(HP) ZnS powders and fractrues were tested. Preliminary analysis of the turning characters of HP ZnS was got by associating with the characters of HP ZnS and the processing mechanism of hard and brittle materials. Orthogonal experiment of 3 factors and 3 levers was taken by setting roughness Ra value index of the turning surface, and more analyses of the ultra-precision turning characters of HP ZnS were got by associating with the 3D microscopic morphology of CVD ZnSe ultra-precision turning surface and HP ZnS polishing surface. How to get the lower Ra value was discussed at last. The research shows: the primary removal mechanism of HP ZnS is powder removal; HP ZnS can get good ultra-precision turning surface which Ra value is lower than 10nm; to get the Ra value of the turning surface lower than 4nm, speed of main spindle, blunt edge radius, and the corner radius must be optimized because of the polycrystalline structure of the HP ZnS.

  14. Effect of an Unstable Load on Primary and Stabilizing Muscles During the Bench Press.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Ostrowski, SJ, Carlson, LA, and Lawrence, MA. Effect of an unstable load on primary and stabilizing muscles during the bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 430-434, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are performed to increase activity of stabilizing muscles. The premise is that this increase in activity will yield greater strength gains than traditional resistance exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unstable load increases muscle activity of stabilizing muscles during a bench press as compared with a standard bench press with a typical load. Fifteen resistance-trained males (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.8 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, weight lifting experience 9.9 ± 3.4 years, and bench press 1 repetition maximum [1RM] 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (75% 1RM) and unstable (60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). Muscle activity was compared using a multivariate analysis of variance to determine significant (p ≤ 0.05) phase and condition differences. The right and left biceps and the left middle deltoid were significantly more active in the unstable condition. Some of the stabilizing muscles were found to be significantly more active in the unstable condition with 15% less weight. Therefore, bench pressing with an unstable load appears promising in activating stabilizing musculature compared with pressing a typical barbell.

  15. STS-121: Discovery Post Launch Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The briefing begins with Dean Acousta (NASA Press Secretary) introducing Michael Griffin (NASA Administrator), Bill Gerstenmaier (Associate Administrator for Space Operations) Wayne Hale (Space Shuttle Program Manager), John Shannon (Chairman, Mission Management Team, JSC), and Mike Leinbach (NASA Launch Director). The teams effort and dedication paid off in the form of a perfect launch and the weather cooperated. The Mission Management Team no problems during inspection. Debris assessment at 2 min. 47 sec. and 4 min. 50 sec. will be discussed when that information becomes available.The floor was then open for questions from the press.

  16. Effects of Israeli Press Restrictions on Coverage of the Palestinian Uprising and on U.S. Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jeffrey L.

    Comparing United States television news coverage of the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories before and after press restrictions were introduced in March 1988, a study examined whether Israel's press clampdown (restricting particularly the activities of camera crews, and apparently begun in response to negative foreign opinion…

  17. From Rolling Stones to Cornerstones: Anchoring Land-Grant Education in the Counties through the Smith-Lever Act of 1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Emmett P.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the development of extension education from 1887 to the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. Focuses on the roles of U.S. Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Plant Industry and the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations in fostering federal legislation that established the Cooperative Extension System. (SV)

  18. A novel easy-driving and easy-signal-processing electrostatic field sensor based on a piezoresistance and polyethylene terephthalate lever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Minyu; Zhao, Yulong; Jiao, Binbin; Zhai, Xiaoshe; Geng, Yingsan

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrostatic field sensor with compact structure and a simple signal processing circuit is proposed in this paper. The sensor is based on a piezoresistive force meter and a lathy polyethylene terephthalate (PET) lever for electrostatic force generation and transformation. The force meter with a rectangular membrane supported by four beams was fabricated and one end of the PET lever was attached to the center of the membrane surface. The other end of the lever was free for electrostatic force generation. Only a low voltage DC source was required for the whole sensor, rather than sophisticated driving circuits. The lever magnified the electrostatic force effecting upon the force meter, and thus the output of the sensor was large enough for a simple processing circuit to be sufficient, rather than requiring complicated instruments. Characteristics of the sensor formation make it appropriate to adopt this sensor in various applications, in particular in high voltage power systems monitoring and meteorology measurements. The experiment results showed agreement with simulation results of the sensor. Sensitivity of the prototype of this sensor was 0.06  √mV (kV · m-1)-1 which can be greatly promoted by design optimization and fabrication improvement.

  19. The Moral Universes of Libertarian Press Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuliger, Gregory T.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Kantian logic to analyze the statement of Libertarian press theory "Truth beats falsehood in a free marketplace of ideas" as a definition, an observation, and a universal truth. Notes three corresponding moral universes, with differing ethical obligations. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of each. Cautions media ethics analysts…

  20. STS-9 Spacelab 1 Press Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Press information on the STS-9/SPACELAB 1 mission is provided. Launch preparations, launch window, flight objectives, experiments, life sciences baseline data collection, SPACELAB 1 payload operations and control crew and specialists, and tracking and data management are among the topics explained.

  1. An Introduction to Bibliographical Press Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    This guide to the literature of bibliographical press work is comprised of brief introductory notes on the field and this bibliography, followed by citations listed in seven categories: (1) book production, (2) handmade paper, (3) printer's ink, (4) type design, (5) book design, (6) hand printing, and (7) hand bookbinding. Introductory as well as…

  2. The Press, Privacy, and Community Mores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Theodore L.

    Because of judicial indifference and legislative inaction, the conflict between the right of privacy and the freedom of the press is no closer to a resolution than it was a century ago. William Prosser's reduction of the common law of privacy into four separate torts has not solved the problem. The concept of "newsworthiness" has not been helpful…

  3. The Measurement of Classroom Environmental Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, William J.; Stern, George G.

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary analysis of a new instrument, the Classroom Environment Index (CEI), designed to measure the psychological environment (press) of the classroom. The structure was essentially the same as other Syracuse indexes, containing 30 scales of 10 items each. Three forms of the instrument were…

  4. STS-106 Post Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bruce Buckingham, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Bill Gerstenmaier, Shuttle Program Integration Manager, and Mike Leimbach, Kennedy Space Center Launch Director, who give an overview of the successful countdown and launch of STS-106 Atlantis. They then answer questions from the press.

  5. STS-105 Post-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Malone, NASA Public Affairs, introduces Jim Halsell, Shuttle Program Launch Integration Manager, and Mike Leinbach, Shuttle Launch Director, who give an overview of the successful launch of the STS-105 Discovery Orbiter. The men then answer questions from the press.

  6. Research Review: The Specialized Business Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Kathleen L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews scholarly research (from journalism, communication, business, and the humanities) on the specialized business press. Notes the lack of theory building and ties across disciplines, and anticipates that new advances in CD-ROM technology may increase research into the field as well as strengthen ties across disciplines. (SR)

  7. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  8. Does Science Get the Press It Deserves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Discusses concerns about public understanding of science in the United Kingdom in relation to structure and content of newspapers, particularly the inadequacy of the press to be a vehicle for promoting scientific literacy within the citizenry. Argues that changes in science coverage by the media must originate from the scientific community with…

  9. The Press and the Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1973-01-01

    Social revolutions, which frequently use the press as a propaganda weapon, have been rare in Latin America despite the striking social inequalities of the region. Only three classic socioeconomic revolutions have unfolded in the hemisphere--in Mexico in 1910, in Bolivia in 1952, and in Cuba in 1959. Bolivia attempted to effect radical reforms…

  10. Warren G. Harding and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, W. Richard

    There are many parallels between the Richard M. Nixon administration and Warren G. Harding's term: both Republicans, both touched by scandal, and both having a unique relationship with the press. But in Harding's case the relationship was a positive one. One of Harding's first official acts as president was to restore the regular White House news…

  11. Holding fixture for a hot stamping press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A hand held guide for manually positioning a work piece between the anvil rib and tool of a hot die stamping press is described. A groove completed by interchangeable cover plates attached at one end of the guide conforms to a cross sectional dimension common to similar workpieces and, with a force fit, retentively holds each of the workpieces.

  12. Metrics for Offset Printing Press Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of offset printing press operation students, this instructional package is one of six for the communication media occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  13. The Performance of the Wooden Printing Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Michael

    1972-01-01

    The speed at which printing was done during the wooden-press era (circa 1436-circa 1820) is of importance from both the economic and the bibliographic points of view. It is suggested that pertinent background material be gathered, before attempting to estimate the productivity of a plant. (63 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  15. The Campus Press: Slouching Toward Respectability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1976-01-01

    In a survey discussion on the state of college newspapers the author observes that the campus press has at last shaken its radical image and returned to respectability: a preprofessional attitude by the staff, interest in investigative reporting, and a concern for the source of the next dollar. (JT)

  16. Law of the Student Press. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Press Law Center, Washington, DC.

    Noting dramatic changes in First Amendment protections for high school students and new legal issues facing college newspaper editors, this book describes in detail the legal rights and responsibilities of both the high school and college press. While the book is extensively footnoted, it intentionally avoids "legal-ese" and "brings…

  17. Freedom of the Press: Foundations and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Martin Leroy, Jr.

    This study reports the results of a national survey of the attitudes of five demographic groups toward freedom of the press. The groups are newsmen, state legislators, high school teachers, high school students, and the general public. The survey is broken into two parts, the first dealing with general principles (e.g., support for a law against…

  18. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  19. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  20. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  2. When International Press Rights "Are" the News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, reporters and editors face criminal prosecution, censorship, self-censorship, exile, tax audits, loss of broadcast and publication licenses, loss of jobs, assault, and even assassination based on how they practice their profession. Press rights and human rights advocacy groups try to draw media and official attention to those…

  3. Neo-Lysenkoism, IQ, and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bernard D.

    1983-01-01

    In "The Mismeasure of Man," a history of efforts to measure intelligence, Stephen Jay Gould is highly selective in his account, and tests for scientific truth by the standards of his own social and political convictions. Specifically, to combat racist approaches to theories of intelligence, Gould presses for equal and opposite bias.…

  4. Communications in Agriculture: The American Farm Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, James F.; Salcedo, Rodolfo N.

    This book studies communications in agriculture, focusing on the American farm press. As defined here, a commercial farm periodical is directed to farmers and supports itself through the sale of subscriptions or advertising. It includes local as well as regional and national periodicals. A 90-year analysis, from 1880 to 1970, was chosen because…

  5. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A ceremony dedicated the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  6. Accuracy of Press Reports in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Hurley, K.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Branch, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Schaefer, M. W.; Consolmagno, G. J.; McSween, H.; Strom, R.

    1999-12-01

    Most Americans learn about modern science from press reports, while such articles have a bad reputation among scientists. We have performed a study of 403 news articles on three topics (gamma-ray astronomy, supernovae, and Mars) to quantitatively answer the questions 'How accurate are press reports of astronomy?' and 'What fraction of the basic science claims in the press are correct?' We have taken all articles on the topics from five news sources (UPI, NYT, S&T, SN, and 5 newspapers) for one decade (1987-1996). All articles were evaluated for a variety of errors, ranging from the fundamental to the trivial. For 'trivial' errors, S&T and SN were virtually perfect while the various newspapers averaged roughly one trivial error every two articles. For meaningful errors, we found that none of our 403 articles significantly mislead the reader or misrepresented the science. So a major result of our study is that reporters should be rehabilitated into the good graces of astronomers, since they are actually doing a good job. For our second question, we rated each story with the probability that its basic new science claim is correct. We found that the average probability over all stories is 70%, regardless of source, topic, importance, or quoted pundit. How do we reconcile our findings that the press does not make significant errors yet the basic science presented is 30% wrong? The reason is that the nature of news reporting is to present front-line science and the nature of front-line science is that reliable conclusions have not yet been reached. So a second major result of our study is to make the distinction between textbook science (with reliability near 100%) and front-line science which you read in the press (with reliability near 70%).

  7. Probing muscle myosin motor action: x-ray (m3 and m6) interference measurements report motor domain not lever arm movement.

    PubMed

    Knupp, Carlo; Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W; Squire, John M

    2009-07-10

    The key question in understanding how force and movement are produced in muscle concerns the nature of the cyclic interaction of myosin molecules with actin filaments. The lever arm of the globular head of each myosin molecule is thought in some way to swing axially on the actin-attached motor domain, thus propelling the actin filament past the myosin filament. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of vertebrate muscle, especially those involving the analysis of interference effects between myosin head arrays in the two halves of the thick filaments, have been claimed to prove that the lever arm moves at the same time as the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in response to muscle length or force steps. It was suggested that the sliding of myosin and actin filaments, the level of force produced and the lever arm angle are all directly coupled and that other models of lever arm movement will not fit the X-ray data. Here, we show that, in addition to interference across the A-band, which must be occurring, the observed meridional M3 and M6 X-ray intensity changes can all be explained very well by the changing diffraction effects during filament sliding caused by heads stereospecifically attached to actin moving axially relative to a population of detached or non-stereospecifically attached heads that remain fixed in position relative to the myosin filament backbone. Crucially, and contrary to previous interpretations, the X-ray interference results provide little direct information about the position of the myosin head lever arm; they are, in fact, reporting relative motor domain movements. The implications of the new interpretation are briefly assessed.

  8. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    PubMed

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  9. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  10. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  11. Influence of pressing speed on microstructural development in equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Berbon, P.B.; Langdon, T.G.; Furukawa, Minoru; Horita, Zenji; Nemoto, Minoru

    1999-08-01

    The influence of pressing speed in equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing was investigated using samples of pure Al and an Al-1 pct Mg alloy and a range of pressing speeds from {approximately}10{sup {minus}2} to {approximately}10 mm s{sup {minus}1}. The results show that the speed of pressing has no significant influence on the equilibrium grain size, at least over the range used in these experiments. Thus, the equilibrium grain sizes were {approximately}1.2 {micro}m for pure Al and {approximately}0.5 {micro}m for the Al-1 pct Mg alloy for all pressing conditions. However, it is shown that the nature of the microstructure is dependent on the pressing speed, because recovery occurs more easily at the slower speeds, so that the microstructure is then more equilibrated. There is also indirect evidence for the advent of frictional effects when the cross-sectional dimensions of the samples are at or below {approximately}5 mm.

  12. METHOD FOR SOLVENT-ISOSTATIC PRESSING

    DOEpatents

    Archibald, P.B.

    1962-09-18

    This invention provides a method for producing densely compacted bodies having relatively large dimensions. The method comprises the addition of a small quantity of a suitable solvent to a powder which is to be compacted. The solvent- moistened powder is placed inside a flexible bag, and the bag is suspended in an isostatic press. The solvent is squeezed out of the powder by the isostatic pressure, and the resulting compacted body is recovered. The presence of the solvent markedly decreases the proportion of void space in the powder, thereby resulting in a denser, more homogeneous compact. Another effect of the solvent is that it allows the isostatic pressing operation to be conducted at substantially lower pressures than are conventionally employed. (AEC)

  13. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  14. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Ambrose H.; Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G.; Mowery, Erb H.

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  15. Glass Coats For Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecer, Gunes M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface voids sealed from pressurizing gas. Coating technique enables healing of surface defects by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Internal pores readily closed by HIP, but surface voids like cracks and pores in contact with pressurizing gas not healed. Applied to casting or weldment as thick slurry of two glass powders: one melts at temperature slightly lower than used for HIP, and another melts at higher temperature. For example, powder is glass of 75 percent SiO2 and 25 percent Na2O, while other powder SiO2. Liquid component of slurry fugitive organic binder; for example, mixture of cellulose acetate and acetone. Easy to apply, separates voids from surrounding gas, would not react with metal part under treatment, and easy to remove after pressing.

  16. Evaluation of the SMAP radiometer lever 2 pre-launch soil moisture algorithms using SMOS data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the upcoming SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite mission include global measurements of soil moisture at 40 km, 10 km and 3 km resolutions with a 3-day revisit time at an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3. The 40 km resolution soil moisture product is based primarily on the passiv...

  17. Unbelievable: AIDS reporting in the business press.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews some of the key AIDS-related issues highlighted in the business press over the last 2 years. AIDS reporting in the business press has done little to enlighten its audience. Reports on the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS has been limited to repeated citations of 1-2% annual declines in GDP; still others show that it has only a small and statistically insignificant impact on macroeconomic indicators. Business in South Africa is projected to decrease by 2-50% in the productivity levels of its work force in the next 5-10 years. Moreover, 25% of the work force is expected to be infected with AIDS within the next 10 years, and death rates will rise to up to 18%. Illness and death, early retirement, medical assistance and health care, and training and recruitment have all been noted as potential areas of rising costs of AIDS to business. While business reporting tends to concentrate on this side of the epidemic, it has reported a range of issues related to AIDS and has highlighted several well-considered responses to HIV/AIDS. Recommendations to improve business press reporting on HIV/AIDS are given.

  18. STS-102 Flight Crew Post-Landing Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Joel Wells, NASA Public Affairs, introduces STS-102 Commander Jim Wetherbee in this post-landing press conference. Commander Wetherbee gives a brief statement about the success of the mission and answers questions from the press.

  19. ISS Expedition 1 Pre-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Expedition 1 crewmembers William Shepherd, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev are introduced in this prelaunch press conference. Each crewmember gives a brief statement about his expectations for the upcoming mission and they answer questions from the press.

  20. Students Deserve Broad View in Advertising-Press Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the advertising industry's influence on the press is primarily indirect and that journalism educators should divert student attention from the negative aspects of advertising's role in the press. (RL)

  1. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF EYE PRESS AREA; TO LEFT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF EYE PRESS AREA; TO LEFT IS A TWO-BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE, TO CENTER IS EYE PRESS, TO RIGHT IS CURCULAR SAW - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Plasma fibrinogen lever and risk of coronary heart disease among Chinese population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Shu, Ying; Xu, Yuan Ning; Fu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading causes of death and disability for men and women in most developed countries. It may soon become the leading cause of death in developing countries. Several studies have examined the role of fibrinogen levels in the prediction of atherosclerosis and CHD events. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of plasma fibrinogen levels in Chinese patients with CHD and to examine the relationship of fibrinogen. We performed this meta-analysis of prospective studies of plasma fibrinogen level in relation to CHD risk in electronic database of Medline, EMBase, the Cochrane Library and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Plasma fibrinogen levels were calculated by mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in patients with CHD and related controls without CHD. The selected 23 studies included 2984 CHD cases and 2279 controls. Our results found that plasma fibrinogen levels of patients were significantly higher than control group (P<0.0001). The predicted odds ratio (OR) for a 1 g/L higher plasma fibrinogen level was 0.94 (95% CI=0.78-1.10). Furthermore, fibrinogen levels were slightly related to age-related CHD patients. The plasma fibrinogen lever was correlated with CHD in the Chinese population, and may be a risk factor and predictor of CHD. Further studies assessing any causal relevance of fibrinogen levels to disease are required.

  3. Enhancing the optical lever sensitivity of microcantilevers for dynamic atomic force microscopy via integrated low frequency paddles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda Shaik, Nurul; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Raman, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    A method is presented to enhance the optical lever sensitivity in dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) by nearly an order of magnitude over a wide frequency bandwidth. This is achieved by fabricating or releasing a paddle with a soft hinge close to the free end of the AFM microcantilever such that the paddle resonance frequency is well below the fundamental resonance frequency of the microcantilever. We show a significant increase in signal to noise ratio when cantilever motion is observed at the paddle for AFM systems that are not limited by thermal noise. Also, any effects due to the excitation of the second eigenmode were decoupled by locating the paddle at the node of the second eigenmode. We use these probes for higher harmonic imaging in amplitude modulated AFM (AM-AFM) on a standard polymer blend made of polystyrene and low density polyethylene. We demonstrate significantly improved contrast in higher harmonic images when observing cantilever motion at the paddle. Thus this microcantilever design can improve significantly conventional cantilever performance for dynamic AFM and is compatible with low-cost, high yield microfabrication processes.

  4. Kennedy Space Center Press Site (SWMU 074) Interim Measure Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) activities conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Press Site ("the Press Site"). This facility has been designated as Solid Waste Management Unit 074 under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action program. The activities were completed as part of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) Area Land Use Controls Implementation Plan (LUCIP) Elimination Project. The purpose of the VAB Area LUCIP Elimination Project was to delineate and remove soil affected with constituents of concern (COCs) that historically resulted in Land Use Controls (LUCs). The goal of the project was to eliminate the LUCs on soil. LUCs for groundwater were not addressed as part of the project and are not discussed in this report. This report is intended to meet the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Corrective Action Management Plan requirement as part of the KSC Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) self-implementing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) cleanup requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761.61(a).

  5. Gemini 11 Commander Conrad and Pilot Gordon at post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 11 Commander Charles Conrad, Jr (left) and Pilot Richard F. Gordon, Jr describe mission activities during their post flight press conference at JSC. Gordon at the microphone talks about the extravehicular activity (EVA) photo projected behind the two crewmembers. During the EVA Gordon attached a tether to the Agena and retrieved a nuclear emulsion experiment package.

  6. Graphic Arts: The Press and Finishing Processes. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on printing presses and the finishing process for publications. Seven units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) offset press systems; (2) offset inks and dampening chemistry; (3) offset press operating procedures; (4) preventive maintenance…

  7. A Dynamic Theory of World Press Motivation: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillinger, Elisabeth

    Addressing the dynamic and integrative nature of the world's press systems, this paper presents a comprehensive press theory and accompanying model. Three "primary motives"--survival, ideology, and market--are posited as determinants of press systems, using the nation state as the unit of analysis. The premises of the paper are: (1)…

  8. Through the Looking Glass: Press Responses to Genocide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipstadt, Deborah E.

    1991-01-01

    Examines press coverage of the Holocaust to analyze the response of the United States and the world to the Jewish extermination. Compares this coverage to earlier press responses to the Armenian genocide and Ukraine famines. Argues the press was unwilling to face the Holocaust's magnitude. Urges teachers to teach about the Holocaust and similar…

  9. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  10. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-20

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  11. The Inter American Press Association as Champion of Press Freedom: Reality or Rhetoric? The Bolivian Experience, 1952-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Each year a committee on freedom of the press, established in 1946 by the Inter American Press Association (IAPA), exposes those countries which it feels do not have freedom of the press. In 1952 Bolivia underwent a social and economic revolution. As a result, angry mobs forced the closure of the two newspapers with the largest circulation in…

  12. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  13. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    PubMed

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  14. Thermal Test on Target with Pressed Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard; Romero, Frank Patrick; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Chemerisov, Sergey; Gromov, Roman; Lowden, Rick

    2016-05-27

    A thorough test of the thermal performance of a target for Mo99 production using solid Mo100 target to produce the Mo99 via a gamma-n reaction has previously been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results are reported in “Zero Degree Line Mo Target Thermal Test Results and Analysis,” LANL report Number LA-UR-15-23134 dated 3/27/15. This target was comprised of 25 disks 1 mm thick and 12 mm in diameter, separated by helium coolant gaps 0.5 mm wide. The test reported in the above referenced report was conducted with natural Mo disks all cut from commercial rod. The production plant will have Mo100 disks pressed and sintered using a process being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural integrity of press-and-sinter disks is of some concern. The test reported herein included 4 disks made by the ORNL process and placed in the high heat, and therefore high thermal stress, region of the target. The electron beam energy was 23 MeV for these tests. Beam spot size was 3.5 mm horizontal and 3 mm vertical, FWHM. The thermal stress test of pressed-and-sintered disks resulted in no mechanical failures. The induced thermal stresses were below yield stress for natural Mo, indicating that up to that stress state no inherent deficiencies in the mechanical properties of the fabricated disks were evident.

  15. Method for hot press forming articles

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Robert R.; Hartsock, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

  16. STS-99 Countdown Status Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the participants in the Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. The panelists consists of NASA's test Director Jeff Spaulding, the STS-99 Payload Manager Scott Higginbotham, and the Shuttle Weather Officer Ed Priselac. Bruce Buckingham NASA's Public Affairs introduces each panelist as they discuss the servicing of fuel tanks, checkout, closeouts, payload status, and favorable weather conditions. The panelists also answer questions from the audience. Also shown are various shots of the Shuttle on the launch pad.

  17. STS-99 Post-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the participants in the Post-Launch Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. The panelists consist of Bill Gerstenmaier, Acting Manager of Launch Integration and Dave King, Director of Shuttle Operations at KSC (Kennedy Space Center). Joel Wells, of NASA's Public Affairs Office, introduces each panelist as they discuss the mapping to the Earth, and improve safety of the shuttle. The panelists also answer questions from the audience about the countdown. Also shown are various shots of the Shuttle on the launch pad.

  18. STS-114: Discovery Post Landing Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Dean Acosta, NASA Public Affairs Deputy Assistant Administrator hosted this press briefing. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Bill Parsons, Shuttle Program Manager; Michael Leinbach, Shuttle Launch Director; and Bill Ready, Space Operations Associate Administrator were present. The Panel specifically honored the Columbia crew as they praised Commander Eileen Collin's performance in bringing the Discovery and crew safe back to Earth. Re-entry, test flight and next test flight, thermal insulation, heat, vehicle inspection, turn around processing, and ferrying Discovery back to the Kennedy Space Center were topics covered with the News media. Michael Griffin announced the launching of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will take place the following morning.

  19. STS-99 / Endeavour: Launch Postponement Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows Ron Dittemore, the Shuttle Program Manager from Johnson Space Center (JSC), participating in a Launch Postponement Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. He addresses the weather condition which caused the postponement and the erroneous response from one of the Master Events Controllers (MEC). The moderator of this conference is Bruce Buckingham from NASA's Public Affairs Office. Ron answers questions from the audience about the MEC responsible for sending commands for launch, and the implications that it might have on the launch schedule.

  20. Shape optimization of the modular press body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabiszczak, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    A paper contains an optimization algorithm of cross-sectional dimensions of a modular press body for the minimum mass criterion. Parameters of the wall thickness and the angle of their inclination relative to the base of section are assumed as the decision variables. The overall dimensions are treated as a constant. The optimal values of parameters were calculated using numerical method of the tool Solver in the program Microsoft Excel. The results of the optimization procedure helped reduce body weight by 27% while maintaining the required rigidity of the body.

  1. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin hands Mrs. Dianne Holliman a plaque honoring her late husband, John Holliman, a CNN national correspondent. Standing behind Goldin is Center Director Roy Bridges. At right is Tom Johnson, news group chairman of CNN. A ceremony dedicated the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  2. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left, Center Director Roy Bridges and NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin applaud as Jay Holliman, with the help of his mother, Mrs. Dianne Holliman, unveils a plaque honoring his father, the late John Holliman. At right is Tom Johnson, news group chairman of CNN. The occasion was the dedication of the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the CNN national correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  3. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma.

  4. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-12-23

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception-medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and

  5. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative

  6. Shallow-Lever Centers in Semiconductors - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammerlaan, C. A. J.; Pajot, B.

    1997-04-01

    Quantum Well Structures Grown by MBE * Shallow Centers in Heavily Doped Silicon Quantum Wells * Optically Detected Resonance Spectroscopy of III-V and II-VI Quantum Wells * Shallow Thermal Donor Defects in Silicon * Pressure Dependence of Se Absorption Lines in AlSb * Fine Structure in the Magnetic Resonance of Single Acceptors in Silicon * Far-Infrared Photoconductivity and Photoluminescence of Beryllium in Gallium Arsenide * Shift of Photoluminescence Peak in Highly Self-Compensated Ge-Doped GaAs * Electron-Phonon Coupling in a Delta-Doped n-i-p Structure in GaAs * Group-III and Group-II Quasi-Deep Impurities in Silicon Carbide: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies * Resonance Acceptor States in Uniaxially Strained Semiconductors * Donor-Related Infrared-Absorption Spectra of GaAs-(Ga, Al)As Quantum Wells * Electrical Properties of Shallow Donor Centers Formed Due to Oxygen Interaction with Chemically Active Impurities in Heat-Treated Silicon * Fine Structure and Higher Lying Transitions of Er3+ in 4H and 6H SiC * Mechanism for the Enhanced Dissociation of C-H Complexes in GaAs * Bistability and Metastability of Hydrogen in Si * EPR of Aluminum-Aluminum Interstitial Pair in Silicon * Magnetic Order of Shallow Acceptor Centres in Semiconductors (InSb:Mn) * Luminescence and DLTS Study of Photonuclear Transmutation Doped (PND) Gallium Arsenide * Photoluminescence of Deformed Bulk Crystals of Si-Ge Alloy * Di-Oxygen Complex in Silicon: Some New Characteristic Features * Reactions of Interstitial Iron with Shallow Acceptors in Silicon * The 819.8 meV Photoluminescence Band in Copper Doped Silicon * Zeeman Spectroscopy of Aluminium in Germanium * Microscopic Studies of the Hydrogen Passivation in n-Type Silicon: A New Application of the 73As γ-e- PAC Technique * Shallow Donor Solubility Mechanism: Tellurium in GaAs * Energy Levels of Shallow Donor Pairs and Thermal Double Donors in Silicon * Boron Neutralization by Hydrogen in

  7. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Chen, Simon X; Komiyama, Takaki

    2014-06-12

    The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are not fully understood. Here we addressed this issue by using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of the same population of hundreds of layer 2/3 neurons while mice learned a forelimb lever-press task over two weeks. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons were identified by transgenic labelling. Inhibitory neuron activity was relatively stable and balanced local excitatory neuron activity on a movement-by-movement basis, whereas excitatory neuron activity showed higher dynamism during the initial phase of learning. The dynamics of excitatory neurons during the initial phase involved the expansion of the movement-related population which explored various activity patterns even during similar movements. This was followed by a refinement into a smaller population exhibiting reproducible spatiotemporal sequences of activity. This pattern of activity associated with the learned movement was unique to expert animals and not observed during similar movements made during the naive phase, and the relationship between neuronal activity and individual movements became more consistent with learning. These changes in population activity coincided with a transient increase in dendritic spine turnover in these neurons. Our results indicate that a novel and reproducible activity-movement relationship develops as a result of motor learning, and we speculate that synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex underlies the emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity patterns for learned movements. These results underscore the profound influence of learning on the way that the cortex produces movements.

  8. Where is the British national press?

    PubMed

    MacInnes, John; Rosie, Michael; Petersoo, Pille; Condor, Susan; Kennedy, James

    2007-06-01

    Although globalization has highlighted the danger of conflating state, society and nation, sociologists remain insufficiently alert to such banal nationalism. Newspapers offer a strong test case of the extent of diversity in the construction of state, national and social boundaries, since Billig and Anderson have argued they comprise a special case where their orientation to an audience simultaneously located in a state, society and nation allows them to reproduce a sense of national identity. However, despite the commonsense obviousness of the term, it proves remarkably difficult to define what the 'British national press' might comprise. Circulation density of titles varies substantially across different parts of the UK and editorial copy is altered to address diverse 'national' readerships. 'British' newspapers also circulate in other states, especially the Republic of Ireland. After reviewing how newspapers might be defined as 'national' and/or 'British', we conclude that both Anderson and Billig over-estimate the congruence, relevance and obviousness of state, society and national boundaries. If the conceptualization of such boundaries is problematic in the case of the press, it follows that it must be still more so for most other objects of sociological analysis, including that of 'society' itself.

  9. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  10. Actes illocutoires et discours de la presse ecrite (Illocutionary Acts and the Press).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Richard

    This study investigates the applicability of the speech act theory to written discourse, specifically that of the press. A survey of Searle's taxonomy leads to the suggestion that the constituent statements of most newspaper articles belong to the class of illocutionary acts he calls "representatives." In consideration of the basic characteristic…

  11. Abstracts of Suburban Press Research Series Papers Produced by the Suburban Press Research Center from July 1966 to February 1973. Suburban Press Research Series No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Suburban Press Research Center.

    Abstracts of 13 research investigations, speeches, and bibliographic resources, collected by the Suburban Press Research Center, are provided in this paper. Topics of discussion include the following aspects of the suburban press: pretrial coverage, characteristics of communities served by suburban newspapers, science news coverage, the role of…

  12. Characterization of publication rotogravure press emission rates and compositions.

    PubMed

    Wadden, R A; Suero, M; Conroy, L M; Franke, J E; Scheff, P A

    2001-04-01

    Emission compositions and rates were determined during production for a publication rotogravure press room at a large rotogravure printing company. The press room housed a single 4-color, 8-print-stand press, with an 84" paper web. Average press speed was 1800 feet per minute. Data were collected over a 2-day period and included measurements of ventilation, room area concentrations, duct exhaust compositions, amount and composition of inks used, and worker exposures. These data were used with mass balance models that were appropriate for the workspace. Toluene comprised more than 90 percent of the inks and solvents and accounted for more than 90 percent of the press emissions. Average toluene emissions during press operation and press off conditions were 222 kg/hr and 8-38 kg/hr, respectively. The uncontrolled toluene emission on the basis of printed paper throughput was 3 g/m2. Of the total toluene released, 90 percent was captured by the local exhaust ventilation. The measured control efficiency was much lower than the average efficiency of 97 percent for the month of the test reported by the plant. A mass balance model evaluation demonstrated that only the lower efficiency was consistent with measured room concentrations. Using the measured emission rates and actual monthly press on and press off conditions, the difference in efficiency for the plant (10 rotogravure presses) extrapolates to the additional release to the workspace and ambient environment of over 700 tons/yr of toluene.

  13. James Franklin and Freedom of the Press in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1717-1735.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffery A.

    The career of James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's older brother, provides a case study in the use of polemics for a free press. A printer who actively courted controversy, Franklin found it necessary to use an unusual variety of strategies and justifications to evade or overcome potential legal, religious, and economic restraints. He demonstrated…

  14. The First Amendment: Free Speech & a Free Press. A Curriculum Guide for High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveslage, Thomas

    This curriculum guide is intended to encourage students to learn how everyone benefits when young people, other citizens, and the media exercise the constitutional rights of free speech and free press. Background information on free speech issues is provided, along with classroom activities, discussion questions, and student worksheets. There are…

  15. Behavioral studies on the enantiomers of butaclamol demonstrating absolute optical specificity for neuroleptic activity.

    PubMed

    Voith, K; Cummings, J R

    1976-08-01

    Butaclamol is a member of a new chemical class for which antipsychotic activity in humans has been demonstrated. Butaclamol, a racemate, has been resolved into its optical isomers and a separation of activities was found to occur between the (+) and (-) enantiomers. The present experiments show that at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg the (+) enantiomer abolished amphetamine-induced (a) stereotyped behavior and (b) rotational behavior in rats with unilateral lesions in the substantia nigra. It also inhibited the lever-pressing response in the continuous (Sidman) avoidance procedure, blocked discriminated avoidance behavior, and decreased ambulation and rearing in the open field. In contrast, the (-) enantiomer was devoid of behavioral activity at 100-500 times larger doses. At considerably higher doses (+)-butaclamol antagonized epinephrine-induced mortality. Again, the (-)-butaclamol was devoid of this activity as well. The significance of absolute optical specifity manifested by a neuroleptic drug is discussed in the light of dopaminergic and adrenergic mechanisms.

  16. STS-103 Discovery Launch Scrub Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A press conference held on December 16, 1999, to explain the reason behind NASA's decision to delay the Discovery's launching by a period of 24 hrs is presented. According to Ron Dittemore, Space Shuttle Program Manager, the STS-103 team delayed the launch because they need extra time to check one vendor's manufacturing processes, after an x-ray inspection revealed that an improper weld rod was used to weld one of the pressuring lines (called NPS lines) in the ET (external tank). Mr. Dittemore explained that since it is in the ET (not a major load carrying structure and rebuild after each flight), it did not pose any danger to the STS-103 flight. However, the same vendor also manufactured some parts of the orbiter and the team wanted to make sure that the quality of the vendor's manufacturing processes is robust before launching the orbiter to space. He also answered some reporters' questions.

  17. STS-114: Discovery Launch Postponement Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This press briefing addresses the problem that occurred prior to the launch of the STS-114. Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs, introduces the panel which consists of Dr. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, William Readdy, Associate Administrator for Space Operations, Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Deputy Manager, Steve Poulas, Orbiter Project Manager, Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director, and Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager. Wayne Hale expresses that a problem occurred with one of the low level sensors in the hydrogen tank and that the cause of the problem must be identified and rectified. Steve Poulos talks about establishing a troubleshooting plan as a part of the scrub effort and Mike Leinbach describes the process of draining the external tank. Wayne Hale answers questions about the sensors and if the Space Shuttle Discovery is safe to fly and Steve Poulos answers questions about the possible suspects for this problem.

  18. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This press conference, attended by representatives from the national, Florida, and aerospace media, addresses launch, weather, and safety issues related to Space Shuttle Discovery prior to its launch on the STS-114 Return to Flight mission. The Master of Ceremonies is George Diller from NASA Public Affairs, and the panelists are: Space Shuttle Program Manager Bill Parsons, ISS Program Manager (JSC) Bill Gerstenmaier, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager Wayne Hale, Director of Shuttle Processing Mike Wetmore, ISS Program Manager (JAXA) Dr. Kuniaki Shiraki, and Launch Weather Officer (USAF) Mindy Chavez. Questions included the following topics: predicted weather conditions at launch, contingency rescue plans, countdown procedures, and risk management, as well as implications of the Return to Flight for the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. STS-121/Discovery: Launch Readiness Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Participants in the briefing included: Bruce Buckingham (NASA Public Affairs), John Shannon (Chairman, Mission Management Team), Mike Suffredini (ISS Program Manager), Mike Leinbach (Shuttle Launch Director), Alan Thirkettle (ISS Program Manager, ESA) and 1st Lt. Kaleb Nordgen (USAF 45th Weather Squadron). There are no constraints to launch except for questionable weather. The crew is ready to go. PROGRESS has provided logistics and is ready to be installed. No cryogenics have been loaded because of a Phase 1 lightning advisory. The shuttle crew is in good shape, just waiting for the weather to clear. ISS is making preparations for the Columbus Mission and future plans are to increase the crew from 3 to 6 people. The floor was opened to questions from the press.

  20. STS-99 / Endeavour Pre Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the participants in the Pre Launch Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. The panelists consists of Ron Dittemore the Shuttle Program Manager from JSC (Johnson Space Center), Dave King Director of Shuttle Processing from KSC (Kennedy Space Center), and Capt. Clif Stargardt Meteorologist 45th Weather Squadron. George Diller NASA's Public Affairs Office introduces each panelist as they discuss the hardware change, re-test, and the weather condition. The panelists also answer questions from the audience about the GPS box that failed early that morning, the deployment of the mass, and vehicle safety today as it compares to the past. Also shown are various shots of the Shuttle on the launch pad.

  1. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director of Shuttle Processing; and 1st Lieutenant Mindy Chavez, Launch Weather Officer-United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron are in attendance for this STS-114 Discovery launch readiness press conference. The discussion begins with Wayne Hale bringing to the table a low level sensor device for everyone to view. He talks in detail about all of the extensive tests that were performed on these sensors and the completion of these ambient tests. Chavez presents her weather forecast for the launch day of July 26th 2005. Michael Griffin and Wayne Hale answer questions from the news media pertaining to the sensors and launch readiness. The video ends with footage of Pilot Jim Kelly and Commander Eileen Collins conducting test flights in a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that simulates Space Shuttle landing.

  2. STS-114: Post Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs hosted this post launch press conference. Present were Mike Griffin, NASA Administrator; William Ready, Associate Administrator for Space Operations; Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager; Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director; and Wayne Hill, Deputy Program Manager for Space Shuttle Program. Each expressed thanks to all of NASA Officials and employees, contractors, vendors and the crew for their hard work the past two and a half years that resulted the successful and pristine launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. The Panel emphasized that through extensive technical analysis, thorough planning and tremendous amount of public support brought them full circle again to return to flight. Flight safety, debris during rocket separation, sensors, observations from the mission control, launch conditions were some of the topics discussed with the News media.

  3. STS-99 Pre-Launch Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage shows the participants in the Pre-Launch Press Conference disclosing the status of the STS-99 flight. The panelists consists of Ron Dittemore the Shuttle Program Manager from JSC (Johnson Space Center), Dave King Director of Shuttle Operation from KSC (Kennedy Space Center), Klaus Damian Head of ESA Astronaut Training Division, and Capt. Clif Stargardt Meteorologist 45th Weather Squadron. George Diller, NASA's Public Affairs Office, introduces each panelist as they discuss the failure of a segment of the tip seal, the international contributions made to this mission, and the weather condition. The panelists also answer questions from the audience about the rejected component of the tip seal, how this error was made, and the effects that this has on the flight plans. Also shown are various night shots of the Shuttle on the launch pad.

  4. Hot Isostatic Pressing of 60-Nitinol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of varying the time, temperature and pressure during consolidation of 60-Nitinol (Nickel Titanium alloy) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) were examined. Six HIP cycles with a cycle time of either 2 or 20 hours, temperature of 900 or 1000 degrees Centigrade, and a chamber pressure of either 100 or 200 millipascals were used. The cycle representing the shortest cycle time at the highest temperature and pressure (2 hours/1000 degrees Centigrade/200 millipascals) produced material with the highest hardness (720 Vickers Pyramid Number (HV)). A modest increase in average grain size and significant porosity reduction were observed in material subjected to the longest cycle time at the highest temperature, regardless of the pressure applied. The intent of this study is to facilitate the technology transfer involved in the processing of this material.

  5. Hot isostatic pressing of intermetallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. J.; Kushner, B. G.

    The application of the intelligent processing of materials (IPM) approach to powder densification by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is made possible by the development of in situ sensors, process models and adaptive control strategies. The challenge is to optimize the process schedule for new materials to achieve densification, shape and microstructural goals. The development of an IPM system for HIP of intermetallic powders is described. The primary sensor used in this system employs eddy currents to measure changes of sample dimensions, while the process model is that of Ashby et al., reformulated to more closely describe real materials in real HIP process cycles. Process cycles are developed by combining a knowledge base derived from experts with the process model refined by sensor measurements.

  6. Press self-regulation in Britain: a critique.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the history of press self-regulation in Britain, from the 1947 Ross Commission to the 2012 Leveson Inquiry Commission. It considers the history of the Press Council and the Press Complaints Commission, analysing the ways they developed, their work, and how they have reached their current non-status. It is argued that the existing situation in Britain is far from satisfactory, and that the press should advance more elaborate mechanisms of self-control, establishing a new regulatory body called the Public and Press Council that will be anchored in law, empowering the new regulator with greater and unprecedented authority, and equipping it with substantive sanctioning abilities. The Public and Press Council should be independent and effective, with transparent policies, processes and responsibilities. Its adjudication should be made in accordance with a written, detailed Code of Practice.

  7. Post flight press conference for the STS-7 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Two of the three mission specialists for STS-7 field questions from the press during the post-flight press conference in JSC's main auditorium on July 1, 1983. Left to right are John M. Fabian and Dr. Norman E. Thagard (35419); Portrait view of Fabian during the STS-7 post-flight press conference (35420); Portrait view of mission specialist Dr. Sally K. Ride during the STS-7 post-flight press conference (35421); Portrait view of STS-7 pilot Frederick H. Hauck during the post-flight press conference (35422); Portrait view of STS-7 crew commander Robert L. Crippen during the post-flight press conference (35423); Three STS-7 crew members listen to questions from news reporters. They are, left to right, Crippen, Hauck, and Ride (35424); The first five person shuttle crew and first woman crew member greet the news media. Members are, left to right, Crippen, Hauck, Ride, Fabian and Thagard (35425).

  8. Direct drive digital servo press with high parallel control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Chikara; Yabe, Jun; Endou, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Direct drive digital servo press has been developed as the university-industry joint research and development since 1998. On the basis of this result, 4-axes direct drive digital servo press has been developed and in the market on April of 2002. This servo press is composed of 1 slide supported by 4 ball screws and each axis has linearscale measuring the position of each axis with high accuracy less than μm order level. Each axis is controlled independently by servo motor and feedback system. This system can keep high level parallelism and high accuracy even with high eccentric load. Furthermore the 'full stroke full power' is obtained by using ball screws. Using these features, new various types of press forming and stamping have been obtained by development and production. The new stamping and forming methods are introduced and 'manufacturing' need strategy of press forming with high added value and also the future direction of press forming are also introduced.

  9. Laser cutting of pressed explosives: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F., Jr.; Banks, R.E.; Armstrong, J.P.; Feit, M.D.; Lee, R.S.; Perry, M.D.; Stuart, B.C.

    1998-05-04

    We have used a femtosecond laser beam to make cuts through small pressed pellets of six common explosives. The laser system, which produces 100 fs pulses of 820 nm light at a repitition rate of 1 kHz, was intitially developed for cutting metal. The advantage of using a femtosecond laser for cutting is that the cutting process transfers virtually no heat to the material that is being cut and produces almost no waste. We used LX-16 explosive (96% PETN/4% FPC 461 binder) for out intial experiments because PETN is one of the most sensitve of the secondary explosives. In some of the experiments the beam first cut through the HE pellet and then through a stainless steel substrate and in other experiments the beam first cut through the stainless steel and then through the pellet. We also cut through pellets that were not backed by a substrate. No evidence of reaction was observed in any of the LX-16 pellets. In addition to LX-16 we cut pellets of LX-14 (95.5% HMX/4.5% Estane), LX-15 (95% HNS/5% Kel-F), LX-17 (92.5% TATB/7.5% Kel-F), PBX-9407 (94% RDX/6% Exon 461), and pressed TNT with no evidence of reaction. The HE was easily cut at low power levels with one or two sweeps at 0.5 W average power sufficing to cut most of the pellets. There is obvioulsy much more work to be done before laser machining of explosives becomes a reality, but the results of these intitial experiments indicate that laser machining of explosives may be an attractive option for explosives processing.

  10. 30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROWGUAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BUILDING NO. 527, DEHYDRATING PRESSES, LOOKING SOUTH. ALUMINUM NARROW-GUAGE GONDOLA CAR IN LEFT BACKGROUND BROUGHT MOISTENED GUN COTTON FROM REST HOUSE (BUILDING NO. 320-B) IN CANS. (ONE OF THESE CANS IS ON UNLOADING PLATFORM RUNNING BESIDE PRESSES). CONTENTS OF CANS WERE UNLOADED INTO PRESSES BY HAND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. Selling a Story: How to Write a Successful Press Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Press releases are an important part of communicating new discoveries with the general public. However, if they are confusing or difficult to read then they are unlikely to be picked up by media outlets. This article details how to create a successful press release by addressing a series of points: learning how to identify the audience; writing text that is both eye catching and clear; including multimedia and contact details; getting your press release to the media; and timing.

  12. Articles Pertinent to the Campus Press: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Birthney; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Lists and annotates articles dealing with such topics as advertising, broadcasting, editorial policy and methods, journalism education, journalism opportunities, media management, press law, and public relations. (GW)

  13. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives.

  14. A systematic review of surface electromyography analyses of the bench press movement task

    PubMed Central

    Gołaś, Artur; Blazek, Dusan; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Pietraszewski, Przemysław; Petr, Miroslav; Uhlir, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? Strategy PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. Results The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. Conclusions PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models. PMID

  15. Parallelization of Rocket Engine Simulator Software (PRESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1997-01-01

    Parallelization of Rocket Engine System Software (PRESS) project is part of a collaborative effort with Southern University at Baton Rouge (SUBR), University of West Florida (UWF), and Jackson State University (JSU). The second-year funding, which supports two graduate students enrolled in our new Master's program in Computer Science at Hampton University and the principal investigator, have been obtained for the period from October 19, 1996 through October 18, 1997. The key part of the interim report was new directions for the second year funding. This came about from discussions during Rocket Engine Numeric Simulator (RENS) project meeting in Pensacola on January 17-18, 1997. At that time, a software agreement between Hampton University and NASA Lewis Research Center had already been concluded. That agreement concerns off-NASA-site experimentation with PUMPDES/TURBDES software. Before this agreement, during the first year of the project, another large-scale FORTRAN-based software, Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK), was being used for translation to an object-oriented language and parallelization experiments. However, that package proved to be too complex and lacking sufficient documentation for effective translation effort to the object-oriented C + + source code. The focus, this time with better documented and more manageable PUMPDES/TURBDES package, was still on translation to C + + with design improvements. At the RENS Meeting, however, the new impetus for the RENS projects in general, and PRESS in particular, has shifted in two important ways. One was closer alignment with the work on Numerical Propulsion System Simulator (NPSS) through cooperation and collaboration with LERC ACLU organization. The other was to see whether and how NASA's various rocket design software can be run over local and intra nets without any radical efforts for redesign and translation into object-oriented source code. There were also suggestions that the Fortran based code be

  16. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  17. 10. VIEW OF MODULE B, INSTALLATION OF A HYDRAULIC PRESS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF MODULE B, INSTALLATION OF A HYDRAULIC PRESS. THE PRESS WILL EVENTUALLY BE CONNECTED TO A GLOVE BOX LINE. (9/29/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE BOX. THE PRESS FORMED SCRAP PLUTONIUM METAL FROM FOUNDRY AND FABRICATION PROCESSES INTO SMALL BRIQUETTES. THESE BRIQUETTES BECAME PART OF THE FEED MATERIALS FOR THE FOUNDRY. (5/6/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Letting The NASA Press Engine Work For You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    You have an amazing result based on NASA data or a NASA Mission; you have written your seminal paper and submitted it to your favorite journal. You believe it has press potential and maybe you've even gotten help from your PR folks in writing a press release. Now you would really like NASA to issue this as a press release. But how do you do that? This presentation will illustrate the steps required to engage NASA in helping promote your story. What are NASA's requirements for newsworthiness? Should your news be released as a web feature story or in the local media? Does your news rise to the level of a full-blown press conference or will it be a media teleconference? How do you obtain approval for a NASA press event? Once your result is scheduled to be issued as a press release, how can you improve your chances of getting the best possible coverage for your story? I will discuss the NASA press process and suggest how to consider factors like timing, working with your collaborating institutions in an efficient way, and not letting the cat out of the bag until the press event.

  20. 6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE BRIQUETTING PRESS AND CHIP CLEANING HOOD. SCRAPS OF ENRICHED URANIUM FROM MACHINING OPERATIONS WERE CLEANED IN A SOLVENT BATH, THEN PRESSED INTO BRIQUETTS. THE BRIQUETTS WERE USED AS FEED MATERIAL FOR THE FOUNDRY. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Massachusetts Adviser Urges a National Student Press Rights Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proudfoot, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Argues that students are being trained to believe that censorship of the press is a good idea. Shows, using two examples dealing with teenage pregnancies and gangs, how students can bring about real change in their school climate through their school newspaper--but only if it is a free press controlled by students, not the administration. (SR)

  3. 7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A OF BUILDING 883. THIS TYPE OF PRESS WAS USED FOR BOTH STAINLESS STEEL AND FOR DEPLETED URANIUM. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Coeducation and the Women's Rights Press, 1849-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Patricia Smith

    The role of the women's rights press in reporting on and advancing coeducation in the United States is considered. The women's rights press was linked to the women's rights movement and articulated the goal that women should enjoy full participation in all aspects of U.S. life, including higher education. This analysis is based on 12 of the most…

  5. Press Releases vs. Newspaper Coverage of California Supreme Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, F. Dennis

    1978-01-01

    A study comparing the coverage in newspapers and press releases regarding one year's decisions of the California Supreme Court revealed that the press releases influenced the kinds of decisions that were reported but not the quantity of coverage by the newspapers. (GT)

  6. New Realities for Scholarly Presses in Trying Economic Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, David

    2014-01-01

    The author explains that Parlor Press is an independent publisher and distributor of scholarly and trade books in print and digital formats. It was founded in 2002 to address the need for an alternative scholarly, academic press attentive to emergent ideas and forms while maintaining the highest possible standards of quality, credibility, and…

  7. Criticism of the Press: Its Social, Psychological and Political Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    This study examines data from several national polls about press coverage during the Watergate scandal, in order to assess the origins of press criticism. The polls were conducted between 28 September and 6 October 1973, during June 1974, and in August 1974. The data suggest that political variables--particularly support of Nixon, party…

  8. 6. Interior, first floor front room. View of pressed metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior, first floor front room. View of pressed metal ceiling visible through opening in dropped ceiling. (Below the pressed metal ceiling are three wooden joists, two electrical wires and the edges of the dropped ceiling where a panel had been removed). - Ferree Building, 417 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. The American Press and the Holocaust. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Contends that U.S. press coverage of the destruction of the Jews during World War II was sidebar or ancillary at best. Argues that the press often buried significant information on inside pages. Presents a secondary level lesson plan with student objectives and step-by-step instructional objectives. (CFR)

  10. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  11. [Gender and health in the daily press].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma; Alonso, Inma; Tomás, Sonia; Guerrero, Marcela; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2004-05-01

    To have a better understanding on the role of the press in the communication of gender and health issues, the content of the five most spread newspapers in Spain was studied (El País, ABC, El Mundo, La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Catalunya) for five years (1997-2001) and the electronic version of The New York Times of the period 1990-1999. An unequal distribution was observed in the responsibility as for the information related to three aspects: positions of responsibility in the newspapers (out of 71 main posts, 67 were men and 4 women); the authors of the articles on health issues (61.2% men and 38,8% women, among the articles that include the author) and the mentioned information sources (81.43% men and 17.77% women). Among the 120 health issues that were covered during the period of the study, only 20 explicitly mentioned a woman (16.67%). Those subjects that included more frequently explicit references were: ablation, iatrogenics, sterilization, sexual and reproductive health, incontinence, beauty and domestic violence. The analysis of the approach to these subjects helped to identify the stereotypes of gender inequality, in the language as well as in the approach.

  12. STS-114: Discovery Post MMT Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Bruce Buckingham of NASA Public Affairs hosted this press conference. Wayne Hill, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; John Muratore, Shuttle Systems and Integration Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director for Shuttle Processing were present. Wayne started with a video from Shuttle Logistics Depot showing details of a point sensor box commonly named the black box. Work with the trouble shooting continues on a day to day basis, no definite launching date is set. John reports that they are in a mission support mode all over the country until the sensor problem is solved. Mike reports his team will complete scrub and securing tasks through the next day, restore the facility to its normal mode, and will start to a four day process of getting back to launch once trouble shooting is completed. Tanking test, thermal environment, problem identification, engine cut-off sensor problems, sensors, risk, design reviews, test and analysis, correlation of the problem with Columbia, are some of the topics covered with the News media.

  13. [Work disability in public press professions].

    PubMed

    Akermann, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance.

  14. STS-46 post flight press conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    At a post flight press conference, the flight crew of the STS-46 mission (Cmdr. Loren Shriver, Pilot Andrew Allen, Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier (European Space Agency (ESA)), Marsha Ivins (Flight Engineer), Jeff Hoffman (Payload Commander), Franklin Chang-Dias, and Payload Specialist Franco Malerba (Italian Space Agency (ISA))) discussed their roles in and presented video footage, slides and still photographs of the different aspects of their mission. The primary objectives of the mission were the deployment of ESA's European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) satellite and the joint NASA/ISA deployment and testing of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). Secondary objectives included the IMAX Camera, the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDVE), and the Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF) experiments. Video footage of the EURECA and TSS deployment procedures are shown. Earth views were extensive and included Javanese volcanoes, Amazon basin forest ground fires, southern Mexico, southern Bolivian volcanoes, south-west Sudan and the Sahara Desert, and Melville Island, Australia. Questions from reporters and journalists from Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center were discussed.

  15. Modeling the toxicokinetics of inhaled toluene in rats: influence of physical activity and feeding status.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Elaina M; Benignus, Vernon; Eklund, Christopher; Highfill, Jerry W; Oshiro, Wendy M; Samsam, Tracey E; Bushnell, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    Toluene is found in petroleum-based fuels and used as a solvent in consumer products and industrial applications. The critical effects following inhalation exposure involve the brain and nervous system in both humans and experimental animals, whether exposure duration is acute or chronic. The goals of this physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development effort were twofold: (1) to evaluate and explain the influence of feeding status and activity level on toluene pharmacokinetics utilizing our own data from toluene-exposed Long Evans (LE) rats, and (2) to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate data from the published literature and explain differing toluene kinetics. Compartments in the model were lung, slowly and rapidly perfused tissue groups, fat, liver, gut, and brain; tissue transport was blood-flow limited and metabolism occurred in the liver. Chemical-specific parameters and initial organ volumes and blood flow rates were obtained from the literature. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the single most influential parameter for our experimental conditions was alveolar ventilation; other moderately influential parameters (depending upon concentration) included cardiac output, rate of metabolism, and blood flow to fat. Based on both literature review and sensitivity analysis, other parameters (e.g., partition coefficients and metabolic rate parameters) were either well defined (multiple consistent experimental results with low variability) or relatively noninfluential (e.g. organ volumes). Rats that were weight-maintained compared to free-fed rats in our studies could be modeled with a single set of parameters because feeding status did not have a significant impact on toluene pharmacokinetics. Heart rate (HR) measurements in rats performing a lever-pressing task indicated that the HR increased in proportion to task intensity. For rats acclimated to eating in the lab during the day, both sedentary rats and rats performing the lever-pressing

  16. Zinc coated sheet steel for press hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Zahra N.

    Galvanized steels are of interest to enhance corrosion resistance of press-hardened steels, but concerns related to liquid metal embrittlement have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the soak time and temperature conditions relevant to the hot-stamping process during which Zn penetration did or did not occur in galvanized 22MnB5 press-hardening steel. A GleebleRTM 3500 was used to heat treat samples using hold times and temperatures similar to those used in industrial hot-stamping. Deformation at both elevated temperature and room temperature were conducted to assess the coating and substrate behavior related to forming (at high temperature) and service (at room temperature). The extent of alloying between the coating and substrate was assessed on undeformed samples heat treated under similar conditions to the deformed samples. The coating transitioned from an α + Gamma1 composition to an α (bcc Fe-Zn) phase with increased soak time. This transition likely corresponded to a decrease in availability of Zn-rich liquid in the coating during elevated temperature deformation. Penetration of Zn into the substrate sheet in the undeformed condition was not observed for any of the processing conditions examined. The number and depth of cracks in the coating and substrate steel was also measured in the hot-ductility samples. The number of cracks appeared to increase, while the depth of cracks appeared to decrease, with increasing soak time and increasing soak temperature. The crack depth appeared to be minimized in the sample soaked at the highest soak temperature (900 °C) for intermediate and extended soak times (300 s or 600 s). Zn penetration into the substrate steel was observed in the hot-ductility samples soaked at each hold temperature for the shortest soak time (10 s) before being deformed at elevated temperature. Reduction of area and elongation measurements showed that the coated sample soaked at the highest temperature and longest soak time

  17. Deep brain optical measurements of cell type-specific neural activity in behaving mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guohong; Jun, Sang Beom; Jin, Xin; Luo, Guoxiang; Pham, Michael D; Lovinger, David M; Vogel, Steven S; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable the monitoring of cellular events from genetically defined groups of neurons in vivo. In this protocol, we describe how to use a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)-based fiber optics system to measure the intensity, emission spectra and lifetime of fluorescent biosensors expressed in deep brain structures in freely moving mice. When combined with Cre-dependent selective expression of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs), this system can be used to measure the average neural activity from a specific population of cells in mice performing complex behavioral tasks. As an example, we used viral expression of GCaMPs in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and recorded the fluorescence changes associated with calcium spikes from mice performing a lever-pressing operant task. The whole procedure, consisting of virus injection, behavior training and optical recording, takes 3-4 weeks to complete. With minor adaptations, this protocol can also be applied to recording cellular events from other cell types in deep brain regions, such as dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. The simultaneously recorded fluorescence signals and behavior events can be used to explore the relationship between the neural activity of specific brain circuits and behavior.

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration applied to lower extremity muscles during decline bench press exercise

    PubMed Central

    García-Gutiérrez, M.T.; Hazell, T.J.; Marín, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on skeletal muscle activity and power performance of the upper body during decline bench press exercise at different loads. Methods: Forty-seven healthy young and active male students volunteered. Each performed dynamic decline bench press repetitions with and without WBV (50 Hz, 2.2 mm) applied through a hamstring bridge exercise at three different loads of their 1-repetition maximum (1RM): 30%, 50%, and 70% 1RM. Muscle activity of the triceps brachii (TB), biceps brachii (BB), pectoralis major (PM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured with surface electromyography electrodes and kinetic parameters of the repetitions were measured with a rotary encoder. Results: WBV increased peak power (PP) output during the 70% 1RM condition (p<0.01). Muscle activity was increased with WBV in the TB and BF muscles at all loads (p<0.05). There were no effects of WBV on BB or PM muscles. Conclusion: WBV applied through a hamstring bridge exercise increases TB muscle activity during a decline bench press and this augmentation contributes to an increased peak power at higher loads and increased peak acceleration at lower loads. PMID:27609035

  19. Dry Pressed Holey Graphene Composites for Li-air Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Steven; Lin, Yi; Hu, Liangbing

    Graphene is considered an ``omnipotent'' material due to its unique structural characteristics and chemical properties. By heating graphene powder in an open-ended tube furnace, a novel compressible carbon material, holey graphene (hG), can be created with controlled porosity and be further decorated with nanosized catalysts to increase electrocatalytic activity. All hG-based materials were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to obtain morphological, topographical, and chemical information as well as to identify any disordered/crystalline phases. In this work, an additive-free dry press method was employed to press the hG composite materials into high mass loading mixed, sandwich, and double-decker Li-air cathode architectures using a hydraulic press. The sandwich and double-decker (i.e. Big Mac) cathode architectures are the first of its kind and can be discharged for more than 200 hours at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. The scalable, binderless, and solventless dry press method and unique Li-air cathode architectures presented here greatly advance electrode fabrication possibilities and could promote future energy storage advancements. Support appreciated from the NASA Internships Fellowships Scholarships (NIFS) Program.

  20. Effects of input methods on inter-key press intervals during continuous typing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huey-Wen; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chang, Fu-Han

    2009-09-01

    Two popular input methods for Chinese typing, Microsoft New Phonetic and Boshiamy, were compared in terms of hand and finger loading, key-pressing speed and typing efficiency. Sixteen subjects typed an English and a Chinese text for 30 min each during two test sessions and all keystrokes and their inter-key press intervals were recorded by electronic activity monitoring software. Typing with Microsoft New Phonetic and with Boshiamy was found to have equal hand loadings, but typing with Microsoft New Phonetic was associated with a higher proportion of keystrokes at the number row. The subjects who used Boshiamy typed significantly more words per min than those who used Microsoft New Phonetic, though both groups had similar English typing speeds. The features of requiring fewer keystrokes to build a character and no need to choose matched words among homophones made Boshiamy a more efficient tool, but the risk of musculoskeletal disorders should be studied further. This study examined two input methods for typing Chinese and showed that typing with Boshiamy had a higher efficiency, including a higher proportion of key presses on the home row, required fewer key presses to build characters and resulted in a faster speed than with Microsoft New Phonetic. However, the potential risk of development of upper limb symptoms warrants further study.

  1. Portrayal of lobotomy in the popular press: 1935-1960.

    PubMed

    Diefenbach, G J; Diefenbach, D; Baumeister, A; West, M

    1999-04-01

    This study analyzed the content of popular press articles on lobotomy between the years 1935 and 1960. Both a qualitative and quantitative analysis provided evidence that the press initially used uncritical and sensational reporting styles, with the content of articles on lobotomy becoming increasingly negative through time. The initial positive bias occurred despite opposing views in the medical community, which provided a basis for more balanced coverage. These findings support the theory that biased reporting in popular press articles may have been a factor influencing the quick and widespread adoption of lobotomy as a psychiatric treatment.

  2. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  4. Scholastic Journalism Week, February 23-29, 1992. Celebrating 200 Years, Freedom of the Press, Bill of Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Education Association.

    Designed to raise community consciousness regarding the benefits of scholastic journalism, this collection of material offers suggestions for celebrating Scholastic Journalism Week. The collection provides: brief suggestions for 11 school activities; brief descriptions of 8 classroom activities; a sample press release for scholastic journalism…

  5. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    PubMed

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape.

  6. Frank Press, Long-Shot Candidate, May Become Science Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, Philip M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes recent events suggesting that Frank Press, a 52-year-old geophysicist who currently heads the department of earth and planetary sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, may be named Science Advisor to the President. (MLH)

  7. STS-105 Post-Landing Crew Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bruce Buckingham, NASA Public Affairs, introduces STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz and Mission Specialists Dan Barry, who each make a brief statement about the mission. They then answer questions from the press.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CARLTON RADIAL ARM DRILL PRESS (THE CARLTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CARLTON RADIAL ARM DRILL PRESS (THE CARLTON MACHINE TOOL CO., CINCINNATI, OHIO) WITH MACHINE OPERATOR, EDDIE BURTTRAM. - O'Neal Steel, Incorporated, Fabrication Shop, 744 Forty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  10. Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Craig H.

    1983-01-01

    Compares the reactions of photojournalists and the public to hypothetical ethical dilemmas confronting press photographers. Concludes that the two groups disagree significantly in their reactions to 17 of 19 ethical situations. (FL)

  11. Study of pressing machine pressure relief characteristics based on AMESim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanli; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Caofeng; Wu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    When a working cylinder of the pressing machine working cylinder was stuck and underwent retracted conversion, pressure shock was high in working cylinder cavity and flow pulsation was distinct in the pipeline due to the high working pressure and frequent retracted transformation of the working cylinder, which not only shortened the service life of the pressing machine, but also exerted serious impacts on the machining precision and quality, especially after the pressing machine applied loads and high-pressure oil in work rod end cavity of working cylinder needed to be relieved in a short time. In order to research and analyze the better pressure relief characteristics of the two types of pressure relief circuits of the pressing machine, the paper established models, carried out simulation and analysis and then made contrastive analysis of the working cylinder rod velocity, rod acceleration and port pressure pulsation according to the simulation results.

  12. Articles Pertinent to the Campus Press: A Selected Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Birthney; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Lists and annotates articles dealing with such topics as advertising, audience analysis, broadcasting, criticism and defense of media, editorial policy and methods, journalism history, journalism education, magazines, media management, and press law. (GW)

  13. Articles Pertinent to the Campus Press: A Selected Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Birthney; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Lists and annotates articles dealing with such topics as advertising, audience analysis, broadcasting, broadcast law, criticism and defense of media, editorial policy and methods, media policy and methods, journalism education, press law, and school publications. (GW)

  14. Rugged pressed disk electrode has low contact potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Mosier, B.

    1965-01-01

    Pressed-disk electrode with low contact potential monitors physiological processes. It consists of silver and silver chloride combined with bentonitic clay. The clay affords a surface that permits use over extended periods without contact deterioration.

  15. Drill press in foreground is one of few machine tools ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drill press in foreground is one of few machine tools in operating condition which is still operated occasionally for public demonstrations. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  16. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  17. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PITS CENTER, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH HUFFORD BULLDOZIER FORMING PRESS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH HUFFORD BULLDOZIER FORMING PRESS IN FOREGROUND, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PIT IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Looking north into oing press of the saw line in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north into o-ing press of the saw line in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Oing press of the saw line in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    O-ing press of the saw line in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building looking northeast. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 29, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  4. Nutrient presses and pulses differentially impact plants, herbivores, detritivores and their natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shannon M; Wimp, Gina M; Lewis, Danny; Denno, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated food webs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the range from sporadic to continuous. Despite the global increase in anthropogenically-derived nutrient inputs into native ecosystems, the consequences of variation in subsidy duration on native plants and their associated food webs are poorly known. Specifically, while some studies have examined the effects of nutrient subsidies on native ecosystems for a single year (a nutrient pulse), repeated introductions of nutrients across multiple years (a nutrient press) better reflect the persistent nature of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We therefore contrasted the effects of a one-year nutrient pulse with a four-year nutrient press on arthropod consumers in two salt marshes. Salt marshes represent an ideal system to address the differential impacts of nutrient pulses and presses on ecosystem and community dynamics because human development and other anthropogenic activities lead to recurrent introductions of nutrients into these natural systems. We found that plant biomass and %N as well as arthropod density fell after the nutrient pulse ended but remained elevated throughout the nutrient press. Notably, higher trophic levels responded more strongly than lower trophic levels to fertilization, and the predator/prey ratio increased each year of the nutrient press, demonstrating that food web responses to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment can take years to fully manifest themselves. Vegetation at the two marshes also exhibited an apparent tradeoff between increasing %N and biomass in response to fertilization. Our research emphasizes the need for long-term, spatially diverse studies of nutrient enrichment in order to understand how variation in the duration

  5. Nutrient Presses and Pulses Differentially Impact Plants, Herbivores, Detritivores and Their Natural Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon M.; Wimp, Gina M.; Lewis, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated food webs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the range from sporadic to continuous. Despite the global increase in anthropogenically-derived nutrient inputs into native ecosystems, the consequences of variation in subsidy duration on native plants and their associated food webs are poorly known. Specifically, while some studies have examined the effects of nutrient subsidies on native ecosystems for a single year (a nutrient pulse), repeated introductions of nutrients across multiple years (a nutrient press) better reflect the persistent nature of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We therefore contrasted the effects of a one-year nutrient pulse with a four-year nutrient press on arthropod consumers in two salt marshes. Salt marshes represent an ideal system to address the differential impacts of nutrient pulses and presses on ecosystem and community dynamics because human development and other anthropogenic activities lead to recurrent introductions of nutrients into these natural systems. We found that plant biomass and %N as well as arthropod density fell after the nutrient pulse ended but remained elevated throughout the nutrient press. Notably, higher trophic levels responded more strongly than lower trophic levels to fertilization, and the predator/prey ratio increased each year of the nutrient press, demonstrating that food web responses to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment can take years to fully manifest themselves. Vegetation at the two marshes also exhibited an apparent tradeoff between increasing %N and biomass in response to fertilization. Our research emphasizes the need for long-term, spatially diverse studies of nutrient enrichment in order to understand how variation in the duration

  6. Bending strength studies on hot-pressed silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegesmann, J.

    1984-01-01

    The 4-point bending strength of 4 grades of hot-pressed SiC was determined at different temperatures. With a transgranular mode of fracture the values for bending strength are retained up to high temperatures. For intergranular fracture the decrease of strength is governed by subcritical crack growth. The intergranular fracture is caused by a high content of silicate glassy phase at the grain boundaries of hot-pressed SiC.

  7. Grain refinement of aluminum using equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Z.; Furukawa, M.; Nemoto, M.; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Using the technique of equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, it is possible to reduce the grain size of polycrystalline materials to the submicrometer level. Thus, this processing technique has the potential for producing materials which may exhibit superplasticity. This paper describes various factors affecting the development and evolution of the microstructure produced by ECA pressing. Optimization of such factors is then presented for the advent of superplasticity.

  8. Analysis of the Pentagon’s Press Pool Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-14

    the beginning of the Associated Press in 1849. Member organizations of a pool also have rules to abide by. As Victor Rosewater said: The original...parties to the arrangement. IVictor Rosewater , History of Cooperative News-Gathering in the United States (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1930...Company, Inc., 1984. Reston, James. The Artillery of the Press. New York: harper & Row, 1967. Rosewater , Victor. History of Cooperative News

  9. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  10. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF AN EXTRUSION PRESS IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF AN EXTRUSION PRESS IN THE HIGH BAY AREA OF BUILDING 865. THE EXTRUSION PRESS WAS USED TO PRODUCE CYLINDRICAL BARS, HOLLOW TUBES, AND SHAPES WITH IRREGULAR CROSS-SECTIONS BY FORCING PREHEATED METAL THROUGH A DIE ORIFICE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE. (5/22/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Metal Research & Development Laboratory, South of Central Avenue at south end of terminus of Ninth Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Galileo Press Conference from JPL. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This two-tape Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) video production presents a Dec. 8, 1992 press conference held at JPL to discuss the final Galileo spacecraft encounter with Earth before beginning its journey to Jupiter. The main theme of the conference was centered on the significance of the 2nd and final Earth/Moon flyby as being the spacecraft's last planetary encounter in the solar system before reaching Jupiter, as well as final flight preparations prior to its final journey. Each person of the five member panel was introduced by Robert MacMillan (JPL Public Information Mgr.) before giving brief presentations including slides and viewgraphs covering their area of expertise regarding Galileo's current status and future plans. After the presentations, the media was given an opportunity to ask questions of the panel regarding the mission. Mr. Wesley Huntress (Dir. of Solar System Exploration (NASA)), William J. ONeill (Galileo Project Manager), Neal E. Ausman, Jr. (Galileo Mission Director), Dr. Torrence V. Johnson (Galileo Project Scientist) and Dr. Ronald Greeley (Member, Imaging Team, Colorado St. Univ.) made up the panel and discussed topics including: Galileo's interplanetary trajectory; project status and performance review; instrument calibration activities; mission timelines; lunar observation and imaging; and general lunar science. Also included in the last three minutes of the video are simulations and images of the 2nd Galileo/Moon encounter.

  13. Microstructure evolution in Zr under equal channel angular pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W. S.; Ryoo, H. S.; Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kwun, S. I.; Chae, S. W.

    2002-03-01

    Pure polycrystalline Zr was deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), and the microstructural characteristics were analyzed. By repeated alternating ECAP, it was possible to refine the grain size from 200 to 0.2 µm. Subsequent annealing heat treatment at 550 °C resulted in a grain growth of up to 6 µm. Mechanical twinning was an important deformation mechanism, particularly during the early stage of deformation. The most active twinning system was identified as 85.2 deg {10bar 12} tensile twinning, followed by 57.1 deg {10bar 11} compressive twinning. Crystal texture as well as grain-boundary misorientation distribution of deformed Zr were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The ECAP-deformed Zr showed a considerable difference in the crystallographic attributes from those of cold-rolled Zr or Ti, in that texture and boundary misorientation-angle distribution tend toward more even distribution with a slightly preferential distribution of boundaries of a 20 to 30 deg misorientation angle. Furthermore, unlike the case of cold rolling, the crystal texture was not greatly altered by subsequent annealing heat treatment. Overall, the present work suggests ECAP as a viable method to obtain significant grain refining in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.

  14. VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, CONTINENTAL GIN COMPANY HYDRAULIC TANK - Magnolia Plantation, Cotton Gins & Presses, LA Route 119, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  15. Power and impulse applied during push press exercise.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jason P; Mundy, Peter D; Comfort, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the load, which maximized peak and mean power, and impulse applied to these loads, during the push press and to compare them to equivalent jump squat data. Resistance-trained men performed 2 push press (n = 17; age: 25.4 ± 7.4 years; height: 183.4 ± 5 cm; body mass: 87 ± 15.6 kg) and jump squat (n = 8 of original 17; age: 28.7 ± 8.1 years; height: 184.3 ± 5.5 cm; mass: 98 ± 5.3 kg) singles with 10-90% of their push press and back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), respectively, in 10% 1RM increments while standing on a force platform. Push press peak and mean power was maximized with 75.3 ± 16.4 and 64.7 ± 20% 1RM, respectively, and impulses applied to these loads were 243 ± 29 N·s and 231 ± 36 N·s. Increasing and decreasing load, from the load that maximized peak and mean power, by 10 and 20% 1RM reduced peak and mean power by 6-15% (p ≤ 0.05). Push press and jump squat maximum peak power (7%, p = 0.08) and the impulse that was applied to the load that maximized peak (8%, p = 0.17) and mean (13%, p = 0.91) power were not significantly different, but push press maximum mean power was significantly greater than the jump squat equivalent (∼9.5%, p = 0.03). The mechanical demand of the push press is comparable with the jump squat and could provide a time-efficient combination of lower-body power and upper-body and trunk strength training.

  16. Mi Segundo Libro de Maquinas Simples: Las Palancas. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My Second Book of Simple Machines: Levers. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the second book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. By suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles, this book explains the workings of three types of levers. Resistance…

  17. Superconducting Solenoid and Press for Permanent Magnet Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, T. M.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-08-01

    For the first time, a superconducting solenoid (SCM) was used to increase the remnant magnetization of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs). In particular, improved magnetic alignment of commercial-grade PM powder was achieved, as it was axial die pressed into 12.7-mm diameter cylindrical compacts in the 76.2-mm warm bore of a 9-T SCM. The press used to compact the powder is unique and was specifically designed for use with the SCM. Although the press was operated in the batch mode for this proof of concept study, its design is intended to enable automated production. In operation, a simple die and punch set made of nonmagnetic materials was filled with powder and loaded into a nonmagnetic press tube. The cantilevered press tube was inserted horizontally, on a carrier manually advanced along a track, into the SCM. The robustness of the mechanical components and the SCM, in its liquid helium dewar, were specifically designed to allow for insertion and extraction of the magnetic powder and compacts, while operating at 9 T.

  18. Bilberry and bilberry press cake as sources of dietary fibre

    PubMed Central

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Sibakov, Juhani; Kössö, Tuija; Mokkila, Mirja; Kaisa, Poutanen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary recommendations for Nordic countries urge the use of plant foods as a basis for healthy nutrition. Currently, the level of dietary fibre (DF) intake is not adequate. Berries are an elementary part of the recommended Nordic healthy diet and could be consumed in higher amounts. Materials and methods Finnish bilberries and a bilberry press cake from juice processing were studied for DF content, carbohydrate composition, and non-carbohydrate fibre content, which was analysed as sulphuric acid insoluble and soluble material. The microstructure of all samples was also studied using light microscopy and toluidine blue O, calcofluor, and acid fuchsin staining. Results The total DF contents of fresh and freeze-dried bilberries and the press cake were 3.0, 24.1, and 58.9%, respectively. Most of the DF was insoluble. Only about half of it was carbohydrate, the rest being mostly sulphuric acid–insoluble material, waxy cutin from skins, and resilient seeds. Bilberry seeds represented over half of the press cake fraction, and in addition to skin, they were the major DF sources. Microscopy revealed that skins in the press cake were intact and the surface of the seeds had thick-walled cells. Conclusions Bilberry press cake is thus a good source of insoluble non-carbohydrate DF, and could be used to provide DF-rich foods to contribute to versatile intake of DF. PMID:26652738

  19. An Update of Freedom of the Press and Information in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce; Munoz, Julio E.

    This paper is based on a review of the literature that included reports from the Inter-American Press Association's general assembly in Los Angeles in October 1984, the mid-year meeting of the Inter-American Press Association in Panama City in March 1985, and the 1983 world press freedom review of the International Press Institute. Other material…

  20. 22 CFR 9b.3 - Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by foreign media... OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.3 Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations... media organizations must: (a) Present to the Office of Press Relations, Department of State,...

  1. 22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for... DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews. Department of State press building passes are issued to members of television and radio technical crews...

  2. 22 CFR 9b.3 - Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Press correspondents employed by foreign media... OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.3 Press correspondents employed by foreign media organizations... media organizations must: (a) Present to the Office of Press Relations, Department of State,...

  3. Crack toughness evaluation of hot pressed and forged beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Beryllium fracture toughness test specimens were fatigue cracked using reversed cycling with a compression load two to three times the tension load. In worked beryllium, textures may be produced which result in fatigue cracks that are out of plane with the starter notch. Specimens of hot pressed stock exhibited load displacement records which were nonlinear throughout their course. Fracture specimens of both hot pressed and forged stock showed essentially no reduction of thickness and the fracture surfaces were flat and normal to the load axis. However, the stress intensity factor at maximum load increased with decreasing thickness. Load-displacement and electric potential records for the hot pressed beryllium specimens exhibited several anomalies such as negative residual crack mouth displacements and a decrease in electrical potential with increasing load.

  4. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    DOEpatents

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  5. Thermal conductance of pressed contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the optimum design of cryogenic instruments requires accurate thermal models. The present models are limited by a lack of knowledge of the low temperature thermal conductance of the bolted joints which are typically used in the instrument-to-system interface. In connection with studies of pressed contacts, it has been found that the thermal conductance does not obey the Wiedemann-Franz law. The present investigation is concerned with the characterization of the thermal conductance of pressed contacts at liquid helium-4 temperatures, taking into account the dependence of thermal contact conductance on applied force and temperature. It is shown that for the 0.4 micron OFHC copper pressed contact pair, the thermal conductance varies roughly as the second power of the temperature, and increases with increasing applied force.

  6. Joining of ceramics of different biofunction by hot isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianguo . Center for Dental Technology and Biomaterials); Harmansson, L. ); Soeremark, R. . Dept. of Prosthodontics)

    1993-10-01

    Monolithic zirconia (Z) and zirconia-hydroxyapatite (Z/HA) composites were joined by cold isostatic pressing (CIP at 300 MPa) and subsequently by glass-encapsulated hot isostatic pressing (HIP at 1225 C, 1 h and 200 MPa). The physical and mechanical properties of the materials were measured. The fracture surface was studied using a light microscope. The results indicate a strength level of the joint similar to that of the corresponding composite material (Z/HA), 845 and 860 MPa, respectively. Similar experiments with monolithic alumina (A) and alumina-hydroxyapatite (A/HA) were carried out without success. Cracking occurred in the joint area during the cold isostatic pressing process. It seems that ceramics with high green strength and similar green density are essential when joining ceramics by combined CIP and HIP processes.

  7. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-04

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  8. Accuracy of press reports on gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Hurley, Kevin

    2000-09-01

    Most Americans learn about modern science from press reports, while such articles have a bad reputation among scientists. We have performed a study of 148 news articles on gamma-ray astronomy to quantitatively answer the questions ``How accurate are press reports of gamma-ray astronomy?'' and ``What fraction of the basic claims in the press are correct?'' We have taken all articles on the topic from five news sources (UPI, New York Times, Sky & Telescope, Science News, and five middle-sized city newspapers) for one decade (1987-1996) We found an average rate of roughly one trivial error every two articles, while none of our 148 articles significantly mislead the reader or misrepresented the science. This quantitative result is in stark contrast to the nearly universal opinion among scientists that the press frequently butchers science stories. So a major result from our study is that reporters should be rehabilitated into the good graces of astrophysicists, since they actually are doing a good job. For our second question, we rated each story with the probability that its basic new science claim is correct. We found that the average probability over all stories is 70%. Since the reporters and the scientists are both doing good jobs, then why is 30% of the science you read in the press wrong? The reason is that the nature of news reporting is to present front-line science and the nature of front-line science is that reliable conclusions have not yet been reached. The combination of these two natures forces fast breaking science news to have frequent incorrect ideas that are subsequently identified and corrected. So a second major result from our study is to make the distinction between textbook science (with reliabilities near 100%) and front-line science which you read about in the press (with reliabilities near 70%). .

  9. 25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows the paper after it has been coated and dried, as shown on page 238, and it being rolled at the end of the coating-machine. It is now ready to be sent to the big presses which calender it (or iron it, as popular pariance would have it). The pictures on pages 238 and 239 show a continuous process over a single machine; but on account of the length of teh machine, the process is illustrated in sections. (p.239.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  10. [The 1853-1856 cholera epidemic in the Portuguese press].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Antónia Pires de

    2011-12-01

    The article examines science and technology communication aimed at a non-specialized audience, using the general press as the main source in this endeavor to capture an image of the popularization of science in Portugal. Based on the fact that the nineteenth-century press was overtly concerned with garnering an audience and spreading knowledge, the study uses news, articles, and advertisements about the 1853-1856 cholera epidemic to assess the era's scientific knowledge (especially about prevention and treatment) and how this information was conveyed to society and used by it.

  11. Aerial view of NASA Press Site in Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view is of the buildings that comprise the NASA Press Site in the Launch Complex 39 area. The first large building on the left is the grandstand from which media representatives view the Space Shuttle launches. The building next to it houses the auditorium from which NASA press briefings are broadcast. To its immediate right is the NASA News Center which includes the offices of the NASA spokesmen at Kennedy Space Center. The buildings and trailers to the right of the News Center are assigned to various television stations and news services.

  12. Aerial view of NASA Press Site in Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view is of the buildings that comprise the NASA Press Site in the Launch Complex 39 area. The first large building on the right (closest to the water) is the grandstand from which media representatives view the Space Shuttle launches. The building next to it houses the auditorium from which NASA press briefings are broadcast. To its immediate left is the NASA News Center which includes the offices of the NASA spokesmen at Kennedy Space Center. The buildings and trailers to the left of the News Center are assigned to various television stations and news services.

  13. Study on Nonisothermal Glass Molding Press for Aspherical Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianfeng; Yan, Jiwang; Yoshihara, Nobuhito; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto

    Nonisothermal glass molding press (NGMP) was proposed to fabricate aspherical lenses, and its characteristics were studied by both experiments and finite element method (FEM) simulations in comparison with the traditional isothermal glass molding press (IGMP). The cycle time, form accuracy, surface roughness, stress/strain distributions of the aspherical lenses made by IGMP and NGMP were examined and compared. Experimental results and simulation results show that NGMP is an effective way to improve the molding efficiency and prolong the service life of the molding dies.

  14. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25116725

  15. One-repetition maximum bench press performance estimated with a new accelerometer method.

    PubMed

    Rontu, Jari-Pekka; Hannula, Manne I; Leskinen, Sami; Linnamo, Vesa; Salmi, Jukka A

    2010-08-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is an important method to measure muscular strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method to predict 1RM bench press performance from a submaximal lift. The developed method was evaluated by using different load levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM). The subjects were active floorball players (n = 22). The new method is based on the assumption that the estimation of 1RM can be calculated from the submaximal weight and the maximum acceleration of the submaximal weight during the lift. The submaximal bench press lift was recorded with a 3-axis accelerometer integrated to a wrist equipment and a data acquisition card. The maximum acceleration was calculated from the measurement data of the sensor and analyzed in personal computer with LabView-based software. The estimated 1RM results were compared with traditionally measured 1RM results of the subjects. An own estimation equation was developed for each load level, that is, 5 different estimation equations have been used based on the measured 1RM values of the subjects. The mean (+/-SD) of measured 1RM result was 69.86 (+/-15.72) kg. The mean of estimated 1RM values were 69.85-69.97 kg. The correlations between measured and estimated 1RM results were high (0.89-0.97; p < 0.001). The differences between the methods were very small (-0.11 to 0.01 kg) and were not significantly different from each other. The results of this study showed promising prediction accuracy for estimating bench press performance by performing just a single submaximal bench press lift. The estimation accuracy is competitive with other known estimation methods, at least with the current study population.

  16. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  17. STS-47 Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-47 Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour Cmdr. Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Cmdr. Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists, N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist, Mamoru Mohri, present an overview of their mission. This the 50th Shuttle flight marks the first NASA mission devoted primarily to Japan. Endeavour carries into Earth orbit Spacelab-J (SL-J), a 23-foot long pressurized laboratory built by the European Space Agency specifically for conducting experiments in a shirt-sleeve environment. SL-J contains 43 experiments, 34 provided by Japan, 7 from the United States and 2 joint experiments. Jemison becomes the first African American woman to fly in space and Mohri first Japanese to fly in space. Video footage includes the following: prelaunch and launch activities; various experiments including protein crystal growth, electronic materials, fluids, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and the effects of microgravity on plants and animals; earth views of Japan, Tokyo Harbor, and Hurricane Bonnie; and the re-entry and landing of the orbiter.

  18. 19. Interior detail, grinder and drill press, Machine Shop, Roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior detail, grinder and drill press, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  19. 18. Interior detail, drill press and grinder, Machine Shop, Roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, drill press and grinder, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to east (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  1. 27. NORTHEAST TO TWO CIRCA 1900 DRILL PRESSES (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. NORTHEAST TO TWO CIRCA 1900 DRILL PRESSES (LEFT TO RIGHT MADE BY W. F. AND J. BARNES CO., ROCKFORD, ILL., AND CHAMPION BLOWER AND FORGE CO., LANCASTER, PENN.) AND BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA ALONG EAST INTERIOR WALL AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF FACTORY BUILDING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  2. Googling "Deaf": Deafness in the World's English-Language Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2007-01-01

    An Internet search tool, Google Alert, was used to survey the global English-language press July-December 2005 for references to deaf people. The survey found that such references focus on people who are deaf rather than the disability itself, thus demonstrating how well deaf people fit into the mainstream. Derogatory terminology such as "deaf and…

  3. Tell Us More: Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Conceptual Press Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhone, Dot

    2012-01-01

    This study examines interactions between teachers and students during reading comprehension instruction to determine how certain patterns of teacher-student talk support student comprehension achievement and reading engagement. The central focus of the study is "conceptual press discourse," a pattern of teacher response that includes requests for…

  4. Pressing for Elaboration in Student Talk about Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhone, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the practice of one accomplished teacher who uses follow-up probes to press her fourth- and fifth-grade students to clarify and articulate their ideas more fully. Qualitative analysis of field notes, teacher and student interviews, and video recordings of instruction, and discourse analysis of reading conferences revealed…

  5. 42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. THE MOLD, WHICH HAS A RAISED DESIGN, LEAVES AND OUTLINE IN THE SLAB, THE PIECES THUS DEFINED, ARE THEN CUT APART TO BE FIRED SEPARATELY AND REASSEMBLED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  7. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. A Community College District/University Press Copublishing Venture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, Georgia Kemp

    1994-01-01

    Describes cooperation between the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) and University of North Texas Press, resulting in the publication of a collection of short stories and a book of poetry written by DCCCD faculty and staff. Provides information on sales, marketing and promotion, classroom use of the books, and opportunities for…

  10. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Isaccs

    2009-09-17

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Imaging/Pre-Press Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the imaging/pre-press cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  12. The Press in Black Africa: Philosophy and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dennis Lee

    This dissertation is a descriptive, comparative study of press-government relationships in the 34 nations of independent Black Africa south of the Sahara. Excluded from consideration are territories under European administration and those nations that have white minority governments. The 34 sovereign states are analyzed and systematically…

  13. Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Isaccs

    2016-07-12

    Argonne Director Eric Isaacs addresses the National Press Club on 9/15/2009. To build a national economy based on sustainable energy, the nation must first "reignite its innovation ecology," he said. Issacs makes the case for investing in science to secure America's future.

  14. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by…

  15. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

  16. Press room of the Crew reception Area, Lunar Receivng Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Room 190 of the Support and Administrative Facilities, Crew Reception Area (CRA), Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Bldg 37, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The room is a debriefing room which facilitates indirect contact with the astronauts and CRA medical staff during quarantine periods. Also called the press room.

  17. The Press, the Government, and the Ethics Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C.

    Immanuel Kant's idea of a will to do the right thing--to be ethical--is essentially a dead concept with both press and government. The reasons for this "ethics vacuum" are two-fold: the foundations of ethics in both circles are vague, confusing, and beset by relativism and pragmatism so that no system of ethics ever really coalesces; and neither…

  18. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall have the individual operator's hand controls protected against unintentional operation and have the individual operator's hand controls arranged by design and construction and/or separation to require the use of both hands to trip the press and use a control arrangement requiring...

  19. 20. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOURSPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. NORTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOUR-SPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG EAST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, SHOWING SHELVES AND BINS WITH TOOLS AND PARTS FOR PUMP AND WATER SYSTEM REPAIR. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  20. 19. SOUTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOURSPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SOUTHEAST TO CIRCA 1900 FOUR-SPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS ALONG EAST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, SHOWING SHELVES AND BINS WITH TOOLS AND PARTS FOR PUMP AND WATER SYSTEM REPAIR. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. University Press Meeting Dominated by Donor Proposal and Digital Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A surprise request for proposals from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and a forthcoming report on university publishing in the digital age were among topics discussed at the annual meeting of the Association of American University Presses. The offer from the Mellon Foundation concerns support for collaborative, monograph-centered projects in…

  2. Looking north at uing press of the submerged arc weld ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north at u-ing press of the submerged arc weld (saw) line of the main pipe mill building, bay 7. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Ten Ways to Get Attention with Your Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kooten, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Recommends 10 steps that can increase chances of having press release published. Advises readers to use required format; determine what constitutes news; keep release short; include contact person in release; incorporate good quotes; send releases to right person; understand that release will be edited; time arrival of release; follow up with…

  5. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  6. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  7. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, A. A. J. Smith, L. W. Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-07

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  8. Preliminary Design on Screw Press Model of Palm Oil Extraction Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Salleh, S. M.; Nawi, I.; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Yusup, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the screw press is to compress the fruit bunch between the main screw and travelling cones to extract the palm oil. Visual inspection, model development and simulation of screw press by using Solidworks 2016 and calculation of design properties were performed to support the investigation. The project aims to analyse different design of screw press which improves in reducing maintenance cost and increasing lifespan. The currently existing of screw press can endure between 500 to 900 hours and requires frequent maintenance. Different configurations have been tried in determination of best design properties in screw press. The results specify that screw press with tapered inner shaft has more total lifespan (hours) compared existing screw press. The selection of the screw press with tapered inner shaft can reduce maintenance cost and increase lifespan of the screw press.

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    SciTech Connect

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity.

  10. Metonymie dans la presse ecrite: entre discours et langue (Metonymies in the Press: Between Discourse and Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecolle, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes certain metonymies that are often employed in the daily French press. In such metonymies, a human being or a set of individuals are referred to by means of the name of an institutional location (i.e., a capital city, a ministry in a western country, the name of a country). These metonymic patterns do not seem to be used by…

  11. The Suburban Press; First Steps toward an Annotated Bibliography. Suburban Press Research Series No. 16 and 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Suburban Press Research Center.

    This bibliography lists journal articles concerning various aspects of the suburban press. Annotated selections, arranged alphabetically according to journal title, are gathered from the following periodicals: "Advertising Age,""Business Week,""Columbia Journalism Review,""Editor and Publisher,""Grassroots Editor,""Journalism…

  12. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  13. Damage of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum impairs spatial working memory and extinction of active avoidance: effects on proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Pang, Kevin C H; Jiao, Xilu; Sinha, Swamini; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band (MSDB) are important in spatial learning and memory. On the basis of the excitotoxic damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons, we have recently suggested a role for these neurons in controlling proactive interference. Our study sought to test this hypothesis in different behavioral procedures using a new GABAergic immunotoxin. GABA-transporter-saporin (GAT1-SAP) was administered into the MSDB of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following surgery, rats were trained in a reference memory water maze procedure for 5 days, followed by a working memory (delayed match to position) water maze procedure. Other rats were trained in a lever-press avoidance procedure after intraseptal GAT1-SAP or sham surgery. Intraseptal GAT1-SAP extensively damaged GABAergic neurons while sparing most cholinergic MSDB neurons. Rats treated with GAT1-SAP were not impaired in acquiring a spatial reference memory, learning the location of the escape platform as rapidly as sham rats. In contrast, GAT1-SAP rats were slower than sham rats to learn the platform location in a delayed match to position procedure, in which the platform location was changed every day. Moreover, GAT1-SAP rats returned to previous platform locations more often than sham rats. In the active avoidance procedure, intraseptal GAT1-SAP impaired extinction but not acquisition of the avoidance response. Using a different neurotoxin and behavioral procedures than previous studies, the results of this study paint a similar picture that GABAergic MSDB neurons are important for controlling proactive interference.

  14. All quiet at Press Site before media blitz of mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On a normal day of activity prior to the launch of mission STS- 95, the parking lot (foreground), plus the grandstand and buildings at the Press Site (beyond and to the right), are easily located from the air. The view gives no indication of the media frenzy the launch would generate with the return to space of John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio, whose first flight was aboard Friendship 7 in February 1962, and the first American to orbit the Earth. Glenn is one of a crew of seven on board Space Shuttle Discovery for the nine-day mission.

  15. KSC Press Site Transformer Bldg. (K7-1205c) SWMU 074 Interim Measure Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, A. Scott; Applegate, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This document presents and discusses the Interim Measure (IM) Work Plan for the Press Site Transformer Building (K7-1205C). The purpose of the proposed IM activities is to remove soil affected with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) greater than the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) residential direct-exposure Soil Cleanup Target Level (R-SCTL) of 0.5 milligrams per kilogram and encapsulate concrete exhibiting PCB concentration greater than the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) threshold of 50 milligrams per kilogram.

  16. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  17. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    PubMed Central

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  18. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    PubMed

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  19. A comparison of the stimulus effects of codeine in rhesus monkeys under the contingencies of a two lever discrimination task and a cross self-administration paradigm: tests of generalization to pentazocine, buprenorphine, tilidine, and different doses of codeine.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, F

    1988-01-01

    The stimulus effects of codeine were assessed in three monkeys trained to perform first under the contingencies of a cross self-administration paradigm and then under a two lever discrimination task. Codeine-trained monkeys generalized to pentazocine, buprenorphine, and codeine under both procedures in doses different from the training dose. Codeine-trained monkeys did not generalize to tilidine. These results indicate that monkeys do not behave in a qualitatively different way when presented with the study drugs under both contingencies. However, there were marked quantitative differences between the generalization effects of doses of pentazocine, buprenorphine, and codeine to doses other than that used in training between the two paradigms. Much higher doses of codeine and pentazocine, but not of buprenorphine, were necessary for inducing generalization effects in the two lever task than in the cross self-administration procedure. The possible reasons for these quantitative differences are discussed. It is concluded that the cross self-administration procedure is more sensitive for the assessment of opioid-like stimulus properties of drugs than the two lever discrimination task.

  20. Anthocyanins, antioxidative, and antimicrobial properties of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and their press cakes.

    PubMed

    Viskelis, P; Rubinskiene, M; Jasutiene, I; Sarkinas, A; Daubaras, R; Cesoniene, L

    2009-03-01

    Amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid in 4 American cranberry varieties harvested at 4 stages of maturity were measured. The larger amount of phenolic compounds was found in berries of "Black Veil" cultivar (504 mg/100 g) at II stage of maturity. Significantly larger amounts of anthocyanins were determined in the overripe berries of the cultivars "Ben Lear" and "Black Veil." The amount of ascorbic acid in berries increased during ripening from I to III stage, and slightly decreased in the overripe berries. The biggest quantities of ascorbic acid were found in the ripe berries of "Ben Lear" cultivar (15.8 mg/100 g). The distribution of anthocyanins pigments was determined by HPLC-UV/MS in mature berries. The composition of individual anthocyanins in berries was quite similar in all the studied cranberry cultivars. While skins of cranberries are rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, the extracts of the by-products of cranberries juice-berry cakes, were analyzed and obtained results were compared with the properties of extracts made from whole berries. The anthocyanins and total phenolics content, radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial activity of the whole berries, and their press cakes extracts were measured. All investigated extracts from berries and their press cakes showed good radical scavenging activity and revealed antimicrobial properties. It was found that Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) were the most sensitive among 10 tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.