Science.gov

Sample records for active life expectancy

  1. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  2. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  3. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  4. Expected years of life free of chronic condition-induced activity limitations - United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Molla, Michael T

    2013-11-22

    Over the 20th century, the U.S. population has witnessed major changes in fatal and nonfatal health outcomes. Mortality has declined, and life expectancy has increased continuously; chronic conditions have replaced acute diseases as leading causes of both illness and death. During 1900-2008, average life expectancy at birth for the total U.S. population increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 78.1 years in 2008, a gain of 30.8 years. In addition, an increasing proportion of the U.S. population is aged >65 years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau estimates, at the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. population aged >65 years constituted only 4.1 percent of the total population; by 2008, the percentage of the total U.S. population aged >65 years was 12.8%. However, declines in mortality are not necessarily associated with declines in morbidity or the consequences of chronic conditions on life activities. The possibility that longer life might be accompanied by poor health makes it essential to develop measures that account for both mortality and morbidity at the same time. Hence, over the past 40 years, a new set of health measures (e.g., "healthy life expectancies") have been developed that account for both mortality and life spent free of the consequences of ill health. One of these newly developed set of measures (called "active life expectancy") is the average number of years expected to be lived without activity limitations. PMID:24264496

  5. TRENDS IN SENESCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY

    PubMed Central

    Bongaarts, John

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between senescent and non-senescent mortality proves to be very valuable for describing and analyzing age patterns of death rates. Unfortunately, standard methods for estimating these mortality components are lacking. The first part of this study discusses alternative methods for estimating background and senescent mortality among adults and proposes a simple approach based on death rates by causes of death. The second part examines trends in senescent life expectancy (i.e. the life expectancy implied by senescent mortality) and compares them with trends in conventional longevity indicators between 1960 and 2000 in a group of 17 developed countries with low mortality. Senescent life expectancy for females rises at an average rate of 1.54 years per decade between 1960 and 2000 in these countries. The shape of the distribution of senescent deaths by age remains relatively invariant while the entire distribution shifts over time to higher ages as longevity rose. PMID:19851933

  6. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  7. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...

  8. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  9. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  10. The standardized mortality ratio and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S P; Hardy, R J; Wen, C P

    1992-04-01

    This paper develops a theoretical relation between the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the expected years of life and establishes a regression equation for easy conversion between these two statistics. The mathematical expression of the derived relation is an approximation, requiring an assumption of constant age-specific mortality ratios. It underestimates the "true" value calculated based on life table technique when the age-specific mortality ratios increase with age. This equation provides a conservative method to estimate the expected years of life for cohort mortality studies and facilitates an assessment of the impact of work-related factors on the length of life of the worker. It also allows one to convert the SMR to life expectancy in smaller studies whose sole objective is to determine the SMR in a working population. A 1% decrease (or increase) in the standardized mortality ratio will result in 0.1373 years increased (or decreased) life expectancy based on white male data for the US population. Furthermore, with data from 14 large oil refinery and chemical worker cohorts of white males, the "derived" expected years of life based on the regression equation closely predicts the corresponding value calculated using a standard life table technique. This statistical equation is expected to have practical applications when used in conjunction with the SMR to provide an approximate measure of life expectancy, a term and statistic familiar to most lay people. PMID:1595682

  11. An Activity for Exploring Marital Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, William G.

    1976-01-01

    The learning activity, designed for the use of high school students in a family life education course, is designed to explore attitudes towards mate qualities in order to increase the students' awareness of marital expectations. The activity utilizes the format of an auction game and a group discussion. (EC)

  12. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  13. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. Methods We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Findings Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5–79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3–83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9–75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1–84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8–80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0–88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female–male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2–87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7–88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8–9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1

  14. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions. PMID:19851603

  15. Trading stages: life expectancies in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim; Horvitz, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography. PMID:22664576

  16. Forecasting differences in life expectancy by education.

    PubMed

    van Baal, Pieter; Peters, Frederik; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2016-07-01

    Forecasts of life expectancy (LE) have fuelled debates about the sustainability and dependability of pension and healthcare systems. Of relevance to these debates are inequalities in LE by education. In this paper, we present a method of forecasting LE for different educational groups within a population. As a basic framework we use the Li-Lee model that was developed to forecast mortality coherently for different groups. We adapted this model to distinguish between overall, sex-specific, and education-specific trends in mortality, and extrapolated these time trends in a flexible manner. We illustrate our method for the population aged 65 and over in the Netherlands, using several data sources and spanning different periods. The results suggest that LE is likely to increase for all educational groups, but that differences in LE between educational groups will widen. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the advantages of our proposed method. PMID:27052447

  17. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  18. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results Students’ written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: “Work”, “Family”, “Leisure” and “Quality of personal life”. Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions Today’s medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  19. Parenthood, Life Course Expectations, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Daniel; Williams, Kristi

    2011-03-01

    Although past research indicates that early and premarital childbearing negatively affect mental health, little is known about the role of individual expectations in shaping these associations. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we consider how individual expectations, measured prior to the entry into parenthood, shape mental health outcomes associated with premarital childbearing and birth timing, and consider gender and race/ethnic variations. Results indicate that expecting children before marriage ameliorates the negative mental health consequences of premarital first births and that subsequently deviating from expected birth timing, either early or late, results in increased distress at all birth ages. In both cases, however, the degree and manner in which expectations matter differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Results indicate that expectations for premarital childbearing matter only for African-Americans' mental health and although later than expected births are associated with decreased mental health for all groups, earlier than expected births are only associated with decreased mental health for women, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites. PMID:22229115

  20. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  1. Life in the universe. Expectations and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.

    Energy, chemistry, solvents, and habitats -- the basic elements of living systems - define the opportunities and limitations for life on other worlds. This study examines each of these parameters in crucial depth and makes the argument that life forms we would recognize may be more common in our solar system than many assume. It also considers, however, exotic forms of life that would not have to rely on carbon as basic chemical element, solar energy as a main energy source, or water as primary solvent. Finally the question of detecting bio- and geosignature of such life forms is discussed, ranging from Earth environments to deep space. While speculative considerations in this emerging field of science cannot be avoided, the authors have tried to present their study with the breadth and seriousness that a scientific approach to this issue requires. They seek an operational definition of life and investigate the realm of possibilities that nature offers to realize this very special state of matter and avoid scientific jargon wherever possible to make this intrinsically interdisciplinary subject understandable to a broad range of readers.

  2. An analysis on life expectancy of the world population and trend of increase in China's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q

    1987-04-01

    Life expectancy is postively correlated with the per capita gross national product (GNP). There are exceptions, such as Qatar, which has a very high per capita GNP, but a life expectancy over 10 years less than the average level of developing countries. Also, in Sri Lanka, there is a relatively long life expectancy but low per capita GNP. Japan and Iceland have the longest life expectancy in the world, even though neither has the world's highest GNP. Life expectancy has been growing in developed countries since the beginning of the 1900s; presently it is relatively stable (70-75 years). Life expectancy in developing countries is growing fast. The world has experienced a "population explosion," but, because of birth control measures, the world population should stabilize gradually in the next century. Life expectancy is expected to keep increasing. Medical developments contribute to greater life expectancy. The 1st life-span revolution occurred in 1776 when the smallpox vaccine was developed; the 2nd occurred with the discovery of antibiotics in the early 1950s. According to World Health Organization estimates, life expectancy in developed countries should reach 75-80 years by the end of the century. In 1981 China's life expectancy was 67.9 years. According to a UN model, China's life expectancy will reach 73 years by 2000. Life expectancy is associated with not only the economy, but also social, cultural, and environmental factors. The favorable noneconomic factors which have helped to decrease mortality and increase life expectancy in China include 1) the socialist system which provides a moderate living for all and has developed the health care system; 2) widespread and longtime use of traditional medicine; 3) the oriental culture and ethnic group; and 4) the fact that in some developed countries with a low level of urbanization, life expectancy exceeds 70 years (China's urban population will be 40% by the year 2000). The author expects that China will only reach

  3. Measuring the Impact of Diabetes on Life Expectancy and Disability-Free Life Expectancy Among Older Adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to investigate differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), disabled life expectancy (DLE), and personal care assistance between individuals with and without diabetes in Mexico. Methods. The sample was drawn from the nationally representative Mexican Health and Aging Study. Disability was assessed through a basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measure, the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and the Nagi physical performance measure. The Interpolation of Markov Chains method was used to estimate the impact of diabetes on TLE and DFLE. Results. Results indicate that diabetes reduces TLE at ages 50 and 80 by about 10 and 4 years, respectively. Diabetes is also associated with fewer years in good health. DFLE (based on ADL measures) at age 50 is 20.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.2–22.3) for those with diabetes, compared with 29.9 years (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) for those without diabetes. Regardless of diabetes status, Mexican women live longer but face a higher disability burden than men. Conclusion. Among older adults in Mexico, diabetes is associated with shorter TLE and DFLE. The negative effect of diabetes on the number of years lived, particularly in good health, creates significant economic, social, and individual costs for elderly Mexicans. PMID:20028950

  4. [Life expectancy and median life in life tables: the historical emergence of these measures].

    PubMed

    Lombardo, E

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the development of two measures used in life tables, life expectancy and median length of life. These measures were developed during the course of correspondence between the Dutch brothers Christiaan and Lodewijk Huygens in 1669. (summary in ENG, FRE) PMID:12314148

  5. Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies: expressions and applications.

    PubMed

    Missov, Trifon I; Lenart, Adam

    2013-12-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz-Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures. PMID:24084064

  6. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  7. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  8. Obesity and Life Expectancy Among Long-Lived Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In samples of African Americans and the elderly adults, obesity is often not found to be a risk factor for mortality. These data contradict the evidence linking obesity to chronic disease in these groups. Our objective was to determine whether obesity remains a risk factor for mortality among long-lived black adults. Methods. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large prospective cohort study of Seventh-day Adventist church members who are encouraged by faith-based principles to avoid tobacco, alcohol, and meat consumption. We conducted an attained age survival analysis of 22,884 U.S. blacks of the cohort—half of whom attained an age of 58–108 years during the follow-up (adult life expectancy of 84 years in men, 89 years in women). Results. Women in the highest body mass index quintile (>33.8) experienced a significant 61% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.62 [1.23, 2.11] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and a 6.2-year (95% CI = 2.8–10.2 years) decrease in life expectancy. Men in the highest body mass index quintile (>30.8) experienced a significant 87% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.87 [1.28, 2.73] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and 5.9-year (95% CI = 2.1– 9.5 years) decrease in life expectancy. Obesity (>30) was a significant risk factor relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) in never-smokers. Instantaneous hazards indicated excess risk from obesity was evident through at least age 85 years. The nonobese tended to follow plant-based diets and exercise vigorously. Conclusions. Avoiding obesity promotes gains in life expectancy through at least the eighth decade of life in black adults. Evidence for weight control through plant-based diets and active living was found in long-lived nonobese blacks. PMID:23682156

  9. Steep increase in best-practice cohort life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jdanov, Dmitri A; Andreev, Evgeny M; Vaupel, James W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze trends in best-practice life expectancy among female cohorts born from 1870 to 1950. Cohorts experience declining rather than constant death rates, and cohort life expectancy usually exceeds period life expectancy. Unobserved mortality rates in non-extinct cohorts are estimated using the Lee-Carter model for mortality in 1960–2008. Best-practice cohort and period life expectancies increased nearly linearly. Across cohorts born from 1870 to 1920 the annual increase in cohort length of life was 0.43 years. Across calendar years from 1870 to 2008, the annual increase was 0.28 years. Cohort life expectancy increased from 53.7 years in the 1870 cohort to 83.8 years in the 1950 cohort. The corresponding cohort/period longevity gap increased from 1.2 to 10.3 years. Among younger cohorts, survival to advanced ages is substantially higher than could have been anticipated by period mortality regimes when these cohorts were young or middle-aged. A large proportion of the additional expected years of life are being lived at ages 65 and older. This substantially changes the balance between the stages of the life cycle. PMID:22167810

  10. Life expectancy as an indicator of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Gulis, G

    2000-02-01

    Whether or not life expectancy at birth is related to the quality of life as expressed by global economical, environmental and nutritional measures is the primarily studied question in this article. Two models, set of independent variables and multivariate analysis was performed. An attempt to estimate the role of studied variables in overall life expectancy was done, too. A descriptive, ecological study design was used. The population of 156 countries have been taken into account, using data from published databases [7, 9]. Access to safe drinking water, per capita gross domestic product, literacy, calories available as percentage of needs and per capita public health expenditures were taken as exposure, and compared with life expectancy at birth. A linear regression model was used to estimate the role of different exposures on life expectancy at birth. A correlation matrix for all variables and life expectancy at birth is presented in the article. Literacy and access to safe drinking water are statistically significant variables (p < 0.001) also after fitting a linear regression model. The correlation coefficient for the linear model was 0.8823 (R2 = 0.7784). Shares of years of life from overall life expectancy attributed to studied variables were 28.06, 9.42, 2.04 and 1.93% for literacy, access to safe drinking water, GDP and calories available as percentage of needs, respectively. PMID:10845266

  11. Life expectancy without depression increases among Brazilian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond; Wu, Fan; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate life expectancy with and without depressive symptoms in older adults for the years 2000 and 2010. METHODS We evaluated individuals aged 60 years or older (n = 1,862 in 2000 and n = 1,280 in 2010), participants of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Aging) study in in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Depression was measured using the shorter version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); respondents scoring ≥ 6 were classified as having depression. Estimates of life expectancy with and without depression were obtained using the Sullivan method. RESULTS Data from 2000 indicate that 60-year-old men could expect to live, on average, 14.7 years without depression and 60-year-old women could expect to live 16.5 years without depression. By 2010, life expectancy without depression had increased to 16.7 years for men and 17.8 years for women. Expected length of life with depression differed by sex, with women expected to live more years with depression than men. CONCLUSIONS Between 2000 and 2010, life expectancy without depression in Sao Paulo increased. However, older adults in Brazil, especially older women, still face a serious burden of mental illness. PMID:27143612

  12. Circulating MicroRNAs and Life Expectancy Among Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenghui; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Scherler, Kelsey; Baxter, David; Wang, Kai; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry; Dai, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Human life expectancy is influenced not only by longevity assurance mechanisms and disease susceptibility loci but also by the environment, gene-environment interactions, and chance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs closely related to genes. Circulating miRNAs have been shown as promising noninvasive biomarkers in the development of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the concentration of miRNA in the circulation may also be affected by environmental factors. We used a next-generation sequencing platform to assess the association of circulating miRNA with life expectancy, for which deaths are due to all causes independent of genes. In addition, we showed that miRNAs are present in 41-year archived plasma samples, which may be useful for both life expectancy and all-cause mortality risk assessment. Plasma miRNAs from nine identical male twins were profiled using next-generation sequencing. The average absolute difference in the minimum life expectancy was 9.68 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.4 for 50% of miRNAs. Comparing deceased twins with their alive co-twin brothers, the concentrations were increased for 34 but decreased for 30 miRNAs. Identical twins discordant in life expectancy were dissimilar in the majority of miRNAs, suggesting that environmental factors are pivotal in miRNAs related to life expectancy. PMID:27402348

  13. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs. PMID:15722265

  14. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached. PMID:22484517

  15. Life Expectancy of People with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo estimate the life expectancy and specify the causes of death among people with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). MethodsIncluded were all patients recorded in Alberta provincial databases of inpatients, outpatients, or practitioner claims from 2003 to 2012. People with FAS were identified by ICD-9 code 760.71 and ICD-10 codes Q86.0 and P04.3, and were linked to the Vital Statistics Death Registry to get information about mortality. Life expectancy was estimated by using the life table template developed in the United Kingdom, which is recommended for estimating life expectancy in small areas or populations. ResultsThe life expectancy at birth of people with FAS was 34 years (95% confidence interval: 31 to 37 years), which was about 42% of that of the general population. The leading causes of death for people with FAS were "external causes" (44%), which include suicide (15%), accidents (14%), poisoning by illegal drugs or alcohol (7%), and other external causes (7%). Other common causes of death were diseases of the nervous and respiratory systems (8% each), diseases of the digestive system (7%), congenital malformations (7%), mental and behavioural disorders (4%), and diseases of the circulatory system (4%). ConclusionThe life expectancy of people with FAS is considerably lower than that of the general population. As the cause of FAS is known and preventable, more attention devoted to the prevention of FAS is urgently needed. PMID:26962962

  16. Gaps in life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stene, Lars C

    2016-06-01

    Two papers in this issue of Diabetologia present recent trends in life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes, one using data from an Australian registry (Huo et al, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3857-4 ), the other, a Swedish registry (Petrie et al, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3914-7 ). This commentary provides a brief review of the concept of the period life expectancy and complexities regarding applicability to patients, before summarising and discussing the main results of the two papers. In addition, some remaining relevant knowledge gaps are discussed. PMID:27044339

  17. Tropics, Income, and School Life Expectancy: An Intercountry Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Rati

    1999-01-01

    Using UNESCO's recent data, explores effects of a country's income and "tropicality" on school life expectancy. Although income's effect is important, distance from the equator also matters. Effects of tropicality were larger in 1980 than in 1992. Implications are discussed. (13 references) (MLH)

  18. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  19. Research Spotlight: The varying life expectancies of American reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Tasked with controlling floods, coping through droughts, generating electricity, maintaining the flow of drinking water, preserving species' habitats, and managing the local environment, the United States' large-scale freshwater management system is important. Unfortunately, as sediment is washed from river basins to reservoirs, the persistent addition of material eats away at a reservoir's capacity and, consequently, its useful life expectancy. Understanding the integrity of the reservoir system is particularly important, with climate projections anticipating warmer, drier conditions for some parts of the country. Using a database of sedimentation surveys conducted between 1775 and 1993, Graf et al. calculate the life expectancies of many of the nation's reservoirs. They find that although most of the country's large reservoirs were built between 1950 and 1960, they have a wide range of expiration dates. They find that most large reservoirs, those with capacities greater than 1.2 cubic kilometers (0.29 cubic mile), have useful life expectancies ranging from 200 to more than 1000 years, with the lowest average life expectancy in the interior West. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2009WR008836, 2010)

  20. Infant Mortality and Life Expectancy in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijim, Basheer K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan designed to teach about variations in infant mortality and life expectancy in the Arab world, to identify the concept of spatial correlation, and to learn the location of Arab countries. Includes oil exports as a variable. Discusses methods of data and map interpretation. (RW)

  1. Past, Present, and Future of Healthy Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2015-11-01

    The success of the current biomedical paradigm based on a "disease model" may be limited in the future because of large number of comorbidities inflicting older people. In recent years, there has been growing empirical evidence, based on animal models, suggesting that the aging process could be delayed and that this process may lead to increases in life expectancy accompanied by improvements in health at older ages. In this review, we explore past, present, and future prospects of healthy life expectancy and examine whether increases in average length of life associated with delayed aging link with additional years lived disability-free at older ages. Trends in healthy life expectancy suggest improvements among older people in the United States, although younger cohorts appear to be reaching old age with increasing levels of frailty and disability. Trends in health risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, show worrisome signs of negative impacts on adult health and mortality in the near future. However, results based on a simulation model of delayed aging in humans indicate that it has the potential to increase not only the length of life but also the fraction and number of years spent disability-free at older ages. Delayed aging would likely come with additional aggregate costs. These costs could be offset if delayed aging is widely applied and people are willing to convert their greater healthiness into more years of work. PMID:26525456

  2. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944–1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Results Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Conclusion Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy. PMID:26496647

  3. Estimation of life expectancy, loss-of-life expectancy, and lifetime healthcare expenditures for schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Chou, Ming Hui; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Yang, Yen Kuang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-03-01

    By employing a novel semi-parametric extrapolation method, the life expectancies after the first hospitalization for schizophrenia and the associated lifetime healthcare expenditures were both estimated. Based on the linkage between the National Health Insurance Research Database and the National Mortality Registry of Taiwan, we have established a schizophrenic cohort for 2000-2010 and followed up to 2011. Survival function was estimated through Kaplan-Meier's method and extrapolated throughout life. We applied a simple linear regression to the logit-transformed survival ratio between the schizophrenic cohort and the sex-, age-matched referents via Monte Carlo simulation from the national life table. The monthly survival probability was multiplied by the average healthcare expenditures and summed throughout life to estimate the lifelong cost reimbursed by the National Health Insurance. The results showed that patients diagnosed at age 20-29 had the highest expected years of life lost (EYLL), 15 and 9years, in men and women, respectively, with corresponding lifetime healthcare expenditures of USD 48,000 and 53,000. Males generally had higher health cost per life-year than their female counterparts across their lifespan. We applied the same method to the first 6years of the cohort and extrapolated to 12years, which showed that the relative biases for different age strata were less than 5%. We thus concluded that the semi-parametric extrapolation method might provide a timely estimation of lifetime outcomes for health care planning of schizophrenia. PMID:26811230

  4. Life expectancy change in perturbed communities: derivation and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Levins, Richard; Rossignol, Philippe A

    2005-09-01

    Pollution, loss of habitat, and climate change are introducing dramatic perturbations to natural communities and affecting public health. Populations in perturbed communities can change dynamically, in both abundance and age structure. While analysis of the community matrix can predict changes in population abundance arising from a sustained or press perturbation, perturbations also have the potential to modify life expectancy, which adds yet another means to falsify experimental hypotheses and to monitor management interventions in natural systems. In some instances, an input to a community will produce no change in the abundance of a population but create a major shift in its mean age. We present an analysis of change in both abundance and life expectancy, leading to a formal quantitative assessment as well as qualitative predictions, and illustrate the usefulness of the technique through general examples relating to vector-borne disease and fisheries. PMID:16043195

  5. The maximum life expectancy for a micro-fabricated diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Popa, Viorica

    2015-02-01

    Micro-fabricated diaphragms can be used to provide pumping action in microvalve and microfluidic applications. The functionality of the microdiaphragm in a wirelessly actuated micropump plays a major role in low-powered device actuation. In developing micropumps and their components, it is becoming an increasing trend to predict the performance before the prototype is fabricated. Because performance prediction allows for an accurate estimation of yield and lifetime, in addition to developing better understanding of the device while taking into account the details of the device structure and second order effects. Hence avoid potential pitfalls in the device operation in a practical environment. The goal of this research is to determine via FEA the life expectancy for a corrugated circular diaphragm made out of an aluminum alloy. The geometry of the diaphragm is given below being generated within SolidWorks 2010, all the calculations were made using Ansys 13TM . The sound design of a micropump is heavily depending on the lifetime expectancy of the working part of the device which is the diaphragm. This will be subjected on cyclic loading and the fatigue will limit the life of this part. Once the diaphragm is breaking, the micropump is no more able to fulfill its scope. Any micropump manufacturer will then be very concerned on the life expectancy from the fatigue point of view of the diaphragms. The diaphragm circular and corrugated and made of Al alloy, showed a very good behavior from the fatigue point of view, the maximum life expectancy being 1.9 years of continuous functioning with 100 cycles per second. This work showed an simple and forward application of FEA analysis methods in order to estimate the fatigue behavior of corrugated circular microdiaphragms.

  6. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    Published and unpublished data were reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries in an attempt to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. The DisMod computer program was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability was measured by the person-trade-off method, disability weights were measured across groups, and the prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequelae across disabilities. The prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). The prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies, with low-severity disabilities being the most common. DFLE varies significantly among regions. In high-income regions, almost 90% of expected disability is due to non-communicable diseases and most of the rest to injuries. However, in poorer regions, almost half of expected disability is due to communicable diseases and injuries. The higher proportion of life span spent disabled in high-mortality populations is consistent with the compression of morbidity hypothesis. PMID:9149696

  7. The evolution of fertility expectations over the life course.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R

    2009-11-01

    In low-fertility contexts, how many children people have is largely a product of how many children they want. However, the social, institutional, and individual factors that influence how many children people want are not well understood. In particular, there is scant evidence about how fertility expectations change over the life course. This article provides an empirical description of changes in women's expected fertility over the entire span of childbearing years. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, group-based trajectory analysis illuminates common patterns in the evolution of fertility intentions and identifies individual characteristics associated with these patterns. Factors related to family formation, such as marriage and whether a woman has a child at an early age, are found to be the most consistent correlates of patterns of change in expected family size. PMID:20084828

  8. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Sahi, T; Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J

    1993-02-01

    Reliable data are scanty on the incidence of chronic diseases and life expectancy (LE) of highly trained athletes. We therefore studied Finnish male world class athletes to estimate the LE of athletes. Finnish team members in the Olympic games, World or European championships or intercountry competitions during 1920-1965 in track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting were included (N = 2613 men). The reference cohort, 1712 men, was selected from the Finnish Defence Forces conscription register matched on age and area of residence. All referents were classified completely healthy at the time of induction to military service. The stratified Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the life expectancies and the mortality odds ratios (OR) and their confidence limits. The mean LE adjusted for occupational group, marital status, and the age at entry to the cohort (and its 95% confidence limits) was in endurance sports (long distance running and cross-country skiing) 75.6 (73.6, 77.5) yr; in team games (soccer, ice hockey, basketball, as well as jumpers and short-distance runners from track and field (73.9 (72.7, 75.1) yr; in power sports (boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and throwers from field athletics) 71.5 (70.4, 72.2) yr; and in the reference group 69.9 (69.0, 70.9) yr. The increased mean life expectancies were mainly explained by decreased cardiovascular mortality (endurance sports mortality odds ratio OR = 0.49 (95% CL 0.26, 0.93), team sports OR = 0.61 (0.41, 0.92) compared with referents). For maximum life span no differences between the groups were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450727

  9. Bayesian probabilistic projections of life expectancy for all countries.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Adrian E; Chunn, Jennifer L; Gerland, Patrick; Sevčíková, Hana

    2013-06-01

    We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for producing probabilistic forecasts of male period life expectancy at birth for all the countries of the world to 2100. Such forecasts would be an input to the production of probabilistic population projections for all countries, which is currently being considered by the United Nations. To evaluate the method, we conducted an out-of-sample cross-validation experiment, fitting the model to the data from 1950-1995 and using the estimated model to forecast for the subsequent 10 years. The 10-year predictions had a mean absolute error of about 1 year, about 40 % less than the current UN methodology. The probabilistic forecasts were calibrated in the sense that, for example, the 80 % prediction intervals contained the truth about 80 % of the time. We illustrate our method with results from Madagascar (a typical country with steadily improving life expectancy), Latvia (a country that has had a mortality crisis), and Japan (a leading country). We also show aggregated results for South Asia, a region with eight countries. Free, publicly available R software packages called bayesLife and bayesDem are available to implement the method. PMID:23494599

  10. Infant mortality and life expectancy in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Nijim, B K

    1990-01-01

    This exercise illustrates the concept of spatial correlation, the categorizing of data for mapping, and the use of the scatter diagram. It employs the variables of infant mortality and life expectancy as applied to the Arab World, though any region can be used. The factor of oil exports is added to enhance discussion of the findings. An extra advantage of the exercise is the learning of names of countries in a relatively painless way. The exercise teaches both content and methods of interpretation, and it is adaptable to high school and college levels. PMID:12178546

  11. Long and happy living: trends and patterns of happy life expectancy in the U.S., 1970-2000.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    This study assesses the trends and differentials in length of quality life in the U.S. population as measured by happy life expectancy in 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. The analysis combines age-specific prevalence rates of subjective well-being from a large nationally representative survey and life table estimates of mortality in decennial Census years. Employing the period prevalence-rate life table method--Sullivan method, the analysis finds evidence for improvement in quality of life in the U.S. Happy life expectancy largely increased in both absolute terms (number of years) and relative terms (proportion of life) over time at all adult ages examined. And increases in total life expectancy were mainly contributed by increases in expectancy in happy years rather than unhappy years. Happy life expectancy is longer than active life expectancy. And there has been greater compression of unhappiness than compression of morbidity. There are substantial differentials in happy life expectancy by sex and race because of differential prevalence rates of happiness. Women and whites had longer years of total and happy life expectancies at most ages and dates, while men and blacks had greater proportions of happy life expectancies across the three decades. Although race differentials generally decreased at older ages and with time, relative disadvantages of blacks persisted. PMID:19227700

  12. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  13. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made. PMID:4049023

  14. The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Karen N.; Fuchs, Victor R.

    2013-01-01

    The share of increases in life expectancy realized after age 65 was only about 20 percent at the beginning of the 20th century for the US and 16 other countries at comparable stages of development; but that share was close to 80 percent by the dawn of the 21st century, and is almost certainly approaching 100 percent asymptotically. This new demographic transition portends a diminished survival effect on working life. For high-income countries at the forefront of the longevity transition, expected lifetime labor force participation as a percent of life expectancy is declining. Innovative policies are needed if societies wish to preserve a positive relationship running from increasing longevity to greater prosperity. PMID:25076810

  15. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  16. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle. PMID:26290072

  17. The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Matteo; Zamboni, Valentina; Ferrini, Alessandro; Cesari, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process. To date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing “anti-aging” remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available. Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process. PMID:18044191

  18. Ethnic and gender specific life expectancies of the Singapore population, 1965 to 2009 – converging, or diverging?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present. Methods Period abridged life tables were constructed to derive the life expectancy of the Singapore population from 1965 to 2009 using data from the Department of Statistics and the Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore. Results All 3 of Singapore’s main ethnic groups, and both genders, experienced an increase in life expectancy at birth and at 65 years from 1965 to 2009, though at substantially different rates. Although there has been a convergence in life expectancy between Indians and Chinese, the (substantial) gap between Malays and the other two ethnic groups has remained. Females continued to have a higher life expectancy at birth and at 65 years than males throughout this period, with no evidence of convergence. Conclusions Ethnic and gender differences in life expectancy persist in Singapore despite its rapid economic development. Targeted chronic disease prevention measures and health promotion activities focusing on people of Malay ethnicity and the male community may be needed to remedy this inequality. PMID:24160733

  19. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  20. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  1. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  2. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  3. Students Do Not Overestimate Their Life Expectancy: An Alternative Demonstration of Unique Invulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helweg-Larsen, Marie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether undergraduate psychology students will give optimistic estimates of their life expectancy if they receive either no information or correct information about the average life expectancy. Reveals that both men and women in each of the two conditions estimated their life span at approximately their actuarial age. (CMK)

  4. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States. PMID:15587696

  5. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  6. An equity-effectiveness framework linking health programs and healthy life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Banham, David; Lynch, John; Karnon, Jon

    2011-01-01

    South Australia's Strategic Plan includes a target to improve the population's healthy life expectancy. A common question among health policy and service planners is: 'How do health programs and services in the community relate to healthy life expectancy?' In response, this paper outlines an effectiveness and equity framework (EEF) for evaluating health interventions in applied settings. Using the example of coronary heart disease (CHD) management in general practice in South Australia, the EEF: (1) applies an internally consistent approach to accounting for population healthy life expectancy at state and smaller geographic levels; (2) estimates average population health gains from health programs, and gains across different socioeconomic subgroups within the community; (3) conducts economic evaluation by equating health gains against health system costs in population subgroups; (4) summarises relevant information about candidate intervention programs within a multi-criteria performance matrix for presentation to decision makers; (5) reassesses outcomes (and processes) following the implementation of a program and iteratively adds to the relevant knowledge and evidence base. The EEF offers a practical approach to selecting and evaluating intervention programs. The challenge is to develop system culture and data capture methods clearly focussed on linking health system activities to population health outcomes. PMID:22112699

  7. Reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy in a city of Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world the life expectancy at birth has risen steadily over time. However, this increase in life years is not equally distributed among different social segments of the population. Studies have demonstrated that social groups living in deprived areas have a shorter life expectancy at birth in comparison to affluent ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate inequalities in life expectancy by socioeconomic strata in a city with one million inhabitants in Southeastern Brazil, in 2000 and 2005. Methods Through an ecological approach, the 49 areas of health care units of the city were classified into three socioeconomic strata, defined according to variables of income and educational level of the heads of household obtained from the 2000 Census. Life tables were constructed by sex for each of the three socioeconomic strata in 2000 and 2005. Results The life expectancy at birth for men and women living in poor areas was 6.9 and 5.5 years lower in comparison to the affluent ones in 2000. Between 2000 and 2005, these social inequalities in life expectancy at birth reduced, since the groups with lower socioeconomic level had gained more life years. The increase in life expectancy at birth experienced by areas with worse living conditions was 3 times higher than the increment estimated for prosperous areas for both sexes. Males had the greatest gain in life years, leading to a narrowing of gender differentials in life expectancy between 2000 and 2005. Conclusions The reduction of social inequalities in life expectancy suggests that living and health conditions have improved over time, due to social and health policies. The expansion of both health care coverage and cash transfer policies could have had positive effects on mortality reduction and on the consequent increase in the life expectancy, especially for the poor population. PMID:21871100

  8. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  9. A Comparative Study of Handicap-Free Life Expectancy of China in 1987 and 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Dejian

    2009-01-01

    After the first large scale national sampling survey on handicapped persons in 1987, China conducted its second national sampling survey in 2006. Using the data from these two surveys and the national life tables, we computed and compared the expected years of life free of handicapped condition by the Sullivan method. The expected years of life…

  10. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  11. People with Intellectual Disability: What Do We Know about Adulthood and Life Expectancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppus, A. M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the life expectancy of people with Intellectual Disability have followed similar trends to those found in the general population. With the exception of people with severe and multiple disabilities or Down syndrome, the life expectancy of this group now closely approximates with that of the general population. Middle and old age, which…

  12. Left behind: widening disparities for males and females in US county life expectancy, 1985–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States spends more than any other country on health care. The poor relative performance of the US compared to other high-income countries has attracted attention and raised questions about the performance of the US health system. An important dimension to poor national performance is the large disparities in life expectancy. Methods We applied a mixed effects Poisson statistical model and Gaussian Process Regression to estimate age-specific mortality rates for US counties from 1985 to 2010. We generated uncertainty distributions for life expectancy at each age using standard simulation methods. Results Female life expectancy in the United States increased from 78.0 years in 1985 to 80.9 years in 2010, while male life expectancy increased from 71.0 years in 1985 to 76.3 years in 2010. The gap between female and male life expectancy in the United States was 7.0 years in 1985, narrowing to 4.6 years in 2010. For males at the county level, the highest life expectancy steadily increased from 75.5 in 1985 to 81.7 in 2010, while the lowest life expectancy remained under 65. For females at the county level, the highest life expectancy increased from 81.1 to 85.0, and the lowest life expectancy remained around 73. For male life expectancy at the county level, there have been three phases in the evolution of inequality: a period of rising inequality from 1985 to 1993, a period of stable inequality from 1993 to 2002, and rising inequality from 2002 to 2010. For females, in contrast, inequality has steadily increased during the 25-year period. Compared to only 154 counties where male life expectancy remained stagnant or declined, 1,405 out of 3,143 counties (45%) have seen no significant change or a significant decline in female life expectancy from 1985 to 2010. In all time periods, the lowest county-level life expectancies are seen in the South, the Mississippi basin, West Virginia, Kentucky, and selected counties with large Native American populations

  13. The Promise of Prevention: The Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Rimm, Eric B.; Oza, Shefali; Kulkarni, Sandeep C.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the “Eight Americas”) defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005. Methods and Findings We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age–sex–disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South—5–7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y) and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y). Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18%) in men and 0

  14. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  15. Stagnating Life Expectancies and Future Prospects in an Age of Uncertainty*

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Justin T.; McNown, Robert; Rogers, Richard G.; Doubilet, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article provides a timely assessment of U.S. life expectancy given recent stalls in the growth of length of life, the continuing drop in international rankings of life expectancy for the U.S., and during a period of growing social and economic insecurity. Methods Time series analysis is used on over 70 years of data from the Human Mortality Database to forecast future life expectancy to the year 2055. Results The results show limited improvements in U.S. life expectancy at birth, less than 3 years on average, for both men and women. Conclusions Even in uncertain times, it is important to look forward in preparing for the needs of future populations. The results presented here underscore the relevance of policy and health initiatives aimed at improving the nation’s health and reveal important insight into possible limits to mortality improvement over the next five decades. PMID:25506092

  16. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Daly, M

    1997-04-26

    In comparisons among Chicago neighbourhoods, homicide rates in 1988-93 varied more than 100-fold, while male life expectancy at birth ranged from 54 to 77 years, even with effects of homicide mortality removed. This "cause deleted" life expectancy was highly correlated with homicide rates; a measure of economic inequality added significant additional prediction, whereas median household income did not. Deaths from internal causes (diseases) show similar age patterns, despite different absolute levels, in the best and worst neighbourhoods, whereas deaths from external causes (homicide, accident, suicide) do not. As life expectancy declines across neighbourhoods, women reproduce earlier; by age 30, however, neighbourhood no longer affects age specific fertility. These results support the hypothesis that life expectancy itself may be a psychologically salient determinant of risk taking and the timing of life transitions. PMID:9154035

  17. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  18. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. Methods We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15–49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15–49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide. Results Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15–49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15–49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth. Conclusion Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable. PMID:26513160

  19. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  20. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    PubMed

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  1. Mortality salience effects on the life expectancy estimates of older adults as a function of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

  2. Arts and Ageing; Life Expectancy of Historical Artists in the Low Countries

    PubMed Central

    Engelaer, Frouke M.; Bijwaard, Govert E.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van Poppel, Frans W. A.

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5–19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8–20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0–19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5–17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn. PMID:24416148

  3. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Firebaugh, Glenn; Acciai, Francesco; Noah, Aggie J.; Prather, Christopher; Nau, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. OBJECTIVE In this study we determine how much of the 2000–10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. METHOD We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-inage components of group disparities in life expectancy. RESULTS Based on the new method, we find that 60% of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. CONCLUSION Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy. PMID:25580083

  4. Closing the Gaps: competing estimates of Indigenous Australian life expectancy in the scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Amanda; Mukandi, Bryan; Zwi, Anthony B; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and other Australians within a generation is central to national Indigenous reform policy (Closing the Gap). Over time, various methods of estimating Indigenous life expectancy and with that, the life expectancy gap, have been adopted with differing, albeit non-comparable results. We present data on the extent of the gap and elucidate the pattern of use and interpretations of the different estimates of the gap, between 2007 and 2012. Methods: An extensive search was conducted for all peer-reviewed health publications citing estimates of and/or discussing the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians, for the period 2007–2012. Results: Five predominant patterns of citation of the gap estimates were identified: 20 years, 17 years, 15–20 years, 13 years, and 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females. Some authors misinterpret the most recent estimates as reflecting improvement from the 17-year figure, rather than the result of different methods of estimation. Support for the direct methods used to calculate Indigenous life expectancy is indicated. Conclusions and Implications: A specific estimate of the life expectancy gap has not been established among stakeholders in Indigenous health. Agreement on the magnitude of the gap is arguably needed in order to evaluate strategies aimed at improving health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Moreover, measuring progress towards ‘closing the gap’ depends on the availability of comparable estimates, using the same techniques of measurement to assess changes over time. PMID:23895479

  5. The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

  6. Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach

    PubMed Central

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest. PMID:26339544

  7. Expectation in Life Review: A Term of Spiritual Needs Easily Understood by Chinese Hospice Patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Di; Deng, Qing; Liu, Xiaofang; Xie, Cong Hua; Wu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Terms such as spirituality and spiritual needs are abstract and difficult to understand. Realization of spirituality of hospice patients was premise in addressing expression of their spiritual needs. This study investigated expectations expressed during life review and tried to prove that the expectation was intelligible term for spiritual needs in Chinese hospice from May 2011 to June 2013. Among the 107 recruited patients, families were the most frequent emotion-expressing recipients, and 133 expectations related to patients' spiritual needs were identified. The emotion-expressing recipients and the patient's expectations were not affected by demographic characteristics. The expectations in life review with hospice patients and their families had the features of spiritual essence. The identified expectation contents could be used to address spiritual needs in hospice care in Chinese. PMID:24963084

  8. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population. PMID:22051931

  9. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leker, Laura; Ponthiere, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Following Ben-Porath [1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life-Cycle of Earnings." "Journal of Political Economy" 75 (3): 352-365], the influence of life expectancy on education and on human capital has attracted much attention among growth theorists. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made…

  10. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. PMID:27346085

  11. Perceptual expectation evokes category-selective cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Michael; Yantis, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Selective visual attention directed to a location (even in the absence of a stimulus) increases activity in the corresponding regions of visual cortex and enhances the speed and accuracy of target perception. We further explored top-down influences on perceptual representations by manipulating observers' expectations about the category of an upcoming target. Observers viewed a display in which an object (either a face or a house) gradually emerged from a state of phase-scrambled noise; a cue established expectation about the object category. Observers were faster to categorize faces (gender discrimination) or houses (structural discrimination) when the category of the partially scrambled object matched their expectation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that this expectation was associated with anticipatory increases in category-specific visual cortical activity, even in the absence of object- or category-specific visual information. Expecting a face evoked increased activity in face-selective cortical regions in the fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus. Conversely, expecting a house increased activity in parahippocampal gyrus. These results suggest that visual anticipation facilitates subsequent perception by recruiting, in advance, the same cortical mechanisms as those involved in perception. PMID:19759124

  12. Disparities in Life Expectancy of Pacific Northwest American Indians and Alaska Natives: Analysis of Linkage-Corrected Life Tables

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Megan J.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Knaster, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience a high burden of mortality and other disparities compared with the general population. Life tables are an important population health indicator; however, federal agencies have not produced life tables for AI/ANs, largely due to racial misclassification on death certificates. Our objective was to correct this misclassification and create life tables for AI/ANs who resided in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., making comparisons with the general population. Methods To correct racial misclassification, we conducted probabilistic record linkages between death certificates from three Northwest states—Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State—issued during 2008–2010, and AI/AN patient registration records. We calculated mortality rates and generated period life tables for AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white (NHW) Americans. Results Overall life expectancy at birth for Northwest AI/ANs was 72.8 years, which was 6.9 years lower than that of NHW Americans. Male AI/ANs had a lower life expectancy (70.9 years) than female AI/ANs (74.6 years). The disparity in life expectancy between AI/ANs and their NHW counterparts was higher for females (with AI/ANs living 7.3 years fewer than NHW females) than for males (with AI/ANs living 6.7 years fewer than NHW males). The greatest disparity in mortality rates was seen among young adults. Conclusion Data linkage with a registry of known AI/ANs allowed us to generate accurate life tables that had not previously been available for this population and revealed disparities in both life expectancy at birth and survival across the life span. These results represent an important tool to help AI/AN communities as they monitor their health and promote efforts to eliminate health disparities. PMID:25552757

  13. Estimation of the effects of ambient air pollution on life expectancy of urban residents in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhou, Xiaodan; Chen, Renjie; Duan, Xiaoli; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2013-12-01

    The air quality in China's cities has improved in recent years, but its impact on public health has rarely been investigated. This study was aimed at estimating the potential effects of air quality on life expectancy between 2003 and 2010 in China. We collected annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in 113 key cities, covering all provinces in China, along with the national average age-specific mortality from 2003 to 2010. We constructed a cause-eliminated life table after excluding premature deaths attributable to PM10. The annual average PM10 levels in these cities decreased from 125.3 μg m-3 in 2003 to 88.3 μg m-3 in 2010. As the result, life expectancy loss due to PM10 decreased from 2.13 years in 2003 to 1.30 years in 2010. The estimated life expectancy increase due to PM10 mitigation accounted for 34% of the total increase in life expectancy in the same period. Our results suggested that air quality might have contributed substantially to life expectancy in China.

  14. Health Inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Lower Healthy Life Expectancy in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa da Mota, Jurema; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Sardinha Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. Results. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Conclusions. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly. PMID:21233437

  15. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  16. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  17. Trends in healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong SAR 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2010-01-01

    Although Hong Kong has one of the best life expectancy (LE) records in the world, second only to Japan for women, we know very little about the changes in the health status of the older adult population. Our article aims to provide a better understanding of trends in both chronic morbidity and disability for older men and women. The authors compute chronic morbidity-free and disability-free life expectancy and the proportion of both in relation to total LE using the Sullivan method to examine whether Hong Kong older adults are experiencing a compression of morbidity and disability and whether there is any gender difference in relation to mortality and morbidity. The results of this study show that Hong Kong women tend to outlive Hong Kong men but are also more likely to suffer from a ‘double disadvantage’, namely more years of life with more chronic morbidity and disability. There has also been a significant expansion of chronic morbidity, as chronic morbidity-free life expectancy (CMFLE) decreased substantially for both genders from 1996 to 2008. Although disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased during this period, it increased at a slower pace compared to LE. The proportion of life without chronic morbidity also declined remarkably during these 12 years. Among the advanced ages, the proportion of remaining life in good health without disability has decreased since 1996, indicating a relative expansion of disability. PMID:21212818

  18. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    PubMed

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. PMID:26868721

  19. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  20. Healthy life expectancy in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C. K.; Yip, P. S. F.

    2003-01-01

    Sullivan's method and a regression model were used to calculate healthy life expectancy (HALE) for men and women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of China. These methods need estimates of the prevalence and information on disability distributions of 109 diseases and HALE for 191 countries by age, sex and region of the world from the WHO's health assessment of 2000. The population of Hong Kong SAR has one of the highest healthy life expectancies in the world. Sullivan's method gives higher estimates than the classic linear regression method. Although Sullivan's method accurately calculates the influence of disease prevalence within small areas and regions, the regression method can approximate HALE for all economies for which information on life expectancy is available. This paper identifies some problems of the two methods and discusses the accuracy of estimates of HALE that rely on data from the WHO assessment. PMID:12640475

  1. New Anticancer Drugs Associated With Large Increases In Costs And Life Expectancy.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H; Chernew, Michael E; Abdelgawad, Tamer; Smith, Gregory L; Sollano, Josephine; Grabowski, David C

    2016-09-01

    Spending on anticancer drugs has risen rapidly over the past two decades. A key policy question is whether new anticancer drugs offer value, given their high cost. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we assessed the value of new cancer treatments in routine clinical practice for patients with metastatic breast, lung, or kidney cancer or chronic myeloid leukemia in the periods 1996-2000 and 2007-11. We found that there were large increases in medical costs, but also large gains in life expectancy. For example, among patients with breast cancer who received physician-administered drugs, lifetime costs-including costs for outpatient and inpatient care-increased by $72,000 and life expectancy increased by thirteen months. Changes in life expectancy and costs were much smaller among patients who did not receive these drugs. PMID:27605636

  2. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25-the standard deviation of age at death above 25-by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata. PMID:26813781

  3. Causes of death contributing to changes in life expectancy: United States, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, K D; Maurer, J D; Rosenberg, H M

    1994-05-01

    During 1984-89, life expectancy increased for the total population (0.6 year), white males (0.9 year), and white females (0.5 year), while it decreased for black males (-0.8year) and black females (-0.2 year). These changes in life expectancy are the result of changes in mortality for specific age-ram-sex groups and identifiable causes of death. Using a technique developed by Eduardo E. Arriaga (1,2), this report identifies major causes of death contributing to the change in life expectancy between 1984 and 1989. Refer to Technical notes for a brief description of this methodology. The tectique partitions changes in life expectancy into positive contributions (which are those causes of death and age groups that contribute to an increase in life expectancy) and negative contributions (which are those that contribute to a decrease). The report includes separate analyses by age and causes of death. For the total population, positive contributions occurred for the age groups under 15 years and age groups 45 years and over while negative contributions occurred for the age groups 15-44 years. The report also examines the combined contributions of age and causes of death for the total population and the four race-sex groups. For the total population, positive contributions to the increase in life expectancy were due to changes in mortality for Diseases of heart under 1 and 35 years and over; Cerebrovascular diseases, 40 years and over; and Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, 30-59 years. Negative contributions were largely due to HIV infection, 20-59 years; Malignant neoplasma, including neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, 65 years and oveq and Pneumonia and influenza, 75 years and over. PMID:25313837

  4. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: -0.30 to -0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: -0.25 to -0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  5. Inferring frail life expectancies in Chicago from daily fluctuations in elderly mortality.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christian J; Lipfert, Frederick W

    2013-07-01

    Susceptible sub-populations with existing disease have exhibited stronger relationships between air quality and mortality in time-series studies, but their associated life expectancies have largely been overlooked. Murray and Nelson developed a new time-series model that estimated a small unobserved (frail) sub-population and their resulting life expectancies in Philadelphia, including environment relationships. As a further example in a different geographic area, we used this model with 1987-2000 daily mortality data in Chicago and found a stable frail population at risk of ∼900 persons with a mean life expectancy of ∼11 days; fewer than two daily deaths were associated with air pollution. We considered daily concentrations of CO, NO₂, O₃, PM₁₀ and SO₂, and found PM₁₀ and O₃ to have stronger associations with frail mortality. Our estimates of life expectancy and air pollution and temperature relationships are similar to those found in other studies that used different methods. Temperature was more important than air pollution during the 1995 heat wave, when mortality risks increased dramatically after 2 d exposure and life expectancies decreased to 3-5 d. Modeling this event separately had substantial effects on lagged mortality--air pollution relationships and the population at risk. The premises of the Murray-Nelson model were supported by simultaneously considering an additional subgroup of non-frail individuals; they contributed only ∼1% of total elderly deaths. We conclude that frail life expectancies estimated by the Murray-Nelson model are robust, and that under these conditions non-frail persons have little risk of acute mortality, with or without contributions from air pollution. PMID:23876071

  6. Long-Term Exposure to Ozone and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2002 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Wen, Xiao-Jun; Hao, Yongping; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term exposure to ground-level ozone is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The association remains uncertain between long-term exposure to ozone and life expectancy. We assessed the associations between seasonal mean daily 8-hour maximum (8-hr max) ozone concentrations measured during the ozone monitoring seasons and life expectancy at birth in 3109 counties of the conterminous U.S. during 2002 to 2008. We used latent class growth analysis to identify latent classes of counties that had distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations over the 7-year period and used linear regression analysis to determine differences in life expectancy by ozone levels. We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct seasonal mean daily 8-hr max ozone concentrations and rates of change. When compared with the counties with the lowest ozone concentrations, the counties with the highest ozone concentrations had 1.7- and 1.4-year lower mean life expectancy in males and females (both P < 0.0001), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of seasonal mean PM2.5 concentrations and other selected environmental, demographic, socio-economic, and health-related factors (both P < 0.0001). A 5 ppb higher ozone concentration was associated with 0.25 year lower life expectancy in males (95% CI: −0.30 to −0.19) and 0.21 year in females (95% CI: −0.25 to −0.17). We identified 3 classes of counties with distinct mean levels and rates of change in ozone concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to a higher ozone concentration may be associated with a lower life expectancy. PMID:26886595

  7. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  8. The Male-Female Health-Survival Paradox and Sex Differences in Cohort Life Expectancy in Utah, Denmark and Sweden 1850-1910

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In Utah, prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviours are lower than in most other male populations while women experience higher mortality risk due to higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Methods Life tables from Utah, Denmark and Sweden, were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born 1850-1910. Results The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared to Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately two years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at age 50 were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. Conclusions The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing towards biological mechanisms, or other unmeasured risk factors. PMID:23453386

  9. Where there are no data: what has happened to life expectancy in Georgia since 1990?

    PubMed

    Badurashvili, I; McKee, M; Tsuladze, G; Meslé, F; Vallin, J; Shkolnikov, V

    2001-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable increase in understanding of changes in mortality in Russia and some other former Soviet republics. However, the situation in the republics of the Caucasus remains poorly understood. Information on Georgia is especially fragmentary as a fifth of the country remains outside government control, there has been large scale migration since 1991, and the introduction of fees for vital registration has compromised the quality of official statistics. The aim of the study is to produce plausible estimates for life expectancy in Georgia for the period 1990-1998 and thus to assess whether Georgia has undergone changes similar to other former Soviet republics in the post-independence period. Four models were used to construct life tables. Model 1 used officially published statistics on deaths and population. Model 2 applied new estimates of population derived from household surveys to the observed deaths. Model 3 adjusted model 2 for under-registration at extremes of life, with parameter estimates derived from a survey of infant mortality and comparison of observed rates with Coale-Demeny standard life tables. Model 4 arose following inspection of death rates by cause that revealed implausible discontinuities in cancer mortality rates and involved applying the estimates of under-registration that this finding implied to model 3. The four models produce quite different estimates of life expectancy, differing by 7.8 y for men and 6.8 y for women by 1998. In any of the models, however, Georgia does not appear to have experienced the marked deterioration in life expectancy seen in Russia following the transition to independence. Importantly, Georgia had also not experienced a marked improvement in life expectancy during the 1985 Soviet anti-alcohol campaign, again unlike other Soviet republics.Official statistics substantially over-estimate life expectancy at birth in Georgia. Despite undergoing a civil war, life expectancy in Georgia

  10. Negative Trends in Life Expectancy in the USSR, 1964-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medvedev, Zhores A.

    1985-01-01

    Life expectancy in the USSR declined from 71 years in 1964 to 70 years in 1970, and to an estimated 68 years in 1983. Decline was due to increase in infant mortality and increase in mortality among middle aged and elderly, and reflects public health problems. (NRB)

  11. Black-white disparities in life expectancy: how much can the standard SES variables explain?

    PubMed

    Geruso, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This article quantifies the extent to which socioeconomic and demographic characteristics can account for black-white disparities in life expectancy in the United States. Although many studies have investigated the linkages between race, socioeconomic status, and mortality, this article is the first to measure how much of the life expectancy gap remains after differences in mortality are purged of the compositional differences in socioeconomic characteristics between blacks and whites. The decomposition is facilitated by a reweighting technique that creates counterfactual estimation samples in which the distribution of income, education, employment and occupation, marital status, and other theoretically relevant variables among blacks is made to match the distribution of these variables among whites. For males, 80% of the black-white gap in life expectancy at age 1 can be accounted for by differences in socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. For females, 70% percent of the gap is accounted for. Labor force participation, occupation, and (among women only) marital status have almost no additional power to explain the black-white disparity in life expectancy after precise measures for income and education are controlled for. PMID:22287272

  12. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  13. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  14. Life Expectancy as an Objective Factor of a Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…

  15. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  16. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  17. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease. PMID:18555996

  18. Diverse expected gradient active learning for relative attributes.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-07-01

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called diverse expected gradient active learning. This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multiclass distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:24983113

  19. Month of birth and life expectancy: role of gender and age in a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The effects of month of birth (MOB) on life expectancy of a German subpopulation was investigated. Data from people who died in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 1984 (n=188,515) and 1999 (n=188,850) were analyzed. For comparative purposes, all deaths that occurred at an age of <50 years were excluded (1984: 8.4%; 1999: 6.2%). In general, individuals born in May through July had the lowest age at death (1984: 75.27±0.09 years; 1999: 77.58±0.09 years), while those born between October and December had the highest (1984: 75.98±0.08 years; 1999: 78.35±0.09 years), supporting earlier findings. The observed amplitudes (differences between highest and lowest values) were more pronounced in men than in women. When comparing these data of MOB effects on life expectancy with earlier findings in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ukraine, and the USA, it is evident that a negative correlation exists between the average age at death and the MOB amplitudes. Separate analyses by gender, possible for the data from Germany, the Ukraine, and the USA, revealed a significant negative correlation for men, but not for women. A new hypothesis is therefore presented describing an influence of life quality, as reflected by average life expectancy, on the extent of MOB effects; for example, seasonally variable sensitivities during pregnancy/early childhood.

  20. Sustainable development and quality of life: expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Vlek, C; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of 22 different QoL attributes. They subsequently indicated expected changes in those attributes, under three different scenarios in which economic and environmental conditions would either improve or deteriorate. On average, subjects judged the QoL attributes "healthy", "family", "environmental quality", "nature" and "safety" to be most important, while "recognition", "comfort", "status" and "spiritual life" were found least important. The most important QoL attributes as well as "security" were judged as more important by women than by men. Also observed were income and age effects on relative attribute importance. Our (Dutch) subjects expected significant and varied negative QoL changes from an environmental-deterioration scenario involving either an improved or a deteriorated economy. In contrast, they had mixed positive-negative QoL expectations about environmental improvement combined with economic deterioration. Subjects high in environmental concern assigned greater weight to "environmental" QoL attributes, and they expected environmental improvement versus deterioration to more strongly affect their QoL-attributes "environmental quality", "nature", "health" and "unity with nature", than did subjects low in environmental concern. We conclude that quality of life can be meaningfully conceived as a multi-attribute value concept, useful for assessing the expected effects of future economic and environmental conditions. Suggestions are given for methodological improvement and for further research. PMID:9857825

  1. Educational and Sex Differentials in Life Expectancies and Disability-Free Life Expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and Urban Areas in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter’s decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Methods Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. Results We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. Discussion There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites. PMID:23781016

  2. Managing cystic fibrosis: strategies that increase life expectancy and improve quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Shoseyov, David; Kerem, Eitan

    2011-06-01

    The survival of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to improve. The discovery and cloning of the CFTR gene more than 21 years ago led to the identification of the structure and function of the CFTR chloride channel. New therapies based on the understanding of the function of CFTR are currently under development. The better clinical status and improved survival of patients with CF is not only a result of understanding of the molecular mechanisms of CF but also a result of the development of therapeutic strategies that are based on insights into the natural course of the disease. Current CF treatments that target respiratory infections, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and nutritional status are associated with improved pulmonary function and reduced exacerbations. Patients benefit from treatment at a specialized CF center by a multidisciplinary dedicated team with emphasis being placed on frequent visits, periodic testing, and monitoring adherence to therapy. The purpose of this review is to survey recent developments in CF care that are responsible for the improved survival and quality of life of patients with CF. PMID:21330455

  3. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Iburg, Kim M; Begg, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy – sometimes called health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) – is a form of health expectancy indicator that extends measures of life expectancy to account for the distribution of health states in the population. The World Health Organization has estimated healthy life expectancy for 192 WHO Member States using information from health interview surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The latter estimates loss of health by cause, age and sex for populations. Summation of prevalent years lived with disability (PYLD) across all causes would result in overestimation of the severity of the population average health state because of comorbidity between conditions. Earlier HALE calculations made adjustments for independent comorbidity in adding PYLD across causes. This paper presents a method for adjusting for dependent comorbidity using available empirical data. Methods Data from five large national health surveys were analysed by age and sex to estimate "dependent comorbidity" factors for pairs of conditions. These factors were defined as the ratio of the prevalence of people with both conditions to the product of the two total prevalences for each of the conditions. The resulting dependent comorbidity factors were used for all Member States to adjust for dependent comorbidity in summation of PYLD across all causes and in the calculation of HALE. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out for order effects in the proposed calculation method. Results There was surprising consistency in the dependent comorbidity factors across the five surveys. The improved estimation of dependent comorbidity resulted in reductions in total PYLD per capita ranging from a few per cent in younger adult ages to around 8% in the oldest age group (80 years and over) in developed countries and up to 15% in the oldest age group in the least developed countries. The effect of the dependent comorbidity adjustment on estimated healthy life

  4. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated

    PubMed Central

    Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. Methods: We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industrialized countries and the period 1955–2009 to assess the significance of smoking among the causes that can be influenced by direct or indirect interference. Results: The trend of the gender gap can indeed be attributed to smoking in most populations of the western world. However, with regard to the overall extent of male excess mortality, smoking is the main driver only in the minority of the studied populations. While the impact of smoking to gender differences in life expectancy declines in all populations, the contribution of other non-biological factors is in most cases higher at the end than at the beginning of the observation period. Conclusions: Over-generalized statements suggesting that smoking is the main driver of the gender gap in all populations can be misleading. The results of this study demonstrate that—regardless of the prevailing effect of smoking—many populations have still remarkable potentials to further narrow their gender gaps in life expectancy. Although measures to further reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption must be continued, more attention should be directed to the growing importance of other non-biological factors. PMID:25505018

  5. Life Expectancy after Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Pretz, Christopher; Hammond, Flora M; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Bell, Jeneita; Corrigan, John; Miller, A Cate; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet

    2015-12-01

    This study characterized life expectancy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB) was weighted to represent those ≥16 years of age completing inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the United States (US) between 2001 and 2010. Analyses included Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs), Cox regression, and life expectancy. The US mortality rates by age, sex, race, and cause of death for 2005 and 2010 were used for comparison purposes. Results indicated that a total of 1325 deaths occurred in the weighted cohort of 6913 individuals. Individuals with TBI were 2.23 times more likely to die than individuals of comparable age, sex, and race in the general population, with a reduced average life expectancy of 9 years. Independent risk factors for death were: older age, male gender, less-than-high school education, previously married at injury, not employed at injury, more recent year of injury, fall-related TBI, not discharged home after rehabilitation, less functional independence, and greater disability. Individuals with TBI were at greatest risk of death from seizures; accidental poisonings; sepsis; aspiration pneumonia; respiratory, mental/behavioral, or nervous system conditions; and other external causes of injury and poisoning, compared with individuals in the general population of similar age, gender, and race. This study confirms prior life expectancy study findings, and provides evidence that the TBIMS NDB is representative of the larger population of adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the US. There is an increased risk of death for individuals with TBI requiring inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:25057965

  6. Widening Life Expectancy Advantage of Hispanics in the United States: 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Blue, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We examine trends in the Hispanic longevity advantage between 1990 and 2010, focusing on the contribution of cigarette smoking. We calculate life expectancy at age 50 for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites between 1990 and 2010. We use an indirect method to calculate the contribution of smoking to changes over time in life expectancy. Among women, the Hispanic advantage in life expectancy grows from 2.14 years in 1990 (95 % CI 1.99–2.30 years) to 3.53 years in 2010 (3.42–3.64 years). More than 40 % of this increase reflects widening differences in smoking-attributable mortality. The advantage for Hispanic men increases from 2.27 years (2.14–2.41 years) to 2.91 years (2.81–3.01 years), although smoking makes only a small contribution. Despite persistent disadvantage, US Hispanics have increased their longevity advantage over non-Hispanic whites since 1990, much of which reflects the continuing importance of cigarette smoking to the Hispanic advantage. PMID:24851822

  7. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P < 0.0001). Results from this study suggest that varanids have not been reaching their lifespan capacities in North American zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. PMID:25503984

  8. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  9. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: influence of stress and environment.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T

    2011-11-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants

  10. Expected cycle life versus depth of discharge relationships of well behaved single cells and cell strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that might influence the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationship are examined. This is done first at the single cell level using a progressively more complex cell life model. This is then extended to multicell battery strings where the stochastic aspects associated with groupings of cells are introduced. These relationships are important when considering the weight, cost, and life of battery packs. The results of this theoretical study are compared with a recent review of actual cell cycling data. The factors examined are the rate of capacity loss, the amount of excess capacity built into the cells, and the penalty in capacity loss resulting from the use of deep depths of discharge. This study suggests that the relationship between cycle life and depth of discharge is not one that can be varied of significantly improved by cell research. The relationship appears to be determined by certain more or less fixed cell parameters. Among multicell strings, the standard deviation, as expected, plays an important role in determining overall battery life.

  11. Quality of Life and Life Expectancy in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency: What Is True and What Is Urban Myth?

    PubMed

    Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Pulzer, Alina; Hahner, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time it has been assumed that patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency under established replacement therapy have a normal life expectancy and a normal everyday life. Recent studies now indicate both an impairment of quality of life (QoL) with a negative impact on daily life and increased mortality in a significant number of patients. The clinical presentation of patients varies considerably. While some neither suffer from reduced QoL nor from adrenal crisis, others are significantly more affected by the disease. Long-term management of patients is thus more challenging and goes far beyond identification of the correct maintenance dose of corticosteroids. The mortality from adrenal crisis is still high and prevention should be a top priority for endocrinologists. Concepts of replacement therapy as well as patient education and emergency equipment are currently being reassessed. Developments to improve patient care and treatment comprise novel glucocorticoid preparations that are closer to the physiological circadian cortisol profile, a uniform European emergency card and more standardized crisis prevention measures. PMID:27211797

  12. [On Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper and other remarkable developments in the life expectancy of the Dutch population].

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J P

    2005-11-12

    The Netherlands was home to the oldest living individual in the world, Mrs. Hendrikje van Andel-Schipper, until she died at the age of 115 years on 30 August 2005. She illustrated the remarkable increase in centenarians in many European countries resulting from substantial increases in life expectancy at birth. In 2004, life expectancy at birth in the Netherlands reached a record high of 76.9 years for men and 81.4 years for women. These developments raise important questions on the potential for further increases in life expectancy. Based on an extrapolation of recent trends in cause-specific mortality, Netherlands Statistics predicts an increase in life expectancy of 2 to 3 years in the half-century between 2004 and 2050. Experts are deeply divided about the prospects for further increases in life expectancy. Some have argued that such estimates are too optimistic because, for example, the obesity epidemic might even reduce average life expectancy in the future. Others consider these estimates too pessimistic because, for example, previous estimates of limits to life expectancy have almost always been surpassed. Even relatively modest increases in life expectancy at birth, however, will pose important challenges to health care, social services and pension arrangements. PMID:16320664

  13. A Unifying Framework for Assessing Changes in Life Expectancy Associated with Changes in Mortality: The Case of Violent Deaths*

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Soneji, Samir

    2011-01-01

    For over forty years, demographers have worked intensely to develop methods that assess the gain in life expectancy from a reduction in mortality, either hypothetical or observed. This considerable body of research was motivated by assessing the gains in life expectancy when mortality declined in a particular manner and determining the contribution of a cause of death in observed changes in life expectancy over time. As yet, there has been no framework unifying this important demographic work. In this paper, we provide a unifying framework for assessing the change in life expectancy given a change in age and cause-specific mortality. We consider both conceptualizations of mortality change–counterfactual assessment of a hypothetical change and a retrospective assessment of an observed change. We apply our methodology to violent deaths, the leading cause of death among young adults, and show that realistic targeted reductions could have important impacts on life expectancy. PMID:21609727

  14. [Increasing life expectancy--the big social issue of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Scherl, H

    2003-04-01

    Due to the combined effects of a persistent low birth rate, the forthcoming retirement of the "baby-boom generation" and an increasing life expectancy, the German system of "social security" will face severe challenges in the coming decades. The foreseeable doubling of the ratio between pensioners and employees by 2050 would cause a strong increase in social security contributions and taxes for the "pay-as-you-go"-financed pension system. In addition, the expected tripling of highly aged people would increase the public expenditures for health care and nursing care of elder people, which also have to be financed by the future working generations. In order to lessen the increasing burden on future generations, social reforms are necessary soon. If these are not performed, the distributional conflict between young and old people could become worse over the forthcoming decades. PMID:12720020

  15. Life Expectancy in Patients Treated for Osteoporosis: Observational Cohort Study Using National Danish Prescription Data.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Osmond, Clive; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease, carrying an elevated risk of fractures, morbidity, and death. Long-term treatment may be required, but the long-term risks with osteoporosis drugs remain incompletely understood. The competing risk of death may be a barrier to treating the oldest, yet this may not be rational if the risk of death is reduced by treatment. It is difficult to devise goal-directed long-term strategies for managing osteoporosis without firm information about residual life expectancy in treated patients. We conducted an observational study in Danish national registries tracking prescriptions for osteoporosis drugs, comorbid conditions, and deaths. We included 58,637 patients and 225,084 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Information on deaths until the end of 2013 was retrieved, providing a follow-up period of 10 to 17 years. In men younger than 80 years and women younger than 60 years, the relative risk of dying declined from being strongly increased in the first year to a stable but elevated level in subsequent years. In women older than 65 to 70 years, there was only a small elevation in risk in the first year of treatment followed by lower than background population mortality. The residual life expectancy of a 50-year-old man beginning osteoporosis treatment was estimated to be 18.2 years and that of a 75-year-old man was 7.5 years. Estimates in women were 26.4 years and 13.5 years, respectively. This study shows an excess mortality in men and in women younger than 70 years who are treated for osteoporosis compared with the background population. This excess risk is more pronounced in the first few years on treatment. The average life expectancy of osteoporosis patients is in excess of 15 years in women younger than 75 years and in men younger than 60 years, highlighting the importance of developing tools for long-term management. PMID:25663501

  16. Determinants of Life Expectancy in Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Health Production Function

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. Methods: This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. Results: In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, P<0.001), education index (β=0.07, P<0.001), food availability (β=0.01, P<0.001), level of urbanisation (β=0.10, P<0.001), and employment ratio (β=0.11, P<0.001) were specified as determinants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P<0.001) and females (β=0.08, P>0.001). Conclusion: In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region. PMID:24596837

  17. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography. PMID:16869426

  18. Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: Differences in Substance Use Expectancy Organization and Activation in Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    We used multidimensional scaling to model the semantic network of alcohol and marijuana expectancies (N = 897). Preference mapping was used to estimate vectors representing patterns of activation through the network as a function of levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS). Individuals with low BIS combined with high BAS levels exhibited patterns of activation emphasizing behavioral activation similar to heavier drug users in previous research. High BIS, low BAS individuals exhibited activation patterns with greater emphasis on inhibitory expectancies similar to low-level users. Differences in expectancy activation patterns were maintained after controlling for substance use and gender. Individual differences in BIS/BAS are associated with the organization of semantic networks and patterns of activation of expectancies contributing to differences in substance use behavior. PMID:19586148

  19. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

  20. The problem of genotype and sex differences in life expectancy in transgenic AD mice.

    PubMed

    Rae, Eric A; Brown, Richard E

    2015-10-01

    The lifespan of mice shows genotype, sex and laboratory effects, but little is known about genotype or sex differences in life expectancy of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper examines the lifespan of males and females of different mouse models of AD and their wildtype strains. Genotype and sex dependent differences in longevity have important implications for designing experiments with Alzheimer's mouse models, comparing genotype and sex differences in aging mouse models, designing drug treatment regimes and the translation of mouse data to human clinical studies. We conclude that the concept of aging and age-related disorders in mice must be reconsidered based on genotype and sex differences in mouse life expectancy data. Use of concepts such as relative age, prospective lifespan and proportion of lifespan remaining should be included in studies of age-related changes in mouse brains and behavior. Finally, measures such as the Frailty Index, which is independent of chronological age might be used to determine a common scale of aging for all mouse strains. PMID:26348702

  1. The Jewish advantage and household security: life expectancy among 19th Century Sephardim of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Lawrence A; Tripp, Lianne; Melnychenko, Ulianna

    2013-07-01

    Using the historical population of Gibraltar to examine the pattern of mortality of Jews and Roman Catholics revealed that: (1) the Jews exhibited a significantly better health status as measured by life expectancy at birth (47.66 and 47.56 for Jewish males and females vs. 38.10 and 40.89 for Catholics males and females, respectively), (2) most of the disparity is found in the very young age categories and (3) the significantly lower rates of deaths could be attributed to the diarrheal and nutritional complex. Stage two of the research involved the linkage of deaths over a 7-year period relative to their household context as of 1878. Being Jewish, having a servant, having access to a water well in the tenement and residing in a tenement only with other Jews, were all factors that contributed to a higher life expectancy. Our explanation for the enhanced survivorship among the Jews is grounded in economics as well as in an established welfare system, in religious precepts and in secular knowledge of health. One of the more notable and hitherto unobserved findings is that Roman Catholics residing in the same tenements with Jews enjoyed a distinct health advantage. This suggests that a positive amplification effect arose from their co-residence with the Jews. PMID:22664099

  2. Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2013-01-01

    A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

  3. Estimated life expectancy and risk of death from cancer by quartiles in the older Japanese population: 2010 vital statistics.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Momoko; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    Data on life expectancies and risk of death from cancer are essential information to have when making informed decisions about cancer screening and treatment options, but has never been presented in a way that is readily available to use for physicians in Japan. We provided estimates of life expectancies and predicted risk of death from seven most common types of cancer (lung, gastric, liver, colon, prostate, breast, and cervical) by quartiles for the older Japanese population above 50 years old, using 2010 life tables and cancer mortality statistics data. We found that there was a large difference in life expectancy between older persons in the upper and lower quartiles. Risk of death from breast cancer was low. By using this data, physicians can more accurately obtain life expectancy estimates by assessing which quartile the patient is most likely to fall under, and help patients make better informed decisions. PMID:25113939

  4. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate). Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8) in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4) in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2) in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5) in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6). For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75) in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person

  5. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  6. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. Methods Data from the Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean project (n = 10 602) and Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953) on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. Results Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years) and Bridgetown (3.4 years), and lowest in Havana (1.3 years). Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years) and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years) and São Paulo (14.3 years). For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years), followed by Mexico City and Havana. Bridgetown, Mexico City and Havana had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years), and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. Conclusions Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercising as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes. PMID:19814876

  7. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D Gareth R; Ingham, Sarah Louise

    2013-01-01

    There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA), or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors. PMID:23935382

  8. Expectations about Memory Change Across the Life Span Are Impacted By Aging Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lineweaver, Tara T.; Berger, Andrea K.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether expectations about memory change with age vary for different personality types. Four adjectives from each of Hummert’s age-stereotype trait sets were selected to create 11 adjective clusters varying in both valence (positive versus negative) and relevance to memory functioning. Three hundred and seventy three participants in three age groups rated the memory abilities of target adults, defined by the adjective clusters, across the adult life span. Consistent with past studies, participants believed in age-related memory decline. However, participants rated target adults with positive personality traits as having better memory ability and less age-related memory decline than target adults with negative personality traits. This effect was larger when the traits were relevant to memory than when they were not. Finally, older participants were more strongly influenced by both the valence and the relevance of the personality descriptions than younger participants. PMID:19290748

  9. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  10. Outcome expectations that motivate physical activity among world senior games participants.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Shields, Eric C; Wood, Alison; Beck, Robert E

    2004-12-01

    This study validates a questionnaire which examines the role of selected outcome expectations from physical activity on motivating regular physical activity among a group of older adults. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 675 participants in the 2002 World Senior Games. Factor analysis identified four clusters among 14 outcome expectation items, which were labeled Recreation and Social, Physical Health, Mental Health, and Self-image. The percentage agreeing that the selected items motivated physical activity were calculated and ranked from 1 (high) to 14 (low). The average ranking in each of the four factors was 4.7 for Recreation and Social, 5.8 for Physical Health, 10.5 for Self-image, and 11.7 for Mental Health. The ranks of items did not significantly differ across categories of sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and disease history. However, the ranking did significantly differ between individuals who considered themselves to be physically active versus sedentary. Physically active individuals were most likely to agree that recreational enjoyment or fun motivated physical activity, whereas sedentary individuals were most likely to agree that improving the quality of life motivated physical activity. PMID:15739857

  11. First-time Taiwanese expectant fathers' life experiences during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann

    2004-03-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy. PMID:15136964

  12. Does modern medicine increase life-expectancy: Quest for the Moon Rabbit?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The search for elixir of immortality has yielded mixed results. While some of the interventions like percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass grafting have been a huge disappointment at least as far as prolongation of life is concerned, their absolute benefit is meager and that too in very sick patients. Cardiac specific drugs like statins and aspirin have fared slightly better, being useful in patients with manifest coronary artery disease, particularly in sicker populations although even their usefulness in primary prevention is rather low. The only strategies of proven benefit in primary/primordial prevention are pursuing a healthy life-style and its modification when appropriate, like cessation of smoking, weight reduction, increasing physical activity, eating a healthy diet and bringing blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and blood glucose under control. PMID:26896262

  13. Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Ailiana; Schröders, Julia; Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Ng, Nawi

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies. Methods This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007–2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions. Results The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men. Conclusions There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed. PMID:26994068

  14. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude death rates were also calculated. Findings 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996–99, 2000–02, and 2003–05, respectively. 2056 (4·7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude death rates decreasing from 16·3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996–99 to 10·0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003–05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36·1 (SE 0·6) years to 49·4 (0·5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than those from other transmission groups (32·6 [1·1] years vs 44·7 [0·3] years in 2003–05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 counts than in those with higher baseline counts

  15. Prediction of Expected Years of Life Using Whole-Genome Markers

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to account for 25% of the interindividual differences in Years of Life (YL) among humans. However, the genetic loci that have thus far been found to be associated with YL explain a very small proportion of the expected genetic variation in this trait, perhaps reflecting the complexity of the trait and the limitations of traditional association studies when applied to traits affected by a large number of small-effect genes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study and statistical methods borrowed largely from the field of animal genetics (whole-genome prediction, WGP), we developed a WGP model for the study of YL and evaluated the extent to which thousands of genetic variants across the genome examined simultaneously can be used to predict interindividual differences in YL. We find that a sizable proportion of differences in YL—which were unexplained by age at entry, sex, smoking and BMI—can be accounted for and predicted using WGP methods. The contribution of genomic information to prediction accuracy was even higher than that of smoking and body mass index (BMI) combined; two predictors that are considered among the most important life-shortening factors. We evaluated the impacts of familial relationships and population structure (as described by the first two marker-derived principal components) and concluded that in our dataset population structure explained partially, but not fully the gains in prediction accuracy obtained with WGP. Further inspection of prediction accuracies by age at death indicated that most of the gains in predictive ability achieved with WGP were due to the increased accuracy of prediction of early mortality, perhaps reflecting the ability of WGP to capture differences in genetic risk to deadly diseases such as cancer, which are most often responsible for early mortality in our sample. PMID:22848416

  16. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    crytic but abundant evidence of past life [3] in the form of fossilised microbial colonies on the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains, in fine volcanic dust deposits, and in the pores of scoriaceous pumice, etc (Fig. 2). Again, these traces can be identified only through petrographic thin section and SEM study. The bulk organic carbon contents of these rocks is very low, ~0.01-0.05% and their C-isotope signature (~ - 25 ‰), although indicative of life, could also be produced through abiological processes [5]. Only the combination of multiple analytical techniques, of which high resolution microscopy is one of the most fundamental, permitted a biogenic origin to be attributed to these structures. Biolaminated sediments, including domal stromatolites, in Early Archaean terrains are the result of anaerobic photosynthetic activity [6-9]. Photosynthesis is a relatively evolved metabolism. Evidence of photosynthetic activity is preserved in the rhythmic laminations found in sediments deposited at the edges of shallow basins due to the growth of photosynthetic microbial mats on the sediment surfaces. These laminations, ranging from a few tens of microns to packets up to a couple of millimetres in thickness, are macroscopically and microscopically visible (Fig. 3). Given sufficient tectonic stability of the shallow water, carbonate platform environments in which they form, photosynthetic microorganisms on the early Earth formed domical stromatolites. In the case of biolaminated sediments, bulk organic carbon contents are again low (0.01 %) but the individual biolaminae have a higher carbon content (0.07%). Certain highly carbonaceous biomaminated cherts have carbon contents ranging up to 0.5% [10]. Photosynthetic organisms, however, are not only restricted to stable substrates and may also be planktonic, living free in the upper layers of water bodies. Evidence of planktonic microorganisms on the early Earth has been suggested by [10]. Whether floating in the ocean or forming

  17. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    crytic but abundant evidence of past life [3] in the form of fossilised microbial colonies on the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains, in fine volcanic dust deposits, and in the pores of scoriaceous pumice, etc (Fig. 2). Again, these traces can be identified only through petrographic thin section and SEM study. The bulk organic carbon contents of these rocks is very low, ~0.01-0.05% and their C-isotope signature (~ - 25 ‰), although indicative of life, could also be produced through abiological processes [5]. Only the combination of multiple analytical techniques, of which high resolution microscopy is one of the most fundamental, permitted a biogenic origin to be attributed to these structures. Biolaminated sediments, including domal stromatolites, in Early Archaean terrains are the result of anaerobic photosynthetic activity [6-9]. Photosynthesis is a relatively evolved metabolism. Evidence of photosynthetic activity is preserved in the rhythmic laminations found in sediments deposited at the edges of shallow basins due to the growth of photosynthetic microbial mats on the sediment surfaces. These laminations, ranging from a few tens of microns to packets up to a couple of millimetres in thickness, are macroscopically and microscopically visible (Fig. 3). Given sufficient tectonic stability of the shallow water, carbonate platform environments in which they form, photosynthetic microorganisms on the early Earth formed domical stromatolites. In the case of biolaminated sediments, bulk organic carbon contents are again low (0.01 %) but the individual biolaminae have a higher carbon content (0.07%). Certain highly carbonaceous biomaminated cherts have carbon contents ranging up to 0.5% [10]. Photosynthetic organisms, however, are not only restricted to stable substrates and may also be planktonic, living free in the upper layers of water bodies. Evidence of planktonic microorganisms on the early Earth has been suggested by [10]. Whether floating in the ocean or forming

  18. Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, M; Butters, T D; Cortina-Borja, M; Hunnam, V; Proia, R L; Perry, V H; Dwek, R A; Platt, F M

    1999-05-25

    Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597

  19. Ethical framework for medication discontinuation in nursing home residents with limited life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Tjia, Jennifer; Givens, Jane

    2012-05-01

    A recent editorial by health economist Victor Fuchs summarized the current challenges with health care delivery in this way: “Most physicians want to deliver ‘appropriate’ care. Most want to practice ‘ethically’, but it is difficult to know what is ‘appropriate’ and what is ‘ethical’. This characterization is particularly true for medication use and deprescribing in elderly NH residents with limited life expectancy. Medical ethics sets 4 key principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence, patient autonomy, and justice) to guide practice. However, decisional conflicts will continue between providers and patients, and physicians will continue to struggle with the dilemma of balancing the primacy of patient welfare, values, and beliefs against the desire for promising, but often minimally beneficial and harmful, medications that threaten limited clinical resources. Despite these challenges, physicians should be able to perform systematic medication reviews and monitor discontinuation trials in their NH patients for whom this is consistent with their goals of care. PMID:22500542

  20. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.; Fenelon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women aged 50 and above from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N=283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N=584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities. PMID:26199287

  1. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the “ideal” weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI). PMID:25705173

  2. Family, frailty, and fatal futures? Own-health and family-health predictors of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N; Taylor, Lorayne B

    2014-03-01

    Subjective life expectancy is a powerful predictor of a variety of health and economic behaviors. This research expands upon the life expectancy literature by examining the influence of familial health histories. Using a genetic/environmental model, we hypothesize that individuals' assessments of their life expectancies will be linked to the health of first-degree and second-degree relatives, with same-sex relatives' health exercising a stronger effect than that of opposite-sex relatives. Multivariate analyses based on data from a 2009 survey merged with familial health records (N = 1,019) confirm that the health experiences of same-sex, first-degree relatives are linked to respondents' subjective life expectancy. The relationship between the health experiences of second-degree relatives and subjective life expectancy is much less pronounced. These findings have the potential not only to inform our understanding of health behaviors but also to encourage communication between patients and health professionals aimed at promoting preventative behaviors. PMID:25650691

  3. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  4. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  5. Life Centered Career Education: Activity Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoe, Lynda Gayle; And Others

    The book provides suggestions for activities designed to infuse life skills into the basic curriculum for adolescents and older students with disabilities. Modeled after the Life Centered Career Education approach, the book presents activities geared to three domains (sample competencies in parentheses): (1) daily living skills (managing family…

  6. [Study on the use of model life tables methodology in birth defect's life expectancy estimation: the case of Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiao-Ying

    2008-04-01

    Using Brass-Logit model and life tables for general population and Down's syndrome patients in U.S.A and life tables for general population in China, we estimated the life table of Down's syndrome patients in China. Through comparing with data from other countries, we suggested that Brass-Logit Model Life Table could be adopted were minimum data of birth defects survival was available and systematic data was handy in another areas. PMID:18844002

  7. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  8. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  9. Meeting Today's Data Life Cycle Expectations: Retrofitting Historical Sea Ice Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (NSIDC DAAC) has been archiving and distributing passive microwave data for over two decades. In recent years the passive microwave sea ice data sets have become very popular as they showcase the changes in our polar regions. These data sets were created during a time before detailed provenance was deemed important. As a result, the NSIDC DAAC has not required detailed data provenance for these legacy data sets. However, in the aftermath of Climategate and with the ever growing popularity of these data, it is becoming more important to properly capture and make available the provenance for these data sets, from data set production information to data set documentation. In this presentation, we will examine the experiences the NSIDC DAAC has had in changing our culture for capturing information over the life cycle of our data sets.

  10. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries

    PubMed Central

    YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient −0.039; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (−0.019; 95% CI: −0.035, −0.003), GNI (−0.035; 95% CI: −0.055, −0.015), and both EI and GNI (−0.017; 95% CI: −0.033, −0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries. PMID:25905077

  11. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking. PMID:24532089

  12. Improvement of Life Expectancy of Jute Based Needlepunched Geotextiles Through Bitumen Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ray Gupta, K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Sahu, R. B.; Mandol, S.

    2014-12-01

    Geotextiles have witnessed unrivalled growth worldwide in recent years in the field of different civil engineering constructions. The world of Geotextiles includes mainly non-biodegradable synthetic materials which are not environmentally compatible. With the increasing human awareness on environmental pollution aspects, biodegradable Jute Geotextile is increasingly gaining ground over its synthetic non-biodegradable counterpart. Though Jute is advantageous for its complete biodegradability in one hand but on the other hand it is disadvantageous for its poor microbial resistance and quicker biodegradation particularly under moist soil conditions, when applied as Geotextiles under soil. Therefore, it is a great challenge to the present researchers to make jute more microbial resistant (rot resistant) keeping its biodegradability intact during its performance period. Thorough investigation and study regarding the improvement of the durability of natural Jute Geotextile reveals the fact that though several attempts including chemical treatments have been made to enhance the life expectancy of jute fabrics yet these methods were neither found to be suitable nor techno-economically viable. Therefore, in order to accomplish the objective and based on the researchers' report of satisfactory thermal compatibility between hot bitumen and jute nonwoven fabrics, in the present study Bitumen emulsion with essential additives has been applied following a special technique, apart from the conventional method, on the Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics in different add on percentages to make a comparative assessment of the performance of both Grey Jute Fabrics and Bituminized Jute Nonwoven Fabrics by Soil Burial Test as per the BIS standard test method. The test results revealed that the durability and performance of the Bituminized Nonwoven Jute Fabrics are much better than that of Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics.

  13. Expectations and Support for Scholarly Activity in Schools of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohrer, Paul; Dolphin, Robert, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses issues relating to scholarship productivity and examines these issues with consideration given to the size and the accreditation status of the business schools sampled. First, how important is scholarly activity within an institution for a variety of personnel decisions? Second, what is the relative importance of various types of…

  14. Expanding Adolescent Role Expectations. Information, Activities, Resources for Vocational Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Community Service Education.

    Developed for vocational educators as a self-study guide or as a basis for inservice workshops, this source book presents information on sex fair education. Each of the six sections contains fact sheets and references, and some contain checklists, guidelines or rating sheets, and highlighted questions and activities which may be used for…

  15. Life and Environment. Elementary Science Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book, a volume of the High/Scope Elementary Curriculum science books series, is designed to bring the essential features of plant and animal environments into focus. It contains activities that enable students to gain insights into the life histories of animals and plants, their habitats, and their place in the broader picture of life on…

  16. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to…

  17. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 78.9 years (10% increase), and for black persons from 64.1 years to 75.1 years ( ... death to the difference in life expectancy between black and white persons: United States, 2010 SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Vital ...

  18. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  19. Assessing the Work and Family Role Expectations of Career-Oriented Men and Women: The Life Role Salience Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amatea, Ellen S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the development of the Life Role Salience Scales (LRSS), which were designed to assess men's and women's personal expectations concerning occupational, marital, parental, and home care roles. Results indicate that the instrument has eight clearly defined scales demonstrating adequate convergent and discriminant validity and reliability.…

  20. Prevailing in Life and Love: An Educator's View of the Role of Our Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine

    The relationship between well being and expectations is complicated and contingent upon many factors. Self-esteem becomes the balance between ability and ambition. To feel better about oneself entails a combination of striving in certain areas while lowering expectations in others. The three most important domains of peoples' lives are: love…

  1. Impact of obesity, overweight and underweight on life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditures: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Sone, Toshimasa; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives People who are obese have higher demands for medical care than those of the normal weight people. However, in view of their shorter life expectancy, it is unclear whether obese people have higher lifetime medical expenditure. We examined the association between body mass index, life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditure. Design Prospective cohort study using individual data from the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Setting Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Participants The 41 965 participants aged 40–79 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The life expectancy and lifetime medical expenditure aged from 40 years. Results In spite of their shorter life expectancy, obese participants might require higher medical expenditure than normal weight participants. In men aged 40 years, multiadjusted life expectancy for those who were obese participants was 41.4 years (95% CI 38.28 to 44.70), which was 1.7 years non-significantly shorter than that for normal weight participants (p=0.3184). Multiadjusted lifetime medical expenditure for obese participants was £112 858.9 (94 954.1–131 840.9), being 14.7% non-significantly higher than that for normal weight participants (p=0.1141). In women aged 40 years, multiadjusted life expectancy for those who were obese participants was 49.2 years (46.14–52.59), which was 3.1 years non-significantly shorter than for normal weight participants (p=0.0724), and multiadjusted lifetime medical expenditure was £137 765.9 (123 672.9–152 970.2), being 21.6% significantly higher (p=0.0005). Conclusions According to the point estimate, lifetime medical expenditure might appear to be higher for obese participants, despite their short life expectancy. With weight control, more people would enjoy their longevity with lower demands for medical care. PMID:22581797

  2. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, S.C.; Porter, W.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. The authors present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. They tested their model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models. 125 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence. PMID:26977306

  4. Anania Shirakatsi's Life and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaryan, L. S.

    2014-10-01

    Anania Shirakatsi is one of the greatest scientists who made an important contribution to the field of exact sciences in Armenia, a brilliant scientist and philosopher of the 7th century; actually the founder of exact sciences in Armenian reality. Unfortunately, out of Shirakatsi's rich heritage only some fragments of his works in the fields of Mathematics, Cosmography, Calendarology, Metrology, which are of great value for the history of exact sciences, got to us. There is a valuable source about Anania Shirakatsi's life and work; the author has left his autobiography. From Shirakatsi's autobiography we learn that he was born in the village Aneank (Shirakavan) at the beginning of the 7th century. He got his elementary education in the local monastery school, later being eager to improve his knowledge, he went to West Armenia. He had to travel a lot about West Armenia seeking an advanced specialist in Mathematics. He was leaving for Constantinople but on his way to Signup he learns that in Trapeze a great Greek scientist, Tyukhik lives: "a wise man, popular with the kings, an expert on Armenian Language and Literature". Shirakatsi changed his way and went to Trapeze. Shirakatsi had been at Tyukhik's school for 8 years; he became proficient in exact science and came back to his native land with rich knowledge base. Here he opened a school and devoted himself to teaching and research. He wrote research works in Astronomy, Mathematics, Geography, Calendarology, Metrology and in other fields of science.

  5. Active Acoustic Monitoring of Aquatic Life.

    PubMed

    Stein, Peter J; Edson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Active acoustic monitoring (AAM) can be used to study the behavioral response of marine life and to mitigate harm during high-danger anthropogenic activities. This has been done in fish studies for many decades, and there are now case studies in which AAM has been used for marine mammal monitoring as well. This includes monitoring where the ranges, AAM frequency of operation, and species are such that the AAM operation is completely outside the hearing range of the animals. However, it also includes AAM operations within the hearing range of marine life, although this does not necessarily that imply AAM is not a suitable tool. It is just not always possible to have a sufficient detection and tracking range and operate at a frequency outside the marine life hearing range. Likely, the best and most important application of AAM is when the anthropogenic activity to be conducted is temporary and presents a clear danger to aquatic life. PMID:26611075

  6. The Activation of Reward Versus Relief Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers: Relations to Gambling Motives.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-12-01

    Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed. PMID:24916965

  7. From the laboratory to real life: a pilot study of an expectancy challenge with "heavy drinking" young people on holiday.

    PubMed

    van de Luitgaarden, Jade; Wiers, Reinout W; Knibbe, Ronald A; Boon, Brigitte J

    2006-01-01

    The Alcohol Expectancy Challenge (EC) is a promising program for changing alcohol expectancies and reducing alcohol consumption in "heavy drinking" young men in a bar-lab setting. In this study the EC was adapted for use in mixed-gender groups in a holiday setting and its feasibility tested in camping resorts in the Netherlands where a lot of binge drinking takes place (summer 2002). Male and female participants (N = 170; mean age, 18.8 years) were randomly assigned to an EC or to an assessment-only control group. One day before the intervention, alcohol expectancies were measured by a Visual Analogue Scale of arousal-sedation expectancies (VAS expectancies questionnaire). At the same time, alcohol use in everyday life and on holiday was assessed by a General Drinking Questionnaire and a 24-hour drinking diary, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the intervention, the VAS expectancies questionnaire was administered again and alcohol use over the previous 24 hours was reported in the drinking diary. Six weeks after the intervention, participants were telephoned and administered oral versions of the VAS expectancies questionnaire and General Drinking Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs. Although the study was hampered by recruitment difficulties, the EC proved feasible in this setting, was well received by youngsters, and effects on their alcohol expectancies may have been present. No effect was found on alcohol use. In conclusion, implementation must be improved and more studies are needed to come to more definite conclusions about the value of the EC in a real-life targeted intervention. PMID:16467011

  8. Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy from China's Huai River policy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyu; Ebenstein, Avraham; Greenstone, Michael; Li, Hongbin

    2013-08-01

    This paper's findings suggest that an arbitrary Chinese policy that greatly increases total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution is causing the 500 million residents of Northern China to lose more than 2.5 billion life years of life expectancy. The quasi-experimental empirical approach is based on China's Huai River policy, which provided free winter heating via the provision of coal for boilers in cities north of the Huai River but denied heat to the south. Using a regression discontinuity design based on distance from the Huai River, we find that ambient concentrations of TSPs are about 184 μg/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 61, 307] or 55% higher in the north. Further, the results indicate that life expectancies are about 5.5 y (95% CI: 0.8, 10.2) lower in the north owing to an increased incidence of cardiorespiratory mortality. More generally, the analysis suggests that long-term exposure to an additional 100 μg/m(3) of TSPs is associated with a reduction in life expectancy at birth of about 3.0 y (95% CI: 0.4, 5.6). PMID:23836630

  9. The life course in the making: gender and the development of adolescents' expected timing of adult role transitions.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Beal, Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' anticipated ages of school completion, job entry, marriage, and parenthood over the high school years, focusing on gender differences. Latent growth curve analysis of data from 411 rural youths followed from Grades 9 through 12 (age at Grade 9: M = 14.35, SD = 0.77) indicated a significant increase in adolescents' anticipated ages of entry into work and parenthood as well as gender differences in the trajectory of the expected age of marriage. Gender role attitudes, school performance, romantic relationships, and expected educational and occupational attainment were associated with the anticipated timing of role transitions, with significant variations by gender. Adolescents' expected ages of entry into adult family roles predicted their educational attainment and family role transitions in early adulthood. The findings provide insights into the process through which adolescent boys and girls construct their expectations regarding the transition to adulthood and, in turn, their future life course. PMID:22448985

  10. Life at low water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W D

    2004-01-01

    Two major types of environment provide habitats for the most xerophilic organisms known: foods preserved by some form of dehydration or enhanced sugar levels, and hypersaline sites where water availability is limited by a high concentration of salts (usually NaCl). These environments are essentially microbial habitats, with high-sugar foods being dominated by xerophilic (sometimes called osmophilic) filamentous fungi and yeasts, some of which are capable of growth at a water activity (a(w)) of 0.61, the lowest a(w) value for growth recorded to date. By contrast, high-salt environments are almost exclusively populated by prokaryotes, notably the haloarchaea, capable of growing in saturated NaCl (a(w) 0.75). Different strategies are employed for combating the osmotic stress imposed by high levels of solutes in the environment. Eukaryotes and most prokaryotes synthesize or accumulate organic so-called 'compatible solutes' (osmolytes) that have counterbalancing osmotic potential. A restricted range of bacteria and the haloarchaea counterbalance osmotic stress imposed by NaCl by accumulating equivalent amounts of KCl. Haloarchaea become entrapped and survive for long periods inside halite (NaCl) crystals. They are also found in ancient subterranean halite (NaCl) deposits, leading to speculation about survival over geological time periods. PMID:15306380

  11. [Daily life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].

    PubMed

    Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne

    2006-09-15

    Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in daily life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in daily life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include daily life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Expectation and Reaction Time in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Caro, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental change and stability of visual expectation and reaction times among 5-, 7-, and 12-month-old term and preterm infants. Found that reaction times declined with age while anticipations increased. Infants with faster reaction times were more likely to anticipate upcoming events; this effect disappeared when time between stimuli…

  13. Expectations and Experiences of Latina and Anglo Girls and Parents for Life after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Kashiwabara, Eleanor; Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether Latina youth in special education and parents of Latinas in special education differ from their Anglo counterparts regarding transition expectations and experiences, and experiences of self-determination. Surveys were completed by 211 transition-aged Anglo and Latina females, and parents of Anglo girls and Latinas…

  14. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  15. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  16. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination. PMID:24946117

  17. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  18. Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated with Media Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life…

  19. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  20. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  1. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  2. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  3. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  4. Impact on Life Expectancy of Withdrawing Thiopurines in Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Sustained Clinical Remission: A Lifetime Risk-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgesner, Julien; Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Sokol, Harry; Cosnes, Jacques; Schwarzinger, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Objective Long-term treatment with thiopurines is associated with a decreased risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) flare but an increased risk of various cancers depending on gender, age, and presence of extensive colitis. We evaluated risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines in patients with CD in prolonged remission. Methods We developed a Markov model assessing risks and benefits of withdrawing thiopurines compared to continuing thiopurines in a lifetime horizon. The model was stratified by age (35 and 65 years old at thiopurine withdrawal), gender and presence of extensive colitis. Parameter estimates were taken from French cohorts and hospital databases, cancer and death national registries and published literature. Life expectancy, rates of relapse, serious adverse events, and causes-of-death were evaluated. Results In patients without extensive colitis, continuing thiopurines increased life expectancy up to 0.03 years for 35 year-old men and women but decreased life expectancy down to 0.07 years for 65 year-old men and women. Withdrawal strategy became the preferred strategy at 40.6 years for men, and 45.7 years for women without extensive colitis. In patients with extensive colitis, continuation strategy was the preferred strategy regardless of age. Risk-benefit analysis was not modified by duration of CD activity. Conclusions Factors determining life expectancy associated with withdrawal or continuation of thiopurines in patients with CD and in sustained clinical remission vary substantially according to gender, age and presence of extensive colitis. Individual decisions to continue or withdraw thiopurines in patients with CD in sustained remission should take into account these parameters. PMID:27271176

  5. Effect of Students' After-School Activities on Teachers' Academic Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Van Matre JC; Valentine; Cooper

    2000-04-01

    Teacher expectancies can have an impact on students' academic achievement. These expectancies can be based on diverse student characteristics, only one of which is past academic performance. The present study investigated three student individual differences that teachers may use when forming academic expectancies: the sex of the student, the family socioeconomic status (SES) of the student, and the student's after-school activities. Results indicated teachers held higher grade, graduation, and college attendance expectancies for females than for males and for middle-SES than low-SES students. Also, students who participated in extracurricular activities were expected to achieve more academically than either students who were employed after school or who did nothing after school. The latter two groups did not elicit different teacher expectancies. Interactions revealed that (a) lowest expectations were held for low-SES males who did nothing after school and (b) the difference in graduation expectancies between the SES groups was only half as great for students who took part in extracurricular activities than it was for students who had no involvements after school or who had jobs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10753545

  6. Temporal Expectation and Attention Jointly Modulate Auditory Oscillatory Activity in the Beta Band

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing. PMID:25799572

  7. A prospective study of the association of patient expectations with changes in health-related quality of life outcomes, following total joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient expectations regarding surgery may be related to outcomes in total joint replacement (TJR). The aim of this study was to determine the association of patient expectations with health related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short Form 12 (SF-12) and satisfaction with current symptoms measured on a 4-point Likert scale, one year after surgery, adjusting for Body Mass Index (BMI), age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and baseline scores. Methods Consecutive patients preparing for TJR of the knee or hip due to primary osteoarthritis (OA) in 15 hospitals in Spain were recruited for the study. Patients completed questionnaires before surgery and 12 months afterwards: five questions about expectations before surgery; an item to measure satisfaction; two HRQoL instruments—WOMAC and SF-12; as well as questions about sociodemographic information. To determine the association of patient expectations at baseline, with changes in HRQoL 12 months after surgery and with satisfaction, general linear models and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results A total of 892 patients took part in the study. Patients who had higher pain relief or ability to walk expectations improved more in HRQoL at 12 months. Moreover, patients with high daily activity expectations were more satisfied. Conclusions Patients with higher baseline expectations for TJR, improved more in HRQoL at one year and had more likelihood to be satisfied than patients with lower expectations, adjusted for BMI, age, gender, joint, education, previous intervention and HRQoL baseline scores. PMID:25055728

  8. DNA methylation levels at individual age-associated CpG sites can be indicative for life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Weidner, Carola I.; Costa, Ivan G.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Deary, Ian J.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    DNA-methylation (DNAm) levels at age-associated CpG sites can be combined into epigenetic aging signatures to estimate donor age. It has been demonstrated that the difference between such epigenetic age-predictions and chronological age is indicative for of all-cause mortality in later life. In this study, we tested alternative epigenetic signatures and followed the hypothesis that even individual age-associated CpG sites might be indicative for life-expectancy. Using a 99-CpG aging model, a five-year higher age-prediction was associated with 11% greater mortality risk in DNAm profiles of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study. However, models based on three CpGs, or even individual CpGs, generally revealed very high offsets in age-predictions if applied to independent microarray datasets. On the other hand, we demonstrate that DNAm levels at several individual age-associated CpGs seem to be associated with life expectancy – e.g., at CpGs associated with the genes PDE4C and CLCN6. Our results support the notion that small aging signatures should rather be analysed by more quantitative methods, such as site-specific pyrosequencing, as the precision of age-predictions is rather low on independent microarray datasets. Nevertheless, the results hold the perspective that simple epigenetic biomarkers, based on few or individual age-associated CpGs, could assist the estimation of biological age. PMID:26928272

  9. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women’s political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. PMID:20172639

  10. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  11. Continued improvement in survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients: an application of the loss in expectation of life.

    PubMed

    Bower, H; Andersson, T M-L; Björkholm, M; Dickman, P W; Lambert, P C; Derolf, Å R

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated temporal trends in survival of Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 using relative survival ratios (RSRs) and a measure called the loss in expectation of life (LEL). RSRs increased most for patients <60 years at diagnosis during the first calendar periods, but between 1997-2005 and 2006-2011 the most pronounced increase was for those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis; RSR changed from 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.19) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23-0.33), respectively. The LEL for males aged 35 years at diagnosis was 41.0 (95% CI: 40.1-41.8) years in 1975 and 19.5 (95% CI: 16.4-22.5) years in 2011. For males aged 65 years, the corresponding figures were 13.8 (95% CI: 13.7-14.0) and 12.0 (95% CI: 11.3-12.8). Conditional LEL estimates suggested that patients who survive 5 years postdiagnosis have shorter remaining lifespan than the general population. The proportion of expected life lost (PELL) suggested that male 65-year-old patients lost 75% of their life expectancy in 2005 and 66% if they were diagnosed in 2011. Survival continued to increase to 2011, with larger improvements in those aged 61-70 years at diagnosis. The LEL and PELL are intuitive measures that may be useful in communicating survival statistics to patients, clinicians and health-care providers. PMID:26849011

  12. Continued improvement in survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients: an application of the loss in expectation of life

    PubMed Central

    Bower, H; Andersson, T M-L; Björkholm, M; Dickman, P W; Lambert, P C; Derolf, Å R

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated temporal trends in survival of Swedish acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 using relative survival ratios (RSRs) and a measure called the loss in expectation of life (LEL). RSRs increased most for patients <60 years at diagnosis during the first calendar periods, but between 1997–2005 and 2006–2011 the most pronounced increase was for those aged 61–70 years at diagnosis; RSR changed from 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13–0.19) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23–0.33), respectively. The LEL for males aged 35 years at diagnosis was 41.0 (95% CI: 40.1–41.8) years in 1975 and 19.5 (95% CI: 16.4–22.5) years in 2011. For males aged 65 years, the corresponding figures were 13.8 (95% CI: 13.7–14.0) and 12.0 (95% CI: 11.3–12.8). Conditional LEL estimates suggested that patients who survive 5 years postdiagnosis have shorter remaining lifespan than the general population. The proportion of expected life lost (PELL) suggested that male 65-year-old patients lost 75% of their life expectancy in 2005 and 66% if they were diagnosed in 2011. Survival continued to increase to 2011, with larger improvements in those aged 61–70 years at diagnosis. The LEL and PELL are intuitive measures that may be useful in communicating survival statistics to patients, clinicians and health-care providers. PMID:26849011

  13. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective dispersive systems; 2. Reservoir theory for sub-drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.

    2006-09-01

    Groundwater age and life expectancy probability density functions (pdf) have been defined, and solved in a general three-dimensional context by means of forward and backward advection-dispersion equations [Cornaton F, Perrochet P. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective-dispersive systems; 1. Generalized reservoir theory. Adv Water Res (xxxx)]. The discharge and recharge zones transit time pdfs were then derived by applying the reservoir theory (RT) to the global system, thus considering as ensemble the union of all inlet boundaries on one hand, and the union of all outlet boundaries on the other hand. The main advantages in using the RT to calculate the transit time pdf is that the outlet boundary geometry does not represent a computational limiting factor (e.g. outlets of small sizes), since the methodology is based on the integration over the entire domain of each age, or life expectancy, occurrence. In the present paper, we extend the applicability of the RT to sub-drainage basins of groundwater reservoirs by treating the reservoir flow systems as compartments which transfer the water fluxes to a particular discharge zone, and inside which mixing and dispersion processes can take place. Drainage basins are defined by the field of probability of exit at outlet. In this way, we make the RT applicable to each sub-drainage system of an aquifer of arbitrary complexity and configuration. The case of the well-head protection problem is taken as illustrative example, and sensitivity analysis of the effect of pore velocity variations on the simulated ages is carried out.

  14. The Contribution of Health Care and Other Interventions to Black–White Disparities in Life Expectancy, 1980–2007

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    Black–white mortality disparities remain sizable in the United States. In this study, we use the concept of avoidable/amenable mortality to estimate cause-of-death contributions to the difference in life expectancy between whites and blacks by gender in the United States in 1980, 1993, and 2007. We begin with a review of the concept of “avoidable mortality” and results of prior studies using this cause-of-death classification. We then present the results of our empirical analyses. We classified causes of death as amenable to medical care, sensitive to public health policies and health behaviors, ischemic heart disease, suicide, HIV/AIDS, and all other causes combined. We used vital statistics data on deaths and Census Bureau population estimates and standard demographic decomposition techniques. In 2007, causes of death amenable to medical care continued to account for close to 2 years of the racial difference in life expectancy among men (2.08) and women (1.85). Causes amenable to public health interventions made a larger contribution to the racial difference in life expectancy among men (1.17 years) than women (0.08 years). The contribution of HIV/AIDS substantially widened the racial difference among both men (1.08 years) and women (0.42 years) in 1993, but its contribution declined over time. Despite progress observed over the time period studied, a substantial portion of black–white disparities in mortality could be reduced given more equitable access to medical care and health interventions. PMID:24554793

  15. What is the difference? Evidence on the distribution of wealth, health, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Kennickell, Arthur B

    2008-09-10

    There is a literature of long standing that considers the relationship between income and differentials in mortality and morbidity, but information on differentials over the distribution of accumulated wealth have been far more scarce and subject to measurement problems. This paper provides evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances, which is designed as a survey of wealth, on the distribution of wealth and income and how those distributions have shifted in recent years. Particular attention is paid to the distribution of wealth across minority groups and across age groups. The paper also examines the relationship between wealth and health status, life expectancy, and health insurance coverage. PMID:18680166

  16. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in the Aged – Does It Impact Life Expectancy? A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maor, Yaakov; Malnick, Stephen D. H.; Melzer, Ehud; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in patients over 70 is similar to that of younger age groups. Evidence continues to mount that life expectancy (LE) increases with successful treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) patients with advanced fibrosis. The evidence in older people is more limited. Our aim was to estimate the life year (LY) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by treatment of naïve patients with HCV as a function of patient's age and fibrosis stage. Methods We constructed a Markov model of HCV progression toward advanced liver disease. The primary outcome was LY and QALY saved. The model and the sustained virological response of HCV infected subjects treated with a fixed-dose combination of the NS5B polymerase inhibitor Sofosbuvir and the NS5A replication complex inhibitor Ledipasvir were based on the published literature and expert opinion. Results Generally, both the number of LY gained and QALY gained gradually decreased with advancing age but the rate of decline was slower with more advanced fibrosis stage. For patients with fibrosis stage F1, F2 and F3, LY gained dropped below six months if treated by the age of 55, 65 or 70 years, respectively, while for a patient with fibrosis stage F4, the gain was one LY if treated by the age of 75. The QALY gained for treated over untreated elderly were reasonably high even for those treated at early fibrosis stage. Conclusions There is a significant life expectancy benefit to HCV treatment in patients up to age 75 with advanced-stage fibrosis. PMID:27410963

  17. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  18. Stimulus Expectancy Modulates Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Premotor Cortex Activity in Auditory Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In studies on auditory speech perception, participants are often asked to perform active tasks, e.g. decide whether the perceived sound is a speech sound or not. However, information about the stimulus, inherent in such tasks, may induce expectations that cause altered activations not only in the auditory cortex, but also in frontal areas such as…

  19. Phosphatase activities as biosignatures of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Itoh, Y.; Edazawa, Y.; Moroi, A.; Takano, Y.

    It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere high temperature hot springs and stratosphere Possible extraterrestrial biospheres in Mars Europa and Titan are being discussed Many biosignatures or biomarkers have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments Phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life since they are constituents of nucleic acids and cell mebranes Thus all the terrestrial organisms have phosphatases that are enzymes catalyzing hydrolysis of phosphate esters We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount Izu-Bonin Arc the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002 and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems the Pacific Oceanas in 2003 both in a part of the Archaean Park Project Phosphatase activity in solid rock samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate pH 8 0 or pH 6 5 as a substrate as follows Pulverized samples were incuvated with substrate solution for an hour and then production rate of p-nitrophenol was calculated with absorbance at 410 nm Phosphatase activity in extracts was measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratio were determined by HPLC after HF digestion of the

  20. Exploring the Life Expectancy Increase in Poland in the Context of CVD Mortality Fall: The Risk Assessment Bottom-Up Approach, From Health Outcome to Policies.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Geremek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy at birth is considered the best mortality-based summary indicator of the health status of the population and is useful for measuring long-term health changes. The objective of this article was to present the concept of the bottom-up policy risk assessment approach, developed to identify challenges involved in analyzing risk factor reduction policies and in assessing how the related health indicators have changed over time. This article focuses on the reasons of the significant life expectancy prolongation in Poland over the past 2 decades, thus includes policy context. The methodology details a bottom-up risk assessment approach, a chain of relations between the health outcome, risk factors, and health policy, based on Risk Assessment From Policy to Impact Dimension project guidance. A decline in cardiovascular disease mortality was a key factor that followed life expectancy prolongation. Among basic factors, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and new treatment technologies were identified. Poor health outcomes of the Polish population at the beginning of 1990s highlighted the need of the implementation of various health promotion programs, legal acts, and more effective public health policies. Evidence-based public health policy needs translating scientific research into policy and practice. The bottom-up case study template can be one of the focal tools in this process. Accountability for the health impact of policies and programs and legitimization of the decisions of policy makers has become one of the key questions nowadays in European countries' decision-making process and in EU public health strategy. PMID:26546595

  1. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN LIFE EXPECTANCIES AND PER CAPITA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AS WELL AS PHARMACEUTICAL AND NON-PHARMACEUTICAL HEALTHCARE EXPENDITURES.

    PubMed

    Hermanowski, Tomasz; Bystrov, Victor; Staszewska-Bystrova, Anna; Szafraniec-Buryło, Sylwia I; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kolasa, Katarzyna; Orlewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy is a common measure of population health. Macro-perspective based on aggregated data makes it possible to approximate the impact of different levels of pharmaceutical expenditure on general population health status and is often used in cross-country comparisons. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are long-run relations between life expectancy, total healthcare expenditures, and pharmaceutical expenditures in OECD countries. Common trends in per capita gross domestic products (GDPs) (excluding healthcare expenditures), per capita healthcare expenditures (excluding pharmaceutical expenditures), per capita pharmaceutical expenditures, and life expectancies of women and men aged 60 and 65 were analyzed across OECD countries. Short-term effect of pharmaceutical expenditure onto life expectancy was also estimated by regressing the deviations of life expectancies from their long-term trends onto the deviations of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical health expenditures, as well as GDP from their trends. The dataset was created on the basis of OECD Health Data for 34 countries and the years 1991-2010. Life expectancy variables were used as proxies for the health outcomes, whereas the pharmaceutical and healthcare expenditures represented drug and healthcare consumption, respectively. In general, both expenditures and life expectancies tended to increase in all of the analyzed countries; however, the growth rates differed across the countries. The analysis of common trends indicated the existence of common long-term trends in life expectancies and per capita GDP as well as pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical healthcare expenditures. However, there was no evidence that pharmaceutical expenditures provided additional information about the long-term trends in life expectancies beyond that contained in the GDP series. The analysis based on the deviations of variables from their long-term trends allowed concluding that pharmaceutical

  2. Psychiatric Comorbidity, Social Aspects and Quality of Life in a Population-Based Cohort of Expecting Fathers with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Simone Frizell; Veiby, Gyri; Bjørk, Marte Helene; Engelsen, Bernt A.; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate psychiatric disorders, adverse social aspects and quality of life in men with epilepsy during partner’s pregnancy. Method We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 76,335 men with pregnant partners. Men with epilepsy were compared to men without epilepsy, and to men with non-neurological chronic diseases. Results Expecting fathers in 658 pregnancies (mean age 31.8 years) reported a history of epilepsy, 36.9% using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at the onset of pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were increased in epilepsy (7.0% and 3.9%, respectively) vs. non-epilepsy (4.6% and 2.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.023), and so were new onset symptoms of depression (2.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.031) and anxiety (4.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.023). Low self-esteem (2.5%) and low satisfaction with life (1.7%) were more frequent among fathers with epilepsy compared to fathers without epilepsy (1.3% and 0.7%, respectively, p = 0.01 and 0.010). Adverse social aspects and life events were associated with epilepsy vs. both reference groups. Self-reported diagnoses of ADHD (2.2%) and bipolar disorder (1.8%) were more common in epilepsy vs. non-epilepsy (0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, p = 0.002 and 0.003) and non-neurological chronic disorders (0.5% and 0.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.018). A screening tool for ADHD symptoms revealed a higher rate compared to self-reported ADHD (9.5% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion Expecting fathers with epilepsy are at high risk of depression and anxiety, adverse socioeconomic aspects, low self-esteem, and low satisfaction with life. Focus on mental health in fathers with epilepsy during and after pregnancy is important. The use of screening tools can be particularly useful to identify those at risk. PMID:26637130

  3. Role of Parent Literacy and Numeracy Expectations and Activities in Predicting Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…

  4. Analyses of Mentoring Expectations, Activities, and Support in Canadian Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marni R.; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring expectations, activities, and support in Canadian college and university libraries were investigated by surveying 332 recent MLIS graduates, practicing academic librarians, and library administrators. Findings indicate that the presence of a mentoring program will help attract new librarians, retain them, and aid in restructuring efforts…

  5. Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990.

    PubMed

    Okada, O; Tanabe, N; Yasuda, J; Yoshida, Y; Katoh, K; Yamamoto, T; Kuriyama, T

    1999-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered

  6. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock. PMID:26966963

  7. Population doses, excess deaths and loss of life expectancy from mass chest x-ray examination in Japan-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kumamoto, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The number of mass chest x-ray examinations in Japan in 1980 was 26.6 million and the average effective dose equivalent was 26 mrem per examination. The genetically significant dose was. 017 mrem per person per year, the per caput mean marrow dose was 5.9 mrem, the leukemia significant dose was 5.2 mrem and the malignancy significant dose was 2.8 mrem. The excess deaths were calculated to be 70-280 depending on the risk model used. Those would be in excess to the 3.7 million cancer deaths normally expected among the examined population. The loss of life expectancy calculated with a relative risk model was 38 yr for males and 43 yr for females due to leukemia with a latent period of 2 yr and an expression period of 25 yr, and 12 yr for males and 14 yr for females due to other cancers with a latent period of 10 yr and an expression period of lifetime in the 20-24 age group.

  8. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

  9. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  10. Remaining life expectancy among older people in a rural area of Vietnam: trends and socioeconomic inequalities during a period of multiple transitions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Better understanding of the trends and disparities in health at old age in terms of life expectancy will help to provide appropriate responses to the growing needs of health and social care for the older population in the context of limited resources. As a result of rapid economic, demographic and epidemiological changes, the number of people aged 60 and over in Vietnam is increasing rapidly, from 6.7% in 1979 to 9.2% in 2006. Life expectancy at birth has increased but not much are known about changes in old ages. This study assesses the trends and socioeconomic inequalities in RLE at age 60 in a rural area in an effort to highlight this vulnerable group and to anticipate their future health and social needs. Methods An abridged life table adjusted for small area data was used to estimate cohort life expectancies at old age and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals from longitudinal data collected by FilaBavi DSS during 1999-2006, which covered 7,668 people at age 60+ with 43,272 person-years, out of a total of 64,053 people with 388,278 person-years. Differences in life expectancy were examined according to socioeconomic factors, including socio-demographic characteristics, wealth, poverty and living arrangements. Results Life expectancies at age 60 have increased by approximately one year from the period 1999-2002 to 2003-2006. The increases are observed in both sexes, but are significant among females and relate to improvements among those who belong to the middle and upper household wealth quintiles. However, life expectancy tends to decrease in the most vulnerable groups. There is a wide gap in life expectancy according to poverty status and living arrangements, and the gap by poverty status has widened over the study period. The gender gap in life expectancy is consistent across all socioeconomic groups and tends to be wider amongst the more disadvantaged population. Conclusions There is a trend of increasing life expectancy among older people

  11. Association of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations with Physical Activity in Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mielenz, Thelma J.; Kubiak-Rizzone, Kathryn L.; Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Freburger, Janet K.; Giuliani, Carol; Mercer, Vicki S.; Callahan, Leigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine whether higher baseline levels of (a) self-efficacy for physical activity, (b) self-efficacy for arthritis self-management, and (c) outcome expectations for exercise are associated with higher physical activity levels following an exercise intervention for adults with arthritis. Methods. A secondary analysis of the intervention cohort (n = 130) within a randomized controlled trial of the People with Arthritis Can Exercise program was performed. Multiple linear regression evaluated the relationship between physical activity at a time point three months after the completion of an exercise intervention and three main explanatory variables. Results. After controlling for baseline physical activity, neither self-efficacy for arthritis self-management nor outcome expectations for exercise related to three-month physical activity levels. There was a relationship between three-month physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity. Conclusions. Future research is needed to evaluate the ability of self-efficacy-enhancing programs to increase physical activity in adults with arthritis. PMID:24260714

  12. Changing ideas about others' intentions: updating prior expectations tunes activity in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Roy, Alice C; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M; Salemme, Roméo; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-01-01

    Predicting intentions from observing another agent's behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance - i.e., the motor system's response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers' prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty. We show that prior expectations are updated on the basis of both biomechanical and probabilistic prior information and that the magnitude of the CSE modulation observed across participants is explained by the magnitude of change in their prior expectations. These findings provide the first evidence that when observers predict others' intentions, motor resonance mechanisms adapt to changes in their prior expectations. We propose that this adaptive adjustment might reflect a regulatory control mechanism that shares some similarities with that observed during action selection. Such a mechanism could help arbitrate the competition between biomechanical and probabilistic prior information when appropriate for prediction. PMID:27243157

  13. Changing ideas about others’ intentions: updating prior expectations tunes activity in the human motor system

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Pierre O.; Roy, Alice C.; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M.; Salemme, Roméo; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting intentions from observing another agent’s behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance – i.e., the motor system’s response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers’ prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty. We show that prior expectations are updated on the basis of both biomechanical and probabilistic prior information and that the magnitude of the CSE modulation observed across participants is explained by the magnitude of change in their prior expectations. These findings provide the first evidence that when observers predict others’ intentions, motor resonance mechanisms adapt to changes in their prior expectations. We propose that this adaptive adjustment might reflect a regulatory control mechanism that shares some similarities with that observed during action selection. Such a mechanism could help arbitrate the competition between biomechanical and probabilistic prior information when appropriate for prediction. PMID:27243157

  14. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  15. Fulfilled Emotional Outcome Expectancies Enable Successful Adoption and Maintenance of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Klusmann, Verena; Musculus, Lisa; Sproesser, Gudrun; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Although outcome expectancies are regarded as key determinants of health behavior change, studies on the role of their degree of fulfillment in long-term activity changes are lacking. This study investigated the impact of (un-)fulfilled outcome expectancies (OE) on (un-)successful attempts to increase physical activity, assuming that disengagement is the logical consequence of perceived futility. Participants (n = 138) of a longitudinal cohort study with three measurement waves were assigned to eight different groups according to a staging algorithm of their self-reported, 1-year-long physical activity behavior track. Stages were validated by objective changes in objective fitness, e.g., Physical Working Capacity (PWC). Social cognitive variables, self-efficacy, proximal and distal OE, and fulfillment of OE, were assessed via self-report. Discriminant analyses revealed that OE fulfillment was the predominant predictor for differentiating between successful and unsuccessful behavior change. Amongst OE, proximal OE concerning emotional rewards, in conjunction with action self-efficacy, further improved discriminatory power. OE adjustment warranting hedonic rewards appears to be a crucial mechanism as it facilitates long-term changes through interventions aimed at increasing physical activity rates. Theoretical models might benefit by including the concept of fulfilled expectations acting in terms of feedback loops between volitional and motivational processes. PMID:26779095

  16. Stimulus expectancy modulates inferior frontal gyrus and premotor cortex activity in auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2012-04-01

    In studies on auditory speech perception, participants are often asked to perform active tasks, e.g. decide whether the perceived sound is a speech sound or not. However, information about the stimulus, inherent in such tasks, may induce expectations that cause altered activations not only in the auditory cortex, but also in frontal areas such as inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and motor cortices, even in the absence of an explicit task. To investigate this, we applied spectral mixes of a flute sound and either vowels or specific music instrument sounds (e.g. trumpet) in an fMRI study, in combination with three different instructions. The instructions either revealed no information about stimulus features, or explicit information about either the music instrument or the vowel features. The results demonstrated that, besides an involvement of posterior temporal areas, stimulus expectancy modulated in particular a network comprising IFG and premotor cortices during this passive listening task. PMID:22377261

  17. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors. PMID:16304621

  18. Local field potential activity associated with temporal expectations in the macaque lateral intraparietal area.

    PubMed

    Premereur, Elsie; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Oscillatory brain activity is attracting increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Numerous EEG (magnetoencephalography) and local field potential (LFP) measurements have related cognitive functions to different types of brain oscillations, but the functional significance of these rhythms remains poorly understood. Despite its proven value, LFP activity has not been extensively tested in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP), which has been implicated in a wide variety of cognitive control processes. We recorded action potentials and LFPs in area LIP during delayed eye movement tasks and during a passive fixation task, in which the time schedule was fixed so that temporal expectations about task-relevant cues could be formed. LFP responses in the gamma band discriminated reliably between saccade targets and distractors inside the receptive field (RF). Alpha and beta responses were much less strongly affected by the presence of a saccade target, however, but rose sharply in the waiting period before the go signal. Surprisingly, conditions without visual stimulation of the LIP-RF-evoked robust LFP responses in every frequency band--most prominently in those below 50 Hz--precisely time-locked to the expected time of stimulus onset in the RF. These results indicate that in area LIP, oscillations in the LFP, which reflect synaptic input and local network activity, are tightly coupled to the temporal expectation of task-relevant cues. PMID:22390466

  19. Impact of Socio-Health Factors on Life Expectancy in the Low and Lower Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    MONDAL, Md. Nazrul Islam; SHITAN, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study is concerned with understanding the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and the availability of health factors on life expectancy (LE) in the low and lower middle income countries. Methods The cross-country data were collected from 91 countries from the United Nations agencies in 2012. LE is the response variable with demographics (total fertility rate, and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean year of schooling, and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density, and HIV prevalence rate) are as the three main predictors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to extract the main factors. Results The necessity of more healthcare resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase LE. On the other hand, demographic changes and health factors are more likely to increase LE by way of de-cease fertility rates and disease prevalence. Conclusion These findings suggest that international efforts should aim at increasing LE, especially in the low income countries through the elimination of HIV prevalence, adolescent fertility, and illiteracy. PMID:26060637

  20. Large-scale hormone replacement therapy and life expectancy: results from an international comparison among European and North American populations.

    PubMed Central

    Panico, S; Galasso, R; Celentano, E; Ciardullo, A V; Frova, L; Capocaccia, R; Trevisan, M; Berrino, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An analysis was performed to determine the risks and benefits of a 10-year hormone replacement therapy regimen that had been applied to all women at 50 years of age in 8 countries. METHODS: Cumulative mortality with and without hormone replacement therapy over 20 years was estimated, with both current and predicted total and disease-specific secular mortality trends and the influence of a generational cohort effect taken into account. RESULTS: In countries with high ischemic heart disease frequency and predictable relative predominance of ischemic heart disease rates over breast cancer rates for the next 20 years, hormone replacement therapy could result in benefits with regard to overall mortality; this advantage decreases in younger-generation cohorts. In countries in which breast cancer mortality predominates over ischemic heart disease in early postmenopause and in which the predictable trends for both diseases reinforce this condition, a negative effect on overall mortality would be observed. In the United States, the effect of large-scale hormone replacement therapy would change over time. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on life expectancy of postmenopausal women may vary among countries. PMID:10983196

  1. [The subjective quality of life of patients with schizophrenia: influence of psychopathology and patients' expectations. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Salomé, F; Petitjean, F; Germain, C; Demant, J-C

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on the quality of life (Qol) of patients with schizophrenia deal with objective living conditions and how they are perceived by hospitalized patients. The few studies that compare Qol for patients treated in part time services with the Qol of ambulatory patients do not show any significant difference in terms of subjective Qol. Some stu-dies evaluate the influence of psychopathology and needs (or expectations) on the subjective Qol in these groups of patients. Available data indicate that the general well-being is influenced by psychopathology (positive, negative or depressive symptoms) and unmet needs in ambulatory patients. They also show that subjective Qol in certain life domains (social relations, family relations, leisure, health, law and security) is influenced by negative symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients treated in part-time services. The aim of this study is to compare the objective and subjective Qol of patients with schizophrenia treated in part time services (day hospital and day care center) to the Qol of out-patients treated on a purely ambulatory basis (out patient clinic). We studied the Qol of 2 groups of 30 patients with schizophrenia (ICD 10 criteria) treated in various centers. The first group was made of ambulatory patients, the second one was constituted of patients treated in a day hospital or a day care center. Patients were matched for age, duration of illness, number of hospitalizations. The instruments used for rating were the following: Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). The Qol was measured with a french version of the Lancashire Quality Of Life Profile (LQOLP) (Salomé, Germain, Petitjean, Demant and Boyer, 2000). This instrument measures the objective Qol as well as the subjective Qol. It does possess satisfying psychometric properties and offers the possibility to establish Qol profiles. All

  2. From the Director, "Stay Active and Save Your Life!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... From The Director, "Stay Active and Save Your Life!" Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents Dr. ... change your lifestyle. It just might save your life. Spring 2012 Issue: Volume 7 Number 1 Page ...

  3. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  4. Brain electrical activity evoked by mental formation of auditory expectations and images.

    PubMed

    Janata, P

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the brain's derivation of explicit expectancies in an ongoing sensory context has been well established by studies of the P300 and processing negativity (PN) components of the event-related potential (ERP). "Emitted potentials" generated in the absence of sensory input by unexpected stimulus omissions also exhibit a P300 component and provide another perspective on patterns of brain activity related to the processing of expectancies. The studies described herein extend earlier emitted potential findings in several aspects. First, high-density (128-channel) EEG recordings are used for topographical mapping of emitted potentials. Second, the primary focus is on emitted potential components preceding the P300, i.e. those components that are more likely to resemble ERP components associated with sensory processing. Third, the dependence of emitted potentials on attention is assessed. Fourth, subjects' knowledge of the structure of an auditory stimulus sequence is modulated so that emitted potentials can be compared between conditions that are identical in physical aspects but differ in terms of subjects' expectations regarding the sequence structure. Finally, a novel task is used to elicit emitted potentials, in which subjects explicitly imagine the continuations of simple melodies. In this task, subjects mentally complete melodic fragments in the appropriate tempo, even though they know with absolute certainty that no sensory stimulus will occur. Emitted potentials were elicited only when subjects actively formed expectations or images. The topographies of the initial portion of the emitted potentials were significantly correlated with the N100 topography elicited by corresponding acoustic stimuli, but uncorrelated with the topographies of corresponding silence control periods. PMID:11302397

  5. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  6. The Use of a Real Life Simulated Problem Based Learning Activity in a Corporate Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    This narrative study examines using a real life simulated problem base learning activity during education of clinical staff, which is expected to design and develop clinically correct electronic charting systems. Expertise in healthcare does not readily transcend to the realm of manipulating software to collect patient data that is pertinent to…

  7. Trends in Longevity in the Americas: Disparities in Life Expectancy in Women and Men, 1965-2010

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian R.; Howitt, Christina; Jeyaseelan, Selvi; Murphy, Madhuvanti M.; Hennis, Anselm J; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, E. Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene; Sullivan, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe trends in life expectancy at birth (LE) and between-country LE disparities since 1965, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods & Findings LE trends since 1965 are described for three geographical sub-regions: the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. LE disparities are explored using a suite of absolute and relative disparity metrics, with measurement consensus providing confidence to observed differences. LE has increased throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Compared to the Caribbean, LE has increased by an additional 6.6 years in Central America and 4.1 years in South America. Since 1965, average reductions in between-country LE disparities were 14% (absolute disparity) and 23% (relative disparity) in the Caribbean, 55% and 51% in Central America, 55% and 52% in South America. Conclusions LE in Latin America and the Caribbean is exceeding ‘minimum standard’ international targets, and is improving relative to the world region with the highest human longevity. The Caribbean, which had the highest LE and the lowest between-country LE disparities in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1965-70, had the lowest LE and the highest LE disparities by 2005-10. Caribbean Governments have championed a collaborative solution to the growing burden of non-communicable disease, with 15 territories signing on to the Declaration of Port of Spain, signalling regional commitment to a coordinated public-health response. The persistent LE inequity between Caribbean countries suggests that public health interventions should be tailored to individual countries to be most effective. Between- and within-country disparity monitoring for a range of health metrics should be a priority, first to guide country-level policy initiatives, then to contribute to the assessment of policy success. PMID:26091090

  8. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  9. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. PMID:23417906

  10. New estimates of racial/ethnic differences in life expectancy with chronic morbidity and functional loss: evidence from the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Phillip A; Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2013-09-01

    This study documents the mortality, chronic morbidity and physical functioning experiences of U.S. Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic blacks 50 years of age and older in the United States. Hispanics are classified by nativity to better assess an important source of heterogeneity in population health within that population. Drawing on mortality and morbidity data from the National Health Interview Survey, demographic models of healthy life expectancy are used to derive estimates of life expectancy, life expectancy with and without chronic morbidity conditions, and life expectancy with and without functional limitations. The results not only highlight the mortality advantages of foreign-born Hispanics, but also document their health advantages in terms of morbidity and physical functioning beyond age 50. Nativity is a highly important factor differentiating the health and mortality experiences of Hispanics: U.S.-born Hispanics have a health profile more indicative of their minority status while foreign-born Hispanics have much more favorable mortality and health profiles. Differences in smoking across racial/ethnic/nativity groups is suggested as an important reason behind the apparent health advantages of foreign-born Hispanics relative to whites as well as relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. PMID:23949255

  11. Solar activity and life: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerotti, Mauro; Chela-Flores, Julián

    2009-03-01

    During the early stages of the study of the origin of life, not enough attention was paid to the question of the correlation of chemical evolution on Earth and the all-important evolution of the still-to-be understood early Sun. Today, due to the advent of a significant fleet of space missions and the possibility of performing experiments in the International Space Station (ISS), a meaningful study begins to be possible concerning factors that led to an early onset of life on Earth. We wish to review and update recent work concerning the frontier between Space Weather (SpW) and Astrobiology. We argue that the present robust programs of various space agencies reinforce our hope for a better understanding of the bases of Astrobiology. Eventually, with a more realistic model of the Sun, more reliable discussions of all the factors influencing the origin of life on Earth, and hence Astrobiology, will be possible.

  12. Effects of Temporal Context and Temporal Expectancy on Neural Activity in Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Britt; Sheinberg, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Timing is critical. The same event can mean different things at different times and some events are more likely to occur at one time than another. We used a cued visual classification task to evaluate how changes in temporal context affect neural responses in inferior temporal cortex, an extrastriate visual area known to be involved in object processing. On each trial a first image cued a temporal delay before a second target image appeared. The animal’s task was to classify the second image by pressing one of two buttons previously associated with that target. All images were used as both cues and targets. Whether an image cued a delay time or signaled a button press depended entirely upon whether it was the first or second picture in a trial. This paradigm allowed us to compare inferior temporal cortex neural activity to the same image subdivided by temporal context and expectation. Neuronal spiking was more robust and visually evoked local field potentials (LFP’s) larger for target presentations than for cue presentations. On invalidly cued trials, when targets appeared unexpectedly early, the magnitude of the evoked LFP was reduced and delayed and neuronal spiking was attenuated. Spike field coherence increased in the beta-gamma frequency range for expected targets. In conclusion, different neural responses in higher order ventral visual cortex may occur for the same visual image based on manipulations of temporal attention. PMID:18206961

  13. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Bryden, Daniel W.; Johnson, Emily E.; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which different odor cues indicated what reward was available on the left or on the right. The value of reward associated with a left or rightward movement was manipulated by varying the size of and delay to reward in separate blocks of trials. Rats were faster or slower depending on whether the expected reward value was high or low, respectively. The number of neurons that increased firing during performance of the task outnumbered those that decreased firing. Both increases and decreases were modulated by expected value and response direction. Neurons that fired more or less strongly for larger reward tended to fire more or less strongly for immediate reward, reflecting their common motivational output. Finally, value selectivity was present prior to presentation of cues indicating the nature of the upcoming behavioral response for both increasing- and decreasing-type neurons, reflecting the internal bias or preparatory set of the rat. These results emphasize the importance of increasing-type neurons on behavioral output when animals are making decisions based on predicted reward value. PMID:21645133

  14. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  15. Development of a 5 year life expectancy index in older adults using predictive mining of electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Jason Scott; Agrawal, Ankit; Feinglass, Joe; Cooper, Andrew J; Baker, David William; Choudhary, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Objective Incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, but few providers do this. We sought to use predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics of electronic health record (EHR) data to develop a highly accurate and clinically actionable 5 year life expectancy index. Materials and methods We developed the index using EHR data for 7463 patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) in 2003 to a large, academic, multispecialty group practice. We extracted 980 attributes from the EHRs of the practices and affiliated hospitals. Correlation feature selection with greedy stepwise search was used to find the attribute subset with best average merit. Rotation forest ensembling with alternating decision tree as underlying classifier was used to predict 5 year mortality. Model performance was compared with the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Walter life expectancy method. Results Within 5 years of the last visit in 2003, 838 (11%) patients had died. The final model included 24 attributes: two demographic (age, sex), 10 comorbidity (eg, cardiovascular disease), one vital sign (mean diastolic blood pressure), two medications (loop diuretic use, digoxin use), six laboratory (eg, mean albumin), and three healthcare utilization (eg, the number of hospitalizations 1 year prior to the last visit in 2003). The index showed very good discrimination (c-statistic 0.86) and outperformed comparators. Conclusions The EHR based index successfully distinguished adults ≥50 years old with life expectancy >5 years from those with life expectancy ≤5 years. This information could be used clinically to optimize preventive service use (eg, cancer screening in the elderly). PMID:23538722

  16. Active versus expectant management for women in the third stage of labour

    PubMed Central

    Begley, Cecily M; Gyte, Gillian ML; Devane, Declan; McGuire, William; Weeks, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Active management of the third stage of labour involves giving a prophylactic uterotonic, early cord clamping and controlled cord traction to deliver the placenta. With expectant management, signs of placental separation are awaited and the placenta is delivered spontaneously. Active management was introduced to try to reduce haemorrhage, a major contributor to maternal mortality in low-income countries. Objectives To compare the effectiveness of active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (15 February 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We included seven studies (involving 8247 women), all undertaken in hospitals, six in high-income countries and one in a low-income country. Four studies compared active versus expectant management, and three compared active versus a mixture of managements. We used random-effects in the analyses because of clinical heterogeneity. There was an absence of high quality evidence for our primary outcomes. The evidence suggested that for women at mixed levels of risk of bleeding, active management showed a reduction in the average risk of maternal primary haemorrhage at time of birth (more than 1000 mL) (average risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.87, three studies, 4636 women) and of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) less than 9 g/dL following birth (average RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.83, two studies, 1572 women). We also found no difference in the incidence in admission of infants to neonatal units (average RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.11, two studies, 3207 women) nor in the incidence of infant jaundice requiring treatment (0

  17. Understanding of the Relationship between Interest and Expectancy for Success in Engineering Design Activity in Grades 9-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between students' interest in engineering design activities and their expectancy for success in grades 9-12 was evaluated. The theoretical frameworks developed by Eccles and colleagues (i.e., expectancy value) and Butler and Cartier (i.e., what the students bring to contexts under a self-regulated learning…

  18. Pre-Trip Expectations and Post-Trip Satisfaction with Marine Tour Interpretation in Hawaii: Applying the Norm Activation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Kerrie; Needham, Mark D.; Szuster, Brian W.; Jordan, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines environmental education by focusing on recreationist expectations for interpretation on marine tours, satisfaction with this interpretation and whether expectations were met, and how these perceptions correlate with components of the norm activation model. Recreationists surveyed before and after tours to Molokini, Hawaii (n…

  19. SURGEONS EXPECT PATIENTS TO BUY-IN TO POSTOPERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT PREOPERATIVELY: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Margaret L.; Redmann, Andrew J.; Alexander, G. Caleb; Brasel, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that surgeons implicitly negotiate with their patients preoperatively about the use of life supporting treatments postoperatively as a condition for performing surgery. We sought to examine whether this surgical buy-in behavior is present among a large, nationally representative sample of surgeons who routinely perform high risk operations. Design Using findings from a qualitative study, we designed a survey to determine the prevalence of surgical buy-in and its consequences. Respondents were asked to consider their response to a patient at moderate risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation or dialysis who has a preoperative request to limit postoperative life supporting treatment. We used bivariate and multivariate analysis to identify surgeon characteristics associated with a) preoperatively creating an informal contract with the patient defining agreed upon limitations of postoperative life support and b) declining to operate on such patients. Setting and subjects US-mail based survey of 2100 cardiothoracic, vascular and neurosurgeons. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The adjusted response rate was 56%. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (62%) reported they would create an informal contract with the patient describing agreed upon limitations of aggressive therapy and a similar number (60%) endorsed sometimes or always refusing to operate on a patient with preferences to limit life support. After adjusting for potentially confounding covariates, the odds of preoperatively contracting about life supporting therapy were more than twofold greater among surgeons who felt it was acceptable to withdraw life support on postoperative day 14 as compared to those who felt it was not acceptable to withdraw life support on postoperative day 14 (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence intervals 1.3-3.2). Conclusions Many surgeons will report contracting informally with patients preoperatively about the use of postoperative life support

  20. A deletion in FOXN1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in Birman cats.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  1. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  2. Effects of gambling-related cues on the activation of implicit and explicit gambling outcome expectancies in regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Melissa J; Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-09-01

    The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers. PMID:23588797

  3. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  4. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Richard; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. Methods A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death—the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)—was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. Findings The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867–0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868–0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Conclusions Multivariable

  5. Second Life to Support Multicultural Literacy: Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…

  6. Expected cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationships of well-behaved single cells and cell strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the factors which might influence the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationship, taking into account the rate of loss of cell capacity, the amount of excess capacity built into the cells, and the penalty in capacity loss resulting from the use of deep depths of discharge. 'First principles' are used to develop a cell life model for somewhat arbitrary conditions. This model is then used to estimate the cycle life vs. depth of discharge relationships for 'well behaved' cells. The stochastic variations associated with groupings of single cells are then introduced to the battery pack cycle life model. The term 'well behaved' cell is used to describe a single cell which does not suffer any abrupt failure mode during the course of its operation. It gradually loses capacity for any number of the usual reasons at a rate which is the product of the fractional depth of discharge and a factor which is characteristic of the cell under consideration.

  7. Dissociation of somatic growth, time of sexual maturity, and life expectancy by overexpression of an RGD-deficient IGFBP-2 variant in female transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hoeflich, Andreas; Reyer, Anja; Ohde, Daniela; Schindler, Nancy; Brenmoehl, Julia; Spitschak, Marion; Langhammer, Martina; Tuchscherer, Armin; Wirthgen, Elisa; Renner-Müller, Ingrid; Wanke, Rüdiger; Metzger, Friedrich; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Wolf, Eckhard

    2016-02-01

    Impaired growth is often associated with an extension of lifespan. However, the negative correlation between somatic growth and life expectancy is only true within, but not between, species. This can be observed because smaller species have, as a rule, a shorter lifespan than larger species. In insects and worms, reduced reproductive development and increased fat storage are associated with prolonged lifespan. However, in mammals the relationship between the dynamics of reproductive development, fat metabolism, growth rate, and lifespan are less clear. To address this point, female transgenic mice that were overexpressing similar levels of either intact (D-mice) or mutant insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) lacking the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif (E- mice) were investigated. Both lines of transgenic mice exhibited a similar degree of growth impairment (-9% and -10%) in comparison with wild-type controls (C-mice). While in D-mice, sexual maturation was found to be delayed and life expectancy was significantly increased in comparison with C-mice, these parameters were unaltered in E-mice in spite of their reduced growth rate. These observations indicate that the RGD-domain has a major influence on the pleiotropic effects of IGFBP-2 and suggest that somatic growth and time of sexual maturity or somatic growth and life expectancy are less closely related than thought previously. PMID:26507795

  8. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities. PMID:23459724

  9. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  10. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  11. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  12. Why do Americans have shorter life expectancy and worse health than people in other high-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. We review the evidence and explanations for these variations in longevity and health. Our overview suggests that the US health disadvantage applies to multiple mortality and morbidity outcomes. The American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. Proposed explanations include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and built environment. While these factors may contribute to poorer health in America, a focus on proximal causes fails to adequately account for the ubiquity of the US health disadvantage across the life-course. We discuss the role of specific public policies and conclude that while multiple causes are implicated, crucial differences in social policy might underlie an important part of the US health disadvantage. PMID:24422560

  13. Incidence, life expectancy and prognostic factors in cancer patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation: a nationwide analysis of 5,138 cases during 1998-2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study is aimed at determining the incidence, survival rate, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) and prognostic factors in patients with cancer in different organ systems undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1998 to 2007 and linked it with the National Mortality Registry to ascertain mortality. Subjects who received PMV, defined as having undergone mechanical ventilation continuously for longer than 21 days, were enrolled. The incidence of cancer patients requiring PMV was calculated, with the exception of patients with multiple cancers. The life expectancies and QALE of patients with different types of cancer were estimated. Quality-of-life data were taken from a sample of 142 patients who received PMV. A multivariable proportional hazards model was constructed to assess the effect of different prognostic factors, including age, gender, type of cancer, metastasis, comorbidities and hospital levels. Results Among 9,011 cancer patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days, 5,138 undergoing PMV had a median survival of 1.37 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0.50 to 4.57) and a 1-yr survival rate of 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.3% to 15.3%). The incidence of PMV was 10.4 per 100 ICU admissions. Head and neck cancer patients seemed to survive the longest. The overall life expectancy was 1.21 years, with estimated QALE ranging from 0.17 to 0.37 quality-adjusted life years for patients with poor and partial cognition, respectively. Cancer of liver (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.78), lung (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.41) and metastasis (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.65) were found to predict shorter survival independently. Conclusions Cancer patients requiring PMV had poor long-term outcomes. Palliative care should be considered early in these patients, especially when metastasis has occurred

  14. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  15. A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The recent compilation of pedometer-determined physical activity studies of youth by Tudor-Locke and colleagues (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson, & Washington, 2009) is a valuable addition to the growing field of physical activity assessment via pedometry. In this study, Tudor-Locke and colleagues presented an "expected" habitual daily…

  16. Metabolic activity of subsurface life in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Steven; Rutherford, Scott; Spivack, Arthur J

    2002-03-15

    Global maps of sulfate and methane in marine sediments reveal two provinces of subsurface metabolic activity: a sulfate-rich open-ocean province, and an ocean-margin province where sulfate is limited to shallow sediments. Methane is produced in both regions but is abundant only in sulfate-depleted sediments. Metabolic activity is greatest in narrow zones of sulfate-reducing methane oxidation along ocean margins. The metabolic rates of subseafloor life are orders of magnitude lower than those of life on Earth's surface. Most microorganisms in subseafloor sediments are either inactive or adapted for extraordinarily low metabolic activity. PMID:11896277

  17. Did people "buy" what was "sold"? A qualitative evaluation of a contingent valuation survey information set for gains in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Bartczak, A; Chilton, S; Metcalf, H

    2014-01-15

    A number of stated preferences studies have estimated a monetary value for the gains in life expectancy resulting from pollution control, using a Value of a Life Year (VOLY) approach. However, life expectancy gains are a complex concept and no attempt has been made, to date, to investigate peoples' understanding of what it is they are being asked to value. Past practice has been to focus on the outcome of a policy i.e. a gain to the average person of X months', providing no details on how the individual receives, or experiences this gain, a potentially important attribute to value. This paper sets up and reports the results from a structured debriefing exercise to qualitatively investigate an alternative approach which explicitly emphasises how this gain is delivered (on-going reductions in the risk of death). We find that, for the majority of respondents, the approach is effective in communicating the on-going nature of the gain and reduces or eliminates the use of the (incorrect) heuristic that it is an 'add-on' at the end of life, in poor health. Further refinements are required, however, to communicate the cumulative nature of these risk reductions and the lack of impact on quality of life. The lesson for stated preference studies in general is that structured debriefings can be very useful, highlighting such issues as the persistence of ill-defined attributes and the difficulties that respondents may encounter setting aside their preferences over attributes of the good that should not be included in the valuation. PMID:24374166

  18. Life Skills Activities for Secondary Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Darlene

    This resource for life skills activities for adolescents with special needs covers aspects of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, academic and school skills, practical living skills, vocational skills, problem-solving skills, and lifestyle choices. Included are 190 illustrated activity sheets with related exercises, discussion…

  19. Promoting Physical Activity through Student Life and Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Tyler; Melton, Bridget F.; Langdon, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A physical activity passport (PAP) was developed to increase student's physical activity through the collaboration of student life and academics. The purpose was to measure the effectiveness of the PAP. Design: The research design used was a quantitative, descriptive, quasi-experimental design with experimental and control groups.…

  20. IceCube expectations for two high-energy neutrino production models at active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Argüelles, C.A.; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A.M. E-mail: mbustamante@pucp.edu.pe

    2010-12-01

    We have determined the currently allowed regions of the parameter spaces of two representative models of diffuse neutrino flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN): one by Koers and Tinyakov (KT) and another by Becker and Biermann (BB). Our observable has been the number of upgoing muon-neutrinos expected in the 86-string IceCube detector, after 5 years of exposure, in the range 10{sup 5} ≤ E{sub ν}/GeV ≤ 10{sup 8}. We have used the latest estimated discovery potential of the IceCube-86 array at the 5σ level to determine the lower boundary of the regions, while for the upper boundary we have used either the AMANDA upper bound on the neutrino flux or the more recent preliminary upper bound given by the half-completed IceCube-40 array (IC40). We have varied the spectral index of the proposed power-law fluxes, α, and two parameters of the BB model: the ratio between the boost factors of neutrinos and cosmic rays, Γ{sub ν}/Γ{sub CR}, and the maximum redshift of the sources that contribute to the cosmic-ray flux, z{sub CR}{sup max}. For the KT model, we have considered two scenarios: one in which the number density of AGN does not evolve with redshift and another in which it evolves strongly, following the star formation rate. Using the IC40 upper bound, we have found that the models are visible in IceCube-86 only inside very thin strips of parameter space and that both of them are discarded at the preferred value of α = 2.7 obtained from fits to cosmic-ray data. Lower values of α, notably the values 2.0 and 2.3 proposed in the literature, fare better. In addition, we have analysed the capacity of IceCube-86 to discriminate between the models within the small regions of parameter space where both of them give testable predictions. Within these regions, discrimination at the 5σ level or more is guaranteed.

  1. Doctoral students in the life sciences: Perceptions related to the impact of changing expectations and modes of support on research ethics and norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajen, Ava Lee

    Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility…

  3. It’s not just a knee, but a whole life: A qualitative descriptive study on patients’ experiences of living with knee osteoarthritis and their expectations for knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nyvang, Josefina; Hedström, Margareta; Gleissman, Sissel Andreassen

    2016-01-01

    Aim Knee arthroplasties are an increasingly common treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) and the main indication is pain. Previous research states, however, that 15–20% of the operated patients are dissatisfied and 20–30% have persistent pain after surgery. This study is aimed at describing patients’ experiences of living with knee OA when scheduled for surgery and further their expectations for future life after surgery. Methods We interviewed 12 patients with knee OA scheduled for arthroplasty, using semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Findings Three categories were formulated with an overriding theme: “It's not just a knee, but a whole life.” The three categories were “Change from their earlier lives,” “Coping with knee problems,” and “Ultimate decision to undergo surgery.” The main finding was that knee OA affects the whole body and self, ultimately affecting the patients’ lives on many levels. Further findings were that knee OA was considered to be the central focus in the participants’ lives, which limited their level of activity, their ability to function as desired, their quality of life, and their mental well-being. Although surgery was considered to be the only solution, the expectations regarding the outcome differed. Conclusions The participants were forced to change how they previously had lived their lives resulting in a feeling of loss. Thus, the experienced loss and expectations for future life must be put into the context of the individual's own personality and be taken into account when treating individuals with knee OA. The experience of living with knee OA largely varies between individuals. This mandates that patients’ assessment should be considered on individual basis with regard to each patient. PMID:27036130

  4. Response to "A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; McClain, James J.; Hart, Teresa L.; Sisson, Susan B.; Washington, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    As researchers and science writers, the authors are always pleased when anyone takes enough interest in their work, but this time it was especially pleasing to have inspired Beets to comment on it (Beets, 2010)! The focus of his commentary is "Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth" (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson,…

  5. Effect of Leishmania spp infection on the survival, life expectancy, fecundity and fertility of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. and Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Agrela, Irma Fatima; Feliciangeli, Maria Dora

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of Leishmania spp infection on several population parameters of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato andLutzomyia pseudolongipalpis, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, under experimental conditions during the first post-feeding period. Females of both species were allowed to feed and engorge on a suspension of fresh washed human red blood cells in foetal calf serum. These blood cells were either non-infected or infected with one of the fourLeishmania spp strains and were offered through a chicken skin membrane. The longevity, life expectancy and the fecundity of uninfected flies were similar in both species, but the fertility was significantly lower in uninfected Lu. longipalpis females. In all cases, the infection of Lu. longipalpis and Lu. pseudolongipalpis by the Leishmania strains resulted in significant detrimental effects, which exerted a fitness cost expressed by reduced survival and life expectancy, as well as decreased fertility and fecundity compared with the control groups. Nevertheless, differences in these parameters were observed between these vector species depending on whether they were infected with the autochthonous Venezuelan Leishmania infantum strain (NESA) or the Brazilian reference strain (PP75). The experimental data obtained agree with field data on the natural infection of these vector species and the significance of this scenario is discussed. PMID:26132427

  6. How does a collision warning system shape driver's brake response time? The influence of expectancy and automation complacency on real-life emergency braking.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Daniele; Ciceri, Maria Rita; Biassoni, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion. PMID:25700125

  7. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  8. Students' Interest and Expectancy for Success while Engaged in Analysis- and Creative Design Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Stewardson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Inasmuch as design is a central activity in K-12 engineering education, understanding the students' motivation during engaging in engineering design activities will help educators to develop and evaluate strategies for engineering design challenges, and improve curriculum. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship…

  9. Obesity and Life Expectancy with and without Diabetes in Adults Aged 55 Years and Older in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; Peeters, Anna; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods and Findings The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI −6.1 to −0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI −9.0 to −0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. Conclusions Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated

  10. Sulforaphane and Other Nutrigenomic Nrf2 Activators: Can the Clinician's Expectation Be Matched by the Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Christine A.; Fassett, Robert G.; Coombes, Jeff S.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition that food-derived nonnutrient molecules can modulate gene expression to influence intracellular molecular mechanisms has seen the emergence of the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The aim of this review is to describe the properties of nutrigenomic activators of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), comparing the potential for sulforaphane and other phytochemicals to demonstrate clinical efficacy as complementary medicines. Broccoli-derived sulforaphane emerges as a phytochemical with this capability, with oral doses capable of favourably modifying genes associated with chemoprevention. Compared with widely used phytochemical-based supplements like curcumin, silymarin, and resveratrol, sulforaphane more potently activates Nrf2 to induce the expression of a battery of cytoprotective genes. By virtue of its lipophilic nature and low molecular weight, sulforaphane displays significantly higher bioavailability than the polyphenol-based dietary supplements that also activate Nrf2. Nrf2 activation induces cytoprotective genes such as those playing key roles in cellular defense mechanisms including redox status and detoxification. Both its high bioavailability and significant Nrf2 inducer capacity contribute to the therapeutic potential of sulforaphane-yielding supplements. PMID:26881038

  11. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Parents must learn to transmit a sense of high expectations to their children (related to behavior and accomplishments) without crushing them with too much pressure. This means setting realistic expectations based on their children's special abilities, listening to their children's feelings about the expectations, and understanding what…

  12. Reward expectation differentially modulates attentional behavior and activity in visual area V4

    PubMed Central

    Baruni, Jalal K.; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity in visual area V4 is enhanced when attention is directed into neuronal receptive fields. However, the source of this enhancement is unclear since most physiological studies have manipulated attention by changing the absolute reward associated with a particular location as well as its value relative to other locations. We trained monkeys to discriminate the orientation of two stimuli presented simultaneously in different hemifields while independently varying the reward magnitude associated with correct discrimination at each location. Behavioral measures of attention were controlled by the relative value of each location. By contrast, neurons in V4 were consistently modulated by absolute reward value, exhibiting increased activity, increased gamma-band power, and decreased trial-to-trial variability whenever receptive field locations were associated with large rewards. These data challenge the notion that the perceptual benefits of spatial attention rely on increased signal-to-noise in V4. Instead, these benefits likely derive from downstream selection mechanisms. PMID:26479590

  13. Reward expectation differentially modulates attentional behavior and activity in visual area V4.

    PubMed

    Baruni, Jalal K; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Neural activity in visual area V4 is enhanced when attention is directed into neuronal receptive fields. However, the source of this enhancement is unclear, as most physiological studies have manipulated attention by changing the absolute reward associated with a particular location as well as its value relative to other locations. We trained monkeys to discriminate the orientation of two stimuli presented simultaneously in different hemifields while we independently varied the reward magnitude associated with correct discrimination at each location. Behavioral measures of attention were controlled by the relative value of each location. By contrast, neurons in V4 were consistently modulated by absolute reward value, exhibiting increased activity, increased gamma-band power and decreased trial-to-trial variability whenever receptive field locations were associated with large rewards. These data challenge the notion that the perceptual benefits of spatial attention rely on increased signal-to-noise in V4. Instead, these benefits likely derive from downstream selection mechanisms. PMID:26479590

  14. Baby Basics: Children's Activities in How Life Begins. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picco, Elizabeth Raptis

    These supplemental teaching resources promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade, and offer a variety of concrete, visual activities to help young children understand how life begins for all living things. The format of each lesson is designed to help classroom and daycare…

  15. An Internet-based program for depression using activity and physiological sensors: efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Moragrega, Inés; García-Palacios, Azucena; Bretón-López, Juana; Castilla, Diana; Riera López del Amo, Antonio; Soler, Carla; Molinari, Guadalupe; Quero, Soledad; Guillén-Botella, Verónica; Miralles, Ignacio; Nebot, Sara; Serrano, Berenice; Majoe, Dennis; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Moreover, CCBT can be enhanced by using physiological and activity sensors, but there is no evidence about the acceptability of all these tools. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based CCBT program for preventing depression, with and without sensors (electroencephalography, electrocardiograhpy ECG, and actigraphy), in a high-risk population (unemployed men). Patients and methods Sixty participants at risk of depression (unemployed men) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: 1) intervention program (N=22), 2) intervention program plus sensors (N=19), and 3) control group (N=19). Participants completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress measures. Furthermore, they also completed the measures for expectation, satisfaction, and the ease of use of the program. Results Results showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly more than the control group on the clinical variables, and the improvements were greater in the group that used sensors than in the group that did not use them. Furthermore, participants in both intervention groups scored high on expectations and satisfaction with the CCBT program (with and without sensors). The mean score for usability was 88 out of 100 (standard deviation =12.32). No significant differences were found between groups on any of these variables. Conclusion This is the first study to analyze the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based program using physiological and activity sensors. These results suggest that an Internet program for depression with or without physiological and activity sensors is effective, satisfactory, and easy to use. PMID:27042067

  16. Great expectations: private sector activity in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Michael J; Jaklenec, Ana; Deweerd, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    This report draws upon data from a variety of sources to provide a detailed estimate of the current scope of private sector development and commercial activity in the aggregate field comprising tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics. Economic activity has grown a remarkable fivefold in the past 5 years. As of mid-2007 approximately 50 firms or business units with over 3000 employees offered commercial tissue-regenerative products or services with generally profitable annual sales in excess of $1.3 billion. Well over a million patients have been treated with these products. In addition, 110 development-stage companies with over 55 products in FDA-level clinical trials and other preclinical stages employed approximately 2500 scientists or support personnel and spent 850 million development dollars in 2007. These totals represent a remarkable recovery from the downturn of 2000-2002, at which time tissue engineering was in shambles because of disappointing product launches, failed regulatory trials, and the general investment pullback following the dot-com crash. Commercial success has resulted in large measure from identification of products that are achievable with available technology and under existing regulatory guidelines. Development-stage firms have become much more adept at risk management. The resilience of the field, as well as its current breadth and diversity, augurs well for the future of regenerative medicine. PMID:18333783

  17. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  18. X-Ray Properties Expected from Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed hydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus feedback have been performed including the effects of radiative and mechanical momentum and energy input on the interstellar medium (ISM) of typical elliptical galaxies. We focus on the observational properties of the models in the soft and hard X-ray bands: nuclear X-ray luminosity; global X-ray luminosity and temperature of the hot ISM; and temperature and X-ray brightness profiles before, during, and after outbursts. After ~10 Gyr, the bolometric nuclear emission L BH is very sub-Eddington (l = L BH/L Edd ~ 10-4), and within the range observed, though larger than typical values. Outbursts last for ≈107 yr, and the duty cycle of nuclear activity is a few × (10-3 to 10-2), over the last 6 Gyr. The ISM thermal luminosity L X oscillates in phase with the nuclear luminosity, with broader peaks. This behavior helps statistically reproduce the observed large L X variation. The average gas temperature is within the observed range, in the upper half of those observed. In quiescence, the temperature profile has a negative gradient; thanks to past outbursts, the brightness profile lacks the steep shape of cooling flow models. After outbursts, disturbances are predicted in the temperature and brightness profiles (analyzed by unsharp masking). Most significantly, during major accretion episodes, a hot bubble of shocked gas is inflated at the galaxy center (within ≈100 pc) the bubble would be conical in shape in real galaxies and would be radio-loud. Its detection in X-rays is within current capabilities, though it would likely remain unresolved. The ISM resumes its smooth appearance on a timescale of ≈200 Myr the duty cycle of perturbations in the ISM is of the order of 5%-10%. While showing general agreement between the models and real galaxies, this analysis indicates that additional physical input may still be required including moving to two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulations, input of

  19. Introducing an Outcome Expectation Questionnaire and Its Psychometric Properties Regarding Leisure Time Physical Activity for Iranian Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Outcome expectation (OE) is known as a psychosocial determinant of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Despite importance of this construct evaluation, there is no evidence of special questionnaire for measuring OE in Persian speaking Iranian male adolescents. Objectives: This article reports development and psychometric evaluation process of a specific questionnaire that evaluates OE about LTPA among Iranian male adolescents. Materials and Methods: Literature review and group discussions were used to select 26 items of this questionnaire based on 3 dimensions of OE (self-evaluation, social expectancy, and physical expectancy). All Participants (n = 720) were divided into two groups randomly after evaluating comprehensibility, face and content validity, and items analysis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were separately operated on one of these groups for evaluation of the construct validity of questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by the Cronbach α. Results: EFA extracted 3 main factors explained 45.80%, 10.31%, and 7.51% of OE variance, respectively. Almost all fit indexes in CFA were acceptable (CMIN = 107.39, CMIN/DF = 2.619, CFI = 0.938, PCFI = 0.699, RMSEA = 0.067, PCLOSE = 0.034). Finally 11 items remained in the questionnaire, which showed excellent reliability on main study (α = 0.85). Conclusions: This study provided evidence regarding the reliability and validity of the Iranian male adolescent outcome expectation about leisure time physical activity (IMAO-PAC) and illustrated that this new questionnaire can be used to measure the perceived exercise benefits among target group in observational and interventional studies. PMID:26082851

  20. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  1. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  2. Exceeding Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…

  3. A new life with aphasia: everyday activities and social support.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist Nätterlund, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    People who develop aphasia must adjust their lifestyles and learn to cope with the activity limitations that may follow from their disability. The purpose of this study was to describe aphasic individuals' experiences of everyday activities and social support in daily life. Interviews were conducted with 20 people with aphasia, and analysed with qualitative content analysis. The results show that everyday activities changed considerably with the onset of aphasia, and the participants were hindered from participating in activities by communication problems or physical disabilities. Aphasia led to the loss of friends and colleagues, and the interviewees often felt lonely. They generally received a lot of social support from close relatives, but support from the healthcare system was lacking. They need different kinds of social support to help them manage their aphasia and everyday activities and to improve their participation in society. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge of everyday activity and social support for people with aphasia, and what it means to live with aphasia. PMID:20370533

  4. How Radiation Oncologists Evaluate and Incorporate Life Expectancy Estimates Into the Treatment of Palliative Cancer Patients: A Survey-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Sullivan, Adam J.; Jones, Joshua A.; Chow, Edward; Balboni, Tracy A.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We surveyed how radiation oncologists think about and incorporate a palliative cancer patient’s life expectancy (LE) into their treatment recommendations. Methods and Materials: A 41-item survey was e-mailed to 113 radiation oncology attending physicians and residents at radiation oncology centers within the Boston area. Physicians estimated how frequently they assessed the LE of their palliative cancer patients and rated the importance of 18 factors in formulating LE estimates. For 3 common palliative case scenarios, physicians estimated LE and reported whether they had an LE threshold below which they would modify their treatment recommendation. LE estimates were considered accurate when within the 95% confidence interval of median survival estimates from an established prognostic model. Results: Among 92 respondents (81%), the majority were male (62%), from an academic practice (75%), and an attending physician (70%). Physicians reported assessing LE in 91% of their evaluations and most frequently rated performance status (92%), overall metastatic burden (90%), presence of central nervous system metastases (75%), and primary cancer site (73%) as “very important” in assessing LE. Across the 3 cases, most (88%-97%) had LE thresholds that would alter treatment recommendations. Overall, physicians’ LE estimates were 22% accurate with 67% over the range predicted by the prognostic model. Conclusions: Physicians often incorporate LE estimates into palliative cancer care and identify important prognostic factors. Most have LE thresholds that guide their treatment recommendations. However, physicians overestimated patient survival times in most cases. Future studies focused on improving LE assessment are needed.

  5. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach

    PubMed Central

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Nor, Norashidah Mohamed; Abdullah, Nik Mustapha Raja; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  6. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  7. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no treatment and regular check- ... with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing active surveillance as a ...

  8. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  9. Gray Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2003-01-01

    Describes Emory's Emeritus College, conceived as a cure for the isolation that many professors feel in retirement and now one of a growing number of programs that keep them involved in campus life. (EV)

  10. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  11. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  12. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary...

  13. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  14. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  15. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility. PMID:26152855

  16. 78 FR 58611 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... to provide information upon which the insurance premium can be based. VMIL provides financial... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0212.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life...

  17. Ambitious Mothers--Successful Daughters: Mothers' Early Expectations for Children's Education and Children's Earnings and Sense of Control in Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of activated protein C in real-life clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Payet, Stéphanie; Vallet, Benoit; França, Lionel Riou; Annane, Djillali; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Tulzo, Yves Le; Runge, Isabelle; Malledant, Yannick; Guidet, Bertrand; Le Lay, Katell; Launois, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) has been reported to be cost-effective in severely ill septic patients in studies using data from a pivotal randomized trial. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rhAPC in patients with severe sepsis and multiple organ failure in real-life intensive care practice. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study involving adult patients recruited before and after licensure of rhAPC in France. Inclusion criteria were applied according to the label approved in Europe. The expected recruitment bias was controlled by building a sample of patients matched for propensity score. Complete hospitalization costs were quantified using a regression equation involving intensive care units variables. rhAPC acquisition costs were added, assuming that all costs associated with rhAPC were already included in the equation. Cost comparisons were conducted using the nonparametric bootstrap method. Cost-effectiveness quadrants and acceptability curves were used to assess uncertainty of the cost-effectiveness ratio. Results In the initial cohort (n = 1096), post-license patients were younger, had less co-morbid conditions and had failure of more organs than did pre-license patients (for all: P < 0.0001). In the matched sample (n = 840) the mean age was 62.4 ± 14.9 years, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 56.7 ± 18.5, and the number of organ failures was 3.20 ± 0.83. When rhAPC was used, 28-day mortality tended to be reduced (34.1% post-license versus 37.4% pre-license, P = 0.34), bleeding events were more frequent (21.7% versus 13.6%, P = 0.002) and hospital costs were higher (€47,870 versus €36,717, P < 0.05). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios gained were as follows: €20,278 per life-year gained and €33,797 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. There was a 74.5% probability that rhAPC would be cost-effective if there were willingness to pay €50,000 per life-year gained. The probability was 64

  19. Career & Life Planning Portfolio Resource Book. Activities To Accompany the South Dakota Career and Life Planning Portfolio, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education, Pierre. Div. of Workforce and Career Preparation.

    This resource book provides several career development activities to accompany the South Dakota "My Career and Life Planning Portfolio," which is appended. The activities are arranged according to the following four folders found within the portfolio jacket: career and education planning; skills employers want; projects/work samples; and…

  20. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  1. [Activities of medical practitioners in nursery schools for children under 6 years-old: the expectations of the facilities' directors].

    PubMed

    Fanello, Serge; Dagorne, Carole; Perrier, Christophe; Parot, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to describe the activities of nurseries' medical practitioners and the expectations of the nurseries' supervisors. It is based on the analysis of 139 questionnaires received from nursery schools' managers from the Pays de Loire region in 2005. Ninety percent of the nurseries that accommodate children less than six years-old, do employ a medical practitioner. She or he is often a salaried paediatrician with a full-time job or clinical practice, who consults twice a month for two hours and forty minutes in each nursery which employs him/her. Her/his main activity consists of conducting standard medical examinations when children are admitted into the nursery and on-going follow-up of their adaptation and healthy early childhood development. She or he also ensures that hygienic preventive measures are respected in case of an epidemic or other potentially hazardous health situations. Moreover, two-thirds of the establishments offer prevention follow-up for the children, whereas health promotion programmes and interventions are only carried out in just over half of them. Emergency medical procedures are conducted in a quarter of them only. Most of the nursery directors are satisfied with the medical services provided, despite some criticism. They mainly wish that practitioners were more available and more regularly present on-site in order to supply further preventive care, to develop training programmes for other staff members, and to participate in thematic meetings. Encouraging improved synergy between the professionals working in the nurseries, placing child psychologists to work in the facilities and fostering better relationships with the independent medical practitioners would all help the process of development and the evolution of the operational function of the medical practitioners in these structures. PMID:17561738

  2. Positive Alcohol Expectancies Mediate the Influence of the Behavioral Activation System on Alcohol Use: A Prospective Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Gray’s (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray’s theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  3. Shared decision-making in metastatic breast cancer: discrepancy between the expected prolongation of life and treatment efficacy between patients and physicians, and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Lux, Michael P; Bayer, Christian M; Loehberg, Christian R; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Bani, Mayada R; Häberle, Lothar; Engel, Anne; Heusinger, Katharina; Tänzer, Thorsten; Radosavac, Dragan; Scharl, Anton; Bauerfeind, Ingo; Gesslein, Judith; Schulte, Hilde; Overbeck-Schulte, Brigitte; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hein, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Treatment decisions in oncology are based on a balance between the efficacy of therapy and its side effects. Patients with metastases and patients with a limited prognosis are a particular challenge, since communication about the disease situation and the expected therapeutic benefit is difficult not only for patients, but also for physicians. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the benefits expected of therapy by patients and physicians. Questionnaires were sent to 9,000 breast cancer patients and to 6,938 physicians. The questionnaires described 10 cases of breast cancer in the metastatic setting. The patients and physicians were asked to state the treatment benefit they would require to decide for the therapy options chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, antibody therapy, radiotherapy, and bisphosphonates. Additionally, the participants provided data on patient and physician characteristics. Expected treatment benefits were compared between patients and physicians, and influencing factors that modified the expected benefit were identified. Patients expected much greater benefits from the therapies offered than the physicians. For all treatment modalities, about 50 % or more of patients expected more than a 12-month increase in overall survival from all therapies. Among the doctors, this proportion ranged from 7 to 30 %. Among patients, previous experience of side effects and having young children in the family were the strongest influencing factors. Among the doctors, age and level of education had a strong influence on the expected prognostic improvement to indicate a therapy option. As expectations of treatment differ greatly between patients and doctors, a structured approach to solving this conflict is required. There appear to be some indicators that might help address the problem, such as the physicians' level of training and experience and the patients' specific social circumstances. PMID:23670130

  4. Gamer Girls, Gold Farmers, and Activism "In Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay analyzes the graphic novel "In Real Life" as an example of Cory Doctorow and Jen Wang's intention to raise young people's awareness about gender and economic disparities within the gaming industry. Broadly, "In Real Life" combats the pervasive cultural anxiety that Jane McGonigal challenges in her book "Reality…

  5. Life Trajectories of Youth Committing to Climate Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from a study investigating the life trajectories of 17 youth climate activists from 14 countries through semi-structured, life memory interviews using Internet-based methods. The interpretations of the interviews focus on the ways in which participants constructed the meanings and functions of experiences and how they…

  6. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  7. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-389. b. Application for... government life insurance has lapsed or will lapse due to nonpayment of premiums. The claimant must...

  8. 75 FR 68040 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written...: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of...

  9. 75 FR 52065 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written...: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of...

  10. Purpose in life is associated with physical activity measured by accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Masters, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that purpose in life, the belief that one's life is meaningful and goal-directed, is associated with greater engagement in self-reported physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between purpose in life and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Community volunteers (N = 104) completed measures of purpose in life and potential confounds and wore accelerometers for three consecutive days. Purpose in life was positively associated with objectively measured movement, moderate to vigorous physical activity, and with self-reported activity. These relationships were largely unchanged after controlling for potential confounds. These results suggest that purpose in life is a reliable correlate of physical activity. PMID:25104777

  11. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies, such as pump-and-treat (PTS) and funnel-and-gate systems (FGS), aim at reducing locally appearing contaminations. Therefore, these methodologies are basically evaluated with respect to their capability to yield local improvements of an environmental situation, commonly neglecting that their application is also associated with secondary impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a widely accepted method of assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts related to a product, process or service. This study presents the set-up of a LCA framework in order to compare the secondary impacts caused by two conceptually different technologies at the site of a former manufactured gas plant in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. As a FGS is already operating at this site, a hypothetical PTS of the same functionality is adopted. During the LCA, the remediation systems are evaluated by focusing on the main technical elements and their significance with respect to resource depletion and potential adverse effects on ecological quality, as well as on human health. Seven impact categories are distinguished to address a broad spectrum of possible environmental loads. A main point of discussion is the reliability of technical assumptions and performance predictions for the future. It is obvious that a high uncertainty exists when estimating impact specific indicator values over operation times of decades. An uncertainty analysis is conducted to include the imprecision of the underlying emission and consumption data and a scenario analysis is utilised to contrast various possible technological variants. Though the results of the study are highly site-specific, a generalised relative evaluation of potential impacts and their main sources is the principle objective rather than a discussion of the calculated absolute impacts. A crucial finding that can be applied to any other site is the central role of steel, which particularly derogates

  12. Heterogeneity in expected longevities.

    PubMed

    Pijoan-Mas, Josep; Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    We develop a new methodology to compute differences in the expected longevity of individuals of a given cohort who are in different socioeconomic groups at a certain age. We address the two main problems associated with the standard use of life expectancy: (1) that people's socioeconomic characteristics change, and (2) that mortality has decreased over time. Our methodology uncovers substantial heterogeneity in expected longevities, yet much less heterogeneity than what arises from the naive application of life expectancy formulae. We decompose the longevity differences into differences in health at age 50, differences in the evolution of health with age, and differences in mortality conditional on health. Remarkably, education, wealth, and income are health-protecting but have very little impact on two-year mortality rates conditional on health. Married people and nonsmokers, however, benefit directly in their immediate mortality. Finally, we document an increasing time trend of the socioeconomic gradient of longevity in the period 1992-2008, and we predict an increase in the socioeconomic gradient of mortality rates for the coming years. PMID:25391225

  13. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  14. Life quality and daily life activities of elderly people in rural areas, Eskişehir (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Aleattin; Metintas, Selma; Koc, Filiz; Arslantas, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Certain difficulties in daily life activities appear and quality of life (QoL) begins to deteriorate with old age. This study aimed at determining QoL and activities of daily living (ADL) of elderly people in rural areas of Eskişehir, and at identifying applicable factors in this regard. Cross-sectional study managed to reach 1301 (81.3%) of elderly people. Face-to-face interviews and the WHOQOL-BREF QoL scale and questionnaire were applied to evaluate daily life activities, as well as instrumental activities all of which contained sociodemographic features. WHOQOL-BREF life quality scale comprised of four domains with grades between 0 and 20. Those who received help from others in the execution of these activities were labelled as "dependent", those who received partial aid during the execution of these activities were labelled as "partially dependent", and those who did not receive any help in their daily activities were labelled as "independent" individuals. Average age of 1301 people contacted was 71.52+/-5.18 (ranging 65-91 years); 675 of them were women (51.9%), 626 were men (48.1%). Three hundred and eighty-seven of these elderly people (29.7%) had no medically diagnosed illnesses, whereas 18 of them (1.4%) were bedridden. With older age, with the exception of social and environmental areas, life quality got even worse in women, widows, illiterates, bedridden and those with medically diagnosed diseases. As women were more dependent on issues such as housework, shopping, traveling, transporting and bathing, men were more dependent on areas such as meal preparation. No distinction between men and women were identified in areas such as dressing, toilet use, urine and bowel continence and eating. As a conclusion, in cases where medically diagnosed diseases were present, quality of life in women that were dependent somehow in daily activities was worse. It was concluded that medicosocial services for the elderly would be prioritized and studies on chronic

  15. Charting the Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model from Mothers' Beliefs in Childhood to Youths' Activities in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This…

  16. Probing Metabolic Activity of Deep Subseafloor Life with NanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morono, Y.; Terada, T.; Itoh, M.; Inagaki, F.

    2014-12-01

    There are very few natural environments where life is absent in the Earth's surface biosphere. However, uninhabitable region is expected to be exist in the deep subsurface biosphere, of which extent and constraining factor(s) have still remained largly unknown. Scientific ocean drilling have revealed that microbial communities in sediments are generally phylogenetically distinct from known spieces isolated from the Earth's surface biosphere, and hence metabolic functions of the deep subseafloor life remain unknown. In addition, activity of subseafloor microbial cells are thought to be extraordinally slow, as indicated by limited supply of neutrient and energy substrates. To understand the limits of the Earth's subseafloor biosphere and metabolic functions of microbial populations, detection and quantification of the deeply buried microbial cells in geological habitats are fundamentary important. Using newly developed cell separation techniques as well as an discriminative cell detection system, the current quantification limit of sedimentary microbial cells approaches to 102 cells/cm3. These techniques allow not only to assess very small microbial population close to the subsurface biotic fringe, but also to separate and sort the target cells using flow cytometric cell sorter. Once the deep subseafloor microbial cells are detached from mineral grains and sorted, it opens new windows to subsequent molecular ecological and element/isotopic analyses. With a combined use of nano-scale secondary ion masspectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope-probing techniques, it is possible to detect and measure activity of substrate incorporation into biomass, even for extremely slow metabolic processes such as uncharacteriszed deep subseafloor life. For example, it was evidenced by NanoSIMS that at least over 80% of microbial cells at ~200 meters-deep, 460,000-year-old sedimentary habitat are indeed live, which substrate incooporation was found to be low (10-15 gC/cell/day) even

  17. Life Extension Activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce A. K.; Prior, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the cancellation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the Telescope operating during the remainder of the decade. As part of the SM4, the HST Project had planned to install various upgrades to the Telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analysis indicates that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team will be severely challenged to maximize the Telescope's remaining operational lifetime, while still trying to maximize - its science output and quality. Two of the biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they offer the largest potential extension in Telescope lifetime and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six Ni-H batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have collectively lasted longer than any other comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of the HST, thus enabling it to remain a world-class observatory for as long as possible.

  18. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  19. Educational Activities for the Life Over Time Exhibit at The Field Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laraba, Peter; Wickland, Thomas J.

    The activities presented in this book, designed to help 4th through 8th grade instructors teach about the history of life, help students prepare for a visit to a museum exhibit on life through time. The pre- and post-visit activities as well as the in-museum activities help students prepare for and enjoy their 4.5 billion year trip through time at…

  20. Real Life Problem Solving: A Collaborative Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that classroom activities that emphasize interaction help students to use language. Interaction allows students to practice being effective speakers by developing two needed sets of skills: managing an interaction and negotiating meaning. Provides examples of problem solving activities for use in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  1. Active Life of the Senior Citizens through Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taziev, Saljakhutdin Fardievich

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents reasons for including the senior citizens into educational process, as well as active age model. Education, communication and leisure system for the senior citizens, implemented by Yelabuga municipal district, is presented as a requirement for model realization. A core of the paper is the Active Age Institute. Its program…

  2. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  3. A Life-Course Perspective on Physical Activity Promotion: Applications and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how a life-course perspective can be infused more fully into the research field of physical activity promotion. A life-course perspective is particularly promising in connecting, organizing, and supplementing current knowledge and can potentially stimulate and direct future research and intervention efforts by using a…

  4. 78 FR 36829 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize...

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  6. 78 FR 53014 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. ] b. Claim for Monthly Payments... desires monthly installment in lieu of one lump payment he or she must complete VA Forms 29-4125a and...

  7. 75 FR 73166 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Control No. 2900- 0060.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life... veteran's Government Insurance policies. If the beneficiary desires monthly installment in lieu of...

  8. 75 FR 68036 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity... Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov ; or to Nancy J. Kessinger, Veterans...: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149....

  9. 78 FR 46420 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity... Docket Management System (FDMS) at www.Regulations.gov ; or to Nancy J. Kessinger, Veterans Benefits...: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149....

  10. 75 FR 68038 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... which the insurance premium can be based. VMIL provides financial protection to cover eligible veterans... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB...

  11. Life extension activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce; Prior, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Without an additional Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the telescope operating for as long as possible. As part of SM4, the HST Project planned to install various upgrades to the telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analyses and trend projections indicate that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team is being challenged to maximize the telescope's remaining operational lifetime, and also maximize its science output and quality. The two biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they comprise the largest risk to telescope productivity and safety and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have -lasted longer than those on any comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. In addition to the batteries, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scheduled all six gyros to be replaced on SM4. Two of the six gyros have already failed, leaving four available for operational use. To be able to conduct science operations, the telescope currently needs three gyros. Efforts are underway to enable a guiding mode that will require only two gyros. In this mode, however, science target scheduling will be strongly driven by new factors (such as star tracker availability), which may ultimately reduce science gathering efficiency. The status on this effort and its potential impact on science operations will be discussed. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of

  12. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis--liberating the life-force.

    PubMed

    Levine, J A

    2007-09-01

    Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a protracted period of time. The energy expenditure associated with everyday activity is called NEAT (Nonexercise activity thermogenesis). NEAT varies between two people of similar size by 2000 kcal day(-1) because of people's different occupations and leisure-time activities. Data support the central hypothesis that NEAT is pivotal in the regulation of human energy expenditure and body weight regulation and that NEAT is important for understanding the cause and effective treatment for obesity. PMID:17697152

  13. Detrimental Effects of Extreme Solar Activity on Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Jackman, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), the most energetic eruptions in the Solar System, represent large-scale disturbances forming with the solar corona and are associated with solar flares and Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) events. Current Kepler data from solar-like stars suggest that the frequency of occurrence of energetic flares and associated CMEs from the Sun can be as high as 1 per 1500 years. What effects would CME and associated SEPs have on Earth's habitability? We have performed a three-dimensional time-dependent global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the magnetic interaction of such a CME cloud with the Earth's magnetosphere. We calculated the global structure of the perturbed magnetosphere and derive the latitude of the open-closed magnetic field boundary. We used a 2D GSFC atmospheric code to calculate the efficiency of ozone depletion in the Earth's atmosphere due to SEP events and its effects on our society and life on Earth.

  14. Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions What are the best balance exercises for seniors? Check out these balance exercises you can do ... More Information on Exercise and Physical Activity Local fitness centers or hospitals might be able to help ...

  15. Assessment of dual life stage antiplasmodial activity of british seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-10-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC(50)s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  16. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M.; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  17. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Santiago; Lozano, Virginia; Valladares, Amparo; Cavanillas, Rafael; Xie, Yang; Nocea, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI). Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that ertapenem can be a cost-saving strategy compared with ceftriaxone, with a 59% probability of being dominant (lower costs with additional health benefits) for both, elderly patients (>65 years) and patients with PSI >3. Conclusion The incorporation of the current antimicrobial susceptibility into the initial clinical efficacy has a significant impact in outcomes and costs in CAP treatment. The

  18. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  19. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  20. Heliobiology, its development, successes and tasks. [solar activity effects on life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonova, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Heliobiology studies the influence of changes in solar activity on life. Considered are the influence of periodic solar activity on the development and growth of epidemics, mortality from various diseases, the functional activity of the nervous system, the development of psychic disturbances, the details of the development of microorganisms and many other phenomena in the living world.

  1. A new and efficient method for the synthesis of novel 3-acetyl coumarins oxadiazoles derivatives with expected biological activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayed, Abdullah Sulaiman; Hamdi, Naceur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of some novel 3-acetylcoumarin derivatives, based on minimal inhibitory concentration values (MICs) previously obtained against some microorganism cultures, Gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi. Some of these molecules exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus, comparable to that of the standard used (impinem). The in vitro antioxidant activities of the novel 3-acetylcoumarin oxadiazoles were assayed by the quantitative 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method. The compounds 5c,d proved to be the most active, showing the highest capacity to deplete the DPPH radicals. Structure elucidation of the products has been accomplished on the basis of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, NOESY and HMBC NMR data. PMID:24424404

  2. Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Mothers of Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Babić, Ana; Humer, Jasmina Tomašić; Sincek, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore physical activity regarding mothers of preschool children and connections concerning different aspects of their physical activity (at work, during transport, in free time, while doing housework) with subjective quality of life. Another aim was to investigate factors that are obstacles of living a physically active life in this population. The participants of the study were 252 Croatian women, who have at least one preschool child older than three years. The World Health Organization Quality Of Life - BREF questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used. Participants also gave some personal demographic data, and answered to questions about obstacles for participation in organized physical activity. Results of this research showed that mothers of preschool children were more physically active than the population of adults in general, but their physical activity was mostly housework activity. Physical activity in their free time was the only aspect of physical activity that was significantly correlated with different aspects of mother's subjective quality of life. Employed mothers and those who live in the towns had more physical activities in their free time. Organizational factors and feeling that family suffers for their absence were the most frequently perceived barriers for organized physical activity participation. Results revealed that only the physical activity in their free time contributes to mother's quality of life. Mothers of preschool children mostly do housework physical activity, so support of the social community for physical activity in their free time in this population is recommended. Such activities should be especially directed to unemployed mothers and those who live in the villages. PMID:26753459

  3. Viral activities and life cycles in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Tim; Orsi, William D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-12-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in marine subsurface sediments and can even exceed the number of prokaryotes. However, their activity and quantitative impact on microbial populations are still poorly understood. Here, we use gene expression data from published continental margin subseafloor metatranscriptomes to qualitatively assess viral diversity and activity in sediments up to 159 metres below seafloor (mbsf). Mining of the metatranscriptomic data revealed 4651 representative viral homologues (RVHs), representing 2.2% of all metatranscriptome sequence reads, which have close translated homology (average 77%, range 60-97% amino acid identity) to viral proteins. Archaea-infecting RVHs are exclusively detected in the upper 30 mbsf, whereas RVHs for filamentous inoviruses predominate in the deepest sediment layers. RVHs indicative of lysogenic phage-host interactions and lytic activity, notably cell lysis, are detected at all analysed depths and suggest a dynamic virus-host association in the marine deep biosphere studied here. Ongoing lytic viral activity is further indicated by the expression of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat-associated cascade genes involved in cellular defence against viral attacks. The data indicate the activity of viruses in subsurface sediment of the Peruvian margin and suggest that viruses indeed cause cell mortality and may play an important role in the turnover of subseafloor microbial biomass. PMID:26109514

  4. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active. PMID:26898051

  5. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  6. Time for Action: Advocacy for Physical Activity in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Bevan

    2010-01-01

    By 2050, the over 65 year's age group will account for approximately one quarter of the population. This will have many unprecedented social and economic consequences of which one is the cost associated with health. A preventive health related behaviour attracting considerable attention is physical activity, something that becomes less popular…

  7. Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of highlighting the…

  8. Life Cycle of the Salmon. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabochia, Kathy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  9. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  10. Expectations of Rock Music Consumption for Entertainment and Information Relative to the Active Involvement of the User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouner, Donna; Noyes, Amy

    Before examining potentially negative effects of rock music on adolescents, it is necessary to demonstrate links between adolescent motivations for consuming rock music and active involvement relative to that use and also to consider how much rock listeners rely on rock music as a source for information about values, beliefs, and social…

  11. The importance of work or productive activity in life care planning and case management

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Christine; Riddick-Grisham, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: The importance of work or productive activity for the well-being, community integration, and quality of life of people living with disabilities is addressed, with implications for life care planning and case management. BACKGROUND: The role of work or productive activity in our society, and consequences of deprivation if rehabilitation services do not address vocational effects of disabilities, is explored. A continuum of productivity options is introduced; types of vocational rehabilitation assessment processes and interventions are described. PURPOSE: The role of vocational rehabilitation services in life care planning and case management is discussed, focusing on quality of life for people living with disabilities. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation and health care professionals should understand the importance of work or other productive activity, and support the development of appropriate plans to address those needs among people who have disabilities. PMID:26409330

  12. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l−1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  13. A potentially life-threatening complication of university orientation activities

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ling Pong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This case report describes a university student who participated in an orientation activity and developed exertional rhabdomyolysis. METHODS: With prompt intravenous volume expansion started in the accident and emergency department, he made an uneventful recovery despite a marked elevation of creatine kinase. The riskfactors of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis were reviewed. Suggestions based on these risk factors were made to the organizers of such orientation programmes. RESULTS: He was discharged on day 6. On follow-up on day 8 after presentation at theaccident and emergency department, the CK level was 46 000 U/L and it fell to 2600 U/L in another 2 weeks. On follow-up 3 weeks after the incident, he remained well without symptoms. CONCLUSION: For the clinicians, once rhadbomyolysis is suspected or diagnosed, intravenous fluid therapy with a crystalloid should be initiated as soon as possible to prevent the occurrence of acute renal faiure. PMID:25215042

  14. Active lithium replenishment to extend the life of a cell employing carbon and iron phosphate electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, John; Soukiazian, Souren; Verbrugge, Mark; Tataria, Harshad; Coates, Dwaine; Hall, David; Liu, Ping

    We describe and implement a method of extending the life of a LiFePO 4/graphite lithium ion battery by replenishing the lost active lithium during cell operation and concomitant capacity fade. The approach may prove helpful in terms of increasing lithium ion cell life. After the cell had lost 30% of its capacity, analysis showed that the cell had not experienced significant impedance increase or cathode capacity loss, and the anode had lost about 5% of its storage capacity. The analysis confirmed that the loss of active lithium greatly outpaced the loss of capacity for either electrode and is responsible for cell capacity decay. The cathode was then discharged against an external lithium electrode to increase the amount of active lithium within the cell. About half of the lost capacity was recovered, and the cell cycled for 1500 more cycles. Active lithium replenishment from a reserve electrode may be an effective method of extending the life of lithium ion batteries.

  15. Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Odnell, Anna; Recktenwald, Michael; Stensén, Katarina; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-10-15

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (<24 h) in both waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge environments and that this was, for the majority of enzymes, due to endogenous protease activity. In biogas in situ experiments, subtilisin at a 1% mixture on basis of volatile solids, was the only enzyme providing a significantly increased biomethane production of 37%. However, even at this high concentration, subtilisin could not hydrolyze all available substrate within the life time of the enzyme. Thus, for large scale implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed. PMID:27498254

  16. Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W

    2013-12-01

    The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities. PMID:24300053

  17. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  18. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  19. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  20. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2013-01-01

    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  1. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life. PMID:23534778

  2. [Rehabilitation with proper physical activities--what happens with patients' quality of life?].

    PubMed

    Blaasvaer, S; Stanghelle, J K

    1999-04-10

    During their rehabilitation stay at Beitostølen Healthsports Centre patients daily participate in varied forms of adapted physical activities, physiotherapy, and leisure and social activities. Support for mental and social problems is offered. A total of 189 patients were invited for quality of life assessment; 132 consented to participate, and 107 completed the investigation. Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Life Satisfaction Scale (LiSat) and three questions regarding self-rated physical and mental health and disability were used for assessment. For NHP total score, satisfaction with life as a whole (LiSat), and questions regarding self-rated physical/mental health and disability improvements from one month before until three months after the stay were statistically significant. Improvements were also significant for subscales regarding emotional reactions, energy, pain, sleep, sexual life, family life, hobbies/interests, leisure situation and social isolation. Although this study did not include controls, the results indicate that a rehabilitation stay with adapted physical activities improves the quality of life of the patients until at least three months after the stay. Effects are probably mediated through improvement of self-efficacy. PMID:10327850

  3. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  4. Life Expectancy of Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, Richard K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Longevity of 12,543 Down's syndrome clients of the California Department of Developmental Services was examined. Findings indicated that predictors of survival were not different from mortality-related variables in the general population. Lack of mobility or poor feeding skills were better predictors of early death than variables associated with…

  5. Reducing inequalities in health and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Neve, Jane; Briers, Gail

    The risk of premature death in people with severe mental illness or learning disabilities is significantly higher than the general population. This is mostly caused by treatable long-term conditions. This article describes research conducted to establish the evidence base and draw up priorities for action, along with the competencies mental health and learning disability nurses need to improve service users' physical healthcare. PMID:27017674

  6. Global Health Observatory (GHO): Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский ... Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment ...

  7. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-02-15

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs. PMID:23392608

  8. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2014-01-01

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (follow-up 1997–2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10, and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12–13 and 14–17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5–10, 10–20, and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1–2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (<30 MET-hr/wk) (body size at ages 5–10 years: hazard ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval=1.04–1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29–2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  9. The interaction between early-life body size and physical activity on risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hannah; Boeke, Caroline E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Wang, Molin; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather

    2015-08-01

    While early-life body leanness is associated with increased breast cancer risk, early-life physical activity may protect against breast cancer. We examined whether the excess risk among lean girls is modified by their levels of prior, concurrent, or future physical activity. We conducted an analysis among 74,723 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (follow-up 1997-2011). Participants recalled their body size at ages 5, 10 and 20 years in 1989 using a 9-level pictogram (Level 1 most lean). In 1997, they reported adolescent levels of physical activity (ages 12-13 and 14-17 years). Cox proportional hazards models estimated the overall association of body size with breast cancer risk and assessed interactions of adolescent physical activity with body size at three different age periods (5-10, 10-20 and 20 years), adjusting for early-life and adult risk factors for breast cancer. Regardless of levels of adolescent physical activity, early-life body leanness (level 1-2 vs. 4.5+) was significantly associated with higher breast cancer risk. The association was slightly attenuated among those who were active (60+ MET-hr/wk) during adolescence compared to those who were inactive (<30 MET-hr/wk) (body size at ages 5-10 years: hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.81 vs. 1.66, 1.29-2.12), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.72). The results were similar for body size at three different age periods. Being lean during early life is a risk factor for breast cancer among both inactive and active girls. Adolescent physical activity did not significantly modify the association, although some interaction cannot be excluded. PMID:25335465

  10. Detection of Extant Life in Extreme Environmentsby Phosphatase ActivitiesDetection of Extant Life in Extreme Environments by Measuring Phosphatase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Sato, Shuji; Naganawa, Kazuki; Itoh, Yuki; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Yukishige

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a candidate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica soils, and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002, and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems, the Pacific Ocean in 2003, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline (or acid) Phosphatase activity in solid samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0 (or pH 6.5)) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC and GC/MS. Significant enzymatic activities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes are present in such environments as hydrothermal vent chimneys and Antarctica soils. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase

  11. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  12. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  13. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity: implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-02-01

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life on Earth inhabited high-salt environments, suggesting an ability to withstand low water-activity. The lower limit of water activity that enables cell division appears to be ∼ 0.605 which, until now, was only known to be exhibited by a single eukaryote, the sugar-tolerant, fungal xerophile Xeromyces bisporus. The first forms of life on Earth were, though, prokaryotic. Recent evidence now indicates that some halophilic Archaea and Bacteria have water-activity limits more or less equal to those of X. bisporus. We discuss water activity in relation to the limits of Earth's present-day biosphere; the possibility of microbial multiplication by utilizing water from thin, aqueous films or non-liquid sources; whether prokaryotes were the first organisms able to multiply close to the 0.605-aw limit; and whether extraterrestrial aqueous milieux of ≥ 0.605 aw can resemble fertile microbial habitats found on Earth. PMID:25142751

  14. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G; Birkeland, Marianne S; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-12-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. These proposed mechanisms were based on previous empirical work and the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 3,273) aged 15 and 16 years (51.8 % boys). The structural equation analysis showed that competence and relatedness satisfaction fully mediated the association between participation in activities and life satisfaction. Autonomy satisfaction had a direct positive effect on life satisfaction but did not show any mediation effect. The positive processes of psychological need satisfaction, and especially the need for competence and relatedness, experienced in the leisure activity domain thus seem to be beneficial for adolescents' well-being. These findings add to previous research investigating the positive impact of need satisfaction in other important domains in the lives of children and adolescents. PMID:22627625

  15. "Go4Life" exercise counseling, accelerometer feedback, and activity levels in older people.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Warren G; Kuhle, Carol L; Koepp, Gabriel A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2014-01-01

    Older people are more sedentary than other age groups. We sought to determine if providing an accelerometer with feedback about activity and counseling older subjects using Go4Life educational material would increase activity levels. Participants were recruited from independent living areas within assisted living facilities and the general public in the Rochester, MN area. 49 persons aged 65-95 (79.5±7.0 years) who were ambulatory but sedentary and overweight participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial for one year. After a baseline period of 2 weeks, group 1 received an accelerometer and counseling using Go4Life educational material (www.Go4Life.nia.nih.gov) for 24 weeks and accelerometer alone for the next 24 weeks. Group 2 had no intervention for the first 24 weeks and then received an accelerometer and Go4Life based counseling for 24 weeks. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The intervention was not associated with a significant change in activity, body weight, % body fat, or blood parameters (p>0.05). Older (80-93) subjects were less active than younger (65-79) subjects (p=0.003). Over the course of the 48 week study, an increase in activity level was associated with a decline in % body fat (p=0.008). Increasing activity levels benefits older patients. However, providing an accelerometer and a Go4Life based exercise counseling program did not result in a 15% improvement in activity levels in this elderly population. Alternate approaches to exercise counseling may be needed in elderly people of this age range. PMID:24485546

  16. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors within the anterior cingulate cortex enhances the erroneous expectation of reward on a rat slot machine task.

    PubMed

    Cocker, P J; Hosking, J G; Murch, W S; Clark, L; Winstanley, C A

    2016-06-01

    Using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT), we have previously shown that rats, like humans, are susceptible to the reinforcing effects of winning signals presented within a compound stimulus array, even when the pattern generated predicts a negative rather than a positive outcome such as during a "near-miss". The dopamine D4 receptor critically mediates the erroneous reward expectancy generated on such trials. D4 receptors are particularly enriched within frontal and limbic areas activated during slot machine play, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We therefore selectively inactivated the ACC to confirm involvement of this region in rSMT performance, and subsequently examined the specific contribution of local D4 receptors. ACC inactivations generally impaired animals' ability to optimally differentiate winning from losing outcomes. Local administration of the D4 agonist PD168077 had a qualitatively similar effect, but increased reward expectancy was only evident on archetypal "near-miss" trials i.e. when the first two of three stimuli in the array were concordant with a rewarding outcome, and only the last stimulus critically signalled a non-win. These data indicate that the ACC is critically involved in parsing the appropriate response when competing stimulus-outcome associations are activated, and that signalling via D4 receptors may play a particularly important role in gating the temporal and spatial summation of salient events. Such findings provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the erroneous expectations of reward generated when playing slot machines, and suggest a mechanism by which D4 receptor antagonists may be effective in treating gambling disorder. PMID:26775821

  17. Effects of declared levels of physical activity on quality of life of individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blick, Rachel N; Saad, Adam E; Goreczny, Anthony J; Roman, KatieLynn; Sorensen, Cambria Hunter

    2015-02-01

    Routine physical fitness improves health and psychosocial well-being of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study investigated impact of physical fitness on quality of life by comparing individuals who maintain a physically active lifestyle with those who do not report exercising. We assessed several indicators of quality of life, including inclusion and community participation; satisfaction with professional services, home life, and day activities; dignity, rights, and respect received from others; fear; choice and control; and family satisfaction. Our data suggested that individuals who regularly exercise reported having more frequent outings into the community than did their peers who reported exercising infrequently; regular exercisers were also more likely to live in intermediate care facilities (ICF) as opposed to living independently or with family members. We discuss possible reasons for this as well as ideas for future research needed to expand on this area. PMID:25528082

  18. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  19. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Reichheld, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular. PMID:26838762

  20. Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Mediators of Activity Involvement and Health in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Carr, Dawn C; McNamara, Tay K; James, Jacquelyn Boone

    2016-10-01

    The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty). The most potent indirect effect associated with emotional and physical health was experienced by those engaged in all four domains (use of body, use of mind, social interaction, and benefit to others). While effect sizes are small and results should be interpreted with caution, findings shed light on ways in which public health interventions aimed toward increasing role engagement in later life could be improved. PMID:26429863

  1. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize the... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: a. Application for Ordinary...

  2. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  3. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  4. US Activities in Making Life Cycle Inventory Data More Available to Users

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demand for LCA studies continues to grow, although, the lack of reliable, transparent Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data is hampering the wide-spread application of LCA. This paper will present activities related to the development and accessibility of process LCI data in the U...

  5. Baby Days: Activities, Ideas, and Games for Enjoying Daily Life with a Child under Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Barbara

    Noting the difficulty that many parents have finding activities to fit the busy life, budget, and energy levels of the average parent and the attention span and abilities of the typical infant and toddler, this book is designed as a reference book for parents and others looking for ways to entertain, educate, and enjoy a young child during the…

  6. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors report the adaptive functioning of hyperactive and control children in southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) followed to young adulthood. Method: Interviews with participants concerning major life activities were collected between 1992 and 1996 and used along with employer ratings and high school records at the young adult…

  7. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  8. Impact of Arts-Related Activities on the Perceived Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived or experienced quality of life. In the fall of 2006 a questionnaire was mailed out to a random selection of 2000 households in each of five British Columbia communities, and 1027 were returned completed. The total and individual community samples…

  9. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the requirement...

  10. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  11. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  12. Active Teaching Strategies for a Sense of Salience: End-of-Life Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared active teaching strategies with passive lecture by evaluating cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning outcomes, while highlighting end-of-life communication in nursing education. The problem addressed was twofold: First, passive lecture prevents transfer to situational decision-making, or a sense of salience (Benner,…

  13. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  14. Life in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is life in the Great Lakes. Students learn about shorebird adaptations,…

  15. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  16. Life events and change in leisure time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Elina; Alen, Markku; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Peltonen, Juha E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Pekkarinen, Heikki

    2012-05-01

    The global epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases is closely related to changes in lifestyle, including decreasing leisure time physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major public health challenge. To respond to that challenge, it is essential to know which personal and environmental factors affect PA behaviour. Certain life events may be one contributing factor, by creating emotional distress and disrupting a person's daily routine. The aim was to examine the literature concerning the effects of life events on changes in PA. A systematic literature search was performed on studies that assessed at least one major change in life circumstances and a change in PA. To be included, studies had to assess PA at two timepoints at least (before and after the event). Diseases as life events were excluded from this review. Thirty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies examined the following life-change events: transition to university; change in employment status; marital transitions and changes in relationships; pregnancy/having a child; experiencing harassment at work, violence or disaster; and moving into an institution. The studies reviewed showed statistically significant changes in leisure PA associated with certain life events. In men and women, transition to university, having a child, remarriage and mass urban disaster decreased PA levels, while retirement increased PA. In young women, beginning work, changing work conditions, changing from being single to cohabiting, getting married, pregnancy, divorce/separation and reduced income decreased PA. In contrast, starting a new personal relationship, returning to study and harassment at work increased PA. In middle-aged women, changing work conditions, reduced income, personal achievement and death of a spouse/partner increased PA, while experiencing violence and a family member being arrested or jailed decreased PA. In older women, moving into an institution and interpersonal loss

  17. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eminović, Fadilj; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Pavlović, Dragan; Arsić, Sladjana; Otašević, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation). Methods The study included a total of 44 participants with spinal cord injury-paraplegia of both genders; 26 of them were athletes and 18 were not athletes. The athletes were training actively for the last two years, minimally 2-3 times per week. A specially designed questionnaire, medical documentation and the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire (SCI QL-23) were used for research purposes. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between the groups, while multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the sets of variables. Results Among the participants, the athletes perceived higher quality of life than the non-athletes (male gender p<0.001 and female gender p<0.05). Regarding secondary health conditions, the athletes reported the presence of less pain (p=0.034) and a subjective feeling of better circulation (p=0.023). Conclusion The implementation of sports activities significantly improves quality of life in the population of people with spinal cord injury-paraplegia. However, sports activities only partially affect secondary health conditions. PMID:27284378

  18. Early life determinants of physical activity in 11 to 12 year olds: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine factors in early life (up to age 5 years) that are associated with objectively measured physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants Children aged 11-12 years from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Main outcome measure Physical activity levels in counts per minute (cpm) and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity for seven days measured with a uniaxial actigraph accelerometer. Results Valid actigraph data, defined as at least three days of physical activity for at least 10 hours a day, were collected from 5451 children. Several factors were associated with physical activity at ages 11-12 years. Regression coefficients are compared with the baseline of “none” for categorical variables: maternal brisk walking during pregnancy (regression coefficient 5.0, 95% confidence interval −8.5 to 18.5; cpm for <1 h/wk and ≥2 h/wk of physical activity 17.7, 5.3 to 30.1), maternal swimming during pregnancy (21.5, 10.9 to 32.1 and cpm for <1 h/wk and ≥2 h/wk of physical activity 24.2, 7.8 to 40.7), parents’ physical activity when the child was aged 21 months (28.5, 15.2 to 41.8 and cpm of physical activity for either parent active and both parents active 33.5, 17.8 to 49.3), and parity assessed during pregnancy (2.9, −7.6 to 13.4 and cpm of physical activity for 1 and ≥2 parity 21.2, 7.1 to 35.3). Conclusions Few factors in early life predicted later physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Parents’ physical activity during pregnancy and early in the child’s life showed a modest association with physical activity of the child at age 11-12 years, suggesting that active parents tend to raise active children. Helping parents to increase their physical activity therefore may promote children’s activity. PMID:18037616

  19. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

  20. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  1. Gender differences in satisfaction with life in patients with coronary heart disease: physical activity as a possible mediating factor.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Lisa A; Riley, Dana L; Blanchard, Chris M; Reid, Robert D; Pipe, Andrew L; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Slovinec D'Angelo, Monika E

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if time varying, mediating effect of physical activity plays an important role in the gender-satisfaction with life relationship. Six hundred four male and 197 female patients were included. Principal outcomes of interest were self-report satisfaction with life and physical activity at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. The Krull and MacKinnon procedure for hierarchical linear modeling showed that the change in physical activity mediated the gender-satisfaction with life over a 2 year period. Results from the current study suggest that increased physical activity partially explains why males report having increased well-being than females after hospitalization. This suggests that future interventions need to focus on reducing the gender disparity in physical activity to improve differences noted in satisfaction with life. If higher physical activity levels impact satisfaction with life positively, the importance of physical activity for female patients is warranted. PMID:20957422

  2. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  3. Diabetes and Quality of Life: Initial Approach to Depression, Physical Activity, and Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, M Josefina; Mociulsky, Juliana; Martinez, Esteban T; Senatore, Guido; Farias, Javier M; Sapetti, Adrian; Sanzana, M Gabriela; Gonzalez, Patricia; Cafferata, Alberto; Peloche, Andrea; Lemme, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The different aspects that contribute to quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus, such as mood, are of great importance for the treatment of this disease. These aspects not only influence the well-being of patients but also influence treatment adherence, therefore affecting the course of the disease. A panel of experts from Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay performed a review of the main aspects affecting quality of life in patients with diabetes: physical activity, mood disorders, and sexual activity. The consensus of the panel was that physical activity is important in the treatment of patients with diabetes because it reduces morbidity, mortality, and disease complications, and it should be performed on a regular basis, bearing in mind the patient's characteristics. Increased physical activity is associated with better glycemic control, and in individuals with glucose intolerance, it delays progression toward diabetes. In patients with diabetes, there is a high prevalence of depression, which can influence treatment adherence. Therefore, early detection of depression is essential to improve the course of diabetes. Regarding sexual activity, erectile dysfunction may be a significant sign in the case of suspected diabetes and the early diagnosis of vasculopathy in patients with diabetes. In conclusion, greater emphasis should be placed on improving patient knowledge, early detection, and multidisciplinary approaches to deal with the aspects of diabetes that affect patients' quality of life. PMID:24858335

  4. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  5. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  6. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  7. Pathways from Physical Activity to Quality of Life in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Morris, Katherine S.; Motl, Robert W.; Hu, Liang; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Rosengren, Karl R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In spite of consistent evidence to suggest that being more physically active is associated with enhanced quality of life (QOL), there have been remarkably few attempts to determine the possible underlying mechanisms in this relationship. Purpose To prospectively examine the roles played by self-efficacy and physical and mental health status in the physical activity and quality of life relationship in older women. Method Older women (M age = 68.12 years) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy relative to balance, mental and physical health status, and global QOL at baseline (N = 249) and 24-month follow-up (N = 217). Demographics and general health information were assessed at baseline. A panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework was used to analyze the data. Results Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over time were associated with residual changes in self-efficacy. Changes in self-efficacy were significantly associated with residual changes in physical and mental health status. Only changes in mental health status were significantly related to residual changes in global QOL. Conclusion Results from this study support the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and QOL. Future physical activity promotion programs should include strategies to enhance self-efficacy for physical activity to be most effective for this population. PMID:18677453

  8. Complexity in Non-Pharmacological Caregiving Activities at the End of Life: An International Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Olav; Tishelman, Carol; Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Clark, Jean B.; Daud, Maria L.; Dickman, Andrew; Benedetti, Franzisca Domeisen; Galushko, Maren; Lunder, Urska; Lundquist, Gunilla; Miccinesi, Guido; Sauter, Sylvia B.; Fürst, Carl Johan; Rasmussen, Birgit H.

    2012-01-01

    Background In late-stage palliative cancer care, relief of distress and optimized well-being become primary treatment goals. Great strides have been made in improving and researching pharmacological treatments for symptom relief; however, little systematic knowledge exists about the range of non-pharmacological caregiving activities (NPCAs) staff use in the last days of a patient's life. Methods and Findings Within a European Commission Seventh Framework Programme project to optimize research and clinical care in the last days of life for patients with cancer, OPCARE9, we used a free-listing technique to identify the variety of NPCAs performed in the last days of life. Palliative care staff at 16 units in nine countries listed in detail NPCAs they performed over several weeks. In total, 914 statements were analyzed in relation to (a) the character of the statement and (b) the recipient of the NPCA. A substantial portion of NPCAs addressed bodily care and contact with patients and family members, with refraining from bodily care also described as a purposeful caregiving activity. Several forms for communication were described; information and advice was at one end of a continuum, and communicating through nonverbal presence and bodily contact at the other. Rituals surrounding death and dying included not only spiritual/religious issues, but also more subtle existential, legal, and professional rituals. An unexpected and hitherto under-researched area of focus was on creating an aesthetic, safe, and pleasing environment, both at home and in institutional care settings. Conclusions Based on these data, we argue that palliative care in the last days of life is multifaceted, with physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential care interwoven in caregiving activities. Providing for fundamental human needs close to death appears complex and sophisticated; it is necessary to better distinguish nuances in such caregiving to acknowledge, respect, and further

  9. An Age-Cohort Study of Older Adults with and without Visual Impairments: Activity, Independence, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.; LaGrow, Steven; Alpass, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    This survey of 560 older adults who were visually impaired or sighted analyzed whether the two groups differed in their levels of activity, independence, and life satisfaction and the degree to which activity and independence contribute to the prediction of life satisfaction. Implications for rehabilitation services are discussed. (Contains 5…

  10. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  11. Short half-life activation analysis in biomedical and scientific research

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of elements that upon neutron irradiation produce very short-lived activation products, which are potentially useful for neutron activation analysis (NAA). In some cases these nuclides may be the only available activation product (e.g., for fluorine, oxygen, and lead). In other cases, the nuclides are activation products that provide improved sensitivity, accuracy, or ease of determination (e.g., for selenium, silver, and rhodium). The existing pneumatic tubes in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) nuclear reactor have relatively long transfer times (3 to 15 s) and have no accurate timing capability. These deficiencies make them relatively useless for the measurement of very short half-life activation products.

  12. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. PMID:25001232

  13. The active outer shell of Earth: What remains to be explored in carbon and life interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in methods and technologies have allowed us to explore the interaction between life and abiotic resources from nano to megascales in space and time, and this has set new challenges to the geosciences. This lecture aims at discussing key biological factors in the question of the dynamics of carbon reservoirs and fluxes on Earth, and the challenges to the geosciences to incorporate and further this knowledge. Humans themselves as one such biological factor have considerably changed the dynamics of carbon and other elements, with repercussions to most other life forms on Earth. Which other life forms shape carbon fluxes and reservoirs, and what do we know about their key traits in catalyzing geochemical reactions, their past and their future? I will use case studies from my own research field - geobiology of the oceans and the cryosphere - and from other geoscience areas to highlight the considerable non-linearity introduced by life to element fluxes and the environment; and discuss advances but also gaps in knowledge and research approaches concerning assessing and predicting carbon transformations in the active outer shell of Earth.

  14. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p< 0.0001), more hours academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p< 0.01), and involvement in teaching or research. Increased hours of study was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, p<0.01). Conclusions Study skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285

  15. Physical Activity Over the Life Course and its Association with Cognitive Performance and Impairment in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Laura E; Barnes, Deborah E; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine how physical activity at various ages over the life course is associated with cognitive impairment in late life. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Four US sites. Participants We administered a modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) to 9344 women ≥65 years (mean 71.6 years) who self-reported teenage, age 30, age 50, and late life physical activity. Measurements We used logistic regressions to determine the association between physical activity status at each age and likelihood of cognitive impairment (mMMSE score >1.5SD below the mean, mMMSE≤22). Models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, diabetes, hypertension, depressive symptoms, smoking, and body mass index. Results Women who reported being physically active had lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in late life compared to women who were inactive at each time (teenage: 8.5% vs. 16.7%; adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.65 (0.53–0.80); age 30: 8.9% vs. 12.0%; 0.80 (0.67–0.96); age 50: 8.5% vs. 13.1%; 0.71 (0.59–0.85); old age: 8.2% vs. 15.9%; 0.74 (0.61–0.91)). When the four times were analyzed together, teenage physical activity was most strongly associated with lower odds of late-life cognitive impairment (OR=0.73 (0.58–0.92)). However, women who were physically inactive at teenage and became active in later life had lower risk than those who remained inactive. Conclusions Women who reported being physically active at any point over the life course, and especially at teenage, have lower likelihood of cognitive impairment in late life. Interventions should promote physical activity early in life and throughout the life course. PMID:20609030

  16. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  17. Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed. PMID:18792705

  18. The "Conflicted Dying": The Active Search for Life Extension in Advanced Cancer Through Biomedical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Using a poststructural perspective, we examine the subjectivities that are produced when advanced cancer patients seek life extension through biomedical treatments. Seven case studies were developed that included 20 interviews with patients, family, nurses, and physicians recruited from a tertiary hospital in Canada, 30 documents, and 5 hours of participant observation. We identify seven types of subjectivity: (a) the Desperate Subject, (b) the Cancer Expert Subject, (c) the Proactive Subject, (d) the Productive Subject, (e) the Mistrusting Subject, (f) the Model Patient Subject, and (g) the Suffering Subject. We characterize the "conflicted dying," a contemporary figure who holds multiple perspectives about seeking curative treatment despite the acknowledgment of death. Using active strategies to gain access to treatment, this figure resists traditional arrangements of power/knowledge established by health care providers. We suggest that the search for life extension is a process of shaping the self to fit certain aesthetical traits associated with surviving cancer. PMID:25711844

  19. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  20. Smart adaptable system for older adults' Daily Life Activities Management - The ABLE platform.

    PubMed

    Giokas, Kostas; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Tsirmpas, Charalampos; Koutsouri, Georgia; Koutsouris, Dimitris; Iliopoulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a system (ABLE) that will act as the main platform for a number of low-cost, mature technologies that will be integrated in order to create a dynamically adaptive Daily Life Activities Management environment in order to facilitate the everyday life of senior (but not exclusively) citizens at home. While the main target group of ABLE's users is the ageing population its use can be extended to all people that are vulnerable or atypical in body, intellect or emotions and are categorized by society as disabled. The classes of assistive products that are well defined in the international standard, ISO9999 such as assistive products for personal medical treatment, personal care and protection, communication, information and reaction and for personal mobility, will be easily incorporated in our proposed platform. Furthermore, our platform could integrate and implement the above classes under several service models that will be analyzed further. PMID:25571318

  1. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs. PMID:27339273

  2. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  3. Neutron activation analyses and half-life measurements at the usgs triga reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Robert E.

    Neutron activation of materials followed by gamma spectroscopy using high-purity germanium detectors is an effective method for making measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives and for detecting trace amounts of elements present in materials. This research explores applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two parts. Part 1. High Precision Methods for Measuring Decay Half-Lives, Chapters 1 through 8 Part one develops research methods and data analysis techniques for making high precision measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives. The change in the electron capture half-life of 51Cr in pure chromium versus chromium mixed in a gold lattice structure is explored, and the 97Ru electron capture decay half-life are compared for ruthenium in a pure crystal versus ruthenium in a rutile oxide state, RuO2. In addition, the beta-minus decay half-life of 71mZn is measured and compared with new high precision findings. Density Functional Theory is used to explain the measured magnitude of changes in electron capture half-life from changes in the surrounding lattice electron configuration. Part 2. Debris Collection Nuclear Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility, Chapters 9 through 11 Part two explores the design and development of a solid debris collector for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NAA measurements are performed on NIF post-shot debris collected on witness plates in the NIF chamber. In this application NAA is used to detect and quantify the amount of trace amounts of gold from the hohlraum and germanium from the pellet present in the debris collected after a NIF shot. The design of a solid debris collector based on material x-ray ablation properties is given, and calculations are done to predict performance and results for the collection and measurements of trace amounts of gold and germanium from dissociated hohlraum debris.

  4. Active euthanasia and forgoing life-sustaining treatment: can we hold the line?

    PubMed

    Jennings, B

    1991-07-01

    Public sentiment in favor of permitting voluntary active euthanasia creates a dilemma for a bioethics rooted in a libertarian notion of autonomy. At stake in the active euthanasia debate is actually a question of power--the individual's assertion of sovereignty over the timing and circumstances of his or her own death. Also at stake is society's unwillingness to impose a conception of the good--and a good dying--on individuals whose personal values and conceptions of the good may differ. In order both to reject voluntary active euthanasia and to affirm the patient's right to forgo life-sustaining treatment, some societal conception of the good must be developed and agreed upon to counter unbridled claims of individual self-sovereignty over dying. Pragmatic arguments alone, such as the need to maintain confidence in the doctor-patient relationship, will not be sufficient. PMID:1856506

  5. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  6. Social support and physical activity as moderators of life stress in predicting baseline depression and change in depression over time in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Eaton, Charles B.; Weisberg, Risa; Sands, Megan; Williams, Carla; Calhounm, Darren; Manson, JoAnn E.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Taylor, Teletia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether social support and/or physical activity buffer the association between stressors and increasing risk of depression symptoms at baseline and at 3 year follow-up. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. 91,912 community-dwelling post-menopausal women participated in this prospective cohort study. Depression symptoms were measured at baseline and 3 years later; social support, physical activity, and stressors were measured at baseline. Results Stressors at baseline, including verbal abuse, physical abuse, caregiving, social strain, negative life events, financial stress, low income, acute pain, and a greater number of chronic medical conditions, were all associated with higher levels of depression symptoms at baseline and new onset elevated symptoms at three year follow-up. Social support and physical activity were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, more social support at baseline strengthened the association between concurrent depression and physical abuse, social strain, caregiving, and low income. Similarly, more social support at baseline increased the association between financial stress, income, and pain on new-onset depression 3 years later. Physical activity similarly moderated the effect of caregiving, income, and pain on depression symptoms at baseline. Conclusion Stressors, social support, and physical activity showed predicted main effect associations with depression. Multiplicative interactions were small in magnitude and in the opposite direction of what was expected. PMID:23644722

  7. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  8. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  9. User Expectations: Nurses' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Güney

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare is a technology-intensive industry. Although all healthcare staff needs qualified computer support, physicians and nurses need more. As nursing practice is an information intensive issue, understanding nurses' expectations from healthcare information systems (HCIS) is a must issue to meet their needs and help them in a better way. In this study perceived importance of nurses' expectations from HCIS is investigated, and two HCIS is evaluated for meeting the expectations of nurses by using fuzzy logic methodologies. PMID:27332398

  10. Impact of Organized Sports on Activity, Participation, and Quality of Life in People With Neurologic Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. PMID:25828205

  11. Mapping changes in cortical activity during sleep in the first 4 years of life.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Luana; D'atri, Aurora; Marzano, Cristina; Finotti, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Bruni, Oliviero; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A coherent body of evidence supports the notion that sleep is a local and use-dependent process. Significant changes in brain morphology and function occur in the first years of life, revealing a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation. On this basis, a recent study demonstrated that regional cortical maturation between early childhood and late adolescence is reflected in regional changes of sleep slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Our hypothesis is that changes of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms during sleep from birth to childhood are also mirrored by parallel regional changes in the EEG rhythms of sleep according to the assumption of a postero-anterior gradient in cortical maturation. We studied all-night EEG of 39 healthy, full-term, infants and children aged between 0 and 48 months, evaluating regional differences in NREM sleep. We confirmed the strictly local nature of sleep with frequency-specific regional differences. Specifically, we found a general shift of maxima of the upper alpha activity from occipital to prefrontal regions, expressed mainly by the ~11 Hz frequency. This shift corresponds to a postero-anterior trajectory of the so-called 'slow spindles'. The theta and alpha EEG activity of the frontal cortex exhibits a clear, positive, correlation with age. We conclude that specific local differences during NREM sleep, parallel cortical maturation also in the first 4 years of life. PMID:26854271

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Home Guard Soldiers During Military Service and Civilian Life.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers are encouraged to be physically active, and thereby maintain or increase their fitness level to meet job-related physical demands. However, studies on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in soldiers are scarce, particular for reserve soldiers. Hence, the aim of this study was to present PA data on Norwegian Home Guard (HG) soldiers. A total of 411 HG soldiers produced acceptable PA measurements (SenseWear Armband Pro2) during civilian life, of which 299 soldiers also produced acceptable data during HG military training. Reference data on total energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps per day, and minutes of PA in three different metabolic equivalent categories are presented. The HG soldiers produced more minutes of moderate PA during HG military training compared to civilian life, but less vigorous and very vigorous PA. Furthermore, HG soldiers were more physically active during civilian week days compared to weekend days. The presented reference data can be used for comparisons against other groups of soldiers. Our data indicate that aerobic demands during HG military training were not very high. Promoting PA and exercise could still be important to ensure HG soldiers are physically prepared for more unforeseen job tasks. PMID:27391624

  13. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  14. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  15. Forward shift of feeding buzz components of dolphins and belugas during associative learning reveals a likely connection to reward expectation, pleasure and brain dopamine activation.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Moore, P W; Carder, D A; Romano, T A

    2014-08-15

    For many years, we heard sounds associated with reward from dolphins and belugas. We named these pulsed sounds victory squeals (VS), as they remind us of a child's squeal of delight. Here we put these sounds in context with natural and learned behavior. Like bats, echolocating cetaceans produce feeding buzzes as they approach and catch prey. Unlike bats, cetaceans continue their feeding buzzes after prey capture and the after portion is what we call the VS. Prior to training (or conditioning), the VS comes after the fish reward; with repeated trials it moves to before the reward. During training, we use a whistle or other sound to signal a correct response by the animal. This sound signal, named a secondary reinforcer (SR), leads to the primary reinforcer, fish. Trainers usually name their whistle or other SR a bridge, as it bridges the time gap between the correct response and reward delivery. During learning, the SR becomes associated with reward and the VS comes after the SR rather than after the fish. By following the SR, the VS confirms that the animal expects a reward. Results of early brain stimulation work suggest to us that SR stimulates brain dopamine release, which leads to the VS. Although there are no direct studies of dopamine release in cetaceans, we found that the timing of our VS is consistent with a response after dopamine release. We compared trained vocal responses to auditory stimuli with VS responses to SR sounds. Auditory stimuli that did not signal reward resulted in faster responses by a mean of 151 ms for dolphins and 250 ms for belugas. In laboratory animals, there is a 100 to 200 ms delay for dopamine release. VS delay in our animals is similar and consistent with vocalization after dopamine release. Our novel observation suggests that the dopamine reward system is active in cetacean brains. PMID:25122919

  16. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Novotny, Paul J; Patten, Christi A; Rausch, Sarah M; Garces, Yolanda I; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors. PMID:18243406

  17. Closeout Report for the Refractory Metal Accelerated Heat Pipe Life Test Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.; Reid, R.; Stewart, E.; Hickman, R.; Mireles, O.

    2013-01-01

    With the selection of a gas-cooled reactor, this heat pipe accelerated life test activity was closed out and its resources redirected. The scope of this project was to establish the long-term aging effects on Mo-44.5%Re sodium heat pipes when subjected to space reactor temperature and mass fluences. To date, investigators have demonstrated heat pipe life tests of alkali metal systems up to .50,000 hours. Unfortunately, resources have not been available to examine the effect of temperature, mass fluence, or impurity level on corrosion or to conduct post-test forensic examination of heat pipes. The key objective of this effort was to establish a cost/time effective method to systematically test alkali metal heat pipes with both practical and theoretical benefits. During execution of the project, a heat pipe design was established, a majority of the laboratory test equipment systems specified, and operating and test procedures developed. Procurements for the heat pipe units and all major test components were underway at the time the stop work order was issued. An extremely important outcome was the successful fabrication of an annular wick from Mo-5%Re screen (the single, most difficult component to manufacture) using a hot isostatic pressing technique. This Technical Publication (TP) includes specifics regarding the heat pipe calorimeter water-cooling system, vendor design for the radio frequency heating system, possible alternative calorimeter designs, and progress on the vanadium equilibration technique. The methods provided in this TP and preceding project documentation would serve as a good starting point to rapidly implement an accelerated life test. Relevant test data can become available within months, not years, and destructive examination of the first life test heat pipe might begin within 6 months of test initiation. Final conclusions could be drawn in less than a quarter of the mission duration for a long-lived, fission-powered, deep space probe.

  18. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA's effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study's findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept. PMID:26898406

  19. A Rational Expectations Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norris A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a simple classroom simulation of the Lucas supply curve mechanism with rational expectations. Concludes that the exercise has proved very useful as an introduction to the concepts of rational and adaptive expectations, the Lucas supply curve, the natural rate hypothesis, and random supply shocks. (DB)

  20. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  1. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  2. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  3. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  4. Low-grade disease activity in early life precedes childhood asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the presence of an early life disease activity prior to clinical symptoms to understand the anteceding pathophysiological steps towards childhood asthma and allergy. The thesis is built on seven studies from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000) birth cohort examining biomarkers of disease activity in 411 asymptomatic neonates in cord blood (I-II), urine (III), exhaled breath (IV-V) and infant lung function (VI-VII) in relation to the subsequent development of asthma and allergy during the first seven years of life. In papers I-II, we studied cord blood chemokines and 25(OH)-vitamin D, which represent a proxy of the inborn immature immune system, the intrauterine milieu, and the maternal immune health during pregnancy. High levels of the Th2-related chemokine CCL22 and high CCL22/CXCL11 ratio were positively correlated with total IgE level during preschool age (II). This suggests an inborn Th2 skewing of the immune system in healthy newborns subsequently developing elevated total IgE antibodies, which is considered to increase the risk of asthma and allergies later in life. Additionally, deficient cord blood 25(OH)-vitamin D levels were associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of recurrent wheeze at age 0-7 years (I). Together, these findings support the concept that early life immune programming in the pre-symptomatic era plays an essential role

  5. Leisure Engagement: Medical Conditions, Mobility Difficulties, and Activity Limitations—A Later Life Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Gustafson, Yngve; Nygård, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of medical conditions, mobility difficulties, and activity limitations on older people's engagement in leisure activities. Methods. The analyses are based on a cross regional survey carried out in 2010 in the Bothnia region (Northern Sweden and Western Finland). A posted questionnaire, which included questions on different aspects of leisure engagement, medical history, and health, was sent out to older persons in the region. The final sample consisted of 5435 persons aged 65, 70, 75, and 80 years. The data was analyzed by using ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression. Results. The most important predictor of leisure engagement abstention among older people is the prevalence of activity limitations, whereas mobility difficulties and medical conditions play less important roles. The strong negative association between activity limitations and leisure engagement remains significant even after we control for individual, sociodemographic characteristics, and country. Discussion. This study provides a window into leisure engagement in later life and factors influencing the magnitude of engagement in leisure activities. PMID:26346706

  6. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  7. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan Dr; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-06-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (a(w)) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values as low as 0.650-0.605 a(w). Here, we present evidence that halophilic prokayotes can grow down to water activities of <0.755 for Halanaerobium lacusrosei (0.748), Halobacterium strain 004.1 (0.728), Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Halococcus morrhuae (0.717), Haloquadratum walsbyi (0.709), Halococcus salifodinae (0.693), Halobacterium noricense (0.687), Natrinema pallidum (0.681) and haloarchaeal strains GN-2 and GN-5 (0.635 a(w)). Furthermore, extrapolation of growth curves (prone to giving conservative estimates) indicated theoretical minima down to 0.611 aw for extreme, obligately halophilic Archaea and Bacteria. These were compared with minima for the most solute-tolerant Bacteria in high-sugar (or other non-saline) media (Mycobacterium spp., Tetragenococcus halophilus, Saccharibacter floricola, Staphylococcus aureus and so on) and eukaryotic microbes in saline (Wallemia spp., Basipetospora halophila, Dunaliella spp. and so on) and high-sugar substrates (for example, Xeromyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Aspergillus and Eurotium spp.). We also manipulated the balance of chaotropic and kosmotropic stressors for the extreme, xerophilic fungi Aspergillus penicilloides and X. bisporus and, via this approach, their established water-activity limits for mycelial growth (∼0.65) were reduced to 0.640. Furthermore, extrapolations indicated theoretical limits of 0.632 and 0.636 a(w) for A. penicilloides and X. bisporus, respectively. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a common water-activity limit that is determined by physicochemical constraints for the three domains of life. PMID:25500507

  8. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan DR; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (aw) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values as low as 0.650–0.605 aw. Here, we present evidence that halophilic prokayotes can grow down to water activities of <0.755 for Halanaerobium lacusrosei (0.748), Halobacterium strain 004.1 (0.728), Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Halococcus morrhuae (0.717), Haloquadratum walsbyi (0.709), Halococcus salifodinae (0.693), Halobacterium noricense (0.687), Natrinema pallidum (0.681) and haloarchaeal strains GN-2 and GN-5 (0.635 aw). Furthermore, extrapolation of growth curves (prone to giving conservative estimates) indicated theoretical minima down to 0.611 aw for extreme, obligately halophilic Archaea and Bacteria. These were compared with minima for the most solute-tolerant Bacteria in high-sugar (or other non-saline) media (Mycobacterium spp., Tetragenococcus halophilus, Saccharibacter floricola, Staphylococcus aureus and so on) and eukaryotic microbes in saline (Wallemia spp., Basipetospora halophila, Dunaliella spp. and so on) and high-sugar substrates (for example, Xeromyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Aspergillus and Eurotium spp.). We also manipulated the balance of chaotropic and kosmotropic stressors for the extreme, xerophilic fungi Aspergillus penicilloides and X. bisporus and, via this approach, their established water-activity limits for mycelial growth (∼0.65) were reduced to 0.640. Furthermore, extrapolations indicated theoretical limits of 0.632 and 0.636 aw for A. penicilloides and X. bisporus, respectively. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a common water-activity limit that is determined by physicochemical constraints for the three domains of life. PMID:25500507

  9. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  10. Low birth weight activates the renin–angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246

  11. Low birth weight activates the renin-angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246

  12. A Depth Video Sensor-Based Life-Logging Human Activity Recognition System for Elderly Care in Smart Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Ahmad; Kamal, Shaharyar; Kim, Daijin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR) realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital. PMID:24991942

  13. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  14. Physical Activity and Quality of Life among Adults with Paraplegia in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Shankar; Mishra, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The complete rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprises both physical and psychosocial factors. This study therefore aimed to assess physical activity and quality of life (QOL) among paraplegic patients with SCI in Odisha, India. Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2013. All paraplegic patients treated at the Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research in Odisha, India, during the study period who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study (n = 364). Structured face-to-face interviews were held with participants and QOL and physical activity were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization QOL instrument and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, respectively. Results: A total of 84 people participated in the study (response rate: 23.1%). The mean age was 32.54 ± 10.75 years and 90.5% of the participants were male. Participants had a low mean metabolic equivalent score (18.18 ± 10.68 hours/day). Additionally, low mean scores were noted for the physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment QOL domains (49.76 ± 18.74, 48.57 ± 17.04, 57.88 ± 17.04 and 49.85 ± 17.77, respectively). There was a strong positive association between levels of physical activity and all QOL domains (P <0.050). Physical activity and employment status were significant predictors of all QOL domains (P <0.001). Conclusion: Low physical activity levels and QOL were noted among the paraplegic subjects. Interventions promoting physical activity and employment may help to improve QOL among this patient group. PMID:26909214

  15. Physical Activity Among Lung Cancer Survivors: Changes Across the Cancer Trajectory and Associations with Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Coups, Elliot J.; Park, Bernard J.; Feinstein, Marc B.; Steingart, Richard M.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Donna J.; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity may offer benefits to lung cancer survivors, many of whom experience quality of life impairments. However, little is know about lung cancer survivors’ engagement in physical activity across the cancer trajectory. The current study addressed this research gap and also examined the association between lung cancer survivors’ physical activity and their quality of life. Methods The study participants were 175 individuals who completed surgical treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer one to six years previously. Participants completed a one-time survey regarding their current quality of life and their engagement in physical activities currently, during the six months after treatment, and during the six months prior to diagnosis. Results Participants’ reported engagement in both moderate and strenuous intensity activities was lower during the post-treatment period compared to prior to diagnosis and at the current time. Engagement in light intensity activities did not differ for the three time points. Almost two-thirds of participants did not engage in sufficient activity to meet national physical activity guidelines for any of the three time points. Lung cancer survivors who currently met physical activity guidelines reported better quality of life in multiple domains than less active individuals. Conclusions Engagement in physical activity among lung cancer survivors is particularly low during the early post-treatment period. Current engagement in physical activity is associated with better quality of life. However, most lung cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines and may benefit from interventions to promote engagement in regular physical activities. PMID:19190151

  16. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  17. Results from the Active for Life process evaluation: program delivery fidelity and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Wilcox, Sara; Ory, Marcia G; Lattimore, Diana; Leviton, Laura; Castro, Cynthia; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Rheaume, Carol

    2010-04-01

    Active for Life((R)) (AFL) was a large (n = 8159) translational initiative to increase physical activity (PA) in midlife and older adults. Translational research calls for a shift in emphasis from just understanding what works (efficacy) to also understanding how it works in more 'real world' settings. This article describes the process evaluation design and findings, discuss how these findings were used to better understand the translational process and provide a set of process evaluation recommendations with community-based translational research. AFL community organizations across the United States implemented one of two evidence-based PA programs (Active Living Every Day-The Cooper Institute; Human Kinetics Inc. or Active Choices-Stanford University). Both programs were based on the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory. Overall, the process evaluation revealed high-dose delivery and implementation fidelity by quite varied community organizations serving diverse adult populations. Findings reveal most variation occurred for program elements requiring more participant engagement. Additionally, the results show how a collaborative process allowed the organizations to 'fit' the programs to their specific participant base while maintaining fidelity to essential program elements. PMID:19325031

  18. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:25531821

  19. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-ESTEEM, AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Suttiwong, Jattuporn; Sullivan, Patricia E; Nilanthi, Deepika L H K

    2016-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve health and quality of life (QOL) of healthy people. However, the association between PA and QOL among people with physical disability (PWPD) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between factors including intensity of PA, activitiy in daily living (ADL), stress, and self-esteem that influences self-reported QOL among PWPD. The relationships were further explored using the in-depth interview method to find out whether the intensity of PA, stress, and self-esteem are related to QOL perception in PWPD. One hundred sixty PWPD aged 18-48 years who studied at a vocational school were enrolled. A mixed method case study was conducted: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview. Five questionnaires, including the Barthel Index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were distributed. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL_BREF. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors for QOL prediction. For in-depth interview, ten persons from each group (poor-to-fair and good QOL) volunteered to explore further about life satisfaction related to physical disability. One hundred forty-six (91%) subjects completed all questionnaires. One hundred fourteen (77%) reported poor-to-fair QOL. QOL was explained by self-esteem and ADL (adjusted R² 34.7%, p < 0.001) after adjusted for age, stress, and PA. Although PA could not explain QOL in PWPD, good QOL reported high activities (28.40 ± 30.20 MET hour/day) compared to poor and fair QOL (17.94 ± 22.06 and 21.70 ± 17.75 MET hour/day). Those who had good QOL reported that they were proud to be independent and did not feel inferior. PA participation among people with disabilities should therefore be encouraged. PMID:27405139

  20. The SNF1 Kinase Ubiquitin-associated Domain Restrains Its Activation, Activity, and the Yeast Life Span*♦

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Rubin; Postnikoff, Spike; Harkness, Troy A.; Arnason, Terra G.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme family of heterotrimeric AMP-dependent protein kinases is activated upon low energy states, conferring a switch toward energy-conserving metabolic pathways through immediate kinase actions on enzyme targets and delayed alterations in gene expression through its nuclear relocalization. This family is evolutionarily conserved, including the presence of a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motif in most catalytic subunits. The potential for the UBA domain to promote protein associations or direct subcellular location, as seen in other UBA-containing proteins, led us to query whether the UBA domain within the yeast AMP-dependent protein kinase ortholog, SNF1 kinase, was important in these aspects of its regulation. Here, we demonstrate that conserved UBA motif mutations significantly alter SNF1 kinase activation and biological activity, including enhanced allosteric subunit associations and increased oxidative stress resistance and life span. Significantly, the enhanced UBA-dependent longevity and oxidative stress response are at least partially dependent on the Fkh1 and Fkh2 stress response transcription factors, which in turn are shown to influence Snf1 gene expression. PMID:25869125

  1. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  2. Harmonizing Questions and Activities Used by Teachers with the Level of Cognitive Behavior Expected of Pupils. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Elmer

    The primary purpose of this module is to develop preservice student ability to write precise behavioral objectives and to match the thinking level of behavioral objectives with the kinds of thinking expected of elementary pupils exposed to teaching based on those behavioral objectives. The student will also be taught to compose teacher questions…

  3. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  4. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  5. Adaptive active vibration control to improve the fatigue life of a carbon-epoxy smart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Resta, Ferruccio; Torti, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Active vibration controls are helpful in improving fatigue life of structures through limitation of absolute displacements. However, control algorithms are usually designed without explicitly taking into account the fatigue phenomenon. In this paper, an adaptive vibration controller is proposed to increase the fatigue life of a smart structure made of composite material and actuated with piezoelectric patches. The main innovation with respect to the most common solutions is that the control laws are directly linked to a damage driving force, which is correlated to a fatigue damage model for the specific material. The control logic is different depending on the damage state of the structure. If no significant damage affects the structure, the controller decreases the crack nucleation probability by limiting the driving forces in the overall structure. On the contrary, if initiated cracks are present, their further propagation is prevented by controlling the damage driving forces in the already damaged areas. The structural diagnostics is performed through a vibration-based health monitoring technique, while periodical adaptation of the controller is adopted to consider damage-induced changes on the structure state-space model and to give emphasis to the most excited modes. The control algorithm has been numerically validated on the finite element model of a cantilever plate.

  6. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

  7. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014

  8. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  9. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miriane Lilian; Barbosa, Alan Carlos Brisola; Spina, Giovanna Domingues; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Gagliardi, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo; Romiti, Marcello; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. PMID:27167434

  10. Increased CDA expression/activity in males contributes to decreased cytidine analogue half-life and likely contributes to worse outcomes with 5-azacytidine or decitabine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Reda Z; Jankowska, Ania; Ebrahem, Quteba; Gu, Xiaorong; Visconte, Valeria; Tabarroki, Ali; Terse, Pramod; Covey, Joseph; Chan, Kenneth; Ling, Yonghua; Engelke, Kory J.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Tiu, Ramon; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Saunthararajah, Yogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The cytidine analogues 5-azacytidine and decitabine, used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), produce a molecular epigenetic effect, depletion of DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT1). This action is S-phase dependent. Hence, genetic factors that decrease the half-lives of these drugs could impact efficacy. Documentation of such impact, and elucidation of underlying mechanisms, could lead to improved clinical application. Design Cytidine deaminase (CDA) rapidly inactivates 5-azacytidine/decitabine. The effect of CDA SNP A79C and gender on CDA expression, enzyme activity and drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics was examined in mice and humans, and the impact on overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 5-azacytidine/decitabine-treated MDS patients (n=90) and cytarabine-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (n=76). Results By HPLC, plasma CDA activity was decreased as expected in individuals with the SNP A79C. Interestingly and significantly, there was an even larger decrease in females compared to males. Explaining this decrease, liver CDA expression was significantly lower in female versus male mice. As expected, decitabine plasma levels, measured by mass-spectrometry, were significantly higher in females. In mathematical modeling, the detrimental impact of shorter drug half-life (e.g., in males) was greater in low compared to high S-phase fraction disease (e.g., MDS versus AML), since in high S-phase fraction disease, even a short exposure treats a major portion of cells. Accordingly, in multivariate analysis, OS was significantly worse in male versus female MDS patients treated with 5-azacytidine/decitabine. Conclusions Increased CDA expression/activity in males contributes to decreased cytidine analogue half-life and likely contributes to worse outcomes with 5-azacytidine or decitabine therapy. PMID:23287564

  11. Adherence to the physical activity intervention in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  12. Stable Relationships: Horse Care Activities. Level 3. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  13. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  14. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  15. Evaluating life-safety risk of fieldwork at New Zealand's active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligne, Natalia; Jolly, Gill; Taig, Tony; Webb, Terry

    2014-05-01

    Volcano observatories monitor active or potentially active volcanoes. Although the number and scope of remote monitoring instruments and methods continues to grow, in-person field data collection is still required for comprehensive monitoring. Fieldwork anywhere, and especially in mountainous areas, contains an element of risk. However, on volcanoes with signs of unrest, there is an additional risk of volcanic activity escalating while on site, with potentially lethal consequences. As an employer, a volcano observatory is morally and sometimes legally obligated to take reasonable measures to ensure staff safety and to minimise occupational risk. Here we present how GNS Science evaluates life-safety risk for volcanologists engaged in fieldwork on New Zealand volcanoes with signs of volcanic unrest. Our method includes several key elements: (1) an expert elicitation for how likely an eruption is within a given time frame, (2) quantification of, based on historical data when possible, given a small, moderate, or large eruption, the likelihood of exposure to near-vent processes, ballistics, or surge at various distances from the vent, and (3) estimate of fatality rate given exposure to these volcanic hazards. The final product quantifies hourly fatality risk at various distances from a volcanic vent; various thresholds of risk (for example, zones with more than 10-5 hourly fatality risk) trigger different levels of required approval to undertake work. Although an element of risk will always be present when conducting fieldwork on potentially active volcanoes, this is a first step towards providing objective guidance for go/no go decisions for volcanic monitoring.

  16. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  18. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  19. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  20. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.