Science.gov

Sample records for active lifestyles class

  1. Self-Determination in Physical Education: Designing Class Environments to Promote Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity L.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the lack of physical activity and increasing rates of childhood obesity have received a great deal of attention in the United States. One way to combat inactivity in children is to utilize physical education programs as a means to promote active lifestyles. There is not, however, a consensus concerning how physical education programs can…

  2. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  3. Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Pasch, Keryn E; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have examined the context of a wide range of risk behaviors among emerging adults (ages 18-25 years), approximately half of whom in the USA enroll in post-secondary educational institutions. The objective of this research was to examine behavioral patterning in weight behaviors (diet and physical activity), substance use, sexual behavior, stress, and sleep among undergraduate students. Health survey data were collected among undergraduates attending a large, public US university (n = 2,026). Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous, mutually exclusive "classes" (patterns) of ten leading risk behaviors. Resulting classes differed for males and females. Female classes were defined as: (1) poor lifestyle (diet, physical activity, sleep), yet low-risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, binge drinking, sexual risk, drunk driving; 40.0% of females), (2) high risk (high substance use, intoxicated sex, drunk driving, poor diet, inadequate sleep) (24.3%), (3) moderate lifestyle, few risk behaviors (20.4%), (4) "health conscious" (favorable diet/physical activity with some unhealthy weight control; 15.4%). Male classes were: (1) poor lifestyle, low risk (with notably high stress, insufficient sleep, 9.2% of males), (2) high risk (33.6% of males, similar to class 2 in females), (3) moderate lifestyle, low risk (51.0%), and (4) "classic jocks" (high physical activity, binge drinking, 6.2%). To our knowledge, this is among the first research to examine complex lifestyle patterning among college youth, particularly with emphasis on the role of weight-related behaviors. These findings have important implications for targeting much needed health promotion strategies among emerging adults and college youth. PMID:19499339

  4. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  5. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  6. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  7. Application of Latent Class Analysis to Identify Behavioral Patterns of Response to Behavioral Lifestyle Interventions in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Tyson, Crystal; Stevens, Victor J.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Dalcin, Arlene; Brantley, Phillip J.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Background Examining responders and non-responders to behavioral lifestyle interventions among overweight/obese adults with additional comorbidities may aid in refining and tailoring obesity treatment. Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of latent class analysis to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions based on adherence to diet and exercise recommendations. Method Repeated measures latent class analysis was applied to two clinical trial datasets, combination of two active interventions in the PREMIER Trial (n=501) and phase 1 of the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial (WLM; n=1685), to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions. Treatment response was based on adherence to daily recommendations for fruit/vegetable, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and exercise at baseline and 6 months. Results In PREMIER, three distinct latent classes emerged: responders (45.9 %), non-responders (23.6 %), and early adherers (30.5 %). Responders and Early Adherers had greater weight loss at 6 and 18 months and were more likely to meet behavioral recommendations at 18 months than Non-responders. For WLM, there were four latent classes: partial responders (16 %), non-responders (40 %), early adherers (2 %), and fruit/veggie only responders (41 %). Non-responders in WLM had significantly less weight loss at 6 months compared to that of the other three latent classes. Conclusion Latent class analysis is a useful method to apply to clinical trial data to identify distinct patterns of response to behavioral interventions. Overweight/ obese participants who respond to behavioral lifestyle treatment (i.e., meet behavioral recommendations) have significantly greater weight loss than that of participants who do not make behavioral changes. PMID:25331853

  8. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  9. Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Sedentary Lifestyle in Belgrade’s Suburb, Working Class Community

    PubMed Central

    KONEVIC, Slavica; MARTINOVIC, Jelena; DJONOVIC, Nela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioeconomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 independently functioning adults were enrolled into the study. The study protocol included a complete clinical and biochemical investigation revealing age, gender, lipid status, height, weight and blood pressure. Trained interviewers (nurses) collected information from patients about current state of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension) smoking, medication and other socioeconomic data. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square and logistic regression were performed as statistical calculations. Results: Patients with elementary school were seven times more likely to be classified in category with sedentary lifestyle compared to patients with college or faculty degree. Being retired and reporting low income were significantly associated with higher odds of sedentary behavior when compared with students and patients with high-income status, respectively. Conclusions: The significance of this study lies in the fact that our results may help to easier identification of patients who may have a tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle. PMID:26587469

  10. Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary, Physically Active Lifestyle Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Marybeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fit for life program at a university and to use the findings from an extensive literature review, consultations with formative and summative committees, and data collection to develop an interdisciplinary, physically active lifestyle (IPAL) course model. To address the 5 research questions examined in…

  11. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  12. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions. PMID:26381430

  13. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  14. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  15. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy. PMID:24219639

  16. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  17. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Outcomes of Rural Lifestyle Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze current lifestyle intervention literature conducted in U.S. rural areas to identify the most effective and impactful interventions on physical activity outcomes. Quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory calculations of effect size and 95% confidence intervals were performed to demonstrate trends in clinical importance. Eight trials which included 1,399 adult participants met the inclusion criteria for review. Two trials reported a significant difference in the increase of physical activity between groups with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions which are very personalized or tailored and/or include many intervention contacts appear to be most effective. However, the small number of studies, mixed findings, and the risk of bias limit our ability to draw conclusion. PMID:26728043

  18. Bacterial lifestyle shapes the regulation of stringent response activation

    PubMed Central

    Boutte, Cara C.; Crosson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria inhabit enormously diverse niches and have a correspondingly large array of regulatory mechanisms to adapt to often inhospitable and variable environments. The stringent response allows bacteria to quickly reprogram transcription in response to changes in nutrient availability. Although the proteins controlling this response are conserved in almost all bacterial species, recent work has illuminated considerable diversity in the starvation cues and regulatory mechanisms that activate stringent signaling proteins in bacteria from different environments. In this review we describe the signals and genetic circuitries that control the stringent signaling systems of a copiotroph, a bacteriovore, an oligotroph and a mammalian pathogen – Escherichia coli, Myxococcus xanthus, Caulobacter crescentus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively – and discuss how control of the stringent response in these species is adapted to their particular lifestyles. PMID:23419217

  19. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    PubMed

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex. PMID:25859767

  20. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with General Lifestyle Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59–80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (<9 years) predicted enhanced verbal working memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not

  1. A Gendered Lifestyle-Routine Activity Approach to Explaining Stalking Victimization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R

    2016-05-01

    Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based. PMID:25630959

  2. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  3. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  4. Specifying the Influence of Family and Peers on Violent Victimization: Extending Routine Activities and Lifestyle Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Fisher, Bonnie S.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that crime and victimization share similar correlates suggests that family and peer contexts are potentially useful for explaining individual differences in violent victimization. In this research, we used routine activities and lifestyles frameworks to reveal how strong bonds of family attachment can promote more effective guardianship…

  5. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  6. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  7. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  8. Exercise, an Active Lifestyle, and Obesity. Making the Exercise Prescription Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Ross E.

    1999-01-01

    An active lifestyle is important in helping overweight people both lose and manage their weight. Exercise has many health benefits beyond weight control. The traditional exercise prescription of regular bouts of continuous vigorous exercise may need modification to increase rates of adoption and compliance, with people needing encouragement to…

  9. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  10. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  11. The role of physical education in the development of active lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Haywood, K M

    1991-06-01

    If elementary physical education existed just to achieve "present" goals, especially regular exercise, the nature of the program would be clearer and the need for trained teachers less. It is the "future" goal that complicates the debate over the elementary program. It is the "future" goal that requires a broader range of experiences and a developmental approach. Because we are preparing students to implement an active lifestyle in adulthood, the development of sport and dance skills through age/ability-appropriate and sequential lessons is an important as the "present" opportunity for physical activity. Teachers must be knowledgeable in the subdisciplines of physical education and well versed in those teaching methods that promote vigorous activity and maximum participation. The lifetime public health goal dictates we help students develop a knowledge base about exercise and health. This goal requires us to learn more than we presently know about promoting positive attitudes toward and fostering appreciations for healthful living. The hope for improved adult health also requires a K-12 curricular model in which every year continues previous experiences and moves students closer to the goal as those students are changing physically, mentally, and socially. The next debate should focus on the role of secondary school physical education in linking health-related elementary programs to healthy adult lifestyles. Even though we do not fully understand the relationship between school physical education and active adult lifestyles, our best bet is developing a continuous, developmental K-12 curriculum. PMID:1925038

  12. The benefits and barriers to physical activity and lifestyle interventions for osteoarthritis affecting the adult knee

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis prevalence is increasing, placing greater demands on healthcare and future socioeconomic costing models. Exercise and non-pharmacological methods should be employed to manage this common and disabling disease. Expectations at all stages of disease are increasing with a desire to remain active and independent. Three key areas have been reviewed; the evidence for physical activity, lifestyle changes and motivational techniques concerning knee osteoarthritis and the barriers to instituting such changes. Promotion of activity in primary care is discussed and evidence for compliance has been reviewed. This article reviews a subject that is integral to all professionals involved with osteoarthritis care. PMID:22462601

  13. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  14. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  15. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. PMID:25761662

  16. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  17. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children. PMID:23656302

  18. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors. PMID:26944868

  19. Lifestyle Activities and Memory: Variety May Be the Spice of Life. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. PMID:22172155

  20. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  1. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  2. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  3. Examining the Link between Program Implementation and Behavior Outcomes in the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne; Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP) was a comprehensive, school-based intervention designed to promote physical activity in high school girls. The intervention focused on changes in instructional practices and the school environment to affect personal, social, and environmental factors related to physical activity. Multiple process…

  4. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  5. [The Great Nationwide Physical Activity Campaign "Revitalize Your Heart" as an effective method to promote active lifestyle in Poland].

    PubMed

    Ruszkowska-Majzel, Joanna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    In most European countries including Poland prevalence of sedentary adult population varies between 40-70%. Thus nowadays one of the most important aims in public health is to elaborate and implement successful strategy to encourage people to be more active. Since 2001-2003 the Great Polish Nationwide Physical Activity Campaign "Revitalize Your Heart" has been organized during three summer months (July, August, September) as a part of WHO CINDI Programme. The main goal of the Campaign is to promote active lifestyle through education in mass-media, different interventions in local societies (sports events, outdoor family picnics) and countrywide contest for physically active. The effectiveness of the Campaign was estimated by means of questionnaire studies directed to the participants of the contest and over 1000 adult representatives of Polish population. The number of contest coupons, Campaign organizing centers, visits on Campaign website and information in mass-media were also analyzed. The results of analysis show a boost to awareness of low physical activity problem in Polish public opinion. Over 93% of representative sample of population find reducing sedentary lifestyle an important matter from medical point of view. Almost tripled amount of visits on the Campaign website, four times increased number of the Campaign organizing centers in Poland and doubled number of obtained contest coupons in the III Campaign in comparison to the First one can be the indicator of elevating interest in the influence of regular physical exertion on human health. Large broadcasting stations, public television, popular newspapers, magazines and leading electronic media were deeply involved in "Revitalize Your Heart". The Campaign has significantly affected health behaviour of the contest participants. Almost 60% of participants declare increasing the frequency and duration of exercises during the Campaign. A permanent beneficial modification of lifestyle has been undertaken by

  6. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women. PMID:26155795

  7. Neuroprotective Pathways: Lifestyle activity, brain pathology and cognition in cognitively normal older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M.; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used path analysis to examine effects of cognitive activity and physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults, through pathways involving beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, cerebrovascular lesions, and neural injury within brain regions affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ninety-two cognitively normal older adults (75.2±5.6 years) reported lifetime cognitive activity and current physical activity using validated questionnaires. For each participant, we evaluated cortical Aβ burden (using PIB-PET), cerebrovascular lesions (using MRI-defined white matter lesion (WML)), and neural integrity within AD regions (using a multimodal biomarker). Path models (adjusted for age, gender, and education) indicated that higher lifetime cognitive activity and higher current physical activity was associated with fewer WMLs. Lower WML volumes were in turn related to higher neural integrity and higher global cognitive functioning. As shown previously, higher lifetime cognitive activity was associated with lower PIB retention, which itself moderated the impact of neural integrity on cognitive functioning. Lifestyle activity may thus promote cognitive health in aging by protecting against cerebrovascular pathology and Aβ pathology thought to be relevant to AD development. PMID:24656834

  8. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M.; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. Methods In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Results Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (p<.05); however, men reported a higher intake of unhealthy foods such as fast food and soft drinks. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of obesity is significantly higher in urban middle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles. PMID:27610059

  9. Adherence to the physical activity intervention in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  10. Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

  11. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  12. Enhancing lifestyle for individuals with haemophilia through physical activity and exercise: the role of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, K; Mulder, K

    2007-09-01

    For individuals with haemophilia, the benefits of many forms of physical activity outweigh their risks. Although activities with significant trauma risk should be avoided, persons who have haemophilia can participate in, enjoy and even excel in a variety of physical activities and sports. Both the National Hemophilia Foundation and the World Foundation of Hemophilia have produced documents to guide individuals with haemophilia and their healthcare professionals, coaches and parents in developing physical activity programmes and participation in sports. Physical activity guidelines for promoting health benefits exist worldwide and can be incorporated into individualized exercise programmes to ensure that a person with haemophilia is not only choosing appropriate activities, but also improving overall health and preparing the body to manage haemophilia better. Physiotherapy treatment is paramount in helping individuals prevent, manage and optimally recover from bleeds. Furthermore, the physical therapist, along with the haemophilia care team, can assist in preparing an individual to begin or progress to a physical activity programme that enhances fitness level, body composition and overall well-being. This article presents the unique role of the physiotherapist in facilitating safe participation in quality physical activity in the context of risks, benefits and activity recommendations. Participation in physical activity from an early age is ideal to facilitate the development of body awareness and capability and to foster the adoption of a physically active lifestyle; however, it is never too late to start. Consistent participation in quality physical activity beginning at any age is central to managing haemophilia and, equally important, to achieving overall health and well-being. PMID:17685922

  13. Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity results in reduced serum testosterone levels, which causes many disorders in men. Lifestyle modifications (increased physical activity and calorie restriction) can increase serum testosterone levels. However, it is unknown whether increased physical activity or calorie restriction during lifestyle modifications has a greater effects on serum testosterone levels. Forty-one overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction). We measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake. We divided participants into two groups based on the median change in the number of steps (high or low physical activities) or that in calorie restriction (high or low calorie restrictions). After the program, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased. Serum testosterone levels in the high physical activity group were significantly higher than those in the low activity group. This effect was not observed between the groups based on calorie restriction levels. We found a significant positive correlation between the changes in serum testosterone levels and the number of steps. Our results suggested that an increase in physical activity greatly affected the increased serum testosterone levels in overweight and obese men during lifestyle modification. PMID:26798202

  14. Physical Activity Interventions in Schools for Improving Lifestyle in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Rocha, Nuno B.F; Helmich, Ingo; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Vellante, Marcello; Baum, Antonia; Guicciardi, Marco; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background : In the last decades, children’s and adolescents’ obesity and overweight have increased in European Countries. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been recognized to determine such an epidemic. Schools represent an ideal setting to modify harmful behaviors, and physical activity could be regarded as a potential way to avoid the metabolic risks related to obesity. Methods : A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize the evidence of school-based interventions aimed to promote, enhance and implement physical activity in European schools. Only randomized controlled trials were included, carried out in Europe from January 2000 to April 2014, universally delivered and targeting pupils aged between 3 and 18 years old. Results : Forty-seven studies were retrieved based either on multicomponent interventions or solely physical activity programs. Most aimed to prevent obesity and cardiovascular risks among youths. While few studies showed a decrease in BMI, positive results were achieved on other outcomes, such as metabolic parameters and physical fitness. Conclusion : Physical activity in schools should be regarded as a simple, non-expensive and enjoyable way to reach all the children and adolescents with adequate doses of moderate to vigorous physical activity. PMID:25834629

  15. ATHENA: a personalized platform to promote an active lifestyle and wellbeing based on physical, mental and social health primitives.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  16. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  17. Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Irish Children: The Cork Children’s Lifestyle Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J; Browne, Gemma M; Harrington, Janas M

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology. Objective The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity, with a specific focus on diet and physical activity. A secondary objective of the study is to determine the average salt intake and distribution of blood pressure in Irish children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted of children 8-11 years old in primary schools in Cork, Ireland. Urban schools were selected using a probability proportionate to size sampling strategy, and a complete sample of rural schools from one area in Cork County were invited to participate. Information collected included physical measurement data (anthropometric measurements, blood pressure), early morning spot and 24 hour urine samples, a 3 day estimated food diary, and 7 days of accelerometer data. Principal- (school head) reported, parent/guardian-reported, and child-reported questionnaires collected information on lifestyle behaviors and environmental attributes. The Cork Children’s Lifestyle Study (CCLaS) was designed by the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in University College Cork, Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Piloting and modification of study methods was undertaken. Data collection took place between April 2012 and June 2013. Results Overall, 27/46 schools and 1075/1641 children, of which 623 were boys, participated. Preliminary data analysis is underway. It is anticipated that the results of the CCLaS study will be available in late 2014. Conclusions The CCLaS study has collected in-depth data on a wide range of individual, family, social, and

  18. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  19. Interruption pf physcial activity due to illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Indepencence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) compared to a health education control on measures of disability in sedentary older adults. Medical suspensions were examined for the first 12 months of the trial in th...

  20. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  1. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  2. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  3. New class of turbulence in active fluids.

    PubMed

    Bratanov, Vasil; Jenko, Frank; Frey, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier-Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such "living fluids" that is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308-14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner-Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier-Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708

  4. New class of turbulence in active fluids

    PubMed Central

    Bratanov, Vasil; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier–Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such “living fluids” that is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308–14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner–Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier–Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708

  5. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  6. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Aquifer Samples Reveals Unexpected Metabolic Lifestyles Relevant to Active Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Modern molecular ecology techniques are revealing the metabolic potential of uncultivated microorganisms, but there is still much to be learned about the actual biogeochemical roles of microbes that have cultivated relatives. Here, we present metatranscriptomic and metagenomic data from a field study that provides evidence of coupled redox processes that have not been documented in cultivated relatives and, indeed, represent strains with metabolic traits that are novel with respect to closely related isolates. The data come from omics analysis of groundwater samples collected during an experiment in which nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO). Transcriptional data indicated that just two groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria accounted for a very large portion (~80%) of overall community gene expression: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Metabolic lifestyles for Gallionellaceae strains that were novel compared to cultivated representatives included nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation and S oxidation. Evidence for these metabolisms included highly correlated temporal expression in binned data of nitrate reductase (e.g., narGHI) genes (which have never been reported in Gallionellaceae genomes) and Fe(II) oxidation genes (e.g., mtoA) or S oxidation genes (e.g., dsrE, aprA). Of the two most active strains of S. denitrificans, only one showed strong expression of S oxidation genes, whereas the other was apparently using an unexpected (as-yet unidentified) primary electron donor. Transcriptional data added considerable interpretive value to this study, as (1) metagenomic data would not have highlighted these organisms, which had a disproportionately large role in community metabolism relative to their populations, and (2) co-expression of coupled pathway genes could not be predicted based solely on metagenomic data.

  7. A health in all policies approach to promote active, healthy lifestyle in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In December 2011, Israel launched the National Program to Promote Active, Healthy Lifestyle, an inter-ministerial, intersectoral effort to address obesity and its contribution to the country’s burden of chronic disease. This paper explores the National Program according to the “Health in All Policies” (HiAP) strategy for health governance, designed to engage social determinants of health and curb health challenges at the causal level. Our objective is twofold: to identify where Israel’s National Program both echoes and falls short of Health in All Policies, and to assess how the National Program can be utilized to enrich the Health in All Policies research-base. We review Health in All Policies’ evolution, why it developed and how it is diverges from other approaches to intersectoriality in health. We describe why obesity and related chronic diseases necessitate an intersectoral response, cite obstacles and gaps to implementation and list examples of HiAP-type initiatives from around the world. We then analyze Israel’s National Program as it relates to Health in All Policies, and propose directions through which the initiative may constitute a useful case study. We contend that joint planning, implementation and to a limited extent, budgeting, between the Ministries of Health, Education and Culture and Sport reflect an HiAP-approach, as does integrating health into the policymaking of other ministries. To further incorporate health in all Israeli policies, we suggest leveraging the Health Ministry’s presence on governmental and non-governmental committees in areas like building, land-use and urban planning, institutional food policy and environmental health, and focusing on knowledge translation according to the policy needs, strengths and limitations of other sectors. Finally, we suggest studying the National Program’s financing, decision-making and evaluation mechanisms in order to complement existing research on the implementation of Health in

  8. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and susceptibility to ozone: An animal model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respir...

  9. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  10. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  11. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  12. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

  13. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on Lost Productivity and Disability: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN)

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Anne M.; Siadaty, Mir S.; Crowther, Jayne Q.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Wagner, Douglas L.; Cavalieri, Stephen L.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in reducing work loss and disability days. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of health plan members (n=147) with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Members were randomized to modest-cost lifestyle intervention (LI) or usual care (UC). Outcomes were group differences in cumulative days either missed at work or with disability using Mann-Whitney U-tests and Poisson regression models. Results LI reduced the risk of work days lost by 64.3% (p≤ 0.001) compared to UC (annual accumulation: UC: 3.49 days vs. LI: 0.92 days, (p=0.01). LI decreased the risk of disability days by 87.2% (p=0.0003) compared to UC (annual accumulation: UC: 5.3 days vs. LI: 0.94 days, (p≤0.001). Similar trends were observed among the subset of people with depression. Conclusion Lifestyle interventions reduce work loss and disability days associated with diabetes and obesity. PMID:19209034

  14. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  15. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  16. Factors influencing a health promoting lifestyle in spouses of active duty military.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Posey, Sheena M; Ricciardi, Richard; Agazio, Janice G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the health promoting behaviors (HPBs) of military spouses. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework guiding this study. One hundred twelve female spouses were surveyed regarding their perceived health status, perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and participation in HPBs. Perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, and HPBs were positively related, whereas perceived stress was negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed perceived stress and social support to be predictive of an overall health promoting lifestyle (HPLPII), with the full model explaining 49.7% of the variance. PMID:23531168

  17. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases. PMID:22171523

  18. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  19. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  20. Using Problem-Based Pre-Class Activities to Prepare Students for In-Class Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayont, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based approach that prepares students for future learning in the classroom. In this approach, students complete problem-based activities before coming to class to familiarize themselves with the topics to be covered. After the discussion on how the use of these activities relate to the learning and transfer…

  1. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  2. Realistic Activities for the Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Six exercises intended to promote conversation skills are presented, including five survival games situated in space, caves, the middle of the ocean, the Sahara desert, and the North Pole; and a game to select a prison parolee from a group of candidates. The games involve role playing and decision-making activities. (MSE)

  3. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population. PMID:25165622

  4. Healthy eating at school to compensate for the activity-related obesigenic lifestyle in children and adolescents: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect. PMID:22332048

  5. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  6. Motivational Profiles for Secondary School Physical Education and Its Relationship to the Adoption of a Physically Active Lifestyle among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Kirk, David; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of an active lifestyle is one of the central aims of physical education (PE). The present study aimed at investigating the relation between students' motivation for PE and activity levels using self-determination theory as a guiding framework. A retrospective design was used involving 2617 university students, of which 878 (33.5…

  7. An exploratory study on a chest-worn computer for evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smart-phones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases. PMID:25708374

  8. Effectiveness, Efficiency, Durations, and Costs of Recruiting for an African American Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    JoEllen, Wilbur; Braun, Lynne T.; Buchholz, Susan W.; Ingram, Diana M.; Fogg, Louis; Miller, Arlene M.; Johnson, Tricia J.; Volgman, Annabelle S.; McDevitt, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the planning and implementation of recruitment for a 48-week African American women’s lifestyle physical activity controlled trial and analyzes recruitment effectiveness, efficiency, durations, and costs. Social networking was the most effective approach for inviting women to the trial. Of the 609 who responded to invitations, 514 completed telephone screening; of these, 409 (80%) were found eligible. The health assessment screening was completed by 337 women; of these, 297 (88.13%) were found eligible. The mean number of days from completion of the telephone and health assessment screenings to beginning the intervention was 23.01 and cost $74.57 per person. Results suggest that study provision of health assessment screening is effective for minimizing attrition and also might be cost-effective. PMID:23775371

  9. An Exploratory Study on a Chest-Worn Computer for Evaluation of Diet, Physical Activity and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D.; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smartphones and tablets. As “always-on” miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases. PMID:25708374

  10. Effectiveness of a summer healthy lifestyle program for promoting moderate-vigorous activity in minority girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity each day. However, there is little research on what types of activities are most effective for facilitating this amount of activity. To assess which physical activities elicite...

  11. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive. PMID:27481694

  12. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  13. Practical Design Activities for Your Technology Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he and his class get involved in doing project designs within their school district every year. The author relates how they have done design projects for local townships and boroughs, non-profit organizations, Eagle Scout projects, and much more. The author relates how these activities have been such…

  14. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  15. The longitudinal effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults.

    PubMed

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period. PMID:20384010

  16. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  17. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  18. "Do I Have a Choice?" The Influences of Family Values and Investments on Chinese Migrant Young People's Lifestyles and Physical Activity Participation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Chinese migrant young people's lifestyles and physical activity experiences in relation to the values and cultural investments of their families in Australia. The data in this paper were taken from a larger-scale study underpinned by a critical and interpretive ethnographic method conducted in two school sites. The young…

  19. Perceptions of a School-Based Self-Management Program Promoting an Active Lifestyle among Elementary Schoolchildren, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet Maria; Haerens, Leen Liesbeth; Verstraete, Stefanie; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how classroom-based self-management lessons to promote physical activity were perceived by students, teachers, and parents. The self-management lessons were implemented by an external physical education specialist in 20 class groups at eight elementary schools. Program perceptions were evaluated in 412…

  20. Adolescent Physical Self-Perceptions, Sport/Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, N. D.; Cooke, C. B.; Mahoney, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Domain and sub-domain physical self-perceptions have been associated with adolescent moderate intensity physical activity although the association with different types of adolescent moderate intensity physical activity remains unclear. This study seeks to examine the relationship between personal self-perceptions and adolescent…

  1. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  2. “läuft.” - a school-based multi-component program to establish a physically active lifestyle in adolescence: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity during childhood and adolescence is associated with substantial health benefits and tracks into adulthood. Nevertheless, only 22.7% of German adolescents are sufficiently physically active. Thus, the promotion of an active lifestyle in youth is an essential issue of public health. This study will evaluate the implementation and efficacy of the “läuft.” program to enhance physical activity in adolescence. “läuft.” is a multicomponent school-based program developed on the basis of effective strategies for health interventions and behavioral change. Methods/design The “läuft.” physical activity program targets four different levels. (a) Each student receives a pedometer and documents his/her steps over 12 weeks using an interactive user account on the “läuft.” homepage. (b) For classes there will be different competitions, with achieving the most steps in selected weeks, the highest increases of steps and developing the most inventive ideas to promote physical activity in school. Besides, the intervention includes four educational lessons. (c) The headmasters and teaching staff of the participating schools will get information material with suggestions and encouragement to enhance physical activity in school. Participating teachers will be invited to an introductory seminar. (d) Parents will be provided with informational material about the program and will be invited to a parent-teacher conference about the benefits of being physically active and how they can support their children in engaging in a physically active lifestyle. To evaluate the efficacy of the “läuft.” physical activity program, a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in three waves: (1) baseline assessment, January/February 2014, (2) post assessment, June/July 2014 and (3) 12-month follow-up assessment, June/July 2015. Data collection will include physical and medical testing, self-administered questionnaires, group

  3. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke. PMID:26105161

  4. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  5. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  6. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region. PMID:25779694

  7. Recruitment and enrollment of caregivers for a lifestyle physical activity clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Caryn D; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the efficacy of the recruitment framework used for a clinical trial with sedentary family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. An integrated social marketing approach with principles of community-based participatory research provided the theoretical framework for organizing recruitment activities. This multi-pronged approach meant that caregivers were identified from a range of geographic locations and numerous sources including a federally funded Alzheimer's disease center, health care providers, community based and senior organizations, and broad-based media. Study enrollment projections were exceeded by 11% and resulted in enrolling n = 211 caregivers into this clinical trial. We conclude that social marketing and community-based approaches provide a solid foundation for organizing recruitment activities for clinical trials with older adults. PMID:22083931

  8. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  9. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan W; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention, using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were aged 40 to 65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  10. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  11. Active site nanospace of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase: difference between the class I and class II synthetases.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Saheb; Choudhury, Kaberi; Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2014-03-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding the origin of the difference in the molecular organization of the active site nanospaces of the class I and class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) which are tunnel-like structures. The active site encloses the cognate amino acid (AA) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to carry out aminoacylation reaction. Comparison of the structures of the active site of the class I and class II (aaRSs) shows that the nanodimensional tunnels are curved in opposite directions in the two classes. We investigated the origin of this difference using quantum mechanical computation of electrostatic potential (ESP) of substrates, surrounding residues and ions, using Atoms in Molecule (AIM) Theory and charge population analysis. We show that the difference is principally due to the variation in the spatial charge distribution of ATP in the two classes which correspond to extended and bent conformations of ATP. The present computation shows that the most feasible pathway for nucleophilic attack to alphaP is oppositely directed for class I and class II aaRSs. The available crystal structures show that the cognate AA is indeed located along the channel favorable for nucleophilic attack as predicted by the ESP analysis. It is also shown that the direction of the channel changes its orientation when the orientation of ATP is changed from extended to a bent like structure. We further used the AIM theory to confirm the direction of the approach of AA in each case and the results corroborate the results from the ESP analysis. The opposite curvatures of the active site nanospaces in class I and class II aaRSs are related with the influence of the charge distributions of the extended and bent conformations of ATP, respectively. The results of the computation of electrostatic potential by successive addition of active site residues show that their roles on the reaction are similar in both classes despite the difference in the organization of the

  12. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process

  13. McIntosh active-region class similarities and suggestions for mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornmann, P. L.; Kalmbach, D.; Kulhanek, D.

    1994-01-01

    McIntosh active-region classifications reported during a five-year period were examined to determine similarities among the classes. Two methods were used extensively to determine these similarities. The number of transitions among classes were used to determine the most frequent transitions out of each class, and the alternative classes reported for the same region by different sites were used to establish which classes were neighboring classes. These transition frequencies and neighboring classes were used to identify classes that could be eliminated or merged with other classes. Class similarities were used to investigate the relative importance of several pairs of decisions that occur within a single McIntosh parameter. In particular, the redundancy of parameters in some classes was examined, and the class similarities were used to identify which of these parameters could be eliminated. Infrequently reported classes were also considered, and suggestions for mergers were made when similarities between classes could be identified.

  14. Lifestyle and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Prince, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is associated with a number of lifestyle factors, including nutritional factors such as intake of calcium, protein, dairy food, fruits and vegetables and vitamin D status, and behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Ensuring adequate calcium intake and vitamin D status and having regular weight-bearing physical activity throughout life are important for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Studies have shown that smoking and excessive alcohol intake have adverse effects on bone health and increase the risk of fracture. There is evidence suggesting that adequate protein intake and higher intake of fruits and vegetables are beneficial to bone health. PMID:25416958

  15. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Deanna M.; Bland, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one's genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual's health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient's health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health. PMID:23878520

  16. Acculturation, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with compliance with physical activity recommendations in the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Matthew; Daniel, Carrie R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Being physically active is important for health, and few Mexican-Americans meet national US physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic, acculturation and lifestyle factors that were associated with meeting physical activity recommendations in this group. Design and setting A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based cohort study in southern Texas, USA. Participants Between 2001 and 2011, 21 551 adult members of the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort completed baseline questionnaires on physical activity and other lifestyle factors. Outcomes Meeting US physical activity recommendations was defined as participating in 150 min of moderate, or 75 min of vigorous, activity per week. Factors contributing to the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations were examined by sex and country of birth in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Less than half of all men and less than a quarter of all women met US physical activity recommendations. Having some college education, greater acculturation and current alcohol use were each associated with greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations in all groups except US-born men. Higher body mass index was associated with lower odds of meeting recommendations in US-born and Mexico-born women. Conclusions Results demonstrate that factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differ by sex and country of birth. Tailored interventions to increase Mexican-Americans’ activity levels to achieve health benefits should consider education, acculturation and alcohol use. PMID:26608633

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a midwife-led intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active' to encourage a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating a diet that is high in fat and sugar and having a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy is understood to increase the risk of excessive gestational weight gain and obesity following the birth of the baby. However, there are no clinical guidelines in the UK on what is considered to be appropriate gestational weight gain. Indeed, clinical recommendations discourage the routine re-weighing of pregnant women, stating instead that women should be advised regarding their diet and activity levels, in order to prevent excessive weight gain. Pregnancy is seen as a time when many women may have an increased motivation to improve their lifestyle behaviours for the benefit of the fetus. However, it is evident that many women have difficulty in both maintaining a healthy balanced diet and remaining active through pregnancy. It would seem that midwives may be ideally placed to assist women to make and maintain healthier lifestyle choices during pregnancy. Methods/design This study will look at the feasibility and acceptability of a newly devised intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active'. Participants will complete a questionnaire prior to the programme to obtain baseline data on food frequency, physical activity and to gauge their perception of personal ability to improve/maintain healthy lifestyle. The programme comprises client centred techniques; motivational interviewing and goal setting delivered early in pregnancy (12-16 weeks) with the aim of supporting a healthy well balanced diet and either continuing or commencing appropriate levels of physical activity. Participants will then be followed up six weeks following the intervention with a one-to-one interview, and a further brief questionnaire. The interview will provide preliminary data regarding perceived effectiveness and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme whilst the questionnaire will provide data regarding changes in the confidence of participants to lead a healthy

  18. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  19. Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no data on diet- and activity-related behaviors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani school-aged children. The study aimed to explore dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1 SD) and obesity (> +2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity > twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P < 0.01). Skipping breakfast (P < 0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P = 0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P = 0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity > twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0

  20. How Active are Rural Children and Adolescents During PE Class? An Examination of Light Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R.; Kelley, George A.; Moore, Lucas C.; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have examined non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) or light physical activity among a group of rural youth, particularly during physical education (PE) class. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT is related to school level (elementary versus high school) in a group of rural youth. METHODS Accelerometer data from 357 students (192 elementary, 165 high school) were included in the analysis. Mixed model linear regression was performed to examine the effect of school level on the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT. Covariates included gender, PE teacher, and the duration of the PE class. RESULTS School level was a significant predictor of the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT. Specifically, elementary school students spent more of their PE class time in NEAT than high school students (p< .001). No other significant predictors were identified. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest an association between lower levels of light (NEAT) physical activity among high school versus elementary school students during PE class. PMID:24902465

  1. Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: study design of a randomized controlled trial for physically inactive adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomised controlled trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a value-based intervention program to encourage a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults aged 30 to 50 years. The conceptual framework of the program is based on an innovative behavioural therapy called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) that aims to increase an individual’s psychological flexibility and support behaviour change towards a higher quality and more meaningful life. Methods Participants will be randomly allocated to a feedback group (FB) or an Acceptance and Commitment based (ACT + FB) group. Both the groups will receive written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity levels and offered an opportunity to attend a body composition analysis. In addition, the Acceptance and Commitment based group will attend six group sessions and be given a pedometer for self-monitoring of their daily physical activity throughout the 9-week intervention. The group sessions aim to clarify individual values and enhance committed actions towards the goal of achieving a more meaningful life. Participants will also be taught new skills to work on subjective barriers related to physical activity. Physical activity will be measured objectively by an accelerometer over seven consecutive days and by self-reported questionnaires at the baseline, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 15 months after the baseline measures. In addition, psychological well-being will be measured through the questionnaires, which assess mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility, psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Discussion This study’s objective is to demonstrate a research protocol for a randomized controlled study motivating a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values among physically inactive adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and intervention efficacy on physical activity and psychological well-being, and

  2. Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age, greater obesity, and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity (p-values vary). Physical activity barriers, particularly thought and mood cues, social cues and time management, physical injury or illness and access/weather, were most significantly associated with being female and obese (p < 0.001 for all). Lifestyle coaches used problem-solving with most participants (≥75% short-term; > 90% long term) and regularly reviewed self-monitoring skills. More costly approaches were used infrequently during the first 16 sessions (≤10%) but increased over 3.2 years. Conclusion Behavioral problem solving approaches have short and long term dissemination potential

  3. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  4. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  5. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  6. Chinese Education and Learning Activities outside of Class: What Lies beyond Basic Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jinjin; Jiang, Han

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have investigated students' learning in class and outside of class across subjects such as English, mathematics, and physical education in China and other countries. Scholars have found that students' activities in class and outside of class are closely related to their learning outcomes, self-regulated learning…

  7. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Keyserling, Thomas C.; Johnston, Larry; Smith, Tosha W.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. Methods We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants’ support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants’ residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. Results The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Conclusions Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner

  8. Associations between physical activity and quality of life outcomes in adults with severe obesity: a cross-sectional study prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severely obese individuals who seek lifestyle interventions have impaired quality of life (QoL). Research suggests that physical activity (PA) plays a role in weight reduction and improved health in this group, but knowledge about the association of PA with QoL outcomes is sparse and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a higher level of PA was independently associated with higher QoL in severely obese individuals prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention. Methods During 2010, a total of 49 severely obese individuals who began a lifestyle intervention programme in Western Norway agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected prior to the beginning of the intervention. QoL was measured by a one-item scale on life satisfaction and the SF-36, PA was measured by an accelerometer, and clinical data were collected by health staff. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the associations between PA and QoL outcomes (life satisfaction, physical functioning, and mental health), adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Results In the adjusted analyses, we found positive relationships between PA and life satisfaction (Stand. coeff. 0.39, p = 0.024) and physical functioning (Stand. coeff. 0.34, p = 0.025). There was no association between PA and mental health (Stand. coeff. 0.15, p = 0.376). Conclusion This study detected associations between objectively measured PA and life satisfaction as well as physical functioning in a group of severely obese individuals before they began a lifestyle intervention programme. PMID:24188415

  9. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  10. Teaching an Engaged Analysis Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Erin Terwilleger

    2012-01-01

    Real Analysis is a required class for most undergraduate mathematics majors, but it is also one of the most difficult classes they will take. In this article, the author compares two approaches to teaching in the two analysis classes she has taught. The first one was taught in a traditional lecture-homework-exam format, while the second was taught…

  11. Directed Ig class switch recombination in activated murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Krawinkel, U; Radbruch, A

    1987-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination occurs at frequencies of up to 10%/cell/generation in activated murine B-lymphocytes. We analysed cH gene rearrangements and switch recombinations from active and inactive IgH loci of B-cells activated in various ways and immortalized by cell fusion. Although about half of the IgM+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes, the deletion of c mu is a rare event. Half of the IgG3+ and IgG1+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes on the inactive IgH locus and the other half of the IgG+ cells have deleted c mu from both IgH loci by switch recombination. This recombination is directed to the same switch regions on both IgH loci in 60-80% of all cases. Interleukin 4 may play a critical role in programming murine B-lymphocytes for specific switch recombination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3038529

  12. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children. PMID:22818486

  13. Telomeres, lifestyle, cancer, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Shammas, Masood A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been growing evidence that lifestyle factors may affect the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of telomeres in human health and aging and to summarize possible lifestyle factors that may affect health and longevity by altering the rate of telomere shortening. Recent findings Recent studies indicate that telomere length, which can be affected by various lifestyle factors, can affect the pace of aging and onset of age-associated diseases. Summary Telomere length shortens with age. Progressive shortening of telomeres leads to senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of somatic cells, affecting the health and lifespan of an individual. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased incidence of diseases and poor survival. The rate of telomere shortening can be either increased or decreased by specific lifestyle factors. Better choice of diet and activities has great potential to reduce the rate of telomere shortening or at least prevent excessive telomere attrition, leading to delayed onset of age-associated diseases and increased lifespan. This review highlights the role of telomeres in aging and describes the lifestyle factors which may affect telomeres, human health, and aging. PMID:21102320

  14. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1997-01-01

    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561

  15. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  16. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  17. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  18. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  19. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs. PMID:18330527

  20. [Lifestyle diseases in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Hillert, A

    2007-10-01

    Psychosocial disorders and lifestyle trends have become more important in dermatology. Lifestyle diseases are a biopsychosocial phenomenon that can only be diagnosed and treated by paying attention to the quickly changing sociocultural aspects. The naming and popularization of the particular lifestyle diseases takes place by the media, but there is only an imprecise medical classification of these phenomena. This article gives an overview of the current situation and medical conditions of lifestyle diseases and try to assign them to an established psychosomatic diagnosis, based on the clinical symptomatic. Most often somatoform disorders, somatization disorders with a repeated presentation of physical symptoms which cannot be medically objectified or depressive disturbances are found. PMID:17701144

  1. Where Has Class Gone? The Pervasiveness of Class in Girls' Physical Activity in a Rural Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Mooney, Amanda; Casey, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to animate discussion around how social class operates with adolescent girls from low socio-economic status backgrounds to shape and inform their decisions about participation in physical activity (PA) inside and outside of school. Examining the instance of girls in a single secondary school in an Australian regional town, the…

  2. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  3. Yoga, as a transitional platform to more active lifestyle: a 6-month pilot study in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeongra; James, Khara A

    2016-06-01

    A 6-month pilot study explored the effects of a yoga program on the physical activity (PA) level of overweight or obese sedentary adults. Fourteen community-dwelling overweight or obese sedentary adults participated in a 6-month program (2-month yoga program and 4-month follow-up) delivered by two types of instruction [the direct guidance of an instructor (face-to-face group) vs. the self-learning method of using a DVD (DVD group)]. Measurements included program adherence (class attendance and home practice; min/week) and level of PA [metabolic equivalent (MET)-hour/week] at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used to describe the sample and examine differences by group and time. There were no significant differences in demographic variables by group assigned. Participants showed significant PA changes from baseline to each measurement point. The direct guidance of an instructor was preferred over the self-learning method. At each time interval, the DVD group showed higher levels of PA than the face-to-face group; the only difference that achieved statistical significance occurred at 4 months. The PA level significantly changed over 6 months in the DVD group, but not in the face-to-face group. The results indicate that a yoga program may be utilized as a 'stepping-stone' toward regular exercise among overweight sedentary adults. Research with a larger sample is needed to further evaluate the effects of the program on the level of PA among this population. PMID:25524471

  4. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  5. Effects of a Lifestyle-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Medical Expenditure in Japanese Adults: A Community-Based Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963

  6. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  7. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  8. The Monty Hall Problem as a Class Activity Using Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating probabilistic outcomes using real-time data is especially well-suited to larger lecture classes where one can generate large data sets easily. The difficulty comes in quickly collecting, analyzing, and displaying the information. With the advent of wireless polling technology (clickers), this difficulty is removed. In this paper we…

  9. Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

  10. College Textbook Reading Assignments and Class Time Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Lola; Conner, Timothy W., II.; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A convenient cluster sample of 105 undergraduate students at a regional university in the midsouth completed a survey regarding their use of college textbooks, what strategies might increase the likelihood of their reading textbook assignments, and their preference for how class time was used. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the results and…

  11. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  12. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  13. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  14. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  15. Teaching Graduate Students about Social Class: Using a Classifying Activity with an Inductive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chennault, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching about social class holds special significance for students who will work in the fields of education and human services. In this article, the author describes how he teaches graduate students about social class using a classifying activity with an inductive approach. He follows this activity with a discussion of course readings that take a…

  16. An In-Class Discussion Activity on the Nature of Science and Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I describe an in-class discussion activity aimed at helping elementary education majors in a physical science course think about issues surrounding the inclusion of "Intelligent Design" in public school science standards. I discuss the background instruction given, the content of the activity, and some results from its use in class.

  17. The role of community centre-based arts, leisure and social activities in promoting adult well-being and healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mat; Kimberlee, Richard; Deave, Toity; Evans, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes-especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context. PMID:23665850

  18. The Role of Community Centre-based Arts, Leisure and Social Activities in Promoting Adult Well-being and Healthy Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mat; Kimberlee, Richard; Deave, Toity; Evans, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes—especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context. PMID:23665850

  19. Would Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment Adhere to and Benefit from a Structured Lifestyle Activity Intervention to Enhance Cognition?: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Linda Chiu-wa; Chan, Wai Chi; Leung, Tony; Fung, Ada Wai-tung; Leung, Edward Man-fuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cognitive and physical activities are associated with better cognition in late life. The present study was conducted to examine the possible benefits of four structured lifestyle activity interventions and compare their effectiveness in optimizing cognition for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method and Findings This was a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial. 555 community-dwelling Chinese older adults with MCI (295 with multiple-domain deficits (mdMCI), 260 with single-domain deficit (sdMCI)) were recruited. Participants were randomized into physical exercise (P), cognitive activity (C), integrated cognitive and physical exercise (CP), and social activity (S, active control) groups. Interventions comprised of one-hour structured activities three times per week. Primary outcome was Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. Secondary outcomes included Chinese versions of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), delayed recall, Mini-Mental State Examination, Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT) and Disability Assessment for Dementia – Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (DAD-IADL). Percentage adherence to programs and factors affecting adherence were also examined. At 12th month, 423 (76.2%) completed final assessment. There was no change in CDR-SOB and DAD-IADL scores across time and intervention groups. Multilevel normal model and linear link function showed improvement in ADAS-Cog, delayed recall and CVFT with time (p<0.05). Post-hoc subgroup analyses showed that the CP group, compared with other intervention groups, had more significant improvements of ADAS-Cog, delayed recall and CVFT performance with sdMCI participants (p<0.05). Overall adherence rate was 73.3%. Improvements in ADAS-Cog and delayed recall scores were associated with adherence after controlling for age, education, and intervention groups (univariate analyses). Conclusions

  20. An Analysis of the Nature of Classroom Activities: A Comparative Study of an Immersion English Class and a Non-Immersion English Class in the Mainland of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nature of activities in an immersion English class and a non-immersion English class in the mainland of China, and to find out the differences between these two types of class through data gained from observation and interviews. Spoken discourse analysis was used to analyze the data, where Engestrom's…

  1. The Use of E-Mail and In-Class Writing To Facilitate Student-Instructor Interaction in Large-Enrollment Traditional and Active Learning Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Sokolove, Phillip G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines student instructor communication in freshman classes taught either in traditional lecture style or by using a variety of student-centered, active learning approaches to engage students in the learning process (cooperative learning groups, wireless microphones, permanent name tags, in-class and out-of-class writing). Encourages students to…

  2. Typing of HLA class II and class I antigens using PHA-activated, IL-2-propagated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Leshem, B; Cohen, I; Sherman, L; Brautbar, C; Kedar, E

    1988-06-28

    We describe here a simple procedure, by which HLA class II antigens can be accurately and reliably identified in those patients where there is minimal or absent expression of HLA-DR,DQw antigens on B cells, or when the total number of leukocytes recovered from the patients do not permit reliable typing. Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, fresh or cryopreserved, were activated by PHA and then propagated in IL-2-containing medium until enough cells for typing were obtained (usually 7-14 days). At this stage, the cultured cells were shown to be primarily T cells (greater than 90% CD3+). Since the activated T cells propagate in the presence of IL-2, even a small number (10(4] of fresh or cryopreserved patients' cells suffice for this protocol. To date we have been able to successfully HLA-DR,DQw type 34/34 bone marrow transplantation candidates and 12/12 long-term dialysis patients, who were untypable using fresh cells. HLA-DR,DQw antigens on activated T cells from normal individuals were identical to those found on their uncultured B cells. In addition, class I antigens that were undetectable on the uncultured cells of one patient could be identified on activated T cells. The HLA antigens identified on the patients' activated T cells were confirmed by phenotypic analysis of cells from family members. PMID:3260612

  3. Prevention of Dementia: Focus on Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Maria Cristina; Nelles, Gereon; Pientka, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize current knowledge on the possible advantages of lifestyle interventions, with particular attention to physical fitness, cognitive activity, leisure and social activity as well as nutrition. There is a large amount of published papers providing partial evidence and asserting the need for immediate, appropriate preventive lifestyle measures against dementia and AD development. Nevertheless, there are currently great difficulties in drafting effective guidelines in this field. This depends mainly upon lack of randomized controlled trials assessing benefits versus risks of particular lifestyle interventions strategies. However, due to the rapid increase of dementia burden, lifestyle factors and their amelioration should be already made part of decision making in light of their health-maintaining effects while awaiting for results of well-designed large prospective cohort studies in dementia. PMID:20721289

  4. Lifestyle Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Pojednic, Rachele M.; Phillips, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    The actual causes of premature adult deaths, the preponderance of noncommunicable chronic diseases, and their associated costs are related to unhealthy behaviors, such as poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Although recommended as the first line of prevention and management, providers often do not provide behavioral change counseling in their care. Medical education in lifestyle medicine is, therefore, proposed as a necessary intervention to allow all health providers to learn how to effectively and efficiently counsel their patients toward adopting and sustaining healthier behaviors. Lifestyle medicine curricula, including exercise, nutrition, behavioral change, and self-care, have recently evolved in all levels of medical education, together with implementation initiatives like Exercise is Medicine and the Lifestyle Medicine Education (LMEd) Collaborative. The goal of this review is to summarize the existing literature and to provide knowledge and tools to deans, administrators, faculty members, and students interested in pursuing lifestyle medicine training or establishing and improving an LMEd program within their institution. PMID:26413038

  5. Class Acts: Activities and Games for the Business Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villee, Pat A. Gallo; Kaser, Kenneth J.

    This collection of 30 business classroom activities is designed to help students become active thinkers and doers. It provides a variety of ways for reinforcing concepts, practicing problem-solving and critical-thinking skills, and having fun. This manual provides an objective, instructions, and a material list for each activity. Several…

  6. Mediation of macrophage cytolytic and phagocytic activities by antibodies of different classes and class-specific Fc-receptors.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S

    1977-08-01

    The classes of antibodies that mediate the phagocytosis and cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled chicken erythrocytes by IC-21 macrophages, an established line of mouse peritoneal macrophages, were identified. The phagocytic activity of IC-21 macrophages, as determined by a functional inhibition assay with mouse myeloma proteins, depended mainly on IgM and IgG2a antibodies and to a lesser extent on IgG2b antibodies. Extracellular cytolysis of target cells was mediated solely by IgG2b antibodies. These results correlate with the previously documented specificities of discrete Fc-receptors for IgG2a and IgG2b immunoglobulins on IC-21 cells. Thus, phagocytosis and cytolysis appear to be mediated by antibodies of different classes operating through separate and distinct sites on the surface of IC-21 macrophages. PMID:886183

  7. Activated rat T cells synthesize and express functional major histocompatibility class II antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, C P; Wauben, M H; Lucassen, M A; Van Meurs, M; Van Kooten, P J; Boog, C J; Claassen, E; Van Eden, W

    1995-01-01

    In the present report, we studied the presence and functional significance of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen on rat T cells. Most rat T-cell lines cultured in vitro were found to be MHC class II+. Also, these T-cell lines were shown to synthesize MHC class II molecules. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric double stainings for T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II showed that in vivo as well a large proportion of T cells was MHC class II+. The immunohistochemical staining of spleen sections enabled us to characterize the MHC class II+ and MHC class II- T cells. It was shown that resting T cells in vivo were MHC class II-. In contrast, activated T cells, as determined by their localization in the marginal zone of the spleen, proved to be MHC class II+. Finally, T-cell clones were found to be able to present peptidic antigens, but could only poorly present more complex exogenous antigens, probably due to inefficient uptake of such antigens. These features would endow activated rat T cells with the capacity to present cell-specific self-proteins, such as TCR, to regulatory CD4+ MHC class II-restricted T cells, as was described by our group elsewhere. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7750994

  8. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Steven M; Schippers, Mandy; Maher, Carol A; Marshall, Alison L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patients' preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 221 of 296 eligible) accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for "how much" they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented "not at all"; 10 represented "very much"). Results. Most (n = 155, 70%) desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. "Print and post" communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10), followed by email and telephone (both 5/10), text messaging (1/10), and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10). Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p < 0.001), telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p < 0.001), and email (coefficient = 2.059, p = 0.02). Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = -0.100, p < 0.001), texting (coefficient = -0.096, p < 0.001), and social network messages (coefficient = -0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls. PMID:26491667

  9. Acculturation and physical activity in a working class multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background Determinants of physical activity in minority populations remain under-explored. Acculturation is one proposed mechanism for the disparities that exist between racial and ethnic groups in health outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of language acculturation and generation in the US since migration with leisure-time and occupational activity. A low-income, multiethnic urban population was recruited from Massachusetts small businesses (SB) (n = 1725) and health centers (HC) (n = 2205). Baseline data were collected between May 2000 and February 2002. Results Individuals with low acculturation reported leisure-time activity 3–5 MET hours/week lower than those who were highly acculturated (P < 0.05). Generation predicted leisure-time activity only in SB participants. In the HC, least acculturated participants reported occupational activity 10–12 MET hours/week higher than highly acculturated participants. In SB men, acculturation was inversely associated with occupational activity; in SB women, language acculturation was positively associated with occupational activity. Generation was not predictive of occupational activity. Conclusion Language acculturation and generation were positively associated with leisure-time activity. Language acculturation is also associated with occupational activity. Acculturation is important to consider when designing public health interventions. PMID:16481031

  10. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among Students Participating in University Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed…

  11. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  12. The Effect of Corpus-Based Activities on Verb-Noun Collocations in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2015-01-01

    This current study sought to reveal the impacts of corpus-based activities on verb-noun collocation learning in EFL classes. This study was carried out on two groups--experimental and control groups- each of which consists of 15 students. The students were preparatory class students at School of Foreign Languages, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University.…

  13. Class I methanol megamasers: a potential probe of starburst activity and feedback in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Zhang, J.-S.; Wang, J.-Z.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Wu, Q.-W.; Wu, Z.-Z.

    2016-06-01

    Previous observations have shown that the distribution of 36.2-GHz class I methanol megamaser (MM) emission in Arp 220 is highly correlated with the diffuse X-rays. On this basis it was suggested that methanol MM may be produced either by the effects of galactic-outflow-driven shocks and/or cosmic rays. Here we report the results of a single-dish survey undertaken with the Greenbank Telescope (GBT) to improve our understanding of the pumping conditions of extragalactic class I methanol masers and their relationship to starburst and feedback processes within the host galaxies, towards a sample which includes 16 galaxies which show both extended soft X-ray emission, and either OH or H2O MM emission. Large baseline ripples in the GBT spectra limited our results to tentative detections towards 11 of the target galaxies. Analysis of these tentative detections shows that there are significant correlations between the methanol intensity and the host-galaxy infrared, radio and OH MM emission, but no correlation with the X-ray and H2O MM emission. Some sources show methanol emission significantly offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (by up to 1000 km s-1) and we propose that these are associated with galactic-scale outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback. The combined observational properties suggest that class I methanol MMs are related to significant starburst and molecular outflow activity and hence may provide a potential probe of AGN feedback and starburst processes in the host galaxies.

  14. The Use of Art Activities in Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…

  15. Engaging Students in Qualitative Research through Experiential Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Piercy, Fred P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the experiential activities that are used in a graduate course on qualitative research that addresses focus groups, observation, data collection, cultural sensitivity, ethnomethodology, data analysis, and morals and ethics in research. Explains that students participate in an activity in which they defend qualitative research. (CMK)

  16. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  17. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  18. Class II HDAC Inhibition Hampers Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation by Induction of MicroRNA-29

    PubMed Central

    Mannaerts, Inge; Eysackers, Nathalie; Onyema, Oscar O.; Van Beneden, Katrien; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Odenthal, Margarete; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The conversion of a quiescent vitamin A storing hepatic stellate cell (HSC) to a matrix producing, contractile myofibroblast-like activated HSC is a key event in the onset of liver disease following injury of any aetiology. Previous studies have shown that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the phenotypical changes occurring during stellate cell activation in liver and pancreas. Aims In the current study we investigate the role of class II HDACs during HSC activation. Methods We characterized the expression of the class II HDACs freshly isolated mouse HSCs. We inhibited HDAC activity by selective pharmacological inhibition with MC1568, and by repressing class II HDAC gene expression using specific siRNAs. Results Inhibition of HDAC activity leads to a strong reduction of HSC activation markers α-SMA, lysyl oxidase and collagens as well as an inhibition of cell proliferation. Knock down experiments showed that HDAC4 contributes to HSC activation by regulating lysyl oxidase expression. In addition, we observed a strong up regulation of miR-29, a well-known anti-fibrotic miR, upon treatment with MC1568. Our in vivo work suggests that a successful inhibition of class II HDACs could be promising for development of future anti-fibrotic compounds. Conclusions In conclusion, the use of MC1568 has enabled us to identify a role for class II HDACs regulating miR-29 during HSC activation. PMID:23383282

  19. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. Methods We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Results Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. Conclusions A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival

  20. Statistical and Biological Gene-Lifestyle Interactions of MC4R and FTO with Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity: New Effects on Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Covas, M. Isabel; Carrasco, Paula; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Martí, Amelia; Coltell, Oscar; Ordovás, Jose M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01–1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/−SE: −0.57+/−0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion Statistical and biological

  1. Active Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Organic Chemistry Lecture Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, Donald R.

    1999-08-01

    Faculty in the physical sciences are one of the academic groups least receptive to the use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning in their classrooms. This is particularly so in traditional lecture classes. It is the objective of this paper to show how effective these techniques can be in improving student performance in classes. The use of active learning strategies and cooperative learning groups in my organic chemistry lecture classes has increased the overall pass rate in my classes by an astounding 20-30% over the traditional lecture mode. This has been accomplished without any reduction in "standards". The actual methods employed are presented as well as a discussion of how I came to radically change the way I teach my classes.

  2. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  3. Using Active Learning Strategies in Psychology Classes: Illustrative Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Eison, James

    This bibliography was designed to assist psychology instructors in incorporating active learning strategies into their courses. The document contains articles that describe specific techniques that should help students to become more involved in learning about psychology than traditional lecture methods allow. The bibliography was prepared by…

  4. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564

  5. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-06-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B) at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL), which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material) is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI) and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%), vicarious interactive (20%) (involving questions to and from the lecturer), and noninteractive (55%). As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B), although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12%) or on individual learning (10% and 7%). These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Activities Commonly Used in English Speaking Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    Classroom activities, such as English dubs, role-play, brainstorming etc can be very useful for the teaching of oral English. In recent years, although considerable attention has been paid to the use of classroom activities in English speaking classes, the perceptions of teachers and students about such activities have been ignored. Therefore,…

  7. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Methods Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5–18 yr. enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and SB were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-sec epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and SB during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (>3 METS) and SB (<100 counts/min) were examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared to private jazz/hip-hop classes, and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared to Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in SB was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). Conclusion The structure of dance lessons can impact youth’s physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth. PMID:25775088

  8. Lifestyle, Nutrition and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Kang, Jae Hee

    2009-01-01

    The only proven strategy to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the use of ocular hypotensive therapy among people diagnosed with ocular hypertension. In this review, various modifiable lifestyle factors, such as exercise, diet and cigarette smoking, that may influence intraocular pressure and that have been studied in relation to the risk of developing POAG are discussed. Epidemiologic studies on lifestyle factors are few, and the current evidence suggests that there are no environmental factors that are clearly associated with POAG; however, a few factors merit further study. This review also outlines future directions for research into the primary prevention of POAG. PMID:19680048

  9. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  10. Phospholipase A2 regulates eicosanoid class switching during inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Norris, Paul C; Gosselin, David; Reichart, Donna; Glass, Christopher K; Dennis, Edward A

    2014-09-01

    Initiation and resolution of inflammation are considered to be tightly connected processes. Lipoxins (LX) are proresolution lipid mediators that inhibit phlogistic neutrophil recruitment and promote wound-healing macrophage recruitment in humans via potent and specific signaling through the LXA4 receptor (ALX). One model of lipoxin biosynthesis involves sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid by two cell types expressing a combined transcellular metabolon. It is currently unclear how lipoxins are efficiently formed from precursors or if they are directly generated after receptor-mediated inflammatory commitment. Here, we provide evidence for a pathway by which lipoxins are generated in macrophages as a consequence of sequential activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor for endotoxin, and P2X7, a purinergic receptor for extracellular ATP. Initial activation of TLR4 results in accumulation of the cyclooxygenase-2-derived lipoxin precursor 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in esterified form within membrane phospholipids, which can be enhanced by aspirin (ASA) treatment. Subsequent activation of P2X7 results in efficient hydrolysis of 15-HETE from membrane phospholipids by group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2, and its conversion to bioactive lipoxins by 5-lipoxygenase. Our results demonstrate how a single immune cell can store a proresolving lipid precursor and then release it for bioactive maturation and secretion, conceptually similar to the production and inflammasome-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory IL-1 family cytokines. These findings provide evidence for receptor-specific and combinatorial control of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis, and potential avenues to modulate inflammatory indices without inhibiting downstream eicosanoid pathways. PMID:25139986

  11. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  12. Physically active vs. inactive lifestyle, muscle properties, and glucose homeostasis in middle-aged and older twins.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, T; Sipilä, S; Kaprio, J; Kainulainen, H; Alen, M; Kujala, U M

    2013-10-01

    Exercise-induced positive changes in skeletal muscle properties and metabolism decrease the risk for disability, cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Here, we studied muscle properties and glucose homeostasis in a non-exercise stage in twin pairs with co-twins discordant for physical activity habits for at least 32 years of their adult lives. Isometric knee extension force, MR imaging of midthigh tissue composition and muscle volume, and fasting blood samples were acquired from 16 same-sex (seven monozygotic, nine dizygotic) middle-aged and older twin pairs. The consistently active twins had 20 % higher knee extension forces than their inactive co-twins (p = 0.006) although the active twins had only 4 % higher midthigh muscle cross-sectional areas (p = 0.072). These results were similar in intrapair analysis in which only the seven identical twin pairs were included. The ratio between the area of midthigh fat and muscle tissues was significantly lower among the active twins (0.65 vs. 0.48, p = 0.006). The active twins had also lower fasting plasma glucose levels (5.1 vs 5.6 mmol/l, p = 0.041). The area of midthigh intramuscular (extramyocellular) fat was associated with the markers of glucose homeostasis, especially with glycated hemoglobin, and these associations were emphasized by the diabetic and inactive twins. Regular exercise throughout the adult life retains muscle strength and quality but not necessarily mass. The regular use of muscles also prevents from the accumulation of intramuscular fat which might be related to maintained glucose metabolism and, thus, prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:23124702

  13. Orientation of functional activating regions in the Escherichia coli CRP protein during transcription activation at class II promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R M; Rhodius, V A; Bell, A I; Kolb, A; Busby, S J

    1996-01-01

    At class II CRP-dependent promoters the DNA site for CRP overlaps the DNA site for RNA polymerase, covering the -35 region. Transcription activation at class II CRP- dependent promoters requires a contact between an activating region in the upstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer and a contact site in the C-terminal domain of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase. Transcription activation is suppressed by amino acid substitutions in the activating region, but activation can be restored by second site substitutions at K52 or E96. These substitutions identify two separate regions on the surface of CRP that appear to be able to interact with RNA polymerase specifically at class II promoters. Using the method of 'oriented heterodimers' we show that these alternative activating regions are functional in the downstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer. PMID:8604346

  14. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Azza; Kilani, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB). Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time) was self-reported using the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR) total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population. PMID:26052460

  15. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  16. Lifestyle factors may modify the effect of disease activity on radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro, Sofia; Landewé, Robert; van Tubergen, Astrid; Boonen, Annelies; Stolwijk, Carmen; Dougados, Maxime; van den Bosch, Filip; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the complex relationship between inflammation, mechanical stress and radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), using job type as a proxy for continuous mechanical stress. Methods Patients from the Outcome in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Study were followed up for 12 years, with 2-yearly assessments. Two readers independently scored the X-rays according to the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). Disease activity was assessed by the AS Disease Activity Score C reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP). The relationship between ASDAS and spinal radiographic progression was investigated with longitudinal analysis, with job type at baseline (physically demanding (‘blue-collar’) versus sedentary (‘white-collar’) labour) as a potential factor influencing this relationship. The effects of smoking status and socioeconomic factors were also investigated. Results In total, 184 patients were included in the analyses (70% males, 83% human leucocyte antigen-B27 positive, 39% smokers, 48% blue-collar workers (65/136 patients in whom data on job type were available)). The relationship between disease activity and radiographic progression was significantly and independently modified by job type: In ‘blue-collar’ workers versus ‘white-collar’ workers, every additional unit of ASDAS resulted in an increase of 1.2 versus 0.2 mSASSS-units/2-years (p=0.014 for the difference between blue-collar and white-collar workers). In smokers versus non-smokers, every additional unit of ASDAS resulted in an increase of 1.9 versus 0.4 mSASSS-units/2-years. Conclusions Physically demanding jobs may amplify the potentiating effects of inflammation on bone formation in AS. Smoking and socioeconomic factors most likely confound this relationship and may have separate effects on bone formation. PMID:26535153

  17. Methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial treating early childhood obesity: The Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Marion; Coday, Mace; Williams, Natalie A.; Richey, Phyllis; Tylavsky, Frances; Bush, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There are few effective obesity interventions directed towards younger children, particularly young minority children. This paper describes the design, intervention, recruitment methods, and baseline data of the ongoing Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) study. This randomized controlled trial is designed to test the efficacy of a 6-month, moderately intense, primary care feasible, family-based behavioral intervention, targeting both young children and their parent, in promoting healthy weight change. Participants are 270 overweight and obese children (ages 4 to 7 years) and their parent, who were recruited from a primarily African American urban population. Parents and children were instructed in proven cognitive behavioral techniques (e.g. goal setting, self-talk, stimulus control and reinforcement) designed to encourage healthier food choices (more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and less concentrated fats and sugar), reduce portion sizes, decrease sweetened beverages and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement. The main outcome of this study is change in BMI at two years post enrollment. Recruitment using reactive methods (mailings, TV ads, pamphlets) was found to be more successful than using only a proactive approach (referral through physicians). At baseline, most children were very obese with an average BMI z-score of 2.6. Reported intake of fruits and vegetables and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement did not meet national recommendations. If efficacious, Team PLAY would offer a model for obesity treatment directed at families with young children that could be tested and translated to both community and primary care settings. PMID:22342450

  18. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  19. An Examination of In-Class Physical Activity across Games Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Forrest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in-class physical activity opportunities across game classifications. A total of 221 (male, 100; female, 121) Year 9/10 physical education students were used within this study. Each student was engaged in four sport-based units (target, net/wall, striking/fielding, and invasion). Physical activity data…

  20. Incorporating Active Learning and Student Inquiry into an Introductory Merchandising Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Hines, Jean D.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators believe that student learning is enhanced when they are actively involved in classroom activities that require student inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to report on three student inquiry projects that were incorporated into a merchandising class with the focus on making students responsible for their learning, rather than the…

  1. Acylprolinamides: a new class of peptide deformylase inhibitors with in vivo antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Axten, Jeffrey M; Medina, Jesús R; Blackledge, Charles W; Duquenne, Céline; Grant, Seth W; Bobko, Mark A; Peng, Tony; Miller, William H; Pinckney, Theresa; Gallagher, Timothy F; Kulkarni, Swarupa; Lewandowski, Thomas; Van Aller, Glenn S; Zonis, Rimma; Ward, Paris; Campobasso, Nino

    2012-06-15

    A new class of PDF inhibitor with potent, broad spectrum antibacterial activity is described. Optimization of blood stability and potency provided compounds with improved pharmacokinetics that were suitable for in vivo experiments. Compound 5c, which has robust antibacterial activity, demonstrated efficacy in two respiratory tract infection models. PMID:22579486

  2. Boss and Worker: An Active-Learning Exercise in Exploitation and Class Antagonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrye, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning increasingly recognizes that active and dynamic instructional models promote better, more holistic, and lasting educational outcomes. This article summarizes an in-class engaged learning activity based on the popular playing card game, "President". This game requires players to exchange cards with each…

  3. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  4. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women) and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA) behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE), calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs), was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1) compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p < 0.0001), or to Palestinian and Israeli women, who had similar medians (2776 METs-min*wk-1). Two thirds (65%) of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63%) of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337) and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p < 0.0001). Palestinian women reported the lowest level of walking. Considering all domains, 26% of Palestinian women were classified as

  5. Lifestyle in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Robabeh; Janbabai, Ghasem; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most commonly diagnosed cancers is breast cancer that leads to mortality and morbidity among Iranian women. Behavioural risk factors, such as common lifestyle patterns are often associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. Aim This study aimed to investigate lifestyle of breast cancer patients admitted to Cancer Research Center of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using convenient sampling method. Sample size consisted of 150 cancer patients, and data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire on dimensions of lifestyle containing four dimensions of self-care, exercise and physical activity, diet and coping with stress. Maximum score in different dimensions, based on 100% of marks earned, was evaluated in three categories of undesirable, relatively desirable and desirable. Data were analysed with SPSS-19 software using descriptive statistics (relative and absolute frequencies, mean and standard deviation). Results In total of 150 women, the mean age of patients was 51.9 ± 1.04 (27-78). The majority of participants were married, housewives, with high school education. Among the four parts of healthy lifestyle, desirable level of physical activity and exercise had the least participants, and in the dimensions of physical activity and exercise, the lowest level related to walking, followed by daily exercise. Most of the participants had undesirable level of self-care and lowest frequency related to mammography after 40-year-old, followed by annual check-up and Pap-smear. With regard to nutrition, most of them were at desirable level. Conclusion The results indicated undesirable levels in two lifestyle dimensions (self-care and physical activity and exercise) in the majority of participants for a year before contracting breast cancer. Primary prevention programs should be implemented with a comprehensive approach, thus, effective strategies are

  6. Wnt-pathway activation in two molecular classes of hepatocellular carcinoma and experimental modulation by sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmayer, Anja; Alsinet, Clara; Savic, Radoslav; Cabellos, Laia; Toffanin, Sara; Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Minguez, Beatriz; Newell, Philippa; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Barretina, Jordi; Thung, Swan; Ward, Stephen C.; Bruix, Jordi; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous cancer with active Wnt-signaling. Underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear and no drug targeting this pathway has been approved to date. We aimed to characterize Wnt-pathway aberrations in HCC patients, and to investigate sorafenib as a potential Wnt modulator in experimental models of liver cancer. Experimental Design The Wnt-pathway was assessed using mRNA (642 HCCs and 21 liver cancer cell lines) and miRNA expression data (89 HCCs), immunohistochemistry (108 HCCs) and CTNNB1-mutation data (91 HCCs). Effects of sorafenib on Wnt-signaling were evaluated in four liver cancer cell lines with active Wnt signaling and a tumor xenograft model. Results Evidence for Wnt activation was observed for 315 (49.1%) cases, and was further classified as CTNNB1-class [138 cases (21.5%)] or Wnt-TGFβ-class [177 cases (27.6%)]. CTNNB1-class was characterized by up-regulation of liver-specific Wnt-targets, nuclear β-catenin and glutamine-synthetase immunostaining, and enrichment of CTNNB1-mutation-signature, while Wnt-TGFβ-class was characterized by dysregulation of classical Wnt-targets and the absence of nuclear β-catenin. Sorafenib decreased Wnt-signaling and β-catenin protein in HepG2 (CTNNB1-class), SNU387 (Wnt-TGFβ-class), SNU398 (CTNNB1-mutation) and Huh7 (Lithium-chloride-pathway activation) cell lines. Additionally, sorafenib attenuated expression of liver-related Wnt-targets GLUL, LGR5, and TBX3. The suppressive effect on CTNNB1-class-specific Wnt-pathway activation was validated in vivo using HepG2 xenografts in nude mice, accompanied by decreased tumor volume and increased survival of treated animals. Conclusions Distinct dysregulation of Wnt-pathway constituents characterize two different Wnt-related molecular classes (CTNNB1 and Wnt-TGFβ), accounting for half of all HCC patients. Sorafenib modulates β-catenin/Wnt-signaling in experimental models that harbor the CTNNB1-class-signature. PMID:22811581

  7. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.T.; Robinson, H.; Kim, S.-K.; Reddy, P. T.

    2011-01-21

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV)-two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  8. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    D Gallagher; S Kim; H Robinson; P Reddy

    2011-12-31

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV) - two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  9. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Gottschall, Jinger S.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant’s evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers’ involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers’ intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens. PMID:26347696

  10. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  11. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  12. Effect of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes in combination with lifestyle advice on objectively measured physical activity: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality. Among those at high risk, incidence can be halved through healthy changes in behaviour. Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D is now widely available. Whether such information motivates behaviour change is unknown. We aim to assess the effects of communicating genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D on risk-reducing health behaviours, anxiety, and other cognitive and emotional theory-based antecedents of behaviour change. Methods In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, approximately 580 adults born between 1950 and 1975 will be recruited from the on-going population-based, observational Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Eligible participants will have undergone clinical, anthropometric, and psychosocial measurements, been genotyped for 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with T2D, and worn a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart®) continuously for six days and nights to assess physical activity. Participants are randomised to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group), or in combination with a genetic or a phenotypic risk estimate for T2D (intervention groups). The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include self-reported diet, self-reported weight, intention to be physically active and to engage in a healthy diet, anxiety, diabetes-related worry, self-rated health, and other cognitive and emotional outcomes. Follow-up occurs eight weeks post-intervention. Values at follow-up, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion This study will provide much needed evidence on the effects of providing information about the genetic and phenotypic risk of T2D. Importantly, it will be among the first to examine the impact of genetic risk information using a randomised controlled trial design, a population-based sample, and

  13. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  14. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life. PMID:26272989

  15. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations ...

  16. Class IIa Histone Deacetylases are Hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and Mammalian Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Maria M.; Vasquez, Debbie S.; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Yu, Ruth T.; Alvarez, Jacqueline G.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.; Montminy, Marc; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, Class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, Class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via deacetylation and activation of Foxo family transcription factors. Loss of Class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of Class IIa HDACs in mouse models of Type 2 Diabetes ameliorates hyperglycemia, suggesting that inhibitors of Class I/II HDACs may be potential therapeutics for metabolic syndrome. PMID:21565617

  17. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more

  18. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  19. Student Teaching Performance in English as Measured with Checklist of High School Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Scott, Owen

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the performance of University of Georgia student teachers in English on the six dimensions of the Checklist of High School Class Activities and to compare this evaluation with student teaching grades, academic grades, and scores on the National Teacher Examinations. The 74-item checklist was…

  20. Determinants of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Eklund, Robert C.; Reed, Brett

    2001-01-01

    Investigated elementary and secondary teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes, examining a model hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Teacher surveys supported the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.…

  1. Designing Class Activities to Meet Specific Core Training Competencies: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; McDonnell, Kelly A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a developmental model for designing and utilizing class activities to meet specific Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) core training competencies for group workers. A review of the relevant literature about teaching group work and meeting core training standards is provided. The authors suggest a process by…

  2. Writing Chemistry Jingles as an Introductory Activity in a High School Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Starting the school year in an introductory high school chemistry class can be a challenge. The topic and approach is new to the students; many of the early chapters in the texts can be a bit tedious; and for many students the activities are uninspiring. My goal in the first few weeks of school is to hook the students on chemistry by getting them…

  3. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  4. My Class Activities Instrument as Used in Saturday Enrichment Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Nielsen; Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    My Class Activities (MCA) is an instrument that has been used for evaluation of university-based Saturday enrichment programs, but was originally normed using students in regular schools. A sample of MCA scores from 826 students in grades 3-8 from a Saturday enrichment program was used. Four different MCA models were evaluated: (a) the original…

  5. A Fundamental Study for Efficient Implementaion of Online Collaborative Activities in Large-Scale Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Yusei; Kubota, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We study tactics for writing skills development through cross-disciplinary learning in online large-scale classes, and particularly are interested in implementation of online collaborative activities such as peer reviewing of writing. The goal of our study is to carry out collaborative works efficiently via online effectively in large-scale…

  6. Technological and Traditional Drawing Approaches Encourage Active Engagement in Histology Classes for Science Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogdell, Barbara; Torsney, Ben; Stewart, Katherine; Smith, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote more active engagement of science undergraduates in histology practical classes some technology-based innovations were introduced. First, an interactive pre-lab tutorial was set up using an electronic handset voting system, where guidance on tissue analysis was given. Second, a web-based resource where students could access…

  7. Is In-Class Physical Activity at Risk in Constructivist Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Sun, Haichun; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2007-01-01

    Constructivist physical education emphasizes cognitive engagement. This study examined the impact of a constructivist curriculum on in-class physical activity. Caloric expenditure in metabolic equivalents (MET) and vector magnitude count (VM) data from a random sample of 41 constructivist lessons were compared with those from a random sample of 35…

  8. Identification of the immunoglobulin class active in the Rose Bengal plate test for bovine brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The antibodies active in the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for bovine brucellosis have been studied. The results of fractionation experiments showed that RBPT activity was associated with fractions containing immunoglobulin of the IgG1 class; other immunoglobulin classes were inactive in this respect although active in other tests. These results were confirmed by inhibition tests with specific antisera and by elution of the antibody from agglutinated RBPT antigen. The major proportion of the serum complement-fixing activity was also present in the IgG1 fraction and it is suggested that the RBPT and CF reactions are probably mediated by the same antibodies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Plate 2Plate 2 PMID:4630606

  9. Making the Least Reactive Electrophile the First in Class: Domino Electrophilic Activation of Amides.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Daniel; Maulide, Nuno

    2016-06-01

    The electrophilic activation of amides, especially by the action of trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) anhydride, enables the formation of highly electrophilic and reactive intermediates, lending themselves to diverse reaction pathways. This synopsis sets out to highlight recent advances in the field of amide activation, focused on the use of triflic anhydride, and the myriad of transformations that can ensue upon addition of several classes of electrophiles to the intermittently generated high energy intermediates. PMID:27187724

  10. Effect of sustaining lifestyle modifications (nonsmoking, weight reduction, physical activity, and mediterranean diet) after healing of myocardial infarction, percutaneous intervention, or coronary bypass (from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study).

    PubMed

    Booth, John N; Levitan, Emily B; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-06-15

    Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Few data demonstrate which lifestyle modifications, if sustained, reduce recurrent CHD and mortality risk in cardiac patients after the postacute rehabilitation phase. We determined the association between ideal lifestyle factors and recurrent CHD and all-cause mortality in REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study participants with CHD (n = 4,174). Ideal lifestyle factors (physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, highest quartile of Mediterranean diet score, and waist circumference <88 cm for women and <102 cm for men) were assessed through questionnaires and an in-home study visit. There were 447 recurrent CHD events and 745 deaths over a median 4.3 and 4.5 years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, physical activity ≥4 versus no times/week and non-smoking versus current smoking were associated with reduced hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for recurrent CHD (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.89 and HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.64, respectively) and death (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.86 and HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.65, respectively). The multivariable-adjusted HRs (and 95% CIs) for recurrent CHD and death comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of Mediterranean diet adherence were 0.77 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.06) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.07), respectively. Neither outcome was associated with waist circumference. Comparing participants with 1, 2, and 3 versus 0 ideal lifestyle factors (non-smoking, physical activity ≥4 times/week, and highest quartile of Mediterranean diet score), the HRs (and 95% CIs) were 0.60 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.81), 0.49 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.67), and 0.38 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.67), respectively, for recurrent CHD and 0.65 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.83), 0.57 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.74), and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.64), respectively, for death. In conclusion, maintaining smoking cessation, physical activity, and Mediterranean diet

  11. Lifestyle and diet.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  12. Out of Class--Out of Mind? The Use of a Virtual Learning Environment to Encourage Student Engagement in Out of Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leese, Maggie

    2009-01-01

    With increasing student numbers and a diverse student body, it is crucial to consider a range of methods to engage students in learning and teaching activities. This project was used to encourage 1st-year undergraduate students to engage in out of class activities between taught sessions. The project used a virtual learning environment (VLE) known…

  13. Is In-Class Physical Activity at Risk in Constructivist Physical Education?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Sun, Haichun; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Constructivist physical education emphasizes cognitive engagement. This study examined the impact of a constructivist curriculum on in-class physical activity. Caloric expenditure in metabolic equivalents (MET) and vector magnitude count (VM) data from a random sample of 41 constructivist lessons were compared with those from a random sample of 35 nonconstructivist lessons. Statistical analyses revealed that students in both curriculum conditions were active at a similarly law-moderate level (MET = 2.6 for experimental, 2.5 for comparison, p = .30). Differences (p < .05) were found between the three units within the constructivist curriculum. The findings suggest that the constructivist approach may facilitate knowledge learning with little risk of reducing in-class physical activity. PMID:18274221

  14. How an active-learning class influences physics self-efficacy in pre-service teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Usher, Ellen L.; Mamaril, Natasha A.

    2013-01-01

    Education majors in an inquiry-based physics content course were asked to reflect on the ways the course affected their self-efficacy for completing physics tasks, such as creating a circuit. Responses were coded according to the contributor of the influence and whether that influence was positive or negative. The group learning structure, hands-on activities in the class, and the constructed repertoire of science knowledge, processes, and activities, were all reported to be positive influences on self-efficacy, whereas the influence of the instructor was mixed. Overall, students' responses indicated both a desire for more guidance and lecture and an appreciation for their ability to construct their own understanding through the class activities.

  15. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  16. Determinants of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults: The Basis for High School and College Physical Education To Promote Active Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahas, Markus V.; Goldfine, Bernie; Collins, Mitchell A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews factors that influence high school and college students' physical activity adoption and/or maintenance based on recent behavioral research. Relevant determinants of physical activity include self-efficacy, intentions, perceived barriers, enjoyment, stages of change, and social support. Suggestions for behavior modifications to increase…

  17. The class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases α and β control antiphospholipid antibodies-induced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Terrisse, Anne-Dominique; Laurent, Pierre-Alexandre; Garcia, Cédric; Gratacap, Marie-Pierre; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Sié, Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with increased thrombotic risk and pregnancy morbidity. Although aPL are heterogeneous auto-antibodies, the major pathogenic target is the plasma protein β2-glycoprotein 1. The molecular mechanisms of platelet activation by aPL remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the role of the class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) α and β isoforms in platelet activation by aPL. Compared to control IgG from healthy individuals, the IgG fraction isolated from patients with APS potentiates platelet aggregation induced by low dose of thrombin in vitro and increases platelet adhesion and thrombus growth on a collagen matrix under arterial shear rate through a mechanism involving glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR-2). Using isoforms-selective pharmacological PI3K inhibitors and mice with megakaryocyte/platelet lineage-specific inactivation of class IA PI3K isoforms, we demonstrate a critical role of the PI3Kβ and PI3Kα isoforms in platelet activation induced by aPL. Our data show that aPL potentiate platelet activation through GPIbα and TLR-2 via a mechanism involving the class IA PI3Kα and β isoforms, which represent new potential therapeutic targets in the prevention or treatment of thrombotic events in patients with APS. PMID:26818901

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 regulates the class II transactivator.

    PubMed

    Voong, Lilien N; Slater, Allison R; Kratovac, Sebila; Cressman, Drew E

    2008-04-01

    The expression of major histocompatibility class II genes is necessary for proper antigen presentation and induction of an immune response. This expression is initiated by the class II transactivator, CIITA. The establishment of the active form of CIITA is controlled by a series of post-translational events, including GTP binding, ubiquitination, and dimerization. However, the role of phosphorylation is less clearly defined as are the consequences of phosphorylation on CIITA activity and the identity of the kinases involved. In this study we show that the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) interact directly with CIITA, targeting serine residues in the amino terminus of the protein, including serine 288. Inhibition of this phosphorylation by dominant-negative forms of ERK or by treatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 resulted in the increase in CIITA-mediated gene expression from a class II promoter, enhanced the nuclear concentration of CIITA, and impaired its ability to bind to the nuclear export factor, CRM1. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 activity had little effect on serine-to-alanine mutant forms of CIITA. These data suggest a model whereby ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of CIITA down-regulates CIITA activity by priming it for nuclear export, thus providing a means for cells to tightly regulate the extent of antigen presentation. PMID:18245089

  19. Diverse activation pathways in class A GPCRs converge near the G-protein-coupling region.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, A J; Deupi, Xavier; Lebon, Guillaume; Heydenreich, Franziska M; Flock, Tilman; Miljus, Tamara; Balaji, Santhanam; Bouvier, Michel; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Tate, Christopher G; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-25

    Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that mediate a wide variety of physiological functions, including vision, neurotransmission and immune responses. They are the targets of nearly one-third of all prescribed medicinal drugs such as beta blockers and antipsychotics. GPCR activation is facilitated by extracellular ligands and leads to the recruitment of intracellular G proteins. Structural rearrangements of residue contacts in the transmembrane domain serve as 'activation pathways' that connect the ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein-coupling region within the receptor. In order to investigate the similarities in activation pathways across class A GPCRs, we analysed 27 GPCRs from diverse subgroups for which structures of active, inactive or both states were available. Here we show that, despite the diversity in activation pathways between receptors, the pathways converge near the G-protein-coupling region. This convergence is mediated by a highly conserved structural rearrangement of residue contacts between transmembrane helices 3, 6 and 7 that releases G-protein-contacting residues. The convergence of activation pathways may explain how the activation steps initiated by diverse ligands enable GPCRs to bind a common repertoire of G proteins. PMID:27525504

  20. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  1. Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Docking by Different Classes of Macromolecules in Active Zone Material

    PubMed Central

    Szule, Joseph A.; Harlow, Mark L.; Jung, Jae Hoon; De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2012-01-01

    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10–15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles’ distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry. PMID:22438915

  2. The Advent of Lifestyle Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Byung-Il; Kong, In Deok

    2013-01-01

    The fact that lifestyle is closely associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diseases has been known for more than three decades. Smoking may cause lung cancer, and a lifestyle of fast food consumption and little exercise can cause metabolic diseases. The importance of lifestyle changes in terms of a new medical paradigm to solve chronic diseases is becoming popular in modern times. Lifestyle medicine is a medicine based on personal lifestyle. To apply it to patients and ordinary people, physicians have to cooperate with experts in many fields such as nutrition, exercise, psychology, etc. In addition, patients must be partners in the treatment rather than passive recipients. The advent of lifestyle medicine has been caused by changes in disease patterns. In the past, acute diseases like infectious disease were prevalent; however, in the late 20th century, chronic diseases such as metabolic diseases, cancers, neurological disease, etc. increased in occurrence. As lifestyle is closely related with these diseases, the attitudes toward medicine need to be changed. Recently, the concept of “Lifestyle Medicine” was proposed, and we predict it will be an important field in future medicine. PMID:26064831

  3. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's own…

  4. Effectiveness and Student Perceptions of an Active Learning Activity Using a Headline News Story to Enhance In-Class Learning of Cell Cycle Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation,…

  5. Porcine MHC classical class I genes are coordinately expressed in superantigen-activated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Kita, Yuki F; Shimada, Shin; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Ando, Asako

    2012-08-15

    The expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classical class I genes is important for the adaptive immune response to target virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The up-regulation of the MHC is achieved by hormonal/cytokine signals including IFN-γ-inducible elements. The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), the MHC class I region of pigs, consists of the duplicated classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their up-regulation after T cell stimulation have not been fully elucidated. In order to better understand some of the putative regulatory mechanisms of SLA class I gene expression in activated T cells, we examined the coordinated expression of the SLA classical class I, IFN-γ and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLA homozygous Clawn miniature swine stimulated for 72 h with either IFN-γ or an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. This enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome-1 (TSST-1), is known to act as a superantigen (sAG) to activate the T cells in various vertebrate species. We showed by using mAbs and flow cytometry that the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell number of swine PBMCs was also increased by TSST-1 and to a lesser degree by IFN-γ. Time course analyses of the expression of the IFN-γ, IRF-1 and the three classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, in PBMCs by quantitative real-time PCR revealed a transitory response to TSST-1 or IFN-γ stimulation. The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the PBMCs were continuously up-regulated over the first 48 h by TSST-1 or IFN-γ. In contrast, SLA class I expression moderately increased at 24h and then decreased to a baseline level or less at 72 h of IFN-γ or TSST-1 stimulation. The three classical SLA class I genes showed similar expression kinetics, although SLA-3 mRNA level was consistently lower than those of SLA-1 and -2. The expression of IRF-1, a modulator of SLA expression, showed similar

  6. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  7. Differential Requirement of the Extracellular Domain in Activation of Class B G Protein-coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Hua; Yin, Yanting; Yang, Dehua; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Wang, Xiaoxi; Pal, Kuntal; Jiang, Yi; Feng, Yang; Cai, Xiaoqing; Dai, Antao; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Ming-Wei; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2016-07-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the secretin-like (class B) family are key players in hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders and neuronal diseases. They consist of a large N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) with the GPCR signature of seven transmembrane helices. Class B GPCRs are activated by peptide hormones with their C termini bound to the receptor ECD and their N termini bound to the TMD. It is thought that the ECD functions as an affinity trap to bind and localize the hormone to the receptor. This in turn would allow the hormone N terminus to insert into the TMD and induce conformational changes of the TMD to activate downstream signaling. In contrast to this prevailing model, we demonstrate that human class B GPCRs vary widely in their requirement of the ECD for activation. In one group, represented by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R), parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type 1 receptor (PAC1R), the ECD requirement for high affinity hormone binding can be bypassed by induced proximity and mass action effects, whereas in the other group, represented by glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), the ECD is required for signaling even when the hormone is covalently linked to the TMD. Furthermore, the activation of GLP-1R by small molecules that interact with the intracellular side of the receptor is dependent on the presence of its ECD, suggesting a direct role of the ECD in GLP-1R activation. PMID:27226600

  8. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  9. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans. PMID:26826704

  10. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans. PMID:26826704

  11. Environmental Characteristics and Student Physical Activity in PE Class: Findings From Two Large Urban Areas of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Skala, Katherine A.; Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children's moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE. Methods Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 3rd, 4th and 5th grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation. Results Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared to indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, p=.037). Larger (p=.044) and longer (p=.001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (p<.001). Conclusions Findings suggest that children's activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children's MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA. PMID:21934165

  12. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  13. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different

  14. Dithiolopyrrolones: Biosynthesis, Synthesis, and Activity of a Unique Class of Disulfide-Containing Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Wever, Walter J.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Bowers, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dithiolopyrrolone (DTP) group antibiotics were first isolated in the early half of the 20th century, but only recently has research been reawakened by insights gained from the synthesis and biosynthesis of this structurally intriguing class of molecules. DTPs are characterized by an electronically unique bicyclic structure, which contains a compact disulfide bridge between two ene-thiols. Points of diversity within the compound class occur outside of the bicyclic core, at the two amide nitrogens. Such modifications distinguish three of the most well studied members of the class, holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin; the DTP core has also more recently been identified in the marine antibiotic thiomarinol, in which it is linked to a marinolic acid moiety, analog of the FDA-approved topical antibiotic Bactroban® (GlaxoSmithKline). Dithiolopyrrolones exhibit relatively broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, they have been shown to exhibit potent and selective anti-cancer activity. Despite this promising profile, there is still much unknown about the mechanisms of action for DTPs. Early reports suggested that they inhibit yeast growth at the level of transcription and that this effect is largely responsible for their distinctive microbial static properties; a similar mechanism is supported in bacteria. Elucidation of biosynthetic pathways for holomycin in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Yersinia ruckeri and thiomarinol in Alteromonas rava sp. nov. SANK 73390, have contributed evidence suggesting that multiple mechanisms may be operative in the activity of these compounds. This review will comprehensively cover the history and development of dithiolopyrrolones with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis, synthesis, biological activity and mechanism of action. PMID:24835149

  15. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this section must be packaged in accordance with 10 CFR part 71. (e) Tables 5 and 6 are as follows... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition...

  16. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  17. Development of Pupils' Transfer Skills by Means of Hands On Activities with Artisan Materials in Natural Sciences Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chicinas, Luminita

    2008-01-01

    Hands on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strength of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical…

  18. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants. PMID:26451762

  19. Opposing ISWI- and CHD-class chromatin remodeling activities orchestrate heterochromatic DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Karolin; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Pinder, Jordan B.; Cena, Chad S.; Del Nero, Victor; Wintersinger, Christopher M.; Dellaire, Graham; van Attikum, Haico

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a barrier to DNA repair that correlates strongly with elevated somatic mutation in cancer. CHD class II nucleosome remodeling activity (specifically CHD3.1) retained by KAP-1 increases heterochromatin compaction and impedes DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair requiring Artemis. This obstruction is alleviated by chromatin relaxation via ATM-dependent KAP-1S824 phosphorylation (pKAP-1) and CHD3.1 dispersal from heterochromatic DSBs; however, how heterochromatin compaction is actually adjusted after CHD3.1 dispersal is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that Artemis-dependent DSB repair in heterochromatin requires ISWI (imitation switch)-class ACF1–SNF2H nucleosome remodeling. Compacted chromatin generated by CHD3.1 after DNA replication necessitates ACF1–SNF2H–mediated relaxation for DSB repair. ACF1–SNF2H requires RNF20 to bind heterochromatic DSBs, underlies RNF20-mediated chromatin relaxation, and functions downstream of pKAP-1–mediated CHD3.1 dispersal to enable DSB repair. CHD3.1 and ACF1–SNF2H display counteractive activities but similar histone affinities (via the plant homeodomains of CHD3.1 and ACF1), which we suggest necessitates a two-step dispersal and recruitment system regulating these opposing chromatin remodeling activities during DSB repair. PMID:25533843

  20. Opposing ISWI- and CHD-class chromatin remodeling activities orchestrate heterochromatic DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Klement, Karolin; Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Pinder, Jordan B; Cena, Chad S; Del Nero, Victor; Wintersinger, Christopher M; Dellaire, Graham; van Attikum, Haico; Goodarzi, Aaron A

    2014-12-22

    Heterochromatin is a barrier to DNA repair that correlates strongly with elevated somatic mutation in cancer. CHD class II nucleosome remodeling activity (specifically CHD3.1) retained by KAP-1 increases heterochromatin compaction and impedes DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair requiring Artemis. This obstruction is alleviated by chromatin relaxation via ATM-dependent KAP-1S824 phosphorylation (pKAP-1) and CHD3.1 dispersal from heterochromatic DSBs; however, how heterochromatin compaction is actually adjusted after CHD3.1 dispersal is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that Artemis-dependent DSB repair in heterochromatin requires ISWI (imitation switch)-class ACF1-SNF2H nucleosome remodeling. Compacted chromatin generated by CHD3.1 after DNA replication necessitates ACF1-SNF2H-mediated relaxation for DSB repair. ACF1-SNF2H requires RNF20 to bind heterochromatic DSBs, underlies RNF20-mediated chromatin relaxation, and functions downstream of pKAP-1-mediated CHD3.1 dispersal to enable DSB repair. CHD3.1 and ACF1-SNF2H display counteractive activities but similar histone affinities (via the plant homeodomains of CHD3.1 and ACF1), which we suggest necessitates a two-step dispersal and recruitment system regulating these opposing chromatin remodeling activities during DSB repair. PMID:25533843

  1. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  2. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  3. "Fitness Freaks": A Healthier Lifestyle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the lifestyles of young people are affected by health and fitness considerations. An analysis of data from 3253 Health Related Behavior Questionnaires, completed by fourth-year secondary school pupils is presented. (IAH)

  4. The Effect of Socioeconomic Class and Immigrant Status on Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Data from BARFOT, a Multi-Centre Study of Early RA

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria L.E.; Bergman, Stefan; Söderlin, Maria K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There have been no reports on the effect of immigrant status and socioeconomic status on outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Sweden. Methods: Between 1992 and 2006, 2,800 patients were included in the BARFOT study on early RA in Sweden. Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), treatment and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were registered. In 2010, 1,430 patients completed a questionnaire enquiring about demographics and lifestyle factors. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine of the 1,430 patients (9.7%) were immigrants. At baseline immigrants had higher mean HAQ (1.2 vs 0.97 for non-immigrants, p=0.001), DAS28 (5.6 vs 5.2, p=0.000), visual analog scale (VAS) pain (56 mm vs 45 mm, p=0.000), VAS global health (53 mm vs 44 mm, p=0.000) and tender joint count (TJC) (10 vs 8, p=0.000). These differences persisted for up to 2 years of follow-up (for HAQ, for up to 8 years of follow-up). Immigrant status did not have any effect on swollen joint count (SJC), ESR, CRP or EULAR response. Socioeconomic class did not have any effect on treatment or outcome. Conclusions: Immigrants scored worse in pain, function and TJC for up to 2 years of follow-up, but they did not differ from non-immigrants in objective measures of inflammation or EULAR outcome. This could be due to different perceptions of health and pain and/or the stress of immigration. Socioeconomic class had no effect on treatment or outcome, and this could be due to the relatively egalitarian society in Sweden. PMID:24358069

  5. The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) project: outline of methods.

    PubMed

    Telford, Richard D; Bass, Shona L; Budge, Marc M; Byrne, Donald G; Carlson, John S; Coles, David; Cunningham, Ross B; Daly, Robin M; Dunstan, David W; English, Rowena; Fitzgerald, Robert; Eser, Prisca; Gravenmaker, Karen J; Haynes, Wayne; Hickman, Peter E; Javaid, Ahmad; Jiang, Xiaoli; Lafferty, Tony; McGrath, Mark; Martin, Mary Kay; Naughton, Geraldine A; Potter, Julia M; Potter, Stacey J; Prosser, Laurence; Pyne, David B; Reynolds, Graham J; Saunders, Philo U; Seibel, Markus J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Southcott, Emma; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Stuckey, Darryl; Telford, Rohan M; Thomas, Kerry; Tallis, Ken; Waring, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This methods paper outlines the overall design of a community-based multidisciplinary longitudinal study with the intent to stimulate interest and communication from scientists and practitioners studying the role of physical activity in preventive medicine. In adults, lack of regular exercise is a major risk factor in the development of chronic degenerative diseases and is a major contributor to obesity, and now we have evidence that many of our children are not sufficiently active to prevent early symptoms of chronic disease. The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) study investigates how early physical activity contributes to health and development, utilizing a longitudinal design and a cohort of eight hundred and thirty 7-8-year-old (grade 2) school children followed to age 11-12 years (grade 6), their average family income being very close to that of Australia. We will test two hypotheses, that (a) the quantity and quality of physical activity undertaken by primary school children will influence their psychological and physical health and development; (b) compared with existing practices in primary schools, a physical education program administered by visiting specialists will enhance health and development, and lead to a more positive perception of physical activity. To test the first hypothesis we will monitor all children longitudinally over the 4 years. To test the second we will involve an intervention group of 430 children who receive two 50min physical education classes every week from visiting specialists and a control group of 400 who continue with their usual primary school physical education with their class-room teachers. At the end of grades 2, 4, and 6 we will measure several areas of health and development including blood risk factors for chronic disease, cardiovascular structure and function, physical fitness, psychological characteristics and perceptions of physical activity, bone structure and strength, motor control, body composition, nutritional

  6. A systematic review of lifestyle monitoring technologies.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, Simon; Bradley, David; Blackburn, Steve; Cardinaux, Fabien; Hawley, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    The evidence base for lifestyle monitoring is relatively weak, even though there are significant numbers of commercial installations around the world. We conducted a literature review to summarize the current position with regard to lifestyle monitoring based on sensors in the home. In total, 74 papers met the inclusion criteria. Only four papers reported trials involving 20 or more subjects, with a further 21 papers reporting trials involving one or more subjects. Most papers (n = 49) were concerned with technology development. Motion detection was the most common of the technologies employed, followed by door and electrical appliance usage. The predominant monitoring strategy was that of detecting changes in activity. However, little attention has been given to determining when or how changes in the profile of activity should be used to raise a call for assistance from a health or care professional. Lifestyle monitoring remains a relatively immature research area in which there is little detailed understanding of how to provide comprehensive and effective systems. PMID:21508080

  7. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis reveals different classes of enigmatic old yellow enzyme in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Nizam, Shadab; Verma, Sandhya; Borah, Nilam Nayan; Gazara, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we systematically identify Old Yellow Enzymes (OYEs) from a diverse range of economically important fungi representing different ecology and lifestyle. Using active site residues and sequence alignments, we present a classification for these proteins into three distinct classes including a novel class (Class III) and assign names to sequences. Our in-depth phylogenetic analysis suggests a complex history of lineage-specific expansion and contraction for the OYE gene family in fungi. Comparative analyses reveal remarkable diversity in the number and classes of OYE among fungi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of Ascochyta rabiei OYEs indicates differential expression of OYE genes during oxidative stress and plant infection. This study shows relationship of OYE with fungal ecology and lifestyle, and provides a foundation for future functional analysis and characterization of OYE gene family. PMID:24500274

  8. MAGNETIC STRUCTURE PRODUCING X- AND M-CLASS SOLAR FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, S.; Magara, T.; Choe, G. S.; Hayashi, K.; Shiota, D.

    2013-06-10

    We study the three-dimensional magnetic structure of the solar active region 11158, which produced one X-class and several M-class flares on 2011 February 13-16. We focus on the magnetic twist in four flare events, M6.6, X2.2, M1.0, and M1.1. The magnetic twist is estimated from the nonlinear force-free field extrapolated from the vector fields obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory using the magnetohydrodynamic relaxation method developed by Inoue et al. We found that strongly twisted lines ranging from half-turn to one-turn twists were built up just before the M6.6 and X2.2 flares and disappeared after that. Because most of the twists remaining after these flares were less than a half-turn twist, this result suggests that the buildup of magnetic twist over the half-turn twist is a key process in the production of large flares. On the other hand, even though these strong twists were also built up just before the M1.0 and M1.1 flares, most of them remained afterward. Careful topological analysis before the M1.0 and M1.1 flares shows that the strongly twisted lines were surrounded mostly by the weakly twisted lines formed in accordance with the clockwise motion of the positive sunspot, whose footpoints are rooted in strong magnetic flux regions. These results imply that these weakly twisted lines might suppress the activity of the strongly twisted lines in the last two M-class flares.

  9. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  10. Antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory of Class II hydrophobin from wild strain Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Jahanbani, Raheleh; Riveros-Galan, David; Sheikh-Hassani, Vahid; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Sahihi, Mehdi; Winterburn, James; Derdelinckx, Guy; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-10-01

    There are several possible uses of the Class II hydrophobin HFBII in clinical applications. To fully understand and exploit this potential however, the antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory potential of this protein need to be better understood and have not been previously reported. In this study, the Class II hydrophobin HFBII was produced by the cultivation of wild type Trichoderma reesei. The crude hydrophobin extract obtained from the fermentation process was purified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and the identity of the purified HFBII verified by MALDI-TOF (molecular weight: 7.2kDa). Subsequently the antioxidant activities of different concentrations of HFBII (0.01-0.40mg/mL) were determined. The results show that for HFBII concentrations of 0.04mg/mL and upwards the protein significantly reduced the presence of ABTS(+) radicals in the medium, the IC50 value found to be 0.13mg/mL. Computational modeling highlighted the role of the amino acid residues located in the conserved and exposed hydrophobic patch on the surface of the HFBII molecule and the interactions with the aromatic rings of ABTS. The ACE-inhibitory effect of HFBII was found to occur from 0.5mg/mL and upwards, making the combination of HFBII with strong ACE-inhibitors attractive for use in the healthcare industry. PMID:27211298

  11. Mesaconase Activity of Class I Fumarase Contributes to Mesaconate Utilization by Burkholderia xenovorans.

    PubMed

    Kronen, Miriam; Sasikaran, Jahminy; Berg, Ivan A

    2015-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, and many other bacteria are able to utilize the C5-dicarboxylic acid itaconate (methylenesuccinate). Itaconate degradation starts with its activation to itaconyl coenzyme A (itaconyl-CoA), which is further hydrated to (S)-citramalyl-CoA, and citramalyl-CoA is finally cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. The xenobiotic-degrading betaproteobacterium Burkholderia xenovorans possesses a P. aeruginosa-like itaconate degradation gene cluster and is able to grow on itaconate and its isomer mesaconate (methylfumarate). Although itaconate degradation proceeds in B. xenovorans in the same way as in P. aeruginosa, the pathway of mesaconate utilization is not known. Here, we show that mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. As this enzyme (Bxe_A3136) has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration, we conclude that B. xenovorans class I fumarase is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26070669

  12. Mesaconase Activity of Class I Fumarase Contributes to Mesaconate Utilization by Burkholderia xenovorans

    PubMed Central

    Kronen, Miriam; Sasikaran, Jahminy

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, and many other bacteria are able to utilize the C5-dicarboxylic acid itaconate (methylenesuccinate). Itaconate degradation starts with its activation to itaconyl coenzyme A (itaconyl-CoA), which is further hydrated to (S)-citramalyl-CoA, and citramalyl-CoA is finally cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. The xenobiotic-degrading betaproteobacterium Burkholderia xenovorans possesses a P. aeruginosa-like itaconate degradation gene cluster and is able to grow on itaconate and its isomer mesaconate (methylfumarate). Although itaconate degradation proceeds in B. xenovorans in the same way as in P. aeruginosa, the pathway of mesaconate utilization is not known. Here, we show that mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. As this enzyme (Bxe_A3136) has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration, we conclude that B. xenovorans class I fumarase is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26070669

  13. Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants’ response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 ±12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10–15 minutes walk of participants’ residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants’ response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, “Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)”, “High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)”, “Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)”, “Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)”, and “Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)”. Country representation differed by

  14. Biochemistry of platelet-activating factor: A unique class of biologically active phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, F. )

    1989-01-01

    This brief overview describes the chemical features of this unique bioactive phospholipid that possesses biologic properties identical to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and an antihypertensive polar renal lipid (APRL). The current understanding of PAF metabolism and its regulation are emphasized, particularly in the context of explaining the enzymatic source of PAF in physiologic vs pharmacologic processes. Also included are brief accounts of the biologic properties, structural-functional relationships, antagonists, receptors and mode of action of PAF.

  15. Methods for measuring Class I membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Paul H; Padgett-McCue, Amy J; Baggenstoss, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying hyaluronan (HA) made by Class I HA synthase (HAS) and determining the level of activity of these membrane-bound enzymes is critical in studies to understand the normal biology of HA and how changes in HAS activity and HA levels or size are important in inflammatory and other diseases, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Unlike the products made by the vast majority of glycosyltransferases, HA products are more complicated since they are made as a heterogeneous population of sizes spanning a broad mass range. Three radioactive and nonradioactive assay methods are described that can give the amount of HA made with or without information about the distribution of product sizes. PMID:23765666

  16. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam L.; Steurer, Michael A.; Aronstam, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 μM forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  17. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam L; Steurer, Michael A; Aronstam, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 μM forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  18. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    PubMed Central

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  19. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1.

    PubMed

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  20. Activation and conformational dynamics of a class B G-protein-coupled glucagon receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sun, Jixue; Li, Dongmei; Lin, Jianping

    2016-05-14

    The human glucagon receptor (GCGR) is a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The GCGR can be activated by glucagon and regulates the release of glucose. The GCGR has been proposed to be an important drug target for type 2 diabetes. Based on the structural model of a full-length glucagon-bound GCGR (glu-GCGR), we performed accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations, potential of mean force (PMF) calculations, cross-correlation analysis and community network analysis to study the activation mechanism and the conformational dynamics during the activation process. The PMF map depicts three different conformational states of the GCGR: the inactive, intermediate and active states. The activation of the GCGR is characterized by the outward movement of the intracellular side of helix VI. In the active state of the GCGR, the Arg173(2.46)-Ser350(6.41) and Glu245(3.50)-Thr351(6.42) hydrogen bonds break, and the χ1 rotamer of Phe322(5.54) changes from perpendicular to parallel to helix VI. The binding of the agonist glucagon decreases the correlated motions of the extracellular loops (ELCs) and the helices around the glucagon-binding site. During the activation of the GCGR, the connections between the intracellular sides of helices become weaker, and the connections between glucagon and ECLs and the extracellular sides of helices become stronger. These facilitate G-protein coupling on the intracellular side and glucagon binding on the extracellular side, and stabilize the GCGR in the active state. We expect that this study can provide useful information on the activation mechanism of the GCGR and facilitate the future design of GCGR inhibitors. PMID:27094704

  1. Regulation of aicda expression and AID activity: Relevance to somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenming; Pone, Egest J.; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Park, Seok-Rae; Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Expression and activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) encoded by the aicda gene are essential for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch DNA recombination (CSR). SHM and CSR unfold in general in germinal centers and are central to the maturation of effective antibody responses. AID expression is induced by activated B cell CD40 signaling, which is critical for the germinal center reaction, and is further enhanced by other stimuli, including interleukin-4 (IL-4) secreted from CD4+ T cells or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activating bacterial and/or viral molecules. Integration of different intracellular signal transduction pathways, as activated by these stimuli, leads to a dynamic aicda-regulating program, which involves both positively acting trans-factors, such as Pax5, HoxC4, E47 and Irf8, and negative modulators, such as Blimp1 and Id2, to restrict aicda expression primarily to germinal center B cells. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), which functions downstream of activated B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, likely plays an important role in triggering the downregulation of aicda expression in post-germinal center B cells and throughout plasmacytoid differentiation. In B cells undergoing SHM and CSR, AID activity and, possibly, AID targeting to the Ig locus are regulated at a post-translational level, including AID dimerization/oligomerization, nuclear/cytoplasmic AID translocation and phosphorylation of the AID Ser38 residue by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we will discuss the role of B cell activation signals, transcription regulation programs and post-translational modifications in controlling aicda expression and AID activity, thereby delineating an integrated model of modulation of SHM and CSR in the germinal center reaction. PMID:18197815

  2. Guanylated polymethacrylates: a class of potent antimicrobial polymers with low hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Locock, Katherine E S; Michl, Thomas D; Valentin, Jules D P; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D; Qu, Yue; Traven, Ana; Griesser, Hans J; Meagher, Laurence; Haeussler, Matthias

    2013-11-11

    We have synthesized a series of copolymers containing both positively charged (amine, guanidine) and hydrophobic side chains (amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide mimics). To investigate the structure-activity relationships of these polymers, low polydispersity polymethacrylates of varying but uniform molecular weight and composition were synthesized, using a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) approach. In a facile second reaction, pendant amine groups were converted to guanidines, allowing for direct comparison of cation structure on activity and toxicity. The guanidine copolymers were much more active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans compared to the amine analogues. Activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis in the presence of fetal bovine serum was only maintained for guanidine copolymers. Selectivity for bacterial over mammalian cells was assessed using hemolytic and hemagglutination toxicity assays. Guanidine copolymers of low to moderate molecular weight and hydrophobicity had high antimicrobial activity with low toxicity. Optimum properties appear to be a balance between charge density, hydrophobic character, and polymer chain length. In conclusion, a suite of guanidine copolymers has been identified that represent a new class of antimicrobial polymers with high potency and low toxicity. PMID:24099527

  3. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaqin; Liu, Jiane; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s) underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA) treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade. PMID:26263390

  4. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  5. Lifestyle and LUTS: what is the correlation in men?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review the primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence linking lifestyle factors and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and their relevance in men. An extensive literature search from January 2013 to August 2014 was conducted, reviewed and summarized in conjunction with key prior evidence. Recent findings The main findings from this review include: 1) Epidemiological data repeatedly show a favorable relationship between a healthy eating habits and regular physical activity level and a lower risk for LUTS or progression of LUTS, 2) certain specific nutrients or dietary factors may contribute to the link between diet and LUTS due to their anti-inflammatory potential, and 3) very little research has been conducted to test the epidemiological findings in randomized controlled trials. Summary Rigorously designed clinical trials are needed to confirm the association between lifestyle factors and LUTS and the effect of lifestyle modification on the development or progression of LUTS. Nevertheless, a healthy lifestyle is known to closely relate with chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, promoting a healthy lifestyle with good quality diet and regular physical activity is beneficial not only for potentially improving or reducing LUTS but also for cardiovascular and overall health. Clinicians are encouraged to include healthy lifestyle counseling in their routine care for patients with LUTS. PMID:25393271

  6. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  7. Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Depression in Urban Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Shao, Pei; Ni, Chunping; Hua, Qianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore health-promoting lifestyles, depression and provide further insight into the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and depression in an urban community sample of elderly Chinese people. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study of 954 community-dwelling urban elderly Chinese (aged ≥ 60) was conducted from July to December 2010. Lifestyles and depression were assessed using the revised Chinese Version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-C) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results In this cohort, 15.8% of elderly urban adults met the criteria for depression. Over half of the sample (62.1%) scored greater than 100 on the HPLP-C, with range of score sum from 55 to 160. There were significant correlations between self-actualization (OR = 1.167, 95%CI: 1.111–1.226), nutrition (OR = 1.118, 95%CI: 1.033–1.209), physical activity (OR = 1.111, 95%CI: 1.015–1.216) and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study. The significant associations found do not represent directional causation. Further longitudinal follow-up is recommended to investigate the specific causal relationship between lifestyles and depression. Conclusions Depression was common with medium to high levels of health-promoting lifestyles among urban elderly Chinese people. Lifestyle behaviors such as self-actualization, good nutrition habits and frequent physical activity were correlated to fewer depressive symptoms. Healthy lifestyles should be further developed in this population and measures should be taken for improving their depression. PMID:25781326

  8. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  9. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  10. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  11. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  12. A Bacterial Ortholog of Class II Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase Activates Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; O’Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter; Moses, Sharath

    2010-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases produce aminoacyl-tRNAs, essential substrates for accurate protein synthesis. Beyond their central role in translation some of these enzymes or their orthologs are recruited for alternative functions, not always related to their primary cellular role. We investigate here the enzymatic properties of GenX (also called PoxA and YjeA), an ortholog of bacterial class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase. GenX is present in most Gram-negative bacteria and is homologous to the catalytic core of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, but it lacks the amino terminal anticodon binding domain of the latter enzyme. We show that, in agreement with its well-conserved lysine binding site, GenX can activate in vitro L-lysine and lysine analogs, but does not acylate tRNALys or other cellular RNAs. PMID:20580719

  13. Training for Lifestyle Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalglish, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Many developed countries have issues with the movement of populations away from rural areas. There has been an active move towards "value adding" in rural areas, and in particular, the development of tourism activities, to counter this trend. The purpose of this paper is to document the curriculum development process that was engaged in, in the…

  14. Human HDAC7 Harbors a Class IIa Histone Deacetylase-specific Zinc Binding Motif and Cryptic Deacetylase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P.; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; McLean, Thomas H.; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2010-10-18

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.

  15. Active suppression of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression during differentiation from B cells to plasma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Latron, F; Jotterand-Bellomo, M; Maffei, A; Scarpellino, L; Bernard, M; Strominger, J L; Accolla, R S

    1988-01-01

    Constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes is acquired very early in B-cell ontogeny and is maintained up to the B-cell blast stage. Terminal differentiation in plasma cells is, however, accompanied by a loss of class II gene expression. In B cells this gene system is under the control of several loci encoding transacting factors with activator function, one of which, the aIr-1 gene product, operates across species barriers. In this report human class II gene expression is shown to be extinguished in somatic cell hybrids between the human class II-positive B-cell line Raji and the mouse class II-negative plasmacytoma cell line P3-U1. Since all murine chromosomes are retained in these hybrids and no preferential segregation of a specific human chromosome is observed, the results are compatible with the presence of suppressor factors of mouse origin, operating across species barriers and inhibiting class II gene expression. Suppression seems to act at the level of transcription or accumulation of class II-specific mRNA, since no human, and very few murine, class II transcripts are detectable in the hybrids. Images PMID:3127829

  16. An Active Learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Session in a Self-Care Therapeutics Class

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide an interactive, non-supplement based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) session in a self-care therapeutics class and to evaluate the effect of the session on pharmacy students’ perceptions and knowledge of CAM. Design. Second professional year pharmacy students enrolled in a required 3-credit course titled Self-Care Therapeutics participated in an active learning session on CAM. Students physically engaged in 5 separate active learning CAM sessions including massage therapy, Tai Chi, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, and Reiki. Assessment. Students were assessed on both knowledge and perception of CAM. Concept mastery was assessed using a written examination and individual readiness assurance tests (iRAT) and team readiness assurance tests (tRAT). Perception of CAM was measured using both a presession and a postsession survey. Conclusion. Participating in an intensive, active learning CAM session provided an opportunity to increase students’ knowledge of CAM and an effective strategy for providing the learner with the experience to better envision incorporation into patient therapies. PMID:25258446

  17. Hydraphiles: A Rigorously Studied Class of Synthetic Channel Compounds with In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Negin, Saeedeh; Smith, Bryan A.; Unger, Alexandra; Leevy, W. Matthew; Gokel, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR or ion-selective electrodes, as well as biophysical experiments in planar bilayers. During the past decade, biological activity was observed for these compounds including toxicity to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells due to stress caused by the disruption of ion homeostasis. The channel mechanism was verified in cells using membrane polarity sensitive dyes, as well as patch clamping studies. This body of work has provided a solid foundation with which hydraphiles have recently demonstrated acute biological toxicity in the muscle tissue of living mice, as measured by whole animal fluorescence imaging and histological studies. Here we review the critical structure-activity relationships in the hydraphile family of compounds and the in vitro and in cellulo experiments that have validated their channel behavior. This report culminates with a description of recently reported efforts in which these molecules have demonstrated activity in living mice. PMID:23401675

  18. Constitutive activation of casein kinase 2 in glioblastomas: Absence of class restriction and broad therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Nadege; Willems, Marie; Nguyen-Khac, Minh-Tuan; Kroonen, Jerome; Goffart, Nicolas; Deprez, Manuel; Bours, Vincent; Robe, Pierre A

    2016-06-01

    Casein kinase II contributes to the growth and survival of malignant gliomas and attracts increasing attention as a therapeutic target in these tumors. Several reports have suggested that this strategy might be most relevant for specific subgroups of patients, namely Verhaak's classical and TP53 wild-type tumors. Using kinase assays and microarray genetic profiling in a series of 27 proprietary fresh frozen surgical glioma samples, we showed that constitutive CK2 kinase activation is not restricted to tumors that present increased copy numbers or mRNA expression of its catalytic or regulatory subunits, and can result from a functional activation by various cytokines from the glioma microenvironment. Using corresponding primary tumor and human astrocyte cell cultures as well as glioma cell lines, we confirmed that CK2 inhibition is selectively toxic to malignant glial tumors, without any restriction to tumor class or to TP53 status. We finally showed that while the contribution of CK2 to the constitutive NF-κB hyperactivation in malignant gliomas is at best moderate, a delayed activation of NF-κB may associate with the therapeutic resistance of glioma cells to CK2 inhibition. PMID:27098015

  19. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activity of a novel class of indole-2-carboxylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xing-yue; Xue, Si-tu; Zhan, Yue-chen; Shen, Jia-jia; Wu, Lin-tao; Jin, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Li, Zhuo-rong

    2014-08-18

    Based on the chemical structure of Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a novel class of indole-2-carboxylate derivatives was designed, synthesized and assayed for antiproliferative activity in cancer cells in vitro. The biological results showed that some derivatives exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against HepG2, A549 and MCF7 cells. Notably, the novel compounds, methyl 6-amino-4-cyclohexylmethoxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylate (6e) and methyl 4-isopropoxy-6-methoxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylate (9l) exhibited more potent antiproliferative activity than the reference drugs PQQ and etoposide in vitro, with IC50 values ranging from 3.78 ± 0.58 to 24.08 ± 1.76 μM. Further biological assay showed that both compounds 6e and 9l increased ROS generation dose-dependently, and induced PARP cleavage in A549 cells. Consequently, 6e and 9l appeared as promising anticancer lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24996136

  20. Sleepless nights: the effect of socioeconomic status, physical activity, and lifestyle factors on sleep quality in a large cohort of Australian women.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohammmad; Haytabakhsh, Mohammad R; Najman, Jake M; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Bor, William; Dingle, Kaeleen; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the association between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and sleep quality in a population-based cohort of Australian women and (2) possible influence of reproductive status and mental and physical health factors on these associations. Data on 3,655 women (mean age = 46.6 years, range 34.3-67.4) were obtained from the Mater Hospital University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy for this cross-sectional study. Self-rated sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For the purpose of this study, two cutoff points (scores 5 and 10) were used to divide women into three categories: normal (65.2%), moderately poor (26.4%), and very poor sleep quality (8.5%). Other covariates were measured at 21-year follow-up as well. After adjusting for reproductive status, mental and physical health, there were significant associations between moderately poor sleep quality and education and between very poor sleep quality and unemployment, both measures of socioeconomic status. In addition, work-related exertion was associated with increased rates of moderately poor sleep quality, whereas those women undertaking moderate exercise were less likely to experience very poor sleep quality. Independent associations between sociodemographic factors and exercise with moderately poor and very poor sleep quality were identified. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the association between exercise/exertion, socioeconomic status, and sleep quality and highlight the importance of taking these into consideration when dealing with issues of poor sleep quality in women. PMID:22585289

  1. Staphylococcus-mediated T-cell activation and spontaneous natural killer cell activity in the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Hoynowski, S. M.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Beharka, A. A.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We used major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-deficient transgenic mice to show that in vitro natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell activation by staphylococcal exotoxins (superantigens) are not dependent upon the presence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. T cells can be activated by exotoxins in the presence of exogenously added interleukin 1 or 2 or in the presence of specific antibody without exogenously added cytokines.

  2. An Active, Reflective Learning Cycle for E-Commerce Classes: Learning about E-Commerce by Doing and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Alan S.; Singh, Tirna

    2010-01-01

    Active, experiential learning is an important component in information systems education, ensuring that students gain an appreciation for both practical and theoretical information systems concepts. Typically, students in active, experiential classes engage in real world projects for commercial companies or not-for-profit organizations. In the…

  3. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration. PMID:24900853

  4. Effectiveness and student perceptions of an active learning activity using a headline news story to enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2016-06-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation, students completed a 10-question multiple-choice quiz before and after engaging in the activity. The activity involved reading of a headline news article published by ScienceDaily.com entitled "One Gene Lost Equals One limb Regained." The name of the gene was deleted from the article and, thus, the end goal of the activity was to determine the gene of interest by the description in the story. The activity included compiling a list of all potential gene candidates before sufficient information was given to identify the gene of interest (p21). A survey was completed to determine student perceptions of the activity. Quiz scores improved by an average of 20% after the activity (40.1 ± 1.95 vs. 59.9 ± 2.14,P< 0.0001,n= 96). Students enjoyed the activity, found the news article interesting, and believed that the activity improved their understanding of cell cycle regulation. The majority of students agreed that the in-class activity piqued their interest for learning the subject matter and also agreed that if they understand a concept during class, they are more likely to want to study that concept outside of class. In conclusion, the activity improved in-class understanding and enhanced interest in cell cycle regulation. PMID:27068993

  5. ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Khair, Lyne; Guikema, Jeroen E J; Linehan, Erin K; Ucher, Anna J; Leus, Niek G J; Ogilvie, Colin; Lou, Zhenkun; Schrader, Carol E; Stavnezer, Janet

    2014-05-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner. PMID:24729610

  6. Collaborative Filtering for Brain-Computer Interaction Using Transfer Learning and Active Class Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J.; Parsons, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing. PMID:23437188

  7. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J; Parsons, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing. PMID:23437188

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibits HLA Class I Antibody-Dependent Endothelial Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vijith; Hiller, Oliver; Figueiredo, Constanca; Aljabri, Abid; Blasczyk, Rainer; Theilmeier, Gregor; Becker, Jan Ulrich; Larmann, Jan; Immenschuh, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a key limiting factor for long-term graft survival in solid organ transplantation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (HLA I) antibodies (Abs) play a major role in the pathogenesis of AMR via their interactions with HLA molecules on vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has anti-inflammatory functions in the endothelium. As complement-independent effects of HLA I Abs can activate ECs, it was the goal of the current study to investigate the role of HO-1 on activation of human ECs by HLA I Abs. In cell cultures of various primary human macro- and microvascular ECs treatment with monoclonal pan- and allele-specific HLA I Abs up-regulated the expression of inducible proinflammatory adhesion molecules and chemokines (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP-1]). Pharmacological induction of HO-1 with cobalt-protoporphyrin IX reduced, whereas inhibition of HO-1 with either zinc-protoporphyrin IX or siRNA-mediated knockdown increased HLA I Ab-dependent up-regulation of VCAM-1. Treatment with two carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules, which liberate the gaseous HO product CO, blocked HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation. Finally, in an in vitro adhesion assay exposure of ECs to HLA I Abs led to increased monocyte binding, which was counteracted by up-regulation of HO-1. In conclusion, HLA I Ab-dependent EC activation is modulated by endothelial HO-1 and targeted induction of this enzyme may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AMR in solid organ transplantation. PMID:26690352

  9. Salinomycin and Other Ionophores as a New Class of Antimalarial Drugs with Transmission-Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Sarah; Corbett, Yolanda; Ilboudo, Denise P.; Misiano, Paola; Dahiya, Nisha; Abay, Solomon M.; Habluetzel, Annette; Grande, Romualdo; Gismondo, Maria R.; Dechering, Koen J.; Koolen, Karin M. J.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Taramelli, Donatella; Parapini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The drug target profile proposed by the Medicines for Malaria Venture for a malaria elimination/eradication policy focuses on molecules active on both asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium, thus with both curative and transmission-blocking activities. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the class of monovalent ionophores, which includes drugs used in veterinary medicine and that were recently proposed as human anticancer agents, meets these requirements. The activity of salinomycin, monensin, and nigericin on Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual erythrocytic stages and on the development of the Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum mosquito stages is reported here. Gametocytogenesis of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 was induced in vitro, and gametocytes at stage II and III or stage IV and V of development were treated for different lengths of time with the ionophores and their viability measured with the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The monovalent ionophores efficiently killed both asexual parasites and gametocytes with a nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Salinomycin showed a fast speed of kill compared to that of standard drugs, and the potency was higher on stage IV and V than on stage II and III gametocytes. The ionophores inhibited ookinete development and subsequent oocyst formation in the mosquito midgut, confirming their transmission-blocking activity. Potential toxicity due to hemolysis was excluded, since only infected and not normal erythrocytes were damaged by ionophores. Our data strongly support the downstream exploration of monovalent ionophores for repositioning as new antimalarial and transmission-blocking leads. PMID:26055362

  10. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  11. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  12. Managing lifestyle factors in adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah

    2015-07-15

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of disability in older people in the UK. The symptoms of joint pain and stiffness can lead to reduced joint function and deformity. Addressing lifestyle factors, namely exercise and maintaining an optimum weight, can reduce pain and improve joint function. This article focuses on how, by using the concept of goal setting, nurses can work with patients to develop a plan for becoming more active and for losing weight - if the patient is overweight - to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. PMID:26174284

  13. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students. PMID:27076009

  14. Change of energy expenditure from physical activity is the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease participating in an intensive lifestyle modification program.

    PubMed

    Audelin, Marie C; Savage, Patrick D; Toth, Michael J; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Schneider, David J; Bunn, Janice Y; Ludlow, Maryann; Ades, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate the determinants of change (Δ) in insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease male patients without diabetes after an intensive lifestyle intervention. All patients received nutritional counseling and performed 4 months of exercise training (ET) according to 1 of 2 protocols: aerobic ET (65%-70% of peak aerobic capacity [VO(2)]) 25 to 40 minutes 3 times a week (n = 30) or walking (50%-60% of peak VO(2)) 45 to 60 minutes at least 5 times a week (n = 30). Data from participants of both ET groups were pooled, and post-intensive lifestyle intervention results were compared with baseline data. The primary outcome was Δ insulin sensitivity (m-value) assessed by the criterion standard technique, the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Changes in weight, body mass index, total and percentage fat mass (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan), waist circumference, total abdominal and visceral fat (by computed tomographic scan), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, peak VO(2), daily energy intake, and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) (by doubly labeled water technique) were also assessed. Daily energy intake decreased by 335 kcal, and PAEE increased by 482 kcal/d (all P < .0001). The mean weight loss was 6.4 kg, and the mean improvement in m-value was 1.6 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute. Univariate determinants of Δ m-value were low baseline PAEE, walking protocol, Δ weight, Δ body mass index, Δ total and percentage fat mass, Δ waist circumference, Δ total abdominal and visceral fat, and Δ PAEE (all P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the only significant determinant of Δ m-value was Δ PAEE (P < .02). In this analysis, the most powerful determinant of improved insulin sensitivity in overweight coronary artery disease patients is the change in PAEE. PMID:22152649

  15. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  16. Behavioral lifestyle intervention in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Looney, Shannon M; Raynor, Hollie A

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  17. Lifestyle Changes After Laryngeal or Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer affect your emotional health? Lifestyle changes after laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer You can’ ... people want to know if there are specific lifestyle changes they can make to reduce their risk ...

  18. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... is possible. By committing to and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, some people are able to reverse their pre- ... can avoid many diabetes complications by adopting a healthy lifestyle. How much can be avoided usually depends on ...

  19. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  20. Glucosylation activity and complex formation of two classes of reversibly glycosylated polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, Sandra M J; Vennik, Marco; Kottenhagen, Marijke; Van Wijk, Ringo; Buijk, Ankie; Kijne, Jan W; de Pater, Sylvia

    2002-05-01

    Reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (RGPs) have been implicated in polysaccharide biosynthesis. In plants, these proteins may function, for example, in cell wall synthesis and/or in synthesis of starch. We have isolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) Rgp cDNA clones to study the function of RGPs. Sequence comparisons showed the existence of two classes of RGP proteins, designated RGP1 and RGP2. Glucosylation activity of RGP1 and RGP2 from wheat and rice was studied. After separate expression of Rgp1 and Rgp2 in Escherichia coli or yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), only RGP1 showed self-glucosylation. In Superose 12 fractions from wheat endosperm extract, a polypeptide with a molecular mass of about 40 kD is glucosylated by UDP-glucose. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, overexpressing either wheat Rgp1 or Rgp2, were generated. Subsequent glucosylation assays revealed that in RGP1-containing tobacco extracts as well as in RGP2-containing tobacco extracts UDP-glucose is incorporated, indicating that an RGP2-containing complex is active. Gel filtration experiments with wheat endosperm extracts and extracts from transgenic tobacco plants, overexpressing either wheat Rgp1 or Rgp2, showed the presence of RGP1 and RGP2 in high-molecular mass complexes. Yeast two-hybrid studies indicated that RGP1 and RGP2 form homo- and heterodimers. Screening of a cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system and purification of the complex by an antibody affinity column did not reveal the presence of other proteins in the RGP complexes. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of active RGP1 and RGP2 homo- and heteromultimers in wheat endosperm. PMID:12011358

  1. Validity of the New Lifestyles NL-1000 Accelerometer for Measuring Time Spent in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, David; Rowe, David A.; Stark, Michelle; Nicol, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in promoting physical activity in the school environment necessitates an inexpensive, accurate method of measuring physical activity in such settings. Additionally, it is recognized that physical activity must be of at least moderate intensity in order to yield substantial health benefits. The purpose of the study, therefore, was…

  2. Osteoporosis and Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal tissue is formed during the first two decades of life; then a constant bone mass is maintained until 40 y of age. In the case of women, the bone mass is rapidly reduced at menopause at around 50 y of age. After that, bone mass slowly decreases in both men and women who have passed the 70-y-old mark. The National Institute of Health Consensus Conference adopted the definition of osteoporosis as a skeletal disorder that is characterized by compromised bone strength leading to a predisposition for and an increased risk of fracture. Since osteoporotic fractures are the third-highest cause for becoming bedridden, the maintenance of healthy bones is an important factor in extending a person's healthy lifespan. Bone mass is influenced by many factors, such as nutrition, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake, as well as by genetic factors. Thus, a healthy diet providing balanced nutrients including calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein, regular physical activity, and not smoking help maintain bone health and delay or prevent osteoporosis. Some functional foods containing soy isoflavones, milk basic protein and n-3 fatty acid may help promote bone health. PMID:26598829

  3. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices. PMID:22258282

  4. Using Classroom Response Technology to Create an Active Learning Environment in Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncy, James A.; Eastman, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom response systems (CRS), also called student/audience response systems or clickers, have been used by business instructors, particularly in larger classes, to allow instructors to ask students questions in class and have their responses immediately tabulated and reported electronically. While clickers have typically been used to measure…

  5. Critical Reading of Research Articles as Oral Activator in the Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanco, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead…

  6. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  7. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  8. Relationship between magnetic field properties and an X-class flare in active region NOAA 9077

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Liu, D.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic field plays a key role in producing solar flares, so that the investigation on the relationship between the magnetic field properties and flares is significant. In this paper, based on the magnetic field extrapolated from the photospheric vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 9077 obtained at Huairou Solar Observing Station, the magnetic field parameters including the height of field lines, force-free factor, free magnetic energy and inclination angle were studied with respect to an X-class flare in this region. We found that the magnetic field lines became lower and the ratio of number of closed field lines to those of open field lines increased after the flare. The force-free factor (α) attained a large value before the flare and then decreased after the flare for the closed field lines, while the open field lines showed the opposite tendency. Free energy reach to maximum before flare, then decrease after flare. The magnetic inclination angles showed opposite change trends after the flare for closed and open field lines. Therefore, we may conclude that non-potential energy released by flare mostly contained in the closed magnetic field lines.

  9. Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanpeng; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Nan; Zhu, Xudong; Hu, Jin; Ben, Jingjing; Yang, Qing; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi

    2014-05-01

    Macrophage death in advanced atherosclerosis promotes plaque necrosis and destabilization. Involvement of autophagy in bulk degradation of cellular components has been recognized recently as an important mechanism for cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We previously found that the engagement of class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) triggered JNK-dependent apoptosis in ER-stressed macrophages. However, pro-apoptotic mechanisms mediated by SR-A are not fully understood. Therefore, we sought to see if SR-A mediated apoptosis was associated with autophagy in macrophages. Here, we showed that fucoidan inhibited microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-phospholipid conjugates (LC3-II) formation as well as the number of autophagosomes under ER stress. The inhibition of LC3-II formation was paralleled by the activation of the mTOR pathway, and the inhibition of mTOR allowed LC3-II induction in macrophages treated with thapsigargin plus fucoidan. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by fucoidan was prevented under ER stress by the mTOR inhibitor. We propose that fucoidan, a SR-A agonist, may contribute to macrophage apoptosis during ER stress by inhibiting autophagy. PMID:25013404

  10. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  11. Influence of lifestyle on the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota A.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that requires insulin treatment from the time of diagnosis. Its clinical course depends on both genetic and environmental factors, and the lifestyle of a patient modulates their interaction. The evidence about the influence of lifestyle on the course of T1DM is increasing. In this paper, we present evidence on the relationship between lifestyle parameters and diabetes-related outcomes. We discuss the most commonly addressed factors associated with lifestyle, such as physical activity, nutrition and smoking, and those with sparse evidence in T1DM, such as socioeconomic status, sleep duration, psychological stress and illicit drugs intake. PMID:24701225

  12. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  13. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  14. Toward a class-independent quantitative structure--activity relationship model for uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Spycher, Simon; Smejtek, Pavel; Netzeva, Tatiana I; Escher, Beate I

    2008-04-01

    A mechanistically based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the uncoupling activity of weak organic acids has been derived. The analysis of earlier experimental studies suggested that the limiting step in the uncoupling process is the rate with which anions can cross the membrane and that this rate is determined by the height of the energy barrier encountered in the hydrophobic membrane core. We use this mechanistic understanding to develop a predictive model for uncoupling. The translocation rate constants of anions correlate well with the free energy difference between the energy well and the energy barrier, Delta G well-barrier,A (-) , in the membrane calculated by a novel approach to describe internal partitioning in the membrane. An existing data set of 21 phenols measured in an in vitro test system specific for uncouplers was extended by 14 highly diverse compounds. A simple regression model based on the experimental membrane-water partition coefficient and Delta G well-barrier,A (-) showed good predictive power and had meaningful regression coefficients. To establish uncoupler QSARs independent of chemical class, it is necessary to calculate the descriptors for the charged species, as the analogous descriptors of the neutral species showed almost no correlation with the translocation rate constants of anions. The substitution of experimental with calculated partition coefficients resulted in a decrease of the model fit. A particular strength of the current model is the accurate calculation of excess toxicity, which makes it a suitable tool for database screening. The applicability domain, limitations of the model, and ideas for future research are critically discussed. PMID:18358007

  15. Gametocytocidal Screen Identifies Novel Chemical Classes with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Natalie G.; Sullivan, David J.; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

  16. Lifestyle components and primary breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer primary prevention is a high research priority due to the high psychological and economic costs. The disease is a multistep process and several risk factors have been recognized. Over the past three decades numerous studies have investigated the association of lifestyle with breast cancer, showing independent effects of various factors. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of lifestyle patterns, such as physical activity, diet, smoking, hormone therapy, and experience of psychological stress in the modulation of breast cancer in women, and discuss commonly accepted biological mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for the associations. The findings indicate that regular physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity is probably linked with the decreased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females and suggestive for a decrease of the risk in premenopausal women. In contrast, the consumption of high-fat diet, alcohol intake, and use of combined estrogen and synthetic progestagen hormonal therapy may increase the risk. Epidemiological findings dealing with a role of smoking and experience of psychological stress are conflicting. PMID:25605138

  17. Lifestyle Change: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R.W.; Yeo, M.A.; Hougesen, B.; Todd, V.

    1989-01-01

    Many relationships between behaviour and disease are now recognized by both health care professionals and the public. In lifestyle counselling, caregivers help patients to change their unhealthy habits. The primary care office seems an ideal setting for implementing behaviour change strategies, but studies suggest that physicians only sporadically elicit behavioural risk factors and infrequently counsel patients to modify risky behaviours. Physicians have been introduced to the goals of clinical prevention, but with the limited application of clinical prevention research to practical office approaches, they often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to achieve them. The individual intervention and group program strategies described in this paper have been adapted to the primary care setting, and we hope they will help family physicians to play an effective role in lifestyle change.

  18. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts. PMID:25687469

  19. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  20. Ideas Exchange: How Are Teachers Using Pedometers Creatively in Classes to Impact the Level of Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Konkler, Jan; Nelson, Sherry L.; Brewer, Joan; Mielke, Danny R.; Morrison, Joni; Eklund, Nancy Raso; Flores, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Pedometers are great equalizers. They are wonderful for students who don't have the speed of other students, but can still keep up by taking as many steps as other students while improving their fitness level. In this article, teachers describe how they are using pedometers creatively in classes to impact the level of physical activity.

  1. Active Tasks to Change the Use of Class Time within an Outcomes Based Approach to Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Diane; Pang, Marco Y. C.; Sharma, Piyush

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how new roles for instructors and learners can be integrated into course design and delivery by rethinking course design as part of a process-based staff development program. The goal of incorporating online learning tasks was to engage students with course resources prior to class time through active learning. The staff…

  2. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  3. Impacts of land-applying class B municipal biosolids on soil microbial activity and soil nutrient and metal concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impacts of land-applying Class B biosolids on microbial activities and nutrient and metal concentrations in surface soils (0-10 cm) of coastal bermudagrass fields were measured during a 112-day incubation. Application rates were: control, 22, 45, and 67 dry Mg biosolids ha-1 y-1 for 8 years and 22 ...

  4. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  5. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

  6. Impacts of anthropogenic activity on the ecology of class 1 integrons and integron-associated genes in the environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, William H; Zhang, Lihong; Abdouslam, Nouradin A; Hawkey, Peter M; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Royle, Jeremy; Brown, Helen; Davis, Susan; Kay, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

    2011-01-01

    The impact of human activity on the selection for antibiotic resistance in the environment is largely unknown, although considerable amounts of antibiotics are introduced through domestic wastewater and farm animal waste. Selection for resistance may occur by exposure to antibiotic residues or by co-selection for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) which carry genes of varying activity. Class 1 integrons are genetic elements that carry antibiotic and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance genes that confer resistance to detergents and biocides. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and diversity of class 1 integron and integron-associated QAC resistance genes in bacteria associated with industrial waste, sewage sludge and pig slurry. We show that prevalence of class 1 integrons is higher in bacteria exposed to detergents and/or antibiotic residues, specifically in sewage sludge and pig slurry compared with agricultural soils to which these waste products are amended. We also show that QAC resistance genes are more prevalent in the presence of detergents. Studies of class 1 integron prevalence in sewage sludge amended soil showed measurable differences compared with controls. Insertion sequence elements were discovered in integrons from QAC contaminated sediment, acting as powerful promoters likely to upregulate cassette gene expression. On the basis of this data, >1 × 1019 bacteria carrying class 1 integrons enter the United Kingdom environment by disposal of sewage sludge each year. PMID:21368907

  7. Rhythmic control of activity and sleep by class B1 GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Michael; Tso, Matthew C.F.; Ghosh, D. Dipon; Herzog, Erik D.; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the class B1 family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose ligands are neuropeptides have been implicated in regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep in diverse metazoan clades. This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which class B1 GPCRs, especially the mammalian VPAC2 receptor and its functional homologue PDFR in Drosophila and C. elegans, regulate arousal and daily rhythms of sleep and wake. There are remarkable parallels in the cellular and molecular roles played by class B1 intercellular signaling pathways in coordinating arousal and circadian timekeeping across multiple cells and tissues in these very different genetic model organisms. PMID:25410535

  8. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed Central

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed. PMID:25248655

  9. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pegan, Scott D.; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Baker, Erica A.; Krasnykh, Olga; Franzblau, Scott G.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  10. Active site loop dynamics of a class IIa fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pegan, Scott D; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Capodagli, Glenn C; Baker, Erica A; Krasnykh, Olga; Franzblau, Scott G; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2013-02-01

    Class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprise one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation-deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA-PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation-protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Also, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form. PMID:23298222

  11. Active site loop dynamics of a class IIa fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pegan, Scott D.; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Baker, Erica A; Krasnykh, Olga; Franzblau, Scott G; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBA; E.C. 4.1.2.13) comprise one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff-base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs has been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies on class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation/deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI/DHAP bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of MtFBA-PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information plus site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active-site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water mediated deprotonation/protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Also, secondary isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form. PMID:23298222

  12. The Class-Size Effect upon Activity and Cognitive Dimensions of Lessons in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Sophia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of class size to the length, frequency, and cognitive level and diversity of both teacher and student verbalizations in medical instruction in an Israeli university is reported. (MSE)

  13. Selection, Alignment, and Their Interplay: Origins of Lifestyle Homogamy in Couple Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Oliver Arranz; Lois, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines different processes leading to lifestyle homogamy in married and cohabiting couples using data from the German Socioeconomic Panel (n = 3,490 couples). The analyses first suggest that alignment over time promotes homogamy of leisure-related lifestyles, especially with respect to action-oriented activities. However,…

  14. Health and Life-Style of Longevous Palauans: Implications for Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gordon D.; Polloi, Anthony H.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the health, illness, and life-styles of the oldest Palauans (N=38) by interview in their homes. They were in unusually good physical and mental health. The most common physical problem was arthritis. Life-style is described in terms of diet, physical activity, medical services, and living conditions. (JAC)

  15. Community-based lifestyle intervention improves weight loss, fitness and chronic disease risk biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although lifestyle modification of diet, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement it is typically resource intensive, particularly when administered in a medical setting. We examined a locally designed, community-based lifestyle intervention progr...

  16. Developing School Students' Identity and Engagement through Lifestyle Sports: A Case Study of Unicycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignold, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article emerges from a background of UK policy concerns about young people's participation in physical activity. It rehearses the arguments for lifestyle sports as a rich ground for enhancing students' engagement with physical education (PE). A review of the still limited literature suggests that lifestyle sports may have an…

  17. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  18. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  19. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  20. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR) intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1) Intervention group (IG): multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2) Control group A (CA): physical activity prescription in usual care and 3) Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection). The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural obstacles and increase

  1. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people. PMID:23576888

  2. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  3. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures. PMID:26403310

  4. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, stress and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis’ molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuro-immune and immuno-metabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  5. Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: results of the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important contributor to disability. Limited clinical trial evidence exists regarding the impact of physical exercise on cognitive function (CF). We report results of a pilot study to provide estimates of the relative impact of physical activity (PA) on 1-year ...

  6. The impact of sarcopenia on a physical activity intervention: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if sarcopenia modulates the response to a physical activity intervention in functionally limited older adults. Design: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting: three academic centers. Participants: elders aged 70 to 89 years at risk for mobility disability who under...

  7. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, randomized trial of physical activity: Effect on the prevention of major mobility disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining if physical activi...

  8. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  9. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The hypothesis that…

  10. Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

  11. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:25929408

  12. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  13. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  14. Diet and lifestyle in CVD prevention and treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing CVD. Thi...

  15. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  16. A telehealth program for self-management of COPD exacerbations and promotion of an active lifestyle: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Hermens, Hermie; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the use of and satisfaction with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) telehealth program applied in both primary and secondary care. The program consisted of four modules: 1) activity coach for ambulant activity monitoring and real-time coaching of daily activity behavior, 2) web-based exercise program for home exercising, 3) self-management of COPD exacerbations via a triage diary on the web portal, including self-treatment of exacerbations, and 4) teleconsultation. Twenty-nine COPD patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (telehealth program for 9 months) or the control group (usual care). Page hits on the web portal showed the use of the program, and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire showed satisfaction with received care. The telehealth program with decision support showed good satisfaction (mean 26.4, maximum score 32). The program was accessed on 86% of the treatment days, especially the diary. Patient adherence with the exercise scheme was low (21%). Health care providers seem to play an important role in patients' adherence to telehealth in usual care. Future research should focus on full-scale implementation in daily care and investigating technological advances, like gaming, to increase adherence. PMID:25246781

  17. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250

  18. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health. PMID:23743794

  19. Lifestyle and colon cancer: an assessment of factors associated with risk.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Edwards, S L; Boucher, K M; Anderson, K; Caan, B J

    1999-10-15

    Studies of the etiology of colon cancer indicate that it is strongly associated with diet and lifestyle factors. The authors use data from a population-based study conducted in northern California, Utah, and Minnesota in 1991-1995 to determine lifestyle patterns and their association with colon cancer. Data obtained from 1,993 cases and 2,410 controls were grouped by using factor analyses to describe various aspects of lifestyle patterns. The first five lifestyle patterns for both men and women loaded heavily on dietary variables and were labeled: "Western," "moderation," "calcium/low-fat dairy;" "meat and mutagens," and "nibblers, smoking, and coffee." Other important lifestyle patterns that emerged were labeled "body size," "medication and supplementation," "alcohol," and "physical activity." Among both men and women, the lifestyle characterized by high levels of physical activity was the most marked lifestyle associated with colon cancer (odds ratios = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.55 and odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.69, for men and women, respectively) followed by medication and supplementation (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 2.18 and odds ratio = 1.63, 95% CI 1.23, 2.16, respectively). Other lifestyles that were associated with colon cancer were the Western lifestyle, the lifestyle characterized by large body size, and the one characterized by calcium and low-fat dairy. Different lifestyle patterns appear to have age- and tumor site-specific associations. PMID:10522658

  20. Depressive symptoms, lifestyle structure, and ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals: a longitudinal mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A; Wagner, Glenn J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship between depression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) nonadherence, few studies have identified explanatory pathways through which depression affects adherence. The current study tested lifestyle structure-the degree of organization and routinization of daily activities-as a mediator of this relationship, given previous evidence of lifestyle structure being associated with both depression and ART nonadherence. HIV-infected individuals starting or re-starting ART in the California Collaborative Treatment Group 578 study (n = 199) were assessed over 48 weeks. Adherence was measured using electronic monitoring caps to determine dose timing and doses taken, and viral load was assessed. The mediating role of lifestyle structure was tested using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling and bootstrapping. Lifestyle significantly mediated the relationship between depression and both measures of ART adherence behavior. Interventions that minimize disruptions to lifestyle structure and link adherence to daily activities may be useful for individuals with depression and ART nonadherence. PMID:24874725

  1. Anorexia Nervosa: A Lifestyle Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves

    1983-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a real lifestyle disorder. The apparent increase in frequency has been linked to the change of position of women in society. If families have an important role to play in the maintenance of the drama, they also hold the key to its resolution. The family physician in early contact with the anorectic patient is in an important position to involve the family in therapy and maximize the chances of recovery. The steps required are reframing, preparing the family involved for family therapy, exploring the benefits of change, and follow up. Imagesp555-a PMID:21283351

  2. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  3. Discovery of a Novel Class of Boron-Based Antibacterials with Activity against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Vincent; Crépin, Thibaut; Palencia, Andrés; Cusack, Stephen; Akama, Tsutomu; Baker, Stephen J.; Bu, Wei; Feng, Lisa; Freund, Yvonne R.; Liu, Liang; Meewan, Maliwan; Mohan, Manisha; Mao, Weimin; Rock, Fernando L.; Sexton, Holly; Sheoran, Anita; Zhang, Yanchen; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Yasheen; Nieman, James A.; Anugula, Mahipal Reddy; Keramane, El Mehdi; Savariraj, Kingsley; Reddy, D. Shekhar; Sharma, Rashmi; Subedi, Rajendra; Singh, Rajeshwar; O'Leary, Ann; Simon, Nerissa L.; De Marsh, Peter L.; Mushtaq, Shazad; Warner, Marina; Livermore, David M.; Plattner, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause approximately 70% of the infections in intensive care units. A growing number of bacterial isolates responsible for these infections are resistant to currently available antibiotics and to many in development. Most agents under development are modifications of existing drug classes, which only partially overcome existing resistance mechanisms. Therefore, new classes of Gram-negative antibacterials with truly novel modes of action are needed to circumvent these existing resistance mechanisms. We have previously identified a new a way to inhibit an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), in fungi via the oxaborole tRNA trapping (OBORT) mechanism. Herein, we show how we have modified the OBORT mechanism using a structure-guided approach to develop a new boron-based antibiotic class, the aminomethylbenzoxaboroles, which inhibit bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase and have activity against Gram-negative bacteria by largely evading the main efflux mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lead analogue, AN3365, is active against Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae bearing NDM-1 and KPC carbapenemases, as well as P. aeruginosa. This novel boron-based antibacterial, AN3365, has good mouse pharmacokinetics and was efficacious against E. coli and P. aeruginosa in murine thigh infection models, which suggest that this novel class of antibacterials has the potential to address this unmet medical need. PMID:23295920

  4. A new class of nifuroxazide analogues: synthesis of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Andrea; Tavares, Leoberto Costa

    2007-06-15

    Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an increasing problem worldwide since the initial reports over 40 years ago. To examine new drug leads with potential antibacterial activities, 14 p-substituted benzoic acid [(5-nitro-thiophen-2-yl)-methylene]-hydrazides were designed, synthesized, and tested against standard and multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains by serial dilution tests. All compounds exhibited significant bacteriostatic activity and some of them also showed bactericidal activity. The results confirmed the potential of this class of compounds as an alternative for the development of selective antimicrobial agents. PMID:17419064

  5. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  6. Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: a brief update.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Desai, Nisarg R; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Carpi, Angelo

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and defective spermatogenesis is increasing probably due to environmental and lifestyle-related factors. The aim of this review is to briefly describe and comment on the principal lifestyle factors. The recent findings that the electromagnetic waves following the use of the cell phone and the prolonged exposure to the noise stress cause relevant testicular dysfunction in man or animals reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of lifestyle-related factors. PMID:18771892

  7. The Impact of Physical Activity on Academics in English Classes at the Junior High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The pressure educators, schools, and school districts face with meeting Adequate Yearly Progress on state assessments as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act has made some schools and school district reduce class offerings and time for subjects not considered core subjects. In addition, the rising obesity rates in students have prompted…

  8. Teaching Writing in Elementary and Intermediate Languages Classes: Suggestions and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank; Cicogna, Caterina

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of emphasis on writing skills in elementary and intermediate language classes, the purpose and process of writing, and general recommendations for the incorporation of writing into the language curriculum. Contains specific examples of writing tasks, including the composition of telegrams, recipes, postcards, directions, and…

  9. Social Reproduction and Child-Rearing Practices: Social Class, Children's Agency, and the Summer Activity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Tiffani; Phillips, Meredith

    2004-01-01

    This study contributes to the ongoing scholarly debate about the relative importance of parents' resources and values in influencing parents' child-rearing practices. Using ethnographic data on children's summer experiences, the authors examine how families from different ethnic and social-class backgrounds assemble child care and other activities…

  10. A Revision of the Check-List of High School Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Owen; Veal, L. Ramon

    The 1955 check-list consisted of 92 items giving students' perceptions of the teaching-learning process, and was suggested for use in teacher self-evaluation. It was revised in the spring of 1969 to incorporate results of recent research and to apply specifically to classes in high school English. Similar devices, together with articles and books…

  11. Google Docs in an Out-of-Class Collaborative Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenyi; Simpson, Elizabeth; Domizi, Denise Pinette

    2012-01-01

    Google Docs, an online word processing application, is a promising tool for collaborative learning. However, many college instructors and students lack knowledge to effectively use Google Docs to enhance teaching and learning. Goals of this study include (1) assessing the effectiveness of using Google Docs in an out-of-class collaborative writing…

  12. I Can Play Too: Disability Awareness Activities for Your Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2007-01-01

    Students with disabilities are now more than ever being included in physical education classes. However, most physical educators feel they have not received adequate preparation in their undergraduate programs regarding teaching students with disabilities. There are many factors that go into providing a positive inclusive setting, such as using…

  13. Using Interactive Content and Online Activities to Accommodate Diversity in a Large First Year Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    As in many universities, class sizes have increased more quickly than teaching and learning resources. A related challenge is the increasing diversity of the student body in terms of socio-economic background, learning styles, English language ability and preparedness. This paper explores ways in which traditional face-to-face teaching methods…

  14. Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a Fourth-Grade Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

    2004-01-01

    Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

  15. Mainstreaming in Home Economics Classes: A Handbook for Home Economics Teachers Featuring Activity Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildner, Carol

    The handbook is intended to help home economics teachers incorporate mainstreamed special needs students into their classes. Sample individualized education programs with home economics related goals and objectives are offered to illustrate the role of home economics instruction. General teaching suggestions (such as breaking down the task to…

  16. Surgery, drugs, lifestyle, and hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Dalessandri, K M; Organ, C H

    1995-04-01

    Heart disease is the number-one cause of death in the United States, and more money is spent on its treatment each year than for any other condition. Both epidemiologic and experimental data clearly show that elevated plasma cholesterol levels increase the risk of death from coronary heart disease. Genetic insufficiencies can cause high blood cholesterol, but most people with high cholesterol do not have genetic abnormalities; rather, they have lifestyles that include high-fat diets and little exercise. Cholesterol can be managed aggressively with coronary artery bypass surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, partial ileal bypass, and even liver transplant. Antihyperlipidemic drugs include bile-acid-binding resins, nicotinic acid, fibric acid derivatives, hydroxymethyglutaryl coenzyme A-reductase inhibitors, and the antioxidant probucol. Strict programs of low-fat diets and exercise are also effective for reducing cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, and preventing heart disease without the side effects associated with surgery and drug therapy. Such lifestyle changes are critical to reducing the incidence of heart disease in this country. PMID:7694974

  17. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  18. Soluble HLA class I antigen secretion by normal lymphocytes: relationship with cell activation and effect of interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Brieva, J A; Villar, L M; Leoro, G; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Roldán, E; Gonzalez-Porqué, P

    1990-01-01

    HLA class I antigens are thought to be integral membrane proteins. However, soluble forms of these molecules have been detected. Our laboratory has recently shown that the predominant form of these soluble proteins present in human serum, spleen tissue and culture supernatant of activated lymphocytes exhibits molecular weight and structure similar to classical HLA class I antigens, but lacks HLA A or B polymorphic determinants. In the present study, the secretion of such soluble proteins by lymphocytes has been further explored. Phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated normal lymphocytes secrete considerable quantities of soluble HLA (sHLA) class I proteins. This secretion seems to be a general property of lymphocytes, since activation of T as well as B cells by appropriate mitogens equally induce sHLA I secretion. Lymphocytes require RNA and protein synthesis, but not DNA synthesis, for the secretion to occur. Kinetic studies reveal that maximal sHLA I secretion precedes the peak of DNA synthesis by 24 h. In vitro stimulation with antigens or alloantigens also provokes sHLA I secretion. Moreover, this phenomenon has also been detected for in vivo-activated lymphocytes, as enhanced spontaneous sHLA I secretion was observed in cultures of low-density blastic B and T cells, and of blood lymphocytes obtained from normal subjects who had received a booster immunization 5 days earlier. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increases the expression of membrane-bound class I antigens but does not induce any sHLA I secretion, suggesting that both molecules are under different regulatory mechanisms. Our results indicate that human lymphocytes, upon stimulation, actively secrete considerable amounts of a soluble form of these biologically relevant proteins. PMID:2122936

  19. Parental perceptions regarding lifestyle interventions for obese children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Ingrid Rivera; Yap, Jason; Mager, Diana R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 30% of obese children globally. The main treatment for NAFLD is to promote gradual weight loss through lifestyle modification. Very little is known regarding parental perspectives about the barriers and facilitators that influence the ability to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours in children with NAFLD. OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe parental perspectives regarding barriers to and facilitators of implementing lifestyle modification in children with NAFLD. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach, including qualitative methodology (focus groups) and validated questionnaires (Lifestyle Behaviour Checklist), was used to assess parental perceptions regarding barriers to and facilitators of lifestyle change in parents of children with healthy body weights (control parents) and in parents of children with NAFLD (NAFLD parents). RESULTS: NAFLD parents identified more problem behaviours related to food portion size and time spent in nonsedentary physical activity, and lower parental self-efficacy than parents of controls (P<0.05). Major barriers to lifestyle change cited by NAFLD parents were lack of time, self-motivation and role modelling of healthy lifestyle behaviours. In contrast, control parents used a variety of strategies to elicit healthy lifestyle behaviours in their children including positive role modelling, and inclusion of the child in food preparation and meal purchasing decisions, and perceived few barriers to promoting healthy lifestyles. Internet sources were the main form of nutrition information used by parents. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle modification strategies focused on promoting increased parental self-efficacy and parental motivation to promote healthy lifestyle behaviour are important components in the treatment of obese children with NAFLD. PMID:24855432

  20. Interferon-γ Induces Major Histocompatibility Class II Transactivator (CIITA) That Mediates Collagen Repression and Major Histocompatibility Class II Activation by Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butticè, Giovanna; Miller, Janice; Wang, Lin; Smith, Barbara D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis is responsible for plaque instability through alterations in extracellular matrix. Previously, we demonstrated that major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) transactivator (CIITA) in a complex with regulatory factor for X box 5 (RFX5) is a crucial protein mediating interferon (IFN)-γ–induced repression of collagen type I gene transcription in fibroblasts. This article demonstrates that, in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), IFN-γ dramatically increases the expression of CIITA isoforms III and IV, with no increase in expression of CIITA isoform I. Expression of CIITA III and IV correlates with decreased collagen type I and increased MHC II gene expression. Exogenous expression of CIITA I, III, and IV, in transiently transfected SMCs, represses collagen type I promoters (COL1A1 and COL1A2) and activates MHC II promoter. Levels of CIITA and RFX5 increase in the nucleus of cells treated with IFN-γ. Moreover, simvastatin lowers the IFN-γ–induced expression of RFX5 and MHC II in addition to repressing collagen expression. However, simvastatin does not block the IFN-γ–induced expression of CIITA III and IV, suggesting a CIITA-independent mechanism. This first demonstration that RFX5 and CIITA isoforms are expressed in SMCs after IFN-γ stimulation suggest that CIITA could be a key factor in plaque stability in atherosclerosis. PMID:16439692

  1. Lifestyle health behaviors of Hong Kong Chinese: results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Choi Wan; Leung, Sau Fong

    2015-04-01

    Sociodemographics affect health through pathways of lifestyle choices. Using data from a survey of 467 Hong Kong Chinese, this study aims to examine the prevalence of their lifestyle behaviors, identify profiles based on their sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and compare differences among the profile groups. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify natural profile groups within the data set: only 37% of the participants engaged in regular physical exercises, and less than 50% monitored their dietary intake carefully. The analysis yields 2 clusters, representing a "healthy" and a "less-healthy" lifestyle group. The "less-healthy" group was predominantly male, younger, employed, and had high-to-middle levels of education. The findings reveal the lifestyle behavior patterns and sociodemographic characteristics of a high-risk group, which are essential to provide knowledge for the planning of health promotion activities. PMID:25296668

  2. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of a novel isothiazolone class of bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ian R; McCarroll, Andrew J; McGarry, David; Kirkham, James; Pichowicz, Mark; Walker, Rolf; Warrilow, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Savage, Victoria J; Moyo, Emmanuel; Forward, Henry; Cheung, Jonathan; Metzger, Richard; Gault, Zoe; Nelson, Gary; Hughes, Diarmaid; Cao, Sha; Maclean, John; Charrier, Cédric; Craighead, Mark; Best, Stuart; Stokes, Neil R; Ratcliffe, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent and unmet medical need for new antibacterial drugs that tackle infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. During the course of our wider efforts to discover and exploit novel mechanism of action antibacterials, we have identified a novel series of isothiazolone based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerase. Compounds from the class displayed excellent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with encouraging activity against a panel of MDR clinical Escherichia coli isolates when compared to ciprofloxacin. Representative compounds also displayed a promising in vitro safety profile. PMID:27499455

  3. DY determinants, possibly associated with novel class II molecules, stimulate autoreactive CD4+ T cells with suppressive activity

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    A set of T cell clones (TCC) isolated from HLA-DR-, Dw-, DQ-matched allogeneic MLCs was found to proliferate autonomously when stimulated with cells carrying a wide range of class I or II specificities. This apparently unrestricted proliferation was relatively weak, and only low levels of IL-2 were present in the supernatants of stimulated cells. Autologous as well as allogeneic PBMC and B lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) were capable of stimulating such clones, which were also restimulated by suppressive, but not by helper, TCC. Moreover, such clones displayed the unusual property of autostimulation. mAb inhibition experiments suggested that class II- or class II-restricted antigens were involved in stimulation. Thus, certain "broad" mAbs (TU39, SG520) reacting with multiple locus products inhibited activation of these reagents, but none of those reacting more specifically with DR (TU34, TU37, L243, Q2/70, SG157), DQ (TU22, SPV- L3, Leu 10), or DP (B7/21), or mixtures of these mAbs, were able to do so. Evidence from sequential immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that mAb TU39 bound class II-like molecules other than DR, DQ, and DP on TCC and B-LCL, and it is therefore proposed that such putative novel class II-like molecules may carry the stimulating determinants for these autoreactive clones. DY-reactive clones lacked helper activity for B cells but mediated potent suppressive activity on T cell proliferative responses that was not restricted by the HLA type of the responding cells. Suppressive activity was induced in normal PBMC by such clones, as well as by independent suppressive clones, which was also inhibited only by mAb TU39. These findings lead to the proposal that DY-reactive autostimulatory cells may constitute a self- maintaining suppressive circuit, the level of activity of which would be regulated primarily by the availability of IL-2 in the microenvironment. PMID:2450156

  4. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:25348049

  5. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  6. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  7. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  8. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    PubMed

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  9. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  10. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. PMID:26859253

  11. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  12. Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background School recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in physically active behaviours. However, few studies have investigated what factors may influence children's physical activity levels in this context. Such information may be important in the development and implementation of recess interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a range of recess variables and children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity in this context. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight children (39% boys) aged 9-10 years old from 8 elementary schools had their physical activity levels observed during school recess using the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). Playground variables data were also collected at this time. Multilevel prediction models identified variables that were significantly associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Results Girls engaged in 13.8% more sedentary activity and 8.2% less vigorous activity than boys during recess. Children with no equipment provision during recess engaged in more sedentary activity and less moderate activity than children provided with equipment. In addition, as play space per child increased, sedentary activity decreased and vigorous activity increased. Temperature was a significant negatively associated with vigorous activity. Conclusions Modifiable and unmodifiable factors were associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Providing portable equipment and specifying areas for activities that dominate the elementary school playground during recess may be two approaches to increase recess physical activity levels, though further research is needed to evaluate the short and long-term impact of such strategies. PMID:20937142

  13. HLA Class II Antibody Activation of Endothelial Cells Promotes Th17 and Disrupts Regulatory T Lymphocyte Expansion.

    PubMed

    Lion, J; Taflin, C; Cross, A R; Robledo-Sarmiento, M; Mariotto, E; Savenay, A; Carmagnat, M; Suberbielle, C; Charron, D; Haziot, A; Glotz, D; Mooney, N

    2016-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most successful treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease, and chronic antibody-mediated rejection is the principal cause of allograft loss. Predictive factors for chronic rejection include high levels of HLA alloantibodies (particularly HLA class II) and activation of graft endothelial cells (ECs). The mechanistic basis for this association is unresolved. We used an experimental model of HLA-DR antibody stimulation of microvascular ECs to examine the mechanisms underlying the association between HLA class II antibodies, EC activation and allograft damage. Activation of ECs with the F(Ab')2 fragment of HLA-DR antibody led to phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and MEK and increased IL-6 production by ECs cocultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in an Akt-dependent manner. We previously showed that HLA-DR-expressing ECs induce polarization of Th17 and FoxP3(bright) regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets. Preactivation of ECs with anti-HLA-DR antibody redirected EC allogenicity toward a proinflammatory response by decreasing amplification of functional Treg and by further increasing IL-6-dependent Th17 expansion. Alloimmunized patient serum containing relevant HLA-DR alloantibodies selectively bound and increased EC secretion of IL-6 in cocultures with PBMCs. These data contribute to understanding of potential mechanisms of antibody-mediated endothelial damage independent of complement activation and FcR-expressing effector cells. PMID:26614587

  14. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students’ LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  15. The GPS Motif Is a Molecular Switch for Bimodal Activities of Adhesion Class G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prömel, Simone; Frickenhaus, Marie; Hughes, Samantha; Mestek, Lamia; Staunton, David; Woollard, Alison; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schnabel, Ralf; Russ, Andreas P.; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions. PMID:22938866

  16. Active Learning in Research Methods Classes Is Associated with Higher Knowledge and Confidence, Though not Evaluations or Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Baughman, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26973575

  17. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  18. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  19. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  20. Uptake of Optional Activities Leads to Improved Performance in a Biomedical Sciences Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Optional (non-assessed) learning activities are a learning tool that may help students achieve their desired grade, or help students with lower levels of previous experience in the topic. This study examines the implementation of, and outcomes from, two optional activities, one online and one paper-based. The activities complemented the lectures…

  1. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  2. A recombinant, soluble, single-chain class I major histocompatibility complex molecule with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Mage, M G; Lee, L; Ribaudo, R K; Corr, M; Kozlowski, S; McHugh, L; Margulies, D H

    1992-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex molecules, which consist of a 45-kDa heavy-chain and a 12-kDa beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) light chain, bind endogenously synthesized peptides for presentation to antigen-specific T cells. We have synthesized a gene encoding a single-chain, soluble class I molecule derived from mouse H-2Dd, in which the carboxyl terminus of beta 2m is linked via a peptide spacer to the amino terminus of the heavy chain. The chimeric protein is secreted efficiently from transfected L cells, is thermostable, and when loaded with an appropriate antigenic peptide, stimulates an H-2Dd-restricted antigen-specific T-cell hybridoma. Thus, functional binding of peptide does not require the complete dissociation of beta 2m, implying that a heavy chain/peptide complex is not an obligate intermediate in the assembly of the heavy-chain/beta 2m/peptide heterotrimer. Single-chain major histocompatibility complex molecules uniformly loaded with peptide have potential uses for structural studies, toxin or fluor conjugates, and vaccines. Images PMID:1438262

  3. Lifestyles: Past, Present, Future. A Unit to Integrate Economics in the Junior High Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyler, Eric; Hyler, Linda

    Designed as a 4-9 week cumulative unit on economics for junior high school classes, this award-winning program introduces students to the economic bases of past, present, and future American lifestyles. Following introductory information on the authors, rationale, and objectives, a suggested 6-week lesson plan is presented designed to help…

  4. Design, synthesis, anticoagulant activity evaluation and molecular docking studies of a class of N-ethyl dabigatran derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weixin; Ren, Yujie; Wang, Shuai

    2016-09-14

    A class of N-ethyl dabigatran derivatives was designed based on pharmacological strategies for inhibition of thrombin activity and the structure-activity relationship studies of the previous dabigatran derivatives. Activities of these novel compounds were predicted based on CoMFA model, and most of the compounds had comparable predicted activity with dabigatran. All of screened compounds were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. Subsequently, these compounds were evaluated inhibitory activity on thrombin. Among these compounds, 9a-9e, 9h, 9l-9n and 9p exhibited comparable inhibitory activity to dabigatran (IC50 = 1.20 nM), additionally, compound 9p (IC50 = 0.96 nM) exhibited better inhibitory activity than dabigatran. Moreover, compound 9p also exhibited a fairly good inhibitory activity for arteriovenous thrombosis with inhibition rate of (85.35 ± 0.72) %, which was comparable to that of dabigatran (85.07 ± 0.61) %. These results, along with related molecular docking studies, could provide an important basis for further development of compound 9p as a potent thrombin inhibitor. PMID:27187866

  5. Insights into the activation mechanism of class I HDAC complexes by inositol phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Peter J.; Millard, Christopher J.; Riley, Andrew M.; Robertson, Naomi S.; Wright, Lyndsey C.; Godage, Himali Y.; Cowley, Shaun M.; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Schwabe, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1, 2 and 3 form the catalytic subunit of several large transcriptional repression complexes. Unexpectedly, the enzymatic activity of HDACs in these complexes has been shown to be regulated by inositol phosphates, which bind in a pocket sandwiched between the HDAC and co-repressor proteins. However, the actual mechanism of activation remains poorly understood. Here we have elucidated the stereochemical requirements for binding and activation by inositol phosphates, demonstrating that activation requires three adjacent phosphate groups and that other positions on the inositol ring can tolerate bulky substituents. We also demonstrate that there is allosteric communication between the inositol-binding site and the active site. The crystal structure of the HDAC1:MTA1 complex bound to a novel peptide-based inhibitor and to inositol hexaphosphate suggests a molecular basis of substrate recognition, and an entropically driven allosteric mechanism of activation. PMID:27109927

  6. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  7. Substrate stiffness regulates B-cell activation, proliferation, class switch, and T-cell-independent antibody responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yingyue; Yi, Junyang; Wan, Zhengpeng; Liu, Kai; Song, Ping; Chau, Alicia; Wang, Fei; Chang, Zai; Han, Weidong; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Ying-Hua; Xiong, Chunyang; Liu, Wanli

    2015-06-01

    B cells use B-cell receptors (BCRs) to sense antigens that are usually presented on substrates with different stiffness. However, it is not known how substrate stiffness affects B-cell proliferation, class switch, and in vivo antibody responses. We addressed these questions using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with different stiffness (20 or 1100 kPa). Live cell imaging experiments suggested that antigens on stiffer substrates more efficiently trigger the synaptic accumulation of BCR and phospho-Syk molecules compared with antigens on softer substrates. In vitro expansion of mouse primary B cells shows different preferences for substrate stiffness when stimulated by different expansion stimuli. LPS equally drives B-cell proliferation on stiffer or softer substrates. Anti-CD40 antibodies enhance B-cell proliferation on stiffer substrates, while antigens enhance B-cell proliferation on softer substrates through a mechanism involving the enhanced phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO1. In vitro class switch differentiation of B cells prefers softer substrates. Lastly, NP67-Ficoll on softer substrates accounted for an enhanced antibody response in vivo. Thus, substrate stiffness regulates B-cell activation, proliferation, class switch, and T cell independent antibody responses in vivo, suggesting its broad application in manipulating the fate of B cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25756957

  8. The Atlantic Salmon MHC class II alpha and beta promoters are active in mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, O; Lundin, M; Syed, M

    2007-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes are only constitutively expressed in certain immune response cells such as B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and other antigen presenting cells. This cell specific expression pattern and the presence of conserved regions such as the X-, X2-, Y-, and W-boxes make the MHCII promoters especially interesting as vector constructs. We tested whether the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) MHCII promoters can function in cell lines from other organisms. We found that the salmon MHCII alpha and MHCII beta promoters could drive expression of a LacZ reporter gene in adherent lymphoblast cell lines from dog (DH82) and rabbit (HybL-L). This paper shows that the promoters of Atlantic salmon MHCII alpha and beta genes can function in mammalian cell lines. PMID:17934904

  9. Lifestyles of virtual world residents: living in the on-line game "lineage".

    PubMed

    Whang, Leo Sang-min; Chang, Geunyoung

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to explore the lifestyles of online game players who have adopted the virtual world as part of their life. An online survey was conducted on players of an Internet-based game, Lineage. Lineage is the largest online game where people assume new identities and play various roles in a virtual environment, accommodating over 6 million users worldwide. A total of 4,786 game players participated in this survey, and their lifestyles were compared with their values and attitudes in the virtual world. Upon classification of their real-world lifestyles, their tendencies and desires were compared to lifestyles in the virtual world. This study showed that game players have developed their own distinctive lifestyles, and their lifestyles were a strong criterion for explaining behavior patterns and desires in the virtual world. Lifestyles were classified into three general categories: (1) single-oriented player, (2) community-oriented player, and (3) off-Real world player. Each group displayed distinct differences in their values and game activities, as well as in their anti-social behavior tendencies. The differences reflected not only their personality but also their socio-economic status within the virtual world, which is constructed through game activities. This study serves as a model to understand how players from different real-life backgrounds will behave in various game features and how they adopt the virtual world for their new social identities. PMID:15667054

  10. The role of class I, II and III PI 3-kinases in platelet production and activation and their implication in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Valet, Colin; Severin, Sonia; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Laurent, Pierre Alexandre; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frédérique; Gratacap, Marie-Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Blood platelets play a pivotal role in haemostasis and are strongly involved in arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Besides their critical role in pathophysiology, platelets represent a valuable model to investigate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of different branches of the phosphoinositide metabolism, which is highly active in platelets. While the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway has a crucial role in platelet activation, it is now well established that at least one class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is also mandatory for proper platelet functions. Except class II PI3Kγ, all other isoforms of PI3Ks (class I α, β, γ, δ; class II α, β and class III) are expressed in platelets. Class I PI3Ks have been extensively studied in different models over the past few decades and several isoforms are promising drug targets to treat cancer and immune diseases. In platelet activation, it has been shown that while class I PI3Kδ plays a minor role, class I PI3Kβ has an important function particularly in thrombus growth and stability under high shear stress conditions found in stenotic arteries. This class I PI3K is a potentially interesting target for antithrombotic strategies. The role of class I PI3Kα remains ill defined in platelets. Herein, we will discuss our recent data showing the potential impact of inhibitors of this kinase on thrombus formation. The role of class II PI3Kα and β as well as class III PI3K (Vps34) in platelet production and function is just emerging. Based on our data and those very recently published in the literature, we will discuss the impact of these three PI3K isoforms in platelet production and functions and in thrombosis. PMID:26714793

  11. Reframing Perceptions of the Lecture from Challenges to Opportunities: Embedding Active Learning and Formative Assessment into the Teaching of Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstone, Naomi; Millward, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and assessing large classes can be reframed from focusing on overcoming difficulties with large classes, to seeking the unique educational opportunities provided by such learning environments. We discuss data and examples illustrating how active learning and formative assessment can be successfully embedded into the teaching of large…

  12. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Role of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions in the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy C.; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data from a diverse sample of parents (n = 51) in two schools. Findings point toward structural rather than cultural explanations. Working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect:…

  13. Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 as a New Class of Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Foschini, L.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sambruna, R.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi/LAT Collaboration; Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Tavecchio, F.

    2009-12-01

    We report the discovery with Fermi/LAT of γ-ray emission from three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies: PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409), 1H 0323+342 (z = 0.061), and PKS 2004 - 447 (z = 0.24). In addition to PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.585), the first source of this type to be detected in γ rays, they may form an emerging new class of γ-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These findings can have strong implications on our knowledge about relativistic jets and the unified model of the AGN.

  14. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  15. Lifestyle and sarcopenia-etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2012-10-01

    The term sarcopenia describes the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in old age. As the world population continues to grow older, more attention is given to the phenomena of sarcopenia and the search for strategies of prevention and treatment. The progression of sarcopenia is affected by age-related physiological and systemic changes in the body, including alterations in skeletal muscle tissue, hormonal changes, increased inflammatory activities, and oxidative stress. Sarcopenia progression is also affected by lifestyle factors which are far more controllable. These factors include various aspects of nutrition, physical activity, exercise, alcohol intake, and tobacco use. Raising the public awareness regarding the impact of these factors, as causes of sarcopenia and potential strategies of prevention and treatment, is of great importance. In this review we aim to describe various lifestyle factors that affect the etiology, prevention, and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:23908848

  16. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  17. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  18. Barriers to Lifestyle Behavioral Change in Migrant South Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians’ belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  19. Listening to Learn: The Status of Listening Activities in Secondary Instrumental Ensemble Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and…

  20. Be Your Own Hero: Activities for Middle-Level Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarance H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Offers instructional activities (in the form of a three-day lesson plan and extension activities) for middle-level students that allow adolescents to recognize heroic people and actions, and then explore their own characters and behaviors for signs of courage, leadership, and sincerity. Lists resources about heroes. (SR)

  1. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  2. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  3. Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1.

    PubMed

    Ng, M; Yanofsky, M F

    2001-04-01

    Proper development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis flowers requires the activities of APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), whose transcripts can be detected in the petal and stamen primordia. Localized expression of AP3 and PI requires the activities of at least three genes: APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO). It has been proposed that UFO provides spatial cues and that LFY specifies competence for AP3 and PI expression in the developing flower. To understand the epistatic relationship among AP1, LFY, and UFO in regulating AP3 and PI expression, we generated two versions of AP1 that have strong transcriptional activation potential. Genetic and molecular analyses of transgenic plants expressing these activated AP1 proteins show that the endogenous AP1 protein acts largely as a transcriptional activator in vivo and that AP1 specifies petals by regulating the spatial domains of AP3 and PI expression through UFO. PMID:11283333

  4. Obesity: dietary and lifestyle management.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Jennifer M; DeMattia, Laure G

    2014-10-01

    Lifestyle modifications should be recommended for every patient dealing with overweight or obesity. Behavior modification is the cornerstone of management. Motivational interviewing, goal setting, and self-monitoring are three techniques with proven efficacy for weight reduction. Because an energy deficit is required to promote weight loss, goal setting should be focused on achieving an overall caloric reduction. No single diet has proven to be superior to others overall in terms of weight loss outcomes. However, a low-carbohydrate (ie, ketogenic) diet has been shown to reduce insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and may be considered for this subgroup of patients. There continue to be conflicting views regarding the superiority of low glycemic index foods for weight loss. Exercise alone has not been shown to produce substantial weight loss, but it is helpful during the weight loss phase to preserve lean muscle mass, and it has a role in weight maintenance. Though sleep deprivation has been implicated in weight gain, the effect of improving sleep quality/duration on reducing excess weight has yet to be studied adequately. PMID:25325916

  5. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure. PMID:26268844

  6. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Pentacyclines: A Novel Class of Tetracycline Analogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Employing a highly efficient total synthesis approach, we synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity diverse and novel pentacycline analogs with systematic variations at C7, C8, C9, and C10. Certain substitution groups, as well as substitution patterns at various positions, were found to be preferred for increased antibacterial activity. A number of pentacycline analogs displayed potent activity in vitro and in vivo, especially against Gram-positive organisms. Several analogs have also shown promising oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkey. PMID:21500832

  7. Activity profile of top-class association football referees in relation to fitness-test performance and match standard.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Javier; Navarro, Enrique; Aranda, Jose María Garcia; Helsen, Werner F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the kinematic activity profiles, cardiovascular responses and physical fitness of top-class football referees (n=11) during the FIFA Confederations Cup 2005. Computerised match-analyses (n=9) were performed with a two-dimensional photogrammetric video system, and the cardiovascular demand imposed on the referees (n=12) was measured using heart rate recordings. Total distance covered was 10,218, s=643 m of which 3531, s=510 m was covered at high intensities (>3.6 m.s(-1)). Both total distance covered (r2=0.59; P=0.02) and high-intensity activities (r2=0.44; P=0.05) were related to the distance covered by the ball in the same match. The referees ran at high speed 37% further (P=0.01) in the actual tournament than during under-17 top-level officiating. After the 5-min interval during which high-speed running peaked, in the following 5 min the performance was reduced by 19% (P=0.01) in relation to the mean of the game. Mean heart rate was 161, s=9 b.min(-1) (86, s=3% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)). Mean heart rate (expressed as percentage of HRmax) was related in part (r2=0.36; P<0.01) to the number of high-intensity activities performed in the same 5-min interval. The results of this study show that: (1) kinematic activity profiles of top-class referees can be influenced by the distance covered by the ball; (2) the amount of high-speed running (>5 m.s(-1)) best describes the physical performance of referees; (3) heart rate recording can be a useful tool to determine the most intense periods of a match and (4) the new fitness tests adopted by FIFA were poor predictors of match activities. PMID:18979338

  8. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

    PubMed

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music. Furthermore, infants assigned to the active musical experience showed superior development of prelinguistic communicative gestures and social behaviour compared to infants assigned to the passive musical experience. These results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development. PMID:22490179

  9. Lifestyle behaviours and weight among hospital-based nurses

    PubMed Central

    ZAPKA, JANE M.; LEMON, STEPHENIE C.; MAGNER, ROBERT P.; HALE, JANET

    2008-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to (i) describe the weight, weight-related perceptions and lifestyle behaviours of hospital-based nurses, and (ii) explore the relationship of demographic, health, weight and job characteristics with lifestyle behaviours. Background The obesity epidemic is widely documented. Worksite initiatives have been advocated. Nurses represent an important part of the hospital workforce and serve as role models when caring for patients. Methods A sample of 194 nurses from six hospitals participated in anthropometric measurements and self-administered surveys. Results The majority of nurses were overweight and obese, and some were not actively involved in weight management behaviours. Self-reported health, diet and physical activity behaviours were low, although variable by gender, age and shift. Reports of co-worker norms supported low levels of healthy behaviours. Conclusions Findings reinforce the need to address the hospital environment and culture as well as individual behaviours for obesity control. Implications for nursing management Nurse managers have an opportunity to consider interventions that promote a climate favourable to improved health habits by facilitating and supporting healthy lifestyle choices (nutrition and physical activity) and environmental changes. Such efforts have the potential to increase productivity and morale and decrease work-related disabilities and improve quality of life. PMID:19793242

  10. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, L; Francini, L; Petri, C; Mascherini, G; Scacciati, I; Maffulli, N; Galanti, G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. METHODS: A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. RESULTS: Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruited reported low levels of physical activity (70 subjects). Slightly more than 50% of the subjects undertook physical activity more than once a week, while 13% did it only once. Food intolerances were reported by 7 subjects (8%), with a high consumption of fruits, cereals and dairy products, low consumption of fish and alcohol, and meat consumption in the normal range. There was a high satisfaction in general quality of life. CONCLUSION: Questionnaire investigations play a role to identify the presence of degenerative chronic conditions in working communities. The self-reported perception of quality of life does not necessarily agree with the lifestyle habits found. Awareness of this aspect could be helpful to plan lifestyle interventions and promote healthy living habits. PMID:25147766

  11. Making large class basic histology lectures more interactive: The use of draw-along mapping techniques and associated educational activities.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would focus students during large class lectures. After each lecture on three basic histology tissues, a guided draw-along mapping session covering the work from the lecture was introduced in the form of a click-advance PowerPoint presentation which was used to demonstrate the unfolding of an "ideal" map. The lecturer simultaneously drew a similar map using an overhead projector allowing the students to draw their own maps on blank sheets of paper along with the lecturer. Students remained attentive during the activity and many participated in answering informal questions posed by the lecturer as the map-making session progressed. After the last session, students completed an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire (response rate of 78%). The majority of students found the draw-along maps useful (94%) and believed that its use should be continued in the future (93%). A significant increase (P < 0.001) was found in the test results of student cohorts who were given the current intervention compared to cohorts from previous years who were given mind maps as handouts only or had no intervention. The use of the draw-along mapping sessions were successful in focusing students during large class lectures while also providing them with a useful tool for their studies. PMID:25650015

  12. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  13. Active maize genes are unmodified and flanked by diverse classes of modified, highly repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, J L; Schrick, K; Springer, P S; Brown, W E; SanMiguel, P

    1994-08-01

    We have characterized the copy number, organization, and genomic modification of DNA sequences within and flanking several maize genes. We found that highly repetitive DNA sequences were tightly linked to most of these genes. The highly repetitive sequences were not found within the coding regions but could be found within 6 kb either 3' or 5' to the structural genes. These highly repetitive regions were each composed of unique combinations of different short repetitive sequences. Highly repetitive DNA blocks were not interrupted by any detected single copy DNA. The 13 classes of highly repetitive DNA identified were found to vary little between diverse Zea isolates. The level of DNA methylation in and near these genes was determined by scoring the digestibility of 63 recognition/cleavage sites with restriction enzymes that were sensitive to 5-methylation of cytosines in the sequences 5'-CG-3' and 5'-CNG-3'. All but four of these sites were digestible in chromosomal DNA. The four undigested sites were localized to extragenic DNA within or near highly repetitive DNA, while the other 59 sites were in low copy number DNAs. Pulsed field gel analysis indicated that the majority of cytosine modified tracts range from 20 to 200 kb in size. Single copy sequences hybridized to the unmodified domains, while highly repetitive sequences hybridized to the modified regions. Middle repetitive sequences were found in both domains. PMID:7958822

  14. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Methods Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results The overall therapeutic effects were mainly dentoalveolar and occurred mostly during the active treatment with Forsus (T2-T3, mean duration = 0.5 ± 0.1 years). The overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Conclusions Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome. PMID:24892027

  15. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of α-Amino-γ-lactone Ketolides: A Novel Class of Macrolide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of α-amino-γ-lactone ketolide (3) was developed, which provided a versatile intermediate for the incorporation of a variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups onto the C-21 position of clarithromycin via HBTU-mediated amidation. The biological data for this important new class of macrolides revealed significantly potent activity against erythromycin-susceptible strains as well as efflux-resistant and erythromycin MLSB-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. In addition, ketolide 11o showed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against H. influenzae strain as compared to telithromycin. These results indicate that C-21 substituted γ-lactone ketolides have potential as a next generation macrolide antibiotics. PMID:25313326

  16. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing kids to lots of allergens, ... rest of the population -- much lower rates of asthma. "We found Amish children had extremely low levels ...

  17. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds. PMID:25675352

  18. HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: A SAUDI PROFILE

    PubMed Central

    AI-Shahri, Mohammad Z.

    1996-01-01

    The negative effects on health by behavior such as cigarette smoking, lack of physical exercise, non-control of body weight and non-use of seat belts were empirically documented. Available findings of the various studies on lifestyle of the Saudi Arabian community were not encouraging. If the general health status of the Saudi population is to be improved, an enforcement of healthy lifestyles must be considered. PMID:23008551

  19. Creating Classrooms of and for Activism at the Intersections of Class, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishida, Akemi; Fine, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors describe pedagogy which rests on commitments to solidarity, activism, and intersectional understandings of personhood and social (in)justices. The authors seek to create accessible classrooms where our many selves and critical consciousness can be in (dis)comforting conversation with one another. Then, they hope to…

  20. Inequity outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer M.; Putnam, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that shows that extracurricular activities help cultivate the skills, connections, and knowledge that prepare children for lifelong success. They add, however, that low-income students are increasingly being excluded from participating. Struggling with budget cuts and deficits, many school districts…

  1. The Influence of the Sport Education Model on Amotivated Students' In-Class Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…

  2. Using Technology To Implement Active Learning in Large Classes. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Leonard, William J.

    An emerging technology, classroom communication systems (CCSs), has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large-lecture settings. CCSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using…

  3. It's Your Move: Expressive Movement Activities for the Language Arts Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Gloria T.; Cunningham, Jean

    Noting that children can best respond to literature through the arts--drawing, acting, writing, or dancing--this book provides teachers with a variety of activities for developing and using physical movement in the context of the language arts and literature curricula in the elementary school. Following a brief introduction examining expressive…

  4. Rapid Purification of a New P-I Class Metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni Venom with Antiplatelet Activity

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Mayara R.; Mamede, Carla C. Neves; Fonseca, Kelly C.; de Morais, Nadia C. G.; de Sousa, Bruna B.; Santos-Filho, Norival A.; Beletti, Marcelo E.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Stanziola, Leonilda; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the proteolytic and biological activities of a new metalloproteinase from B. moojeni venom. The purification of BmooMPα-II was carried out through two chromatographic steps (ion-exchange and affinity). BmooMPα-II is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 22.5 kDa on SDS-PAGE 14% under nonreducing conditions. The N-terminal sequence (FSPRYIELVVVADHGMFTKYKSNLN) revealed homology with other snake venom metalloproteinases, mainly among P-I class. BmooMPα-II cleaves Aα-chain of fibrinogen followed by Bβ-chain, and does not show any effect on the γ-chain. Its optimum temperature and pH for the fibrinogenolytic activity were 30–50°C and pH 8, respectively. The inhibitory effects of EDTA and 1,10-phenantroline on the fibrinogenolytic activity suggest that BmooMPα-II is a metalloproteinase. This proteinase was devoid of haemorrhagic, coagulant, or anticoagulant activities. BmooMPα-II caused morphological alterations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle of Swiss mice. The enzymatically active protein yet inhibited collagen, ADP, and ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that BmooMPα-II contributes to the toxic effect of the envenomation and that more investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition of platelet aggregation may contribute to the studies of snake venom on thrombotic disorders. PMID:24982866

  5. A combined nuclear and nucleolar localization motif in activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) controls immunoglobulin class switching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Torseth, Kathrin; Methot, Stephen P; Sundheim, Ottar; Liabakk, Nina B; Slupphaug, Geir; Di Noia, Javier M; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil

    2013-01-23

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a DNA mutator enzyme essential for adaptive immunity. AID initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating cytosine to uracil in specific immunoglobulin (Ig) gene regions. However, other loci, including cancer-related genes, are also targeted. Thus, tight regulation of AID is crucial to balance immunity versus disease such as cancer. AID is regulated by several mechanisms including nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Here we have studied nuclear import kinetics and subnuclear trafficking of AID in live cells and characterized in detail its nuclear localization signal. Importantly, we find that the nuclear localization signal motif also directs AID to nucleoli where it colocalizes with its interaction partner, catenin-β-like 1 (CTNNBL1), and physically associates with nucleolin and nucleophosmin. Moreover, we demonstrate that release of AID from nucleoli is dependent on its C-terminal motif. Finally, we find that CSR efficiency correlates strongly with the arithmetic product of AID nuclear import rate and DNA deamination activity. Our findings suggest that directional nucleolar transit is important for the physiological function of AID and demonstrate that nuclear/nucleolar import and DNA cytosine deamination together define the biological activity of AID. This is the first study on subnuclear trafficking of AID and demonstrates a new level in its complex regulation. In addition, our results resolve the problem related to dissociation of deamination activity and CSR activity of AID mutants. PMID:23183374

  6. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  7. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages. PMID:26934296

  8. Rationing organs using psychosocial and lifestyle criteria.

    PubMed

    Corley, M C; Westerberg, N; Elswick, R K; Connell, D; Neil, J; Sneed, G; Witcher, V

    1998-08-01

    The role of patient psychosocial and lifestyle characteristics in decisions about the allocation of scarce health care resources has not been examined. In this national survey using the Criteria for Selection of Transplant Recipient (CSTR) Scale, organ transplant coordinators (N = 559) identified the psychosocial and lifestyle criteria they believe should be considered in patient selection/rejection for organ transplant. Using factor analysis to reduce the data, six factors were identified: current lifestyle/psychiatric problems, family/socioeconomic issues, habits, controlled lifestyle/psychiatric issues, cost, and stigmatized conditions. Patients who were in prison for a serious crime, used cocaine, had AIDS, or were HIV positive (criteria making up the Stigma factor), were more likely to be labeled for exclusion from transplant than those with other psychosocial/lifestyle characteristics. When transplant coordinators perceived that patients' psychosocial and lifestyle problems were under control or corrected, they were more likely to consider them for a transplant. For all but the cost factor, criteria were most stringent for heart transplants. Although over 90% of the coordinators assessed patients and participated in patient selection for transplant, master's prepared nurses were more likely than nurses with other educational preparation to be involved in organ recipient selection. These findings can serve as a prototype for how decisions are made for allocating other scarce health care resources. PMID:9679809

  9. Health perception and healthy lifestyle behaviors of female factory workers.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Emine

    2016-07-01

    This study aims at the assessment of heath perception and healthy lifestyle behaviors of female workers at a food industry factory. Sociodemographic characteristics, a questionnaire form encompassing health-related characteristics, and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors (HLSB) Scale II are utilized for data collection. The percentage of smokers is determined to be 20.9% among the workers and about 35.6% of them are considered as slightly overweight or overweight, based on their body mass index values. About 81.7% of the workers perceive their health as good. The average of the HLSB scores of the workers is found to be at the medium level (122 ± 21.4). The HLSB scores of the nonsmokers are significantly higher (p <.05). Among the subgroups of the scale, the highest score is obtained for spiritual development (24.3 ± 5.1) and the lowest is obtained for physical activity (15.4 ± 4.3). PMID:26067209

  10. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  11. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  12. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  13. Physical Education Resources, Class Management, and Student Physical Activity Levels: A Structure-Process-Outcome Approach to Evaluating Physical Education Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M.; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical activity during PE. The proportion of class time devoted to management was evaluated as a potential mediator of the relations between resource availability and student activity levels. METHODS Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from interviews conducted with 46 physical educators and the systematic observation of 184 PE sessions in 34 schools. Regression analyses were conducted to test for the main effects of resource availability and the mediating role of class management. RESULTS Students who attended schools with a low student-to-physical educator ratio had more PE time and engaged in higher levels of physical activity during class time. Access to adequate PE equipment and facilities was positively associated with student activity levels. The availability of a greater number of physical educators per student was found to impact student activity levels by reducing the amount of session time devoted to class management. CONCLUSION The identification of structure and process predictors of student activity levels in PE will support the allocation of resources and encourage instructional practices that best support increased student activity levels in the most cost-effective way possible. Implications for PE policies and programs are discussed. PMID:21087253

  14. 3-Arylidene-N-hydroxyoxindoles: A New Class of Compounds Endowed with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zuco, Valentina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Zunino, Franco; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Botta, Maurizio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2016-08-19

    A series of compounds containing the N-hydroxyoxindole scaffold were synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity. The compounds showed potent antiproliferative activity against the wild-type p53 IGROV-1 ovarian carcinoma cell line and considerably lower efficacy against the mutant IGROV-1/Pt1 subline that lacks p53 function. The differential response of ovarian carcinoma cells depending on p53 status was also reflected in the varied susceptibility to apoptosis of the treated cell lines. These results support a role for the p53 transcription factor as a determinant of cytotoxicity. The therapeutic potential of the most promising compound of the series was evaluated in the treatment of an IGROV-1 xenograft growing as ascitic tumor in mice. Using intraperitoneal administration, daily treatment with the compound for four weeks produced a significant delay in the onset of ascites. PMID:27311681

  15. First-in-Class Inhibitors of Sulfur Metabolism with Bactericidal Activity against Non-Replicating M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Palde, Prakash B; Bhaskar, Ashima; Pedró Rosa, Laura E; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Gupta, Vinayak; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Singh, Amit; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-01-15

    Development of effective therapies to eradicate persistent, slowly replicating M. tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a significant challenge to controlling the global TB epidemic. To develop such therapies, it is imperative to translate information from metabolome and proteome adaptations of persistent Mtb into the drug discovery screening platforms. To this end, reductive sulfur metabolism is genetically and pharmacologically implicated in survival, pathogenesis, and redox homeostasis of persistent Mtb. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway are expected to serve as powerful tools in its preclinical and clinical validation as a therapeutic target for eradicating persisters. Here, we establish a first functional HTS platform for identification of APS reductase (APSR) inhibitors, a critical enzyme in the assimilation of sulfate for the biosynthesis of cysteine and other essential sulfur-containing molecules. Our HTS campaign involving 38 350 compounds led to the discovery of three distinct structural classes of APSR inhibitors. A class of bioactive compounds with known pharmacology displayed potent bactericidal activity in wild-type Mtb as well as MDR and XDR clinical isolates. Top compounds showed markedly diminished potency in a conditional ΔAPSR mutant, which could be restored by complementation with Mtb APSR. Furthermore, ITC studies on representative compounds provided evidence for direct engagement of the APSR target. Finally, potent APSR inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular levels of key reduced sulfur-containing metabolites and also induced an oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of live Mtb, thus providing functional validation of our screening data. In summary, we have identified first-in-class inhibitors of APSR that can serve as molecular probes in unraveling the links between Mtb persistence, antibiotic tolerance, and sulfate assimilation, in addition to their potential therapeutic value. PMID:26524379

  16. A new class of furoxan derivatives as NO donors: mechanism of action and biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ferioli, R; Folco, G C; Ferretti, C; Gasco, A M; Medana, C; Fruttero, R; Civelli, M; Gasco, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The mechanism of action and biological activity of a series of R-substituted and di-R-substituted phenylfuroxans is reported. 2. Maximal potency as vasodilators on rabbit aortic rings, precontracted with noradrenaline (1 microM), was shown by phenyl-cyano isomers and by the 3,4-dicyanofuroxan, characterized by a potency ratio 3-10 fold higher than glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). This effect was reduced upon coincubation with methylene blue or oxyhaemoglobin (10 microM). 3. The furoxan derivatives showing maximal potency as vasodilators were also able to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range. 4. The furoxan derivatives were able to stimulate partially purified, rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase; among the most active compounds, the 3-R-substituted isomers displayed a higher level of stimulatory effect than the 4-R analogues. 5. Solutions (0.1 mM) of all the tested furoxans, prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, (diluting 10 mM DMSO stock solutions) did not release nitric oxide (NO) spontaneously; however in presence of 5 mM L-cysteine, a significant NO-releasing capacity was observed, which correlated significantly with their stimulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. PMID:7773542

  17. Favorable lifestyle before diagnosis associated with lower risk of screen-detected advanced colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Markus D; de Lange, Thomas; Botteri, Edoardo; Nguyen, Dung-Hong; Evensen, Helge; Steen, Chloé B; Hoff, Geir; Bernklev, Tomm; Hjartåker, Anette; Berstad, Paula

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between adherence to health recommendations and detection of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. METHODS: A total of 14832 women and men were invited to CRC screening, 6959 in the fecal immunochemical test arm and 7873 in the flexible sigmoidoscopy arm. These were also sent a self-reported lifestyle questionnaire to be completed prior to their first CRC screening. A lifestyle score was created to reflect current adherence to healthy behaviors in regard to smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption and food consumption, and ranged from zero (poorest) to six (best). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between the single lifestyle variables and the lifestyle score and the probability of detecting ACN. RESULTS: In all 6315 women and men completed the lifestyle questionnaire, 3323 (53%) in the FIT arm and 2992 (47%) in the FS arm. This was 89% of those who participated in screening. ACN was diagnosed in 311 (5%) participants of which 25 (8%) were diagnosed with CRC. For individuals with a lifestyle score of two, three, four, and five-six, the ORs (95%CI) for the probability of ACN detection were 0.82 (0.45-1.16), 0.43 (0.28-0.73), 0.41 (0.23-0.64), and 0.41 (0.22-0.73), respectively compared to individuals with a lifestyle score of zero-one. Of the single lifestyle factors, adherence to non-smoking and moderate alcohol intake were associated with a decreased probability of ACN detection compared to being a smoker or having a high alcohol intake 0.53 (0.42-0.68) and 0.63 (0.43-0.93) respectively. CONCLUSION: Adopted healthy behaviors were inversely associated with the probability of ACN detection. Lifestyle assessment might be useful for risk stratification in CRC screening. PMID:27468217

  18. Antiglycation activity of quinoline derivatives- a new therapeutic class for the management of type 2 diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Bano, Bilquees; Abbasi, Sanaullah; Khan, Jalaluddin A J; Hussain, Shafqat; Rasheed, Saima; Perveen, Shahnaz; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    We report here a new class of compounds, quinoline derivatives, as potential inhibitors of in vitro bovine serum albumin-methylglyoxal glycation. Among compounds 1-19, compound 14 was found to be the most active analog with IC₅₀ of 282.98 ± 8.4 µM. Compounds 12 (IC₅₀ = 661.78 ± 8.7 µM) and 15 (IC₅₀ = 629.43 ± 7.85 7 µM) were also identified as modest inhibitors, in comparison to the standard inhibitor, rutin (IC₅₀ = 294.50 ± 1.5 µM). When evaluated for antioxidant activity through in vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay, compounds 3 (IC₅₀ = 2.19 ± 0.27 µM), 6 (IC₅₀ = 7.35 ± 2.27 µM), 11 (IC₅₀ = 8.96 ± 0.56 µM), and 12 (IC₅₀ = 10.11 ± 2.03 µM), and 15 (IC₅₀ = 7.01 ± 3.87 µM) were found to be more active than the standard i.e. gallic acid (IC₅₀ = 23.34 ± 0.43 µM). These compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against rat fibroblast cell line (3T3 cell line). All compounds were found to be non-toxic in cellular model. This study identifies quinoline derivatives as a new class of inhibitors of protein glycation in vitro, along with antioxidant and non-toxic nature. These properties make them interesting leads for further studies as potential anti-diabetic agents. PMID:24875825

  19. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  20. Health Promoting Lifestyle and its Determinants Among University Students in Sabzevar, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284

  1. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  2. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  3. Major histocompatibility complex class II (DR) antigen and costimulatory molecules on in vitro and in vivo activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sandilands, Gavin P; McCrae, Jame; Hill, Kathryn; Perry, Martin; Baxter, Derek

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that normal human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) contain cytoplasmic ‘stores’ of three key molecules normally associated with antigen presentation and T-cell costimulation, i.e. major histocompatibility complex class II (DR) antigen, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). These cytoplasmic molecules were found to translocate to the cell surface within a few minutes following cross-linking (X-L) of Mac-1: an early neutrophil activation signal. In this study we have compared X-L of Mac −1 in parallel with four other well documented in vitro neutrophil activators: phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, and phagocytosis of immunoglobulin G–Latex particles. In addition, we have used paired samples of neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood (as a control) and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis as a source of in vivo activated cells. With the exception of phagocytosis, all activators resulted in the rapid (within 30 min) generation of two populations of activated neutrophils (designated P1 and P2) based on flow-cytometry measurements of size, granularity and phenotype. Significant up-regulation of DR and costimulatory molecules was observed, predominantly on P2 cells, with all activators except phagocytosis. CD80 and CD86 were noted to respond to the various activation signals in a different pattern suggesting that their intracellular granule location may be different. Dual-staining confocal laser microscopy studies showed that CD80 is largely confined to secretory vesicles (SVs) while CD86 appears to have a much wider distribution being found in SVs and within secondary (specific) and primary (azurophilic) granules. Increased surface expression of these antigens was also observed on P2 synovial fluid neutrophils appearing as large heterogeneous clusters on the cell surface when visualized by confocal laser microscopy. PMID:17034427

  4. Discovery of a Novel Class of Orally Active Trypanocidal N-Myristoyltransferase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) represents a promising drug target for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), which is caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei. We report the optimization of a high throughput screening hit (1) to give a lead molecule DDD85646 (63), which has potent activity against the enzyme (IC50 = 2 nM) and T. brucei (EC50 = 2 nM) in culture. The compound has good oral pharmacokinetics and cures rodent models of peripheral HAT infection. This compound provides an excellent tool for validation of T. brucei NMT as a drug target for HAT as well as a valuable lead for further optimization. PMID:22148754

  5. The decision, implementation and assessment of a credit-bearing activity class by faculty in residence: A case study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff; Humphrey, Michael; Sielaff, Cala; Wintrow, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This case study reports on a programmatic decision to require a credit-bearing course that was made by Faculty in Residence (FIR), including its implementation and results over a two-year period from 2010-2012. The focus is on FIR and on the impact of their decision upon the students enrolled in their Living Learning Communities (LLCs). The credit-bearing course was a Kinesiology Activities class taken by all seven LLCs at Boise State University. Anonymous feedback from students was obtained via end of semester surveys; results were used to improve the course. Survey feedback was analyzed to assess the value students perceived to have gained from the course. The majority of students reported gaining value from the class. Students noted that it positively affected their time management/personal accountability, that it decreased their stress level and that it increased their awareness of the Recreational Center offerings. Some students were critical of the course, reporting little to no value or even resentment about the course requirement. The decision, implementation and improvements of the course required faculty leadership and full participation of all LLCs; perceptions of the FIR in terms of the effects of adding the required course on their LLC are reported. PMID:26519021

  6. The apelin receptor: Physiology, pathology, cell signalling, and ligand modulation of a peptide-activated class A GPCR

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Nigel A.; Dupré, Denis J.; Rainey, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    The apelin receptor (AR or APJ) is a class A (rhodopsin-like) G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with wide distribution throughout the human body. Activation of the AR by its cognate peptide ligand, apelin, induces diverse physiological effects including vasoconstriction and dilation; strengthening of heart muscle contractility; angiogenesis; and, regulation of energy metabolism and fluid homeostasis. Recently, another endogenous peptidic activator of the AR, Toddler/ELABELA, was identified as having a crucial role in zebrafish embryonic development. The AR is also implicated in pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Despite its established importance, the precise roles of AR signalling remain poorly understood. Moreover, little is known about mechanisms of peptide-AR activation. Additional complexity arises from modulation of the AR by two endogenous peptide ligands, both with multiple bioactive isoforms of variable length and distribution. The various apelin and Toddler/ELABELA isoforms may also produce distinct cellular effects. Further complexity arises through formation of functionally distinct heterodimers between the AR and other GPCRs. This minireview outlines key (patho)physiological actions of the AR, addresses what is known about signal transduction downstream of AR activation, and concludes by discussing unique properties of the endogenous peptidic ligands of the AR. PMID:25275559

  7. P2X7 Receptor Activation Impairs Exogenous MHC Class I Oligopeptides Presentation in Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a potent molecule to activate CD8+ T cells and initiate immunity. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are present on the plasma membrane of APCs to sense the extracellular danger signal adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). P2X7R activates the inflammasome and the release of IL-1β in macrophages and other immune cells to initiate the inflammatory response. Here we show that P2X7R stimulation by ATP in APCs decreased the amount of MHC I at the plasma membrane. Specific antagonism or genetic ablation of P2X7R inhibited the effects of ATP on levels of cellular MHC I. Furthermore, P2X7R stimulation was able to inhibit activation of CD8+ T cells via specific MHC I-oligopeptide complexes. Our study suggests that P2X7R activation on APCs is a novel inhibitor of adaptive CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:23940597

  8. P2X7 receptor activation impairs exogenous MHC class I oligopeptides presentation in antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a potent molecule to activate CD8(+) T cells and initiate immunity. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are present on the plasma membrane of APCs to sense the extracellular danger signal adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). P2X7R activates the inflammasome and the release of IL-1β in macrophages and other immune cells to initiate the inflammatory response. Here we show that P2X7R stimulation by ATP in APCs decreased the amount of MHC I at the plasma membrane. Specific antagonism or genetic ablation of P2X7R inhibited the effects of ATP on levels of cellular MHC I. Furthermore, P2X7R stimulation was able to inhibit activation of CD8(+) T cells via specific MHC I-oligopeptide complexes. Our study suggests that P2X7R activation on APCs is a novel inhibitor of adaptive CD8(+) T cell immunity. PMID:23940597

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b interaction with delta class glutathione transferases from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wongtrakul, Jeerang; Sukittikul, Suchada; Saisawang, Chonticha; Ketterman, Albert J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, drug metabolism, and protection against oxidative damage. The p38b mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellular stress response. This study screened interactions between Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Delta class glutathione transferases (DmGSTs) and the D. melanogaster p38b MAPK. Therefore, 12 DmGSTs and p38b kinase were obtained as recombinant proteins. The study showed that DmGSTD8 and DmGSTD11b significantly increased p38b activity toward ATF2 and jun, which are transcription factor substrates. DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD5 moderately increased p38b activity for jun. In addition, GST activity in the presence of p38b was also measured. It was found that p38b affected substrate specificity toward CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and DCNB (1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene) of several GST isoforms, i.e., DmGSTD2, DmGSTD5, DmGSTD8, and DmGSTD11b. The interaction of a GST and p38b can affect the substrate specificity of either enzyme, which suggests induced conformational changes affecting catalysis. Similar interactions do not occur for all the Delta enzymes and p38b, which suggests that these interactions could be specific. PMID:23438069

  10. Promoting Wellness in Lamaze Classes

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Lamaze childbirth educators are responsible for teaching wellness-based classes that do not add to the anxiety of the current, fear-based culture of maternity health care. Expectant parents' vulnerable months of pregnancy offer “teachable moments” for the childbirth educator, during which parents can be encouraged to alter their lifestyles and adopt the concept of wellness to their principles of living. In this article, concepts of wellness are examined, drawing from the writings of wellness advocates, midwifery researchers, and an anthropologist. Nutrition, physical exercise, breathing, and awareness of the five senses are components of potential class content explored in this article. PMID:17273442

  11. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. PMID:27021006

  12. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  13. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  14. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    PubMed

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  15. Novel class of Bi(iii) hydroxamato complexes: synthesis, urease inhibitory activity and activity against H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Keogan, D M; Twamley, B; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Griffith, D M

    2016-07-01

    Reaction of Bi(NO3)3 with benzohydroxamic acid (Bha) and salicylhydroxamic acid (Sha) gives the novel Bi(iii) complexes [Bi2(Bha-1H)2(μ-Bha-1H)2(η(2)-NO3)2] () and [Bi6(CH3OH)2(η(1)-NO3)2(η(2)-NO3)(OH2)2(Sha-1H)12](NO3)2 (). X-ray crystal structure of reveals two hydroxamato coordination modes; bidentate bridging (O, O') and bidentate non-bridging (O, O') and of reveals one coordination mode; bidentate bridging (O, O'). , specifically designed to and demonstrated to inhibit the activity of urease, exhibits excellent antibacterial activity against three strains of Helicobacter pylori with MIC ≥ 16 μg mL(-1). PMID:27314129

  16. Evidence for a new class of scorpion toxins active against K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Legros, C; Céard, B; Bougis, P E; Martin-Eauclaire, M F

    1998-07-24

    cDNAs encoding novel long-chain scorpion toxins (64 amino acid residues, including only six cysteines) were isolated from cDNA libraries produced from the venom glands of the scorpions Androctonus australis from Old World and Tityus serrulatus from New World. The encoded peptides were very similar to a recently identified toxin from T. serrulatus, which is active against the voltage-sensitive 'delayed-rectifier' potassium channel, but they were completely different from the long-chain and short-chain scorpion toxins already characterised. However, there was some sequence similarity (42%) between these new toxins, Aa TX Kbeta and Ts TX Kbeta, and scorpion defensins purified from the hemolymph of Buthidae scorpions Leiurus quinquestriatus and A. australis. Thus, according to a multiple sequence alignment using CLUSTAL, these new toxins seem to be related to the scorpion defensins. PMID:9714546

  17. Structure activity relationships of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones: A novel class of antituberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Ng, Pearly Shuyi; Manjunatha, Ujjini H; Rao, Srinivasa P S; Camacho, Luis R; Ma, Ngai Ling; Herve, Maxime; Noble, Christian G; Goh, Anne; Peukert, Stefan; Diagana, Thierry T; Smith, Paul W; Kondreddi, Ravinder Reddy

    2015-12-01

    Pyridone 1 was identified from a high-throughput cell-based phenotypic screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) including multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) as a novel anti-TB agent and subsequently optimized series using cell-based Mtb assay. Preliminary structure activity relationship on the isobutyl group with higher cycloalkyl groups at 6-position of pyridone ring has enabled us to significant improvement of potency against Mtb. The lead compound 30j, a dimethylcyclohexyl group on the 6-position of the pyridone, displayed desirable in vitro potency against both drug sensitive and multi-drug resistant TB clinical isolates. In addition, 30j displayed favorable oral pharmacokinetic properties and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in mouse model. These results emphasize the importance of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones as a new chemotype and further optimization of properties to treat MDR-TB. PMID:26544629

  18. Total Synthesis and Selective Activity of a NewClass of Conformationally Restrained Epothilones

    PubMed Central

    Alhamadsheh, Mamoun M.; Gupta, Shuchi; Hudson, Richard A.; Perera, Lalith

    2009-01-01

    Stereoselective total syntheses of two novel conformationally restrained epothilone analogues are described. Evans asymmetric alkylation, Brown allylation, and a diastereoselective aldol reaction served as the key steps in the stereoselective synthesis of one of the two key fragments of the convergent synthetic approach.Enzyme resolution was employed to obtain the second fragment as a single enantiomer. The molecules were assembled by esterification, followed by ring-closing metathesis. In preliminary cytotoxicity studies, one of the analogues showed strong and selective growth inhibitory activity against two leukemia cell lines over solid human tumor cell lines. The precise biological mechanism of action and high degree of selectivity of this analogue remain to be examined. PMID:17955508

  19. Effect of genotype on success of lifestyle intervention in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Peter; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Laakso, Markku; Fritsche, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Lifestyle intervention programs including increased physical activity and healthy nutrition have been proven to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. This is achieved mainly by reducing body weight and improving insulin sensitivity. However, response to lifestyle or dietary interventions does differ between individuals, and the genetic or environmental factors that may account for these differences are not yet precisely characterized. Identification of these factors would be desirable in order to provide an individually tailored preventive strategy for patients at risk of developing diabetes. This review summarizes the so far known genetic variations, which determine responders and nonresponders to a lifestyle intervention. In addition, general methodological approaches to study gene-lifestyle interactions are described. PMID:17165091

  20. [Lifestyle medicine: the importance of considering all the causes of disease].

    PubMed

    Mora Ripoll, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The enormous potential effects of health behavior change on mortality, morbidity, and health care costs provide ample motivation for the concept of lifestyle medicine. Lifestyle medicine involves the therapeutic use of lifestyle interventions on health and quality of life, and considers not only risk factors and markers, but also a range of antecedent factors from all levels of causality. Treatment would ultimate employ a combination of clinical (patient-centered) and public-health interventions. Examples of target patient behaviors include, but are not limited to, eliminating tobacco use, moderating alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, improving diet, sleep, and emotional and mental well-being. The effective implementation of lifestyle medicine should be a priority within the necessary changes in current healthcare systems and public health policies. PMID:22854504