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Sample records for active lifestyles class

  1. Self-Determination in Physical Education: Designing Class Environments to Promote Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity L.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the lack of physical activity and increasing rates of childhood obesity have received a great deal of attention in the United States. One way to combat inactivity in children is to utilize physical education programs as a means to promote active lifestyles. There is not, however, a consensus concerning how physical education programs can…

  2. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  3. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  4. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  5. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  6. Life be in it: lifestyle choices for active leisure.

    PubMed

    Jobling, A

    2001-07-01

    For members of the community, participation in leisure, sports and recreation is an important lifestyle choice. Individuals with Down syndrome live in our community and they, too, are equally entitled to active lifestyle choices. Children, adolescents and adults with Down syndrome have a wide range of interests and, although reported trends indicate that their engagement in recreational activity is often sedentary and solitary in nature, other factors apart from the syndrome may account for this. Using a perception of difference perspective, this paper will examine certain aspects of their motor development, health and interactions with others which could be viewed as restrictive factors to their ability to participate in active leisure opportunities in the community. Program examples from Australia will be used to illustrate how a perception of difference which facilitates ability rather than disability across community based activities can enable a range of active leisure choices.

  7. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions.

  8. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  9. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  10. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  11. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respiratory symptoms of air pollutant exposure.An animal model of childhood-to-adult sedentary {SEO) vs. active {ACT) lifestyle was achieved by providing female Long-Evans rats with running wheels beginning at22d of age and then exposing to ozone {03) as adults. ACT rats ran 7.2 km/d over 74 days, had lower body fat, and improved glucose tolerance (GT) compared to SEO rats. Adult rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm 03 for 5 hr/d for 2 d. 03-induced impairment in GT was significantly improved in ACT animals.Bronchoalveolar lavage {BALF) protein markers of lung damage and neutrophilic inflammation were similarly affected in SEO and ACT animals. BALF eosinophils of SEO rats were markedly higher after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 ppm 03 compared to ACT rats. Overall,this animal model suggests that regular exercise initiated early in life may afford protection in adulthood to the metabolic and pulmonary effects of 03. The attenuated 03-induced elevation in BALF eosinophils of ACT rats may suggest a protective mechanism of childhood exercise on asthma-related symptoms of air pollution. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not reflect US EPA policy This abstract will be presen

  12. Assessing sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP).

    PubMed

    Saunders, R P; Pate, R R; Dowda, M; Ward, D S; Epping, J N; Dishman, R K

    2012-04-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive school-based intervention that targeted change in instructional practices and the school environment to promote physical activity (PA) in high school girls. Previous reports indicated that significantly more girls in the intervention compared with control schools reported engaging in vigorous PA, and positive long-term effects on vigorous PA also were observed for girls in schools that most fully implemented and maintained the intervention 3 years following the active intervention. In this paper, the seven steps used to assess sustainability in LEAP are presented; these steps provide a model for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs in other settings. Unique features of the LEAP sustainability model include assessing sustainability of changes in instructional practices and the environment, basing assessment on an essential element framework that defined complete and acceptable delivery at the beginning of the project, using multiple data sources to assess sustainability, and assessing implementation longitudinally.

  13. Assessing sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive school-based intervention that targeted change in instructional practices and the school environment to promote physical activity (PA) in high school girls. Previous reports indicated that significantly more girls in the intervention compared with control schools reported engaging in vigorous PA, and positive long-term effects on vigorous PA also were observed for girls in schools that most fully implemented and maintained the intervention 3 years following the active intervention. In this paper, the seven steps used to assess sustainability in LEAP are presented; these steps provide a model for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs in other settings. Unique features of the LEAP sustainability model include assessing sustainability of changes in instructional practices and the environment, basing assessment on an essential element framework that defined complete and acceptable delivery at the beginning of the project, using multiple data sources to assess sustainability, and assessing implementation longitudinally. PMID:22156233

  14. Lifestyle Options and Economic Strategies: Subsistence Activities in the Mississippi Delta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ralph B.; Toth, John F., Jr.; Xu, Xia

    1998-01-01

    A rural Mississippi Delta study found that participation in subsistence activities was greater among whites, persons with higher income and education, and those from larger families, suggesting an element of lifestyle choice (rather than economic strategy). However, a subsistence lifestyle may deter youth from leaving to pursue higher education,…

  15. Lifestyle physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis: the new kid on the MS block.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Supervised exercise training has substantial benefits for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet 80% of those with MS do not meet recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This same problem persisted for decades in the general population of adults and prompted a paradigm shift away from "exercise training for fitness" toward "physical activity for health." The paradigm shift reflects a public health approach of promoting lifestyle physical activity through behavioral interventions that teach people the skills, techniques, and strategies based on established theories for modifying and self-regulating health behaviors. This paper describes: (a) the definitions of and difference between structured exercise training and lifestyle physical activity; (b) the importance and potential impact of the paradigm shift; (c) consequences of lifestyle physical activity in MS; and (d) behavioral interventions for changing lifestyle physical activity in MS. The paper introduces the "new kid on the MS block" with the hope that lifestyle physical activity might become an accepted partner alongside exercise training for inclusion in comprehensive MS care.

  16. A Gendered Lifestyle-Routine Activity Approach to Explaining Stalking Victimization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R

    2016-05-01

    Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based.

  17. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet.

  18. Validating a Lifestyle Physical Activity Measure for People with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Huck, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the measurement structure of the "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" (PASIPD) as an assessment tool of lifestyle physical activities for people with severe mental illness. Method: A quantitative descriptive research design using factor analysis was employed. A sample of 72 individuals…

  19. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  20. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  2. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  3. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  4. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  5. The Association Between Lifestyle Activities and Late-Life Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Xia, Jin; Spira, Adam P; Xue, Qian-Li; Rieger, Marin L; Rebok, George W; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-01-01

    The association between lifestyle activities and incident depressive symptoms was examined within the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Measures of activity and depressive symptoms were collected on four occasions, spanning six-years. Discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the effects of baseline activity on depressive symptoms over time. Overall, activity was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. When specific activity domains were examined, greater participation in creative activities was associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 0.92; CI 95% 0.87, 0.98). Further longitudinal research between diverse activities and incident depressive symptoms is warranted.

  6. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural…

  7. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  8. Does a physically active lifestyle attenuate decline in all cognitive functions in old age?

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Reales, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the performance of a group of 20 physically active older adults was compared with that of a group of 20 sedentary healthy older adults while performing a series of cognitive tasks. These tasks were designed to assess processes that deteriorate most with age, namely executive control (assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) and processing speed (simple and choice reaction time tasks). A repetition priming task that does not decline with age, involving attended and unattended picture outlines at encoding, was also included as a control task. The results show that a physically active lifestyle has a positive influence on executive control, processing speed, and controlled processing. As expected, a physically active lifestyle did not enhance repetition priming for attended stimuli, nor did it produce priming for unattended stimuli at encoding. Both groups exhibited robust priming for attended stimuli and no priming for unattended ones. Executive control functions are of vital importance for independent living in old age. These results have practical implications for enhancing the cognitive processes that decline most in old age. Promoting a physically active lifestyle throughout adulthood could significantly reduce the decline of effortful executive control functions in old age.

  9. Personality types, lifestyle, and sensitivity to mental stress in association with NK activity.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Nakachi, K

    2001-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 302 healthy Japanese male workers to make a mechanistic approach to the association between personality types and cancer; two types of personality, the emotionally unstable-introvert and the emotionally stable-extravert, were compared with each other in lifestyle, mental stress status, and biological markers such as plasma levels of neurotransmitters and NK activity of peripheral lymphocytes. We first found that emotionally unstable-introverts have a more unhealthy lifestyle associated with low NK activity than among stable-extraverts, along with higher sensitivity to mental stress (also known to suppress NK activity) than stable-extraverts. Second, emotionally unstable-introverts were found to have in fact decreased NK activity along with higher plasma levels of noradrenaline, when compared with stable-extraverts. Our results thus demonstrate that emotionally unstable-introverts have a decreased capacity of immunological host defense against cancer, which is possibly due to two factors, unhealthy lifestyle and high sensitivity to mental stress.

  10. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  11. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes.

  12. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  13. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children.

  14. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  15. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors.

  16. Association of lifestyle and demographic factors with estrogenic and glucocorticogenic activity in Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Fejerman, L; Sanchez, S S; Thomas, R; Tachachartvanich, P; Riby, J; Gomez, S L; John, E M; Smith, M T

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer risk is higher in US-born than in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinas and also increases with greater length of US residency. It is only partially known what factors contribute to these patterns of risk. To gain new insights, we tested the association between lifestyle and demographic variables and breast cancer status, with measures of estrogenic (E) and glucocorticogenic (G) activity in Mexican American women. We used Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assays to measure E and G activity in total plasma from 90 Mexican American women, without a history of breast cancer at the time of recruitment, from the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. We tested associations of nativity, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with E and G activity using linear regression models. We did not find a statistically significant difference in E or G activity by nativity. However, in multivariable models, E activity was associated with Indigenous American ancestry (19% decrease in E activity per 10% increase in ancestry, P = 0.014) and with length of US residency (28% increase in E activity for every 10 years, P = 0.035). G activity was associated with breast cancer status (women who have developed breast cancer since recruitment into the study had 21% lower G activity than those who have not, P = 0.054) and alcohol intake (drinkers had 25% higher G activity than non-drinkers, P = 0.015). These associations suggest that previously reported breast cancer risk factors such as genetic ancestry and alcohol intake might in part be associated with breast cancer risk through mechanisms linked to the endocrine system.

  17. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  18. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  19. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  20. Cyber Dating Abuse Victimization Among Secondary School Students From a Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theory Perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2016-02-12

    Controlling one's romantic partner through digital media is a form of cyber dating abuse. To design effective educational campaigns, a deeper understanding of how some young people become victim of this type of abuse within their romantic relationships is warranted. This study is the first to adopt a lifestyle-routine activities theory perspective toward online romantic partner monitoring, by looking at whether secondary school students' risky digital lifestyle and their digital media use are linked to a higher chance of being controlled by a romantic partner, taking into account gender, age, and the length of the romantic relationship. The data of 466 secondary school students (71.0% girls, n = 331) between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.99 years; SD = 0.92) who were in a romantic relationship are analyzed. Linear regression analysis suggests that engagement in online risk behavior, the length of the romantic relationship, engagement in sexting with the romantic partner, and the amount of social networking site use were significantly linked to victimization of digital controlling behavior. The results are important to practitioners, as they indicate that messages about safe Internet use should be incorporated in prevention and educational campaigns with regard to cyber dating abuse. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. An Active Lifestyle is Associated with Better Neurocognitive Functioning in Adults Living with HIV-infection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (Mage = 48.7; 48% age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically-adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses were examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs was associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV. PMID:24554483

  2. Neuroprotective pathways: lifestyle activity, brain pathology, and cognition in cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob; Jagust, William J

    2014-08-01

    This study used path analysis to examine effects of cognitive activity and physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults, through pathways involving beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, cerebrovascular lesions, and neural injury within the brain regions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety-two cognitively normal older adults (75.2 ± 5.6 years) reported lifetime cognitive activity and current physical activity using validated questionnaires. For each participant, we evaluated cortical Aβ burden (using [(11)C] labeled Pittsburgh-Compound-B positron emission tomography), cerebrovascular lesions (using magnetic resonance imaging-defined white matter lesion [WML]), and neural integrity within AD regions (using a multimodal neuroimaging biomarker). Path models (adjusted for age, gender, and education) indicated that higher lifetime cognitive activity and higher current physical activity was associated with fewer WMLs. Lower WML volumes were in turn related to higher neural integrity and higher global cognitive functioning. As shown previously, higher lifetime cognitive activity was associated with lower [(11)C] labeled Pittsburgh-Compound-B retention, which itself moderated the impact of neural integrity on cognitive functioning. Lifestyle activity may thus promote cognitive health in aging by protecting against cerebrovascular pathology and Aβ pathology thought to be relevant to AD development.

  3. Neuroprotective Pathways: Lifestyle activity, brain pathology and cognition in cognitively normal older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M.; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used path analysis to examine effects of cognitive activity and physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults, through pathways involving beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, cerebrovascular lesions, and neural injury within brain regions affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ninety-two cognitively normal older adults (75.2±5.6 years) reported lifetime cognitive activity and current physical activity using validated questionnaires. For each participant, we evaluated cortical Aβ burden (using PIB-PET), cerebrovascular lesions (using MRI-defined white matter lesion (WML)), and neural integrity within AD regions (using a multimodal biomarker). Path models (adjusted for age, gender, and education) indicated that higher lifetime cognitive activity and higher current physical activity was associated with fewer WMLs. Lower WML volumes were in turn related to higher neural integrity and higher global cognitive functioning. As shown previously, higher lifetime cognitive activity was associated with lower PIB retention, which itself moderated the impact of neural integrity on cognitive functioning. Lifestyle activity may thus promote cognitive health in aging by protecting against cerebrovascular pathology and Aβ pathology thought to be relevant to AD development. PMID:24656834

  4. Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Meléndez, Agustín

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing

  5. Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

  6. Physical Activity Interventions in Schools for Improving Lifestyle in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Rocha, Nuno B.F; Helmich, Ingo; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Vellante, Marcello; Baum, Antonia; Guicciardi, Marco; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background : In the last decades, children’s and adolescents’ obesity and overweight have increased in European Countries. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been recognized to determine such an epidemic. Schools represent an ideal setting to modify harmful behaviors, and physical activity could be regarded as a potential way to avoid the metabolic risks related to obesity. Methods : A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize the evidence of school-based interventions aimed to promote, enhance and implement physical activity in European schools. Only randomized controlled trials were included, carried out in Europe from January 2000 to April 2014, universally delivered and targeting pupils aged between 3 and 18 years old. Results : Forty-seven studies were retrieved based either on multicomponent interventions or solely physical activity programs. Most aimed to prevent obesity and cardiovascular risks among youths. While few studies showed a decrease in BMI, positive results were achieved on other outcomes, such as metabolic parameters and physical fitness. Conclusion : Physical activity in schools should be regarded as a simple, non-expensive and enjoyable way to reach all the children and adolescents with adequate doses of moderate to vigorous physical activity. PMID:25834629

  7. Active vs. sedentary lifestyle from weaning to adulthood and susceptibility to ozone in rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Schladweiler, M C; Johnstone, A F M; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of a sedentary (SED) life style combined with calorically rich diets has spurred the rise in childhood obesity, which, in turn, translates to adverse health effects in adulthood. Obesity and lack of active (ACT) lifestyle may increase susceptibility to air pollutants. We housed 22-day-old female Long-Evans rats in a cage without (SED) or with a running wheel (ACT). After 10 wk the rats ran 310 ± 16.3 km. Responses of SED and ACT rats to whole-body O3 (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm; 5 h/day for 2 days) was assessed. Glucose tolerance testing (GTT) was performed following the first day of O3 ACT rats had less body fat and an improved glucose GTT. Ventilatory function (plethysmography) of SED and ACT groups was similarly impaired by O3 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected after the second O3 exposure. SED and ACT rats were hyperglycemic following 1.0 ppm O3 GTT was impaired by O3 in both groups; however, ACT rats exhibited improved recovery to 0.25 and 1.0 ppm O3 BALF cell neutrophils and total cells were similarly increased in ACT and SED groups exposed to 1.0 ppm O3 O3-induced increase in eosinophils was exacerbated in SED rats. Chronic exercise from postweaning to adulthood improved some of the metabolic and pulmonary responses to O3 (GTT and eosinophils) but several other parameters were unaffected. The reduction in O3-induced rise in BALF eosinophils in ACT rats suggests a possible link between a SED lifestyle and incidence of asthma-related symptoms from O3.

  8. ATHENA: a personalized platform to promote an active lifestyle and wellbeing based on physical, mental and social health primitives.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-05-23

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications.

  9. ATHENA: A Personalized Platform to Promote an Active Lifestyle and Wellbeing Based on Physical, Mental and Social Health Primitives

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Muhammad; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Rahman; Nugent, Christopher; Kang, Byeong; Huh, Eui-Nam; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Technology provides ample opportunities for the acquisition and processing of physical, mental and social health primitives. However, several challenges remain for researchers as how to define the relationship between reported physical activities, mood and social interaction to define an active lifestyle. We are conducting a project, ATHENA(activity-awareness for human-engaged wellness applications) to design and integrate the relationship between these basic health primitives to approximate the human lifestyle and real-time recommendations for wellbeing services. Our goal is to develop a system to promote an active lifestyle for individuals and to recommend to them valuable interventions by making comparisons to their past habits. The proposed system processes sensory data through our developed machine learning algorithms inside smart devices and utilizes cloud infrastructure to reduce the cost. We exploit big data infrastructure for massive sensory data storage and fast retrieval for recommendations. Our contributions include the development of a prototype system to promote an active lifestyle and a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing self-motivation. We believe that our study will impact the design of future ubiquitous wellness applications. PMID:24859031

  10. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  11. Interruption pf physcial activity due to illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Indepencence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) compared to a health education control on measures of disability in sedentary older adults. Medical suspensions were examined for the first 12 months of the trial in th...

  12. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  13. Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Knowledge, Perceptions and Experiences of Promoting Healthy, Active Lifestyles in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical education teacher education (PETE) offers a context for students to learn about the promotion of active lifestyles in secondary schools through their interactions and experiences during the teacher education process. However, previous studies have found low levels of health-related fitness knowledge amongst PETE students,…

  14. Social Guardianship and Social Isolation: An Application and Extension of Lifestyle/Routine Activities Theory to Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Nagy, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Although the overall crime rate dropped between 1993 and 2000, both adolescent violence and violent crime in rural areas has been on the rise. However, little research has been conducted on the determinants of rural violence using targeted regional samples of rural youth. This study examines the applicability of lifestyle/routine activities (RA)…

  15. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  16. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  17. Sedentary lifestyle in active children admitted to a summer sport school.

    PubMed

    Fainardi, Valentina; Scarabello, Chiara; Brunella, Iovane; Errico, Maria Katrin; Mele, Alessandra; Gelmetti, Chiara; Sponzilli, Ivonne; Chiari, Giovanni; Volta, Elio; Vitale, Marco; Vanelli, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the sedentary patterns of school-aged active children admitted to a summer sport school. One hundred-twelve children aged 9-11 years were interviewed through a questionnaire about sedentary behaviours and nutrition habits. Seventy-one per cent of children reported they watch TV seven days a week, girls less than boys (84 +/- 45 minutes vs. 110 +/- 75 minutes) (t = 2.056; p = 0.042). The habit of TV viewing during meals was widespread (38% breakfast, 31% lunch, 62% dinner, 18% every meal). The prevalence of overweight or obesity (58.5%) was significantly higher among boys watching TV at dinner compared to the boys viewing TV only in the afternoon (35%) (chi2 = 4.976; p = 0.026). Fifty-seven per cent of children (65% boys) were accustomed to nibble snacks during TV viewing, and this habit was widespread in overweight or obese boys (chi2 = 4.546; p = 0.033). The dietary patterns of children watching TV include more snack foods and fewer fruits than the dietary patterns of the same children exercising (chi2 = 4.199 p = 0.040). Also in active children the habit to watch television is widespread and, in spite of the tendency to physical activity, 46% of them were overweight or obese; in fact the time spent looking at a TV may be associated to overweight/obesity and this relationship could be explained by the amount of high-density foods consumption during inactivity. Playing video games, read a book and listening to music are sedentary lifestyle patterns but these seem not to represent a risk factor for an increased BMI.

  18. [The impact of a 14- day regular physical exercise regime on the concentration of the classes and subclasses of lipoprotein particles in young subjects with a sedentary lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Sabaka, P; Dukát, A; Oravec, S; Mistríková, L; Baláž, D; Bendžala, M; Gašpar, L

    2013-10-01

    Recommendations from the cardiological professional companies working in the area of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases put an emphasis on regular aerobic physical activity. Its positive effect on both cardiovascular and overall mortality has repea-tedly been proven by the observations of prospective and cross sectional epidemiological studies. One of the possible explanations of this positive effect is a change in the concentration of lipoprotein classes and their subclasses, which is expressed as a change in their average size. In a group of young healthy men and women with a sedentary lifestyle we observed the effect of medium intensive physical exercise in the form of a 30- minute slow run per day lasting for 14 days. The concentration of lipoprotein classes and subclasses were determined through the method of a linear electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. In the observed group we found a statistically significant decrease of VLDL, large IDL particles, medium sized LDL, small dense LDL, and medium sized HDL particles. In the light of current knowledge all these lipoprotein particles are deemed as atherogenic. Thus, as little as 14 days of regular exercising has a positive effect on the concentration of plasmatic lipoproteins, and emphasises the role of regular physical activity in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  20. A health in all policies approach to promote active, healthy lifestyle in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In December 2011, Israel launched the National Program to Promote Active, Healthy Lifestyle, an inter-ministerial, intersectoral effort to address obesity and its contribution to the country’s burden of chronic disease. This paper explores the National Program according to the “Health in All Policies” (HiAP) strategy for health governance, designed to engage social determinants of health and curb health challenges at the causal level. Our objective is twofold: to identify where Israel’s National Program both echoes and falls short of Health in All Policies, and to assess how the National Program can be utilized to enrich the Health in All Policies research-base. We review Health in All Policies’ evolution, why it developed and how it is diverges from other approaches to intersectoriality in health. We describe why obesity and related chronic diseases necessitate an intersectoral response, cite obstacles and gaps to implementation and list examples of HiAP-type initiatives from around the world. We then analyze Israel’s National Program as it relates to Health in All Policies, and propose directions through which the initiative may constitute a useful case study. We contend that joint planning, implementation and to a limited extent, budgeting, between the Ministries of Health, Education and Culture and Sport reflect an HiAP-approach, as does integrating health into the policymaking of other ministries. To further incorporate health in all Israeli policies, we suggest leveraging the Health Ministry’s presence on governmental and non-governmental committees in areas like building, land-use and urban planning, institutional food policy and environmental health, and focusing on knowledge translation according to the policy needs, strengths and limitations of other sectors. Finally, we suggest studying the National Program’s financing, decision-making and evaluation mechanisms in order to complement existing research on the implementation of Health in

  1. Socioeconomic status and lifestyle behaviours in cancer survivors: smoking and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Naik, H.; Qiu, X.; Brown, M.C.; Eng, L.; Pringle, D.; Mahler, M.; Hon, H.; Tiessen, K.; Thai, H.; Ho, V.; Gonos, C.; Charow, R.; Pat, V.; Irwin, M.; Herzog, L.; Ho, A.; Xu, W.; Jones, J.M.; Howell, D.; Liu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Smoking cessation and increased physical activity (pa) have been linked to better outcomes in cancer survivors. We assessed whether socioeconomic factors influence changes in those behaviours after a cancer diagnosis. Methods As part of a cross-sectional study, a diverse group of cancer survivors at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON), completed a questionnaire about past and current lifestyle behaviours and perceptions about the importance of those behaviours with respect to their health. The influence of socioeconomic indicators on smoking status and physical inactivity at 1 year before and after diagnosis were assessed using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for clinico-demographic factors. Results Of 1222 participants, 1192 completed the smoking component. Of those respondents, 15% smoked before diagnosis, and 43% of those smokers continued to smoke after. The proportion of survivors who continued to smoke increased with lower education level (p = 0.03). Of the 1106 participants answering pa questions, 39% reported being physically inactive before diagnosis, of whom 82% remained inactive afterward. Survivors with a lower education level were most likely to remain inactive after diagnosis (p = 0.003). Lower education level, household income, and occupation were associated with the perception that pa had no effect or could worsen fatigue and quality of life (p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusions In cancer survivors, education level was a major modifier of smoking and pa behaviours. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with incorrect perceptions about pa. Targeting at-risk survivors by education level should be evaluated as a strategy in cancer survivorship programs. PMID:28050143

  2. New class of turbulence in active fluids

    PubMed Central

    Bratanov, Vasil; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier–Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such “living fluids” that is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308–14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner–Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier–Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708

  3. New class of turbulence in active fluids.

    PubMed

    Bratanov, Vasil; Jenko, Frank; Frey, Erwin

    2015-12-08

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier-Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such "living fluids" that is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308-14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner-Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier-Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows.

  4. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and susceptibility to ozone: An animal model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respir...

  5. Lifestyle Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Sep 16,2016 Sounds simple doesn' ... loved ones look to maintain health and wellness. Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  6. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  7. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural dwelling women and men. Method Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective. However, relative to men, women were more knowledgeable about different approaches to self-care, especially home remedies, they used a wider range of self-care activities, and they placed greater priority on self-care over professional health care. Discussion The structure of older women’s and men’s self-care domain of health lifestyle is similar. However, there are subtle differences in health lifestyle that are likely embedded in gendered role behavior and may contribute to women’s greater health complaints. PMID:21632439

  8. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  9. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  10. Two Learning Activities for a Large Introductory Statistics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharopoulou, Hrissoula

    2006-01-01

    In a very large Introductory Statistics class, i.e. in a class of more than 300 students, instructors may hesitate to apply active learning techniques, discouraged by the volume of extra work. In this paper two such activities are presented that evoke student involvement in the learning process. The first is group peer teaching and the second is…

  11. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  12. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  13. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Wesnigk, Jenny; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Fischer, Tina; Schuler, Gerhard; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL) exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15 ± 1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2) where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n = 8; restricted diet and exercise) or to a usual care group (UC, n = 8). At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%), an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function. PMID:27965912

  14. Factors influencing a health promoting lifestyle in spouses of active duty military.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Posey, Sheena M; Ricciardi, Richard; Agazio, Janice G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the health promoting behaviors (HPBs) of military spouses. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework guiding this study. One hundred twelve female spouses were surveyed regarding their perceived health status, perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and participation in HPBs. Perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, and HPBs were positively related, whereas perceived stress was negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed perceived stress and social support to be predictive of an overall health promoting lifestyle (HPLPII), with the full model explaining 49.7% of the variance.

  15. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases.

  16. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  17. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70-89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity - 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women - was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes "moderate" exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription.

  18. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population.

  19. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  20. Using Problem-Based Pre-Class Activities to Prepare Students for In-Class Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayont, Feryal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a problem-based approach that prepares students for future learning in the classroom. In this approach, students complete problem-based activities before coming to class to familiarize themselves with the topics to be covered. After the discussion on how the use of these activities relate to the learning and transfer…

  1. Effects of physical activity at work and life-style on sleep in workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andressa Juliane; Vasconcelos, Suleima Pedroza; Skene, Debra Jean; Lowden, Arne; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended as a strategy for improving sleep. Nevertheless, physical effort at work might not be not the ideal type of activity to promote sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of type of job (low vs. high physical effort) and life-style on sleep of workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 148 low physical activity (factory workers) and 340 high physical activity (rubber tappers) was conducted between September and November 2011. The workers filled out questionnaires collecting data on demographics (sex, age, occupation, marital status and children), health (reported morbidities, sleep disturbances, musculoskeletal pain and body mass index) and life-style (smoking, alcohol use and practice of leisure-time physical activity). Logistic regression models were applied with the presence of sleep disturbances as the primary outcome variable. The prevalence of sleep disturbances among factory workers and rubber tappers was 15.5% and 27.9%, respectively. The following independent variables of the analysis were selected based on a univariate model (p<0.20): sex, age, marital status, work type, smoking, morbidities and musculoskeletal pain. The predictors for sleep disturbances were type of job (high physical effort); sex (female); age (>40 years), and having musculoskeletal pain (≥5 symptoms). Rubber tapper work, owing to greater physical effort, pain and musculoskeletal fatigue, was associated with sleep disturbances. Being female and older than 40 years were also predictors of poor sleep. In short, these findings suggest that demanding physical exertion at work may not improve sleep quality.

  2. Realistic Activities for the Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Six exercises intended to promote conversation skills are presented, including five survival games situated in space, caves, the middle of the ocean, the Sahara desert, and the North Pole; and a game to select a prison parolee from a group of candidates. The games involve role playing and decision-making activities. (MSE)

  3. Motivational Profiles for Secondary School Physical Education and Its Relationship to the Adoption of a Physically Active Lifestyle among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Kirk, David; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of an active lifestyle is one of the central aims of physical education (PE). The present study aimed at investigating the relation between students' motivation for PE and activity levels using self-determination theory as a guiding framework. A retrospective design was used involving 2617 university students, of which 878 (33.5…

  4. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  5. An Exploratory Study on a Chest-Worn Computer for Evaluation of Diet, Physical Activity and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D.; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smartphones and tablets. As “always-on” miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases. PMID:25708374

  6. Effectiveness, Efficiency, Durations, and Costs of Recruiting for an African American Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    JoEllen, Wilbur; Braun, Lynne T.; Buchholz, Susan W.; Ingram, Diana M.; Fogg, Louis; Miller, Arlene M.; Johnson, Tricia J.; Volgman, Annabelle S.; McDevitt, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the planning and implementation of recruitment for a 48-week African American women’s lifestyle physical activity controlled trial and analyzes recruitment effectiveness, efficiency, durations, and costs. Social networking was the most effective approach for inviting women to the trial. Of the 609 who responded to invitations, 514 completed telephone screening; of these, 409 (80%) were found eligible. The health assessment screening was completed by 337 women; of these, 297 (88.13%) were found eligible. The mean number of days from completion of the telephone and health assessment screenings to beginning the intervention was 23.01 and cost $74.57 per person. Results suggest that study provision of health assessment screening is effective for minimizing attrition and also might be cost-effective. PMID:23775371

  7. An exploratory study on a chest-worn computer for evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Fernstrom, John D; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhen; Nie, Jie; Sclabassi, Robert J; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smart-phones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases.

  8. Where Has Class Gone? The Pervasiveness of Class in Girls' Physical Activity in a Rural Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Mooney, Amanda; Casey, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to animate discussion around how social class operates with adolescent girls from low socio-economic status backgrounds to shape and inform their decisions about participation in physical activity (PA) inside and outside of school. Examining the instance of girls in a single secondary school in an Australian regional town, the…

  9. Effectiveness of a summer healthy lifestyle program for promoting moderate-vigorous activity in minority girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity each day. However, there is little research on what types of activities are most effective for facilitating this amount of activity. To assess which physical activities elicite...

  10. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  11. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive.

  12. Lifestyle and risk of premature sexual activity in a high school population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    PubMed

    Weinbender, M L; Rossignol, A M

    1996-01-01

    In the past 20 years, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, and the physical, psychological, and economic difficulties associated with unwanted pregnancy have increased steadily among American adolescents. The objective of this study was to evaluate Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. The study was based on 8,321 respondents to a questionnaire concerning specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes among Seventh-Day Adventist youth attending 58 high schools in North American. Analysis of the data demonstrated that a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk behaviors such as drug or alcohol use. In addition, several behaviors that are discouraged within Adventist culture, such as going to a movie theater or participating in competitive sports, also were associated with early sexual activity. It is hypothesized that these latter behaviors may predict the emergence of other high-risk behaviors, such as early sexual activity, in both Adventist and popular cultures, and thus may be "transition-marking behaviors" as described by Jessor and Jessor (1975).

  13. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  14. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participant’s dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential e...

  15. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  16. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  17. "Do I Have a Choice?" The Influences of Family Values and Investments on Chinese Migrant Young People's Lifestyles and Physical Activity Participation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Chinese migrant young people's lifestyles and physical activity experiences in relation to the values and cultural investments of their families in Australia. The data in this paper were taken from a larger-scale study underpinned by a critical and interpretive ethnographic method conducted in two school sites. The young…

  18. Structure-activity relationship for the oxadiazole class of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Spink, Edward; Ding, Derong; Peng, Zhihong; Boudreau, Marc A; Leemans, Erika; Lastochkin, Elena; Song, Wei; Lichtenwalter, Katerina; O'Daniel, Peter I; Testero, Sebastian A; Pi, Hualiang; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Antunes, Nuno T; Suckow, Mark A; Vakulenko, Sergei; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-02-12

    The structure-activity relationship (SAR) for the newly discovered oxadiazole class of antibiotics is described with evaluation of 120 derivatives of the lead structure. This class of antibiotics was discovered by in silico docking and scoring against the crystal structure of a penicillin-binding protein. They impair cell-wall biosynthesis and exhibit activities against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant S. aureus. 5-(1H-Indol-5-yl)-3-(4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (antibiotic 75b) was efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA infection, exhibiting a long half-life, a high volume of distribution, and low clearance. This antibiotic is bactericidal and is orally bioavailable in mice. This class of antibiotics holds great promise in recourse against infections by MRSA.

  19. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  20. [Health and life-style of students].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.

  1. Cultivating Leadership, Pedagogy and Programming for CSPAP and Healthy, Active Lifestyles at the University of Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goc Karp, Grace; Brown, Helen; Scruggs, Philip W.; Berei, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights processes for infusing comprehensive school physical activity programming (CSPAP) into the physical education teacher education (PETE) program at the University of Idaho (UI). The PETE program uses a modified leadership framework to target learning outcomes and activities pertinent to CSPAP. Student CSPAP knowledge and…

  2. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  3. Practical Design Activities for Your Technology Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he and his class get involved in doing project designs within their school district every year. The author relates how they have done design projects for local townships and boroughs, non-profit organizations, Eagle Scout projects, and much more. The author relates how these activities have been such…

  4. Enhancing student retention of prerequisite knowledge through pre-class activities and in-class reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ann T S; Olofson, Eric L; Novak, Walter R P

    2017-03-04

    To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or in combination with regularly-integrated clicker and discussion questions. Learning gains were determined from student performance on pre- and post-tests covering key prerequisite concepts, biochemistry course exams, and student self-evaluation. Long-term retention of the material was assessed using a comprehensive exam given to a subset of the students. Our results show that using the pre-class exercises in combination with integrative questions was effective at improving student performance in both the short and long term. Similar results were obtained at both a large research institution with large class enrollments and at a private liberal arts college with moderate enrollments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):97-104, 2017.

  5. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  6. Class I Microcins: Their Structures, Activities, and Mechanisms of Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severinov, Konstantin; Semenova, Ekaterina; Kazakov, Teymur

    Microcin J25, microcin B17, and microcin C7-C51 are the three known members of class I posttranslationally modified microcins (heavily posttranslationally modified antibacterial peptides produced by Enterobacteriaceae with molecular weights of less than 5 kDa). The three microcins are unrelated to each other; they have structures that are highly atypical for ribosomally synthesized peptides and target essential molecular machines that are validated drug targets. In this chapter, available data on mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships, and immunity mechanisms for class I microcins and related compounds are discussed.

  7. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke.

  8. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  9. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  10. Comparison of enterotoxic activities of heat-stable enterotoxins from class 1 and class 2 Escherichia coli of swine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; Argenzio, R A

    1981-01-01

    Pig small intestine develops age-dependent resistance to some (class 2 strains) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli while remaining susceptible to others (class 1 strains). This study tested the hypothesis that class 1 and class 2 strains produce different subtypes of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). The dose-response curves of small intestine to crude ST preparations from a class 1 and a class 2 strain were compared in several species. In infant mice, the class 1 ST preparation was less active than the class 2 ST preparation, whereas in rabbits the preparations were equally potent. However, in 1-, 7-, and 14-week-old pigs, the class 1 ST preparation was more active than the class 2 preparation. At low doses, both preparations caused reduced absorption in pigs of all three age groups, and at high doses the class 1 preparation caused secretion in all three age groups. In contrast, at high doses the class 2 preparation caused secretion in 1-week-old pigs but only reduced absorption in older pigs. when class 1 and class 2 ST preparations were fractionated by methanol extraction, in both cases the mouse-negative, pig-positive activity was associated with the methanol-insoluble fraction and mouse-positive, pig-positive activity was associated with the methanol-soluble fraction. The results are consistent with a hypothesis that class 1 and class 2 strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli produce different subtypes of ST and that the response of pig intestine to ST varies with both age and toxin subtype. PMID:7011991

  11. Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer; González-Soltero, Rocío; Pérez, Margarita; Montalvo-Lominchar, Maria Gregoria; Maté-Muñoz, Jose Luis; Domínguez, Raúl; Moreno, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior. PMID:28187199

  12. Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Bressa, Carlo; Bailén-Andrino, María; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer; González-Soltero, Rocío; Pérez, Margarita; Montalvo-Lominchar, Maria Gregoria; Maté-Muñoz, Jose Luis; Domínguez, Raúl; Moreno, Diego; Larrosa, Mar

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world's population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.

  13. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Susan W.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E.; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M.; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program, the purpose of the paper is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 40–65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. PMID:26475680

  14. Healthy lifestyles in Europe: prevention of obesity and type II diabetes by diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in all age groups in most EU-countries and is one of the fastest growing epidemics, now affecting 10-40% of the adult population. Obesity increases the risk of serious co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and reduced life expectancy, and these complications may account for 5-10% of all health costs in EU countries. The risk of diabetes is particularly increased by obesity, and 80-95% of the increase in diabetes can be attributed to obesity and overweight with abdominal fat distribution. There is robust evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to support that an energy-dense, high fat diet and physical inactivity are independent risk factors for weight gain and obesity. Furthermore, interaction between dietary fat and physical fitness determine fat balance, so that the obesity promoting effect of a high fat diet is enhanced in susceptible subjects, particularly in sedentary individuals with a genetic predisposition to obesity. Ad libitum consumption of diets low in fat and high in protein and complex carbohydrates, with a low glycaemic index, contributes to the prevention of weight gain in normal weight subjects. It also causes a spontaneous weight loss of 3-4 kg in overweight subjects, and has beneficial effects on risk factors for diabetes and CVD. To prevent obesity and diabetes there are grounds for recommending the combination of increasing daily physical activity level to a PAL-value of at least 1.8 and reducing dietary fat content to 20-25 energy-% in sedentary subjects, and to 25-35% in more physically active individuals.

  15. The Multifaceted Activity of the VirF Regulatory Protein in the Shigella Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Falconi, Maurizio; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome. The primary regulator of the virulence phenotype is VirF, a DNA-binding protein belonging to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. The virF gene, located on the pINV, is expressed only within the host, mainly in response to the temperature transition occurring when the bacterium transits from the outer environment to the intestinal milieu. VirF then acts as anti-H-NS protein and directly activates the icsA and virB genes, triggering the full expression of the invasion program of Shigella. In this review we will focus on the structure of VirF, on its sophisticated regulation, and on its role as major player in the path leading from the non-invasive to the invasive phenotype of Shigella. We will address also the involvement of VirF in mechanisms aimed at withstanding adverse conditions inside the host, indicating that this protein is emerging as a global regulator whose action is not limited to virulence systems. Finally, we will discuss recent observations conferring VirF the potential of a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis. PMID:27747215

  16. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process

  17. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of a midwife-led intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active' to encourage a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating a diet that is high in fat and sugar and having a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy is understood to increase the risk of excessive gestational weight gain and obesity following the birth of the baby. However, there are no clinical guidelines in the UK on what is considered to be appropriate gestational weight gain. Indeed, clinical recommendations discourage the routine re-weighing of pregnant women, stating instead that women should be advised regarding their diet and activity levels, in order to prevent excessive weight gain. Pregnancy is seen as a time when many women may have an increased motivation to improve their lifestyle behaviours for the benefit of the fetus. However, it is evident that many women have difficulty in both maintaining a healthy balanced diet and remaining active through pregnancy. It would seem that midwives may be ideally placed to assist women to make and maintain healthier lifestyle choices during pregnancy. Methods/design This study will look at the feasibility and acceptability of a newly devised intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active'. Participants will complete a questionnaire prior to the programme to obtain baseline data on food frequency, physical activity and to gauge their perception of personal ability to improve/maintain healthy lifestyle. The programme comprises client centred techniques; motivational interviewing and goal setting delivered early in pregnancy (12-16 weeks) with the aim of supporting a healthy well balanced diet and either continuing or commencing appropriate levels of physical activity. Participants will then be followed up six weeks following the intervention with a one-to-one interview, and a further brief questionnaire. The interview will provide preliminary data regarding perceived effectiveness and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme whilst the questionnaire will provide data regarding changes in the confidence of participants to lead a healthy

  19. Gender and Health Lifestyle: An In-Depth Exploration of Self-Care Activities in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…

  20. Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age, greater obesity, and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity (p-values vary). Physical activity barriers, particularly thought and mood cues, social cues and time management, physical injury or illness and access/weather, were most significantly associated with being female and obese (p < 0.001 for all). Lifestyle coaches used problem-solving with most participants (≥75% short-term; > 90% long term) and regularly reviewed self-monitoring skills. More costly approaches were used infrequently during the first 16 sessions (≤10%) but increased over 3.2 years. Conclusion Behavioral problem solving approaches have short and long term dissemination potential

  1. Reflections on Canadian Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Lifestyle is defined in terms of a culture's view of five basic human dilemmas. A comparison of the Canadian and Rwandese cultures suggests that our lifestyle pattern has generated many of our present physical and mental health problems.

  2. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  3. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  4. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  5. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  6. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. Objectives This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Methods The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results ANCOVA showed that after adjusting for effects of pretest scores, the difference between mean

  7. Chinese Education and Learning Activities outside of Class: What Lies beyond Basic Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jinjin; Jiang, Han

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have investigated students' learning in class and outside of class across subjects such as English, mathematics, and physical education in China and other countries. Scholars have found that students' activities in class and outside of class are closely related to their learning outcomes, self-regulated learning…

  8. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  9. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.

  10. Energy use and changing lifestyles

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Bartlett, S.; Hawk, D.; Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    A detailed investigation of energy use in the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors of the US and certain European countries (including Germany and Sweden) shows that there is an important parameter that we call lifestyle that is not captured in the exogenous variables commonly used in electric utility forecasting. A retrospective examination shows that lifestyle has been of subordinate importance to the income-linked trend of increasing ownership of the major energy and electricity-using hard goods and dwellings for at least three decades. The recent saturation of the residential and commercial markets for the dominant energy-using technologies has allowed variations in the utilization of this infrastructure to emerge as a significant input to market demand. With saturation of primary technologies, and relative stability in energy prices, the distinct activity patterns that result from various lifestyles are likely to influence demand for electricity and other energy forms, as well as participation in demand side management programs and other utility sponsored programs. Utilities should attempt to quantify the implications of utilization patterns and changes in lifestyle by various methods including business intelligence and adding questions to their routine market surveys and energy audits. Where possible the results should be incorporated into utility forecasting models. Suggestions are made for areas to watch including lifestyles of the elderly, use of the home as a workplace, household size, employment of women, use of the service sector, and segmentation of the transportation market.

  11. Teaching an Engaged Analysis Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Erin Terwilleger

    2012-01-01

    Real Analysis is a required class for most undergraduate mathematics majors, but it is also one of the most difficult classes they will take. In this article, the author compares two approaches to teaching in the two analysis classes she has taught. The first one was taught in a traditional lecture-homework-exam format, while the second was taught…

  12. Structural Basis for Activation of Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-12-03

    The class Ib ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli can initiate reduction of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides with either a Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-tyrosyl radical (Y{sm_bullet}) or a Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor in the NrdF subunit. Whereas Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} can self-assemble from Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and O{sub 2}, activation of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF requires a reduced flavoprotein, NrdI, proposed to form the oxidant for cofactor assembly by reduction of O{sub 2}. The crystal structures reported here of E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF reveal different coordination environments, suggesting distinct initial binding sites for the oxidants during cofactor activation. In the structures of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF in complex with reduced and oxidized NrdI, a continuous channel connects the NrdI flavin cofactor to the NrdF Mn{sub 2}{sup II} active site. Crystallographic detection of a putative peroxide in this channel supports the proposed mechanism of Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly.

  13. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  14. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs.

  15. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  16. Motivational and Effective Film Activities for the Language Lab Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    Many teachers hesitate to integrate film into English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms because of the uncertainty of the educational efficacy of viewing an entire film in class and the motivational value of the repeated use of short film clips. However, both short film clips and longer films can be used in class to motivate ESL students and…

  17. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  18. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  19. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  20. Healthy Eating at School to Compensate for the Activity-Related Obesigenic Lifestyle in Children and Adolescents: The Quebec Experience123

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect. PMID:22332048

  1. For a healthful lifestyle: promoting cooperation among nutrition professionals and physical activity professionals. American College of Sports Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, International Food Information Council.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    This survey underscores how receptive nutrition and physical activity professionals are to the message of linking nutrition and physical activity for health. Perceived obstacles to helping consumers achieve this link can be better overcome through the combined and collaborative efforts of persons involved in these professions. The good news is the information does not have to be created; professionals simply need to be made aware of existing resources. Partnerships among interested organizations such as ADA, ACSM, and IFIC can help further this effort and help all groups achieve the common goal of helping consumers adopt more healthful lifestyles. Similar partnerships among professionals in each discipline can occur at state and local levels as well.

  2. Effects of a Lifestyle-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Medical Expenditure in Japanese Adults: A Community-Based Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate whether a lifestyle-based physical activity program could contribute to reduced medical expenditure. Methods. The study participants were 60 adults aged 63.1 (standard deviation, 4.4) years in the intervention group; the case-control group consisted of 300 adults who were randomly selected from Japan's national health insurance system. This community-based retrospective study incorporated a 3-year follow-up. Results. The total and outpatient medical expenditure in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group: total expenditure, $US640.4/year; outpatient expenditure, $369.1/year. The odds ratio for outpatient visiting was 6.47-fold higher in the control than in the intervention group. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a health program to promote physical activity can result in reduced total medical expenditure, outpatient medical expenditure, and possibly also inpatient medical expenditure. PMID:27493963

  3. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  4. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  5. The Role of Community Centre-based Arts, Leisure and Social Activities in Promoting Adult Well-being and Healthy Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mat; Kimberlee, Richard; Deave, Toity; Evans, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Developed countries are experiencing high levels of mental and physical illness associated with long term health conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and an ageing population. Given the limited capacity of the formal health care sector to address these public health issues, attention is turning to the role of agencies active in civil society. This paper sought to evaluate the associations between participation in community centre activities, the psycho-social wellbeing and health related behaviours. This was based on an evaluation of the South West Well-being programme involving ten organisations delivering leisure, exercise, cooking, befriending, arts and crafts activities. The evaluation consisted of a before-and-after study with 687 adults. The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being. Positive changes were associated with diet and physical activity. Some activities were different in their outcomes—especially in cases where group activities were combined with one-to-one support. The results suggest that community centre activities of this nature offer benefits that are generically supportive of health behaviour changes. Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services. For commissioners and partner agencies, accessibility and participation are attractive features that are particularly pertinent to the current public health context. PMID:23665850

  6. [INFORMATION AWARENESS OF STUDENTS--FUTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LIFESTYLES TEACHERS AND TRAINING IN THEIR EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN AREA OF HUMAN HEALTH PRESERVATION].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, I A

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are presented results of the questionnaire survey of students--future technology for healthy lifestyles teachers on issues of shaping of health and a healthy lifestyle. There is given an estimation of the degree of the formedness in students adjustment for healthy lifestyle, including eating behavior and nutrition ration. There were determined basic directions of the shaping of the health-saving competence of the school teacher.

  7. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  8. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  9. The Monty Hall Problem as a Class Activity Using Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating probabilistic outcomes using real-time data is especially well-suited to larger lecture classes where one can generate large data sets easily. The difficulty comes in quickly collecting, analyzing, and displaying the information. With the advent of wireless polling technology (clickers), this difficulty is removed. In this paper we…

  10. Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

  11. Plants contain a novel multi-member class of heat shock factors without transcriptional activator potential.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Verner, E; Yuan, C X; Scharf, K D; Englich, G; Gurley, W B

    2000-07-01

    Based on phylogeny of DNA-binding domains and the organization of hydrophobic repeats, two families of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) exist in plants. Class A HSFs are involved in the activation of the heat shock response, but the role of class B HSFs is not clear. When transcriptional activities of full-length HSFs were monitored in tobacco protoplasts, no class B HSFs from soybean or Arabidopsis showed activity under control or heat stress conditions. Additional assays confirmed the finding that the class B HSFs lacked the capacity to activate transcription. Fusion of a heterologous activation domain from human HSF1 (AD2) to the C-terminus of GmHSFB1-34 gave no evidence of synergistic enhancement of AD2 activity, which would be expected if weak activation domains were present. Furthermore, activity of AtHSFB1-4 (class B) was not rescued by coexpression with AtHSFA4-21 (class A) indicating that the class A HSF was not able to provide a missing function required for class B activity. The transcriptional activation potential of Arabidopsis AtHSFA4-21 was mapped primarily to a 39 amino acid fragment in the C-terminus enriched in bulky hydrophobic and acidic residues. Deletion mutagenesis of the C-terminal activator regions of tomato and Arabidopsis HSFs indicated that these plant HSFs lack heat-inducible regulatory regions analogous to those of mammalian HSF1. These findings suggest that heat shock regulation in plants may differ from metazoans by partitioning negative and positive functional domains onto separate HSF proteins. Class A HSFs are primarily responsible for stress-inducible activation of heat shock genes whereas some of the inert class B HSFs may be specialized for repression, or down-regulation, of the heat shock response.

  12. Teaching Graduate Students about Social Class: Using a Classifying Activity with an Inductive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chennault, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching about social class holds special significance for students who will work in the fields of education and human services. In this article, the author describes how he teaches graduate students about social class using a classifying activity with an inductive approach. He follows this activity with a discussion of course readings that take a…

  13. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  14. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  15. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.A. ); Hill, D.J. ); Linn, M.A. ); Atkinson, S.A. ); Hu, J.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  16. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.A.; Hill, D.J.; Linn, M.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Hu, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  17. Cluster headache and lifestyle habits.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2008-04-01

    Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among CH patients compared with the general population. Although excessive alcohol consumption was reported in early studies, this was not corroborated more recently. On the contrary, patients with CH seem to avoid alcohol, particularly during active phases, likely due to its ability to trigger attacks. Present studies are purely descriptive. Thus, the associations sketched give no information about the long-term effects of smoking or alcohol consumption on the course of CH.

  18. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB city steps.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a 6-month, community-engaged, multicomponent, noncontrolled intervention targeting hypertension risk factors. Descriptive indicators were constructed using two participant adherence measures, education session attendance (ESA) and weekly steps/day pedometer diary submission (PDS), separately and in combination. Analyses, based on data from 269 primarily African American adult participants, included bivariate tests of association and multivariable linear regression to determine significant relationships between seven adherence indicators and health outcome changes, including clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and PA measures. ESA indicators were significantly correlated with four health outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and PA (-.29 ≤ r ≤ .23, p < .05). PDS indicators were significantly correlated with PA (r = .27, p < .001). Combination ESA/PDS indicators were significantly correlated with five health outcomes: BMI, percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass, LDL, and PA (r = -.26 to .29, p < .05). Results from the multivariate models indicated that the combination ESA/PDS indicators were the most significant predictors of changes for five outcomes--%BF, fat mass, LDL diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PA--while ESA performed best for BMI only. For DBP, a one-unit increase in the continuous-categorical ESA/PDS indicator resulted in 0.3 mm Hg decrease. Implications for assessing participant adherence in community-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention research are discussed.

  19. Promoting children's health through physically active math classes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Heather E; Abel, Mark G; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    School-based interventions are encouraged to support youth physical activity (PA). Classroom-based PA has been incorporated as one component of school wellness policies. The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of integrating PA with mathematics content on math class and school day PA levels of elementary students. Participants include four teachers and 75 students. Five math classes are taught without PA integration (i.e., baseline) followed by 13 math classes that integrate PA. Students wear pedometers and accelerometers to track PA during math class and throughout the school day. Students perform significantly more PA on school days and in math classes during the intervention. In addition, students perform higher intensity (step min(-1)) PA during PA integration math classes compared with baseline math classes. Integrating PA into the classroom is an effective alternative approach to improving PA levels among youth and is an important component of school-based wellness policies.

  20. Active Learning Strategies and Assessment in World Geography Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Active learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as inquiry and discovery, in which students are actively engaged in the learning process. This article describes several strategies that can be used in secondary-or college-level world geography courses. The goal of these activities is to foster development of a spatial perspective in…

  1. Statistical and Biological Gene-Lifestyle Interactions of MC4R and FTO with Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity: New Effects on Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Covas, M. Isabel; Carrasco, Paula; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Martí, Amelia; Coltell, Oscar; Ordovás, Jose M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. Objective To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. Methods Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. Results FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01–1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P = 0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P = 0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/−SE: −0.57+/−0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P = 0.001). Conclusion Statistical and biological

  2. The Relationship between Class Size and Online Activity Patterns in Asynchronous Computer Conferencing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between class size and student online activity patterns in a series of 28 graduate level computer conferencing courses. Quantitative analyses of note production, average note size, note opening and note reading percentages found a significant positive correlation between class size and mean number of notes…

  3. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among Students Participating in University Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed…

  4. Written Justifications to Multiple-Choice Concept Questions during Active Learning in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Brooks, Bill J.; Higgins, Adam Z.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, instructors of large, introductory STEM courses are having students actively engage during class by answering multiple-choice concept questions individually and in groups. This study investigates the use of a technology-based tool that allows students to answer such questions during class. The tool also allows the instructor to…

  5. The Effect of Corpus-Based Activities on Verb-Noun Collocations in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2015-01-01

    This current study sought to reveal the impacts of corpus-based activities on verb-noun collocation learning in EFL classes. This study was carried out on two groups--experimental and control groups- each of which consists of 15 students. The students were preparatory class students at School of Foreign Languages, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University.…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  7. Habitual Physical Activity of Classroom Teachers: Does It Relate to Their Conduct of Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMaster, Kathryn; McKenzie, Thom; Marshall, Simon; Sallis, James

    This study used systematic, direct observation of classes over 2 years to investigate whether physical education (PE) teachers' habitual physical activity related to their conduct of PE classes. Participants were 18 fourth and fifth grade classroom teachers employed in a California school district where classroom teachers typically were…

  8. Ecological Correlates of Spanish Adolescents' Physical Activity during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Estevan, Isaac; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health benefit of school physical education (PE) depends in large part on physical activity (PA) provided during class. According to the literature, PE has a valuable role in public health, and PA levels during PE classes depend on a wide range of factors. The main objective of this study, based on ecological models of behaviour, was to…

  9. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  10. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  11. The Use of Art Activities in Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…

  12. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. Methods We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Results Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. Conclusions A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival

  13. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564

  14. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  15. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  16. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in children as time-limited functions: usefulness of the principal component analysis method.

    PubMed

    Guinhouya, Comlavi B; Soubrier, Stephane; Vilhelm, Christian; Ravaux, Pierre; Lemdani, Mohamed; Durocher, Alain; Hubert, Hervé

    2007-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the hourly variation in and the interplay between physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) in order to highlight key time periods for physical activity interventions for children. Data for physical activity and SB obtained with ActiGraph in 56 boys and 47 girls aged from 8 to 11 years. These data were divided into sixty minute-time samples for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, and analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation statistics. The PCA provides 10 factors which account for 80.4% of the inertia. Only two of these factors did not display competition between MVPA and SB. Contrary to some reports, a coefficient of correlation of -.68 (p < 10(-4)) was found between daily time spent at MVPA and SB. Some salient traits of children's behaviors were shown through PCA. The results suggested that efficacy of interventions targeting the morning hours (07:00 AM-11:59 AM) and the afternoon period (02:00 PM-05:59 PM) warrants attention.

  17. [Prevention of dementia on the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases: a review].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihike

    2014-04-01

    Recent observational longitudinal studies have indicated the association of cognition with lifestyle and lifestyle-related diseases, which can affect timely through the life as protective or risk factors. In particular, inappropriate lifestyle including diet and exercise induces lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking which promote cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia as vascular risk factors. On the other hand, education during early life, occupational exposure during mid-life, and diet with green leafy vegetables and fish oil, and leisure activities including hobbies, social activities, and physical activities during later life could maintain or accelerate the cognitive reserve function. On the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we should prevent cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia to achieve healthy aging society.

  18. Healthy lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in treatment-resistant hypertension: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N; Calhoun, David A; Irvin, Marguerite R; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-09-01

    Few data exist on whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2043) from the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg despite the use of 3 antihypertensive medication classes or the use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of blood pressure control). Six healthy lifestyle factors adapted from guidelines for the management of hypertension (normal waist circumference, physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, moderate alcohol consumption, high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, and low sodium-to-potassium intake ratio) were examined. A greater number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events (n=360) during a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% confidence interval)] for cardiovascular events comparing individuals with 2, 3, and 4 to 6 versus 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.91 (0.68-1.21), 0.80 (0.57-1.14), and 0.63 (0.41-0.95), respectively (P-trend=0.020). Physical activity and nonsmoking were individual healthy lifestyle factors significantly associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events. Similar associations were observed between healthy lifestyle factors and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle factors, particularly physical activity and nonsmoking, are associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with apparent treatment

  19. Stability and fragmentation of the activity rhythm across the sleep-wake cycle: the importance of age, lifestyle, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Luik, Annemarie I; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-12-01

    The rhythms of activity across the 24-h sleep-wake cycle, determined in part by the circadian clock, change with aging. Few large-scale studies measured the activity rhythm objectively in the general population. The present population-based study in middle-aged and elderly persons evaluated how activity rhythms change with age, and additionally investigated sociodemographics, mental health, lifestyle, and sleep characteristics as determinants of rhythms of activity. Activity rhythms were measured objectively with actigraphy. Recordings of at least 96 h (138 ± 14 h, mean ± SD) were collected from 1734 people (age: 62 ± 9.4 yrs) participating in the Rotterdam Study. Activity rhythms were quantified by calculating interdaily stability, i.e., the stability of the rhythm over days, and intradaily variability, i.e., the fragmentation of the rhythm relative to its 24-h amplitude. We assessed age, gender, presence of a partner, employment, cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, body mass index (BMI), coffee use, alcohol use, and smoking as determinants. The results indicate that older age is associated with a more stable 24-h activity profile (β = 0.07, p = 0.02), but also with a more fragmented distribution of periods of activity and inactivity (β = 0.20, p < 0.001). Having more depressive symptoms was related to less stable (β = -0.07, p = 0.005) and more fragmented (β = 0.10, p < 0.001) rhythms. A high BMI and smoking were also associated with less stable rhythms (BMI: β = -0.11, p < 0.001; smoking: β = -0.11, p < 0.001) and more fragmented rhythms (BMI: β = 0.09, p < 0.001; smoking: β = 0.11, p < 0.001). We conclude that with older age the 24-h activity rhythm becomes more rigid, whereas the ability to maintain either an active or inactive state for a longer period of time is compromised. Both characteristics appear to be important for major health issues in old age.

  20. BALANCE (Bioengineering Approaches for Lifestyle Activity and Nutrition Continuous Engagement): Developing New Technology for Monitoring Energy Balance in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Deonna C.; Andrew, Adrienne; Denning, Tamara; Hurvitz, Philip; Lester, Jonathan; Beresford, Shirley; Borriello, Gaetano; Bruemmer, Barbara; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Duncan, Glen E.

    2010-01-01

    Methods that measure energy balance accurately in real time represent promising avenues to address the obesity epidemic. We developed an electronic food diary on a mobile phone that includes an energy balance visualization and computes and displays the difference between energy intake from food entries and energy expenditure from a multiple-sensor device that provides objective estimates of energy expenditure in real time. A geographic information system dataset containing locations associated with activity and eating episodes is integrated with an ArcPad mapping application on the phone to provide users with a visual display of food sources and locations associated with physical activity within their proximal environment. This innovative tool captures peoples' movement through space and time under free-living conditions and could potentially have many health-related applications in the future. PMID:20307404

  1. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  2. Creativity in the English Class: Activities to Promote EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Hernán A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a pedagogical intervention that includes a set of creative activities designed to improve the oral and written production of students in the English classroom, especially those who have shown a lack of interest or attention. It was observed that participants initially seemed careless about studying the language. Eventually…

  3. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  4. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Classroom Activities Commonly Used in English Speaking Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    Classroom activities, such as English dubs, role-play, brainstorming etc can be very useful for the teaching of oral English. In recent years, although considerable attention has been paid to the use of classroom activities in English speaking classes, the perceptions of teachers and students about such activities have been ignored. Therefore,…

  5. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-06-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B) at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL), which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material) is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI) and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%), vicarious interactive (20%) (involving questions to and from the lecturer), and noninteractive (55%). As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B), although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12%) or on individual learning (10% and 7%). These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Methods Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5–18 yr. enrolled in 58 dance classes at 21 dance studios in Southern California. MVPA and SB were assessed with accelerometry, with data aggregated to 15-sec epochs. Percent and minutes of MVPA and SB during dance class segments and percent of class time and minutes spent in each segment were calculated using Freedson age-specific cut points. Differences in MVPA (>3 METS) and SB (<100 counts/min) were examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results The length of each class segment was fairly consistent across dance types, with the exception that in ballet, more time was spent in technique as compared to private jazz/hip-hop classes, and Latin-flamenco and less time was spent in routine/practice as compared to Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico. Segment type accounted for 17% of the variance in the proportion of the segment spent in MVPA. The proportion of the segment in MVPA was higher for routine/practice (44.2%) than technique (34.7%). The proportion of the segment in SB was lowest for routine/practice (22.8%). Conclusion The structure of dance lessons can impact youth’s physical activity. Working with instructors to increase time in routine/practice during dance classes could contribute to physical activity promotion in youth. PMID:25775088

  7. Methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial treating early childhood obesity: The Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Marion; Coday, Mace; Williams, Natalie A.; Richey, Phyllis; Tylavsky, Frances; Bush, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There are few effective obesity interventions directed towards younger children, particularly young minority children. This paper describes the design, intervention, recruitment methods, and baseline data of the ongoing Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) study. This randomized controlled trial is designed to test the efficacy of a 6-month, moderately intense, primary care feasible, family-based behavioral intervention, targeting both young children and their parent, in promoting healthy weight change. Participants are 270 overweight and obese children (ages 4 to 7 years) and their parent, who were recruited from a primarily African American urban population. Parents and children were instructed in proven cognitive behavioral techniques (e.g. goal setting, self-talk, stimulus control and reinforcement) designed to encourage healthier food choices (more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and less concentrated fats and sugar), reduce portion sizes, decrease sweetened beverages and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement. The main outcome of this study is change in BMI at two years post enrollment. Recruitment using reactive methods (mailings, TV ads, pamphlets) was found to be more successful than using only a proactive approach (referral through physicians). At baseline, most children were very obese with an average BMI z-score of 2.6. Reported intake of fruits and vegetables and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement did not meet national recommendations. If efficacious, Team PLAY would offer a model for obesity treatment directed at families with young children that could be tested and translated to both community and primary care settings. PMID:22342450

  8. Methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial treating early childhood obesity: the Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) trial.

    PubMed

    Hare, Marion E; Coday, Mace; Williams, Natalie A; Richey, Phyllis A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Bush, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    There are few effective obesity interventions directed towards younger children, particularly young minority children. This paper describes the design, intervention, recruitment methods, and baseline data of the ongoing Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) study. This randomized controlled trial is designed to test the efficacy of a 6-month, moderately intense, primary care feasible, family-based behavioral intervention, targeting both young children and their parent, in promoting healthy weight change. Participants are 270 overweight and obese children (ages 4 to 7 years) and their parents, who were recruited from a primarily African American urban population. Parents and children were instructed in proven cognitive behavioral techniques (e.g. goal setting, self-talk, stimulus control and reinforcement) designed to encourage healthier food choices (more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and less concentrated fats and sugar), reduce portion sizes, decrease sweetened beverages and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement. The main outcome of this study is change in BMI at two year post enrollment. Recruitment using reactive methods (mailings, TV ads, pamphlets) was found to be more successful than using only a proactive approach (referral through physicians). At baseline, most children were very obese with an average BMI z-score of 2.6. Reported intake of fruits and vegetables and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement did not meet national recommendations. If efficacious, Team PLAY would offer a model for obesity treatment directed at families with young children that could be tested and translated to both community and primary care settings.

  9. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  10. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  11. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    PubMed

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  12. Boss and Worker: An Active-Learning Exercise in Exploitation and Class Antagonism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrye, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning increasingly recognizes that active and dynamic instructional models promote better, more holistic, and lasting educational outcomes. This article summarizes an in-class engaged learning activity based on the popular playing card game, "President". This game requires players to exchange cards with each…

  13. An Examination of In-Class Physical Activity across Games Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Forrest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in-class physical activity opportunities across game classifications. A total of 221 (male, 100; female, 121) Year 9/10 physical education students were used within this study. Each student was engaged in four sport-based units (target, net/wall, striking/fielding, and invasion). Physical activity data…

  14. Incorporating Active Learning and Student Inquiry into an Introductory Merchandising Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Hines, Jean D.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators believe that student learning is enhanced when they are actively involved in classroom activities that require student inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to report on three student inquiry projects that were incorporated into a merchandising class with the focus on making students responsible for their learning, rather than the…

  15. Middle-Class Parental Involvement in the Summer Activities of Four Elementary Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Iva B.; Chappell, Manya; Johnson, Susan; Ngassam, Marlise DePaul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explore middle-class parental involvement in summer activities of four elementary students. Many researchers discuss summer programs initiated by institutions, but fail to explain how parents' availability, experiences, and related criteria affect student summer activities. From our interviews, observations, and artifacts, we…

  16. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  17. Engager and Avoider Behaviour in Types of Activities Performed by Out-of-Class Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Louisa; Kember, David

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the out-of-class learning activities undertaken, at the students' volition, by groups of students. Data were gathered through 57 individual and 15 focus group interviews with university students in Hong Kong. Group activities reported included: copying, sharing material, consulting peers, consulting teachers, studying and…

  18. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Physical Activity and Nutrition for Diabetes in Alberta (PANDA) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asaad, Ghada; Soria-Contreras, Diana C.; Bell, Rhonda C.; Chan, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients often find integrating a new dietary pattern into their lifestyle challenging; therefore, the PANDA (Physical Activity and Nutrition for Diabetes in Alberta) menu plan intervention was developed to help people incorporate the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) nutrition therapy guidelines into their daily lives. The menu plan focused on recipes and foods that were accessible, available and acceptable to Albertans. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on blood glucose control and dietary adherence and quality among patients with T2D. Participants with T2D (n = 73) enrolled in a single-arm incorporating interactive education based on a four-week menu plan that incorporated the recommendations of the CDA nutrition therapy guidelines. Post-intervention follow-up was conducted at three and six months. After three months, there were beneficial changes in A1c (−0.7%), body mass index (BMI, −0.6 kg/m2), diastolic blood pressure (−4 mmHg), total cholesterol (−63 mg/dL), HDL- (+28 mg/dL) and LDL-cholesterol (−89 mg/dL), Healthy Eating Index (+2.1 score) and perceived dietary adherence (+8.5 score) (all p < 0.05). The significant improvements in A1c, BMI and lipids were maintained at six months. The PANDA menu plan intervention was effective in improving glycemic control and diet quality. The results suggest that a dietary intervention incorporating interactive education sessions focused on menu planning with familiar, accessible foods may be effective for diabetes management. PMID:27690122

  19. The South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: Design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Kandula, Namratha R.; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W.; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-01-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6 weeks of group classes, followed by 12 weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population. PMID:24060673

  20. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  1. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  2. The Role of Lifestyle in Preventing Low Birth Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between lifestyle choices and low birth weights and the opportunity that pregnancy offers women for adopting more healthful lifestyle behaviors. It reviews the literature that focuses on the roles of drug use, nutrition, stress, physical activity, employment, social support, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases in…

  3. Dynamics of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Compartments during B Cell Receptor–mediated Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lankar, Danielle; Vincent-Schneider, Hélène; Briken, Volker; Yokozeki, Takeaki; Raposo, Graça; Bonnerot, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Antigen recognition by clonotypic B cell receptor (BcR) is the first step of B lymphocytes differentiation into plasmocytes. This B cell function is dependent on efficient major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–restricted presentation of BcR-bound antigens. In this work, we analyzed the subcellular mechanisms underlying antigen presentation after BcR engagement on B cells. In quiescent B cells, we found that MHC class II molecules mostly accumulated at the cell surface and in an intracellular pool of tubulovesicular structures, whereas H2-M molecules were mostly detected in distinct lysosomal compartments devoid of MHC class II. BcR stimulation induced the transient intracellular accumulation of MHC class II molecules in newly formed multivesicular bodies (MVBs), to which H2-M was recruited. The reversible downregulation of cathepsin S activity led to the transient accumulation of invariant chain–MHC class II complexes in MVBs. A few hours after BcR engagement, cathepsin S activity increased, the p10 invariant chain disappeared, and MHC class II–peptide complexes arrived at the plasma membrane. Thus, BcR engagement induced the transient formation of antigen-processing compartments, enabling antigen-specific B cells to become effective antigen-presenting cells. PMID:11854359

  4. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.

  5. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations ...

  6. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  7. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  8. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.T.; Robinson, H.; Kim, S.-K.; Reddy, P. T.

    2011-01-21

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV)-two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  9. Active-Site Structure of Class IV Adenylyl Cyclase and Transphyletic Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    D Gallagher; S Kim; H Robinson; P Reddy

    2011-12-31

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) belonging to three nonhomologous classes (II, III, and IV) have been structurally characterized, enabling a comparison of the mechanisms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate biosynthesis. We report the crystal structures of three active-site complexes for Yersinia pestis class IV AC (AC-IV) - two with substrate analogs and one with product. Mn{sup 2+} binds to all three phosphates, and to Glu12 and Glu136. Electropositive residues Lys14, Arg63, Lys76, Lys111, and Arg113 also form hydrogen bonds to phosphates. The conformation of the analogs is suitable for in-line nucleophilic attack by the ribose O3' on {alpha}-phosphate (distance {approx} 4 {angstrom}). In the product complex, a second Mn ion is observed to be coordinated to both ribose 2' oxygen and ribose 3' oxygen. Observation of both metal sites, together with kinetic measurements, provides strong support for a two-cation mechanism. Eleven active-site mutants were also made and kinetically characterized. These findings and comparisons with class II and class III enzymes enable a detailed transphyletic analysis of the AC mechanism. Consistent with its lack of coordination to purine, Y. pestis AC-IV cyclizes both ATP and GTP. As in other classes of AC, the ribose is loosely bound, and as in class III, no base appears to ionize the O3' nucleophile. Different syn/anti conformations suggest that the mechanism involves a conformational transition, and further evidence suggests a role for ribosyl pseudorotation. With resolutions of 1.6-1.7 {angstrom}, these are the most detailed active-site ligand complexes for any class of this ubiquitous signaling enzyme.

  10. [Lifestyle and climate change].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2009-10-26

    The majority of physicians are aware of the urgency of preventing major global warming, and of the global health consequences such warming could bring. Therefore, we should perhaps be more motivated to mitigate these climate changes. The Danish Medical Association should stress the importance of preventing major global climate health disasters, and the need for ambitious international reduction agreements. In our advice and treatment of patients, focus could be on mutually shared strategies comprising mitigation of global warming and changing of life-style habits to improve our general health.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    Because of the increased insight into the biological role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under physiological and pathological conditions and the role it presumably plays in the action of natural and synthetic redox-active drugs, there is a need to accurately define the type and magnitude of reactions that may occur with this intriguing and key species of redoxome. Historically, and frequently incorrectly, the impact of catalase-like activity has been assigned to play a major role in the action of many redox-active drugs, mostly SOD mimics and peroxynitrite scavengers, and in particular MnTBAP(3-) and Mn salen derivatives. The advantage of one redox-active compound over another has often been assigned to the differences in catalase-like activity. Our studies provide substantial evidence that Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins couple with H2O2 in actions other than catalase-related. Herein we have assessed the catalase-like activities of different classes of compounds: Mn porphyrins (MnPs), Fe porphyrins (FePs), Mn(III) salen (EUK-8), and Mn(II) cyclic polyamines (SOD-active M40403 and SOD-inactive M40404). Nitroxide (tempol), nitrone (NXY-059), ebselen, and MnCl2, which have not been reported as catalase mimics, were used as negative controls, while catalase enzyme was a positive control. The dismutation of H2O2 to O2 and H2O was followed via measuring oxygen evolved with a Clark oxygen electrode at 25°C. The catalase enzyme was found to have kcat(H2O2)=1.5×10(6)M(-1) s(-1). The yield of dismutation, i.e., the maximal amount of O2 evolved, was assessed also. The magnitude of the yield reflects an interplay between the kcat(H2O2) and the stability of compounds toward H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, and is thus an accurate measure of the efficacy of a catalyst. The kcat(H2O2) values for 12 cationic Mn(III) N-substituted (alkyl and alkoxyalkyl) pyridylporphyrin-based SOD mimics and Mn(III) N,N'-dialkylimidazolium porphyrin, MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), ranged from 23 to 88M(-1) s

  12. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here.

  13. Determinants of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Eklund, Robert C.; Reed, Brett

    2001-01-01

    Investigated elementary and secondary teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes, examining a model hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Teacher surveys supported the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.…

  14. A Fundamental Study for Efficient Implementaion of Online Collaborative Activities in Large-Scale Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Yusei; Kubota, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We study tactics for writing skills development through cross-disciplinary learning in online large-scale classes, and particularly are interested in implementation of online collaborative activities such as peer reviewing of writing. The goal of our study is to carry out collaborative works efficiently via online effectively in large-scale…

  15. Elementary Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Integration of Online Activities in Traditional Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Qiuyun

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of the incorporation of web-based activities in augmenting student engagement and interaction in a traditional course. Data were collected in two semesters from four classes of students who took the course, using survey and selected interview as instruments. About 75 students responded to the survey and 20 of them…

  16. Novel Use of a Remote Laboratory for Active Learning in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez, Darinka; Ramírez, María Soledad; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe a novel teaching mode that allows for direct instructor-student and student-student discussions of material balance concepts by means of active learning. The instructor explains the concepts during class time while using a remotely controlled laboratory system that is projected on a screen with real-time access to the…

  17. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  18. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  19. Writing Chemistry Jingles as an Introductory Activity in a High School Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Starting the school year in an introductory high school chemistry class can be a challenge. The topic and approach is new to the students; many of the early chapters in the texts can be a bit tedious; and for many students the activities are uninspiring. My goal in the first few weeks of school is to hook the students on chemistry by getting them…

  20. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  1. Technological and Traditional Drawing Approaches Encourage Active Engagement in Histology Classes for Science Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogdell, Barbara; Torsney, Ben; Stewart, Katherine; Smith, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote more active engagement of science undergraduates in histology practical classes some technology-based innovations were introduced. First, an interactive pre-lab tutorial was set up using an electronic handset voting system, where guidance on tissue analysis was given. Second, a web-based resource where students could access…

  2. Managing Classroom Activities in Junior High English Classes: An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Walter

    As part of a larger effort to understand how classrooms are managed, this study used narrative descriptions of class sessions conducted by seven junior high school English teachers to map the way order was achieved under different circumstances. The basic unit for analysis was the classroom activity, characterized by an identifiable focus or a…

  3. Fun Games and Activities for Pronunciation and Phonetics Classes at Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Veronica

    Class activities and games designed to stimulate student interest and provide feedback in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESOL) pronunciation and phonetics are described. They are intended to address specific challenges of a typical Japanese, ESOL classroom--low student motivation and inadequate feedback--and to supplement conventional language…

  4. The Influence of the Social Context on Students In-Class Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the social context, based within self-determination theory, on student's in-class physical activity. A total of 84 Year 11/12 physical education students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups; Autonomy-supportive, Controlling and Balanced. Data were collected using a…

  5. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyo-kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. PMID:26445717

  6. The Effects of an Engaged Lifestyle on Cognitive Vitality: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Park, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies on cognitive training have suggested that the effects of experience are narrow in augmenting or maintaining cognitive abilities, while correlational studies report a wide range of benefits of an engaged lifestyle, including increased longevity, resistance to dementia, and enhanced cognitive flexibility. The latter class of evidence is ambiguous because it is possible that it is simply the case that those with relatively better cognitive vitality seek out and maintain a wider range of activities. We report data from a field experiment in which older adults were randomly assigned to participate in a program intended to operationalize an engaged lifestyle, built on a team-based competition in ill-defined problem solving. Relative to controls, experimental participants showed positive change in a composite measure of fluid ability from pretest to posttest. This study, thus, provides experimental evidence for the proposition that engagement, in the absence of specific ability training, can mitigate age-related cognitive declines in fluid ability. PMID:19140649

  7. Identification of the immunoglobulin class active in the Rose Bengal plate test for bovine brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The antibodies active in the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for bovine brucellosis have been studied. The results of fractionation experiments showed that RBPT activity was associated with fractions containing immunoglobulin of the IgG1 class; other immunoglobulin classes were inactive in this respect although active in other tests. These results were confirmed by inhibition tests with specific antisera and by elution of the antibody from agglutinated RBPT antigen. The major proportion of the serum complement-fixing activity was also present in the IgG1 fraction and it is suggested that the RBPT and CF reactions are probably mediated by the same antibodies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Plate 2Plate 2 PMID:4630606

  8. Identification of quinazolinyloxy biaryl urea as a new class of SUMO activating enzyme 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Ito, Akihiro; Hirohama, Mikako; Yoshida, Minoru; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2013-09-15

    SUMO activating enzyme 1 (SUMO E1) is the first enzyme in sumoylation pathway and an important cancer drug target. However, only a few inhibitors were reported up to now that includes three natural products, semi-synthetic protein inhibitors and one AMP mimic. Here, we report the identification of quinazolinyloxy biaryl urea as a new class of SUMO E1 inhibitors. The most active compound of this class inhibited the in vitro sumoylation with an IC50 of 13.4 μM. This compound inhibits sumoylation by blocking the formation of SUMOE1-SUMO thioester intermediate. The biological activity of the most active compound is comparable to previously reported inhibitors with properties suitable for medicinal chemistry optimization for potency and druggability.

  9. A video-based lifestyle intervention and changes in coronary risk.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Steven G; Greenlaw, Roger L; Diehl, Hans A; Merrill, Ray M; Salberg, Audrey; Englert, Heike

    2008-02-01

    If population-wide improvements in nutrition and physical activity behavior are to be made, behavior change interventions must use a variety of media. This study examines whether participation in a facilitator-based video version of the Coronary Health Improvement Project could significantly reduce coronary risk. A total of 28 video classes conducted in worksite, medical and community settings were used to teach 763 middle-aged adults, ages 30-79 years, about healthy lifestyles. Four to 8 weeks after baseline, follow-up measures were taken. Demographic and biometric data [body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose] were gathered. The class participants were evaluated in aggregate and showed significant improvements in body weight, BMI, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. Males demonstrated greater improvement than females, and individuals with higher baseline health risks experienced the greatest reductions in risk. This video lifestyle change program appears to help participants make important lifestyle changes. For individuals empowered to make better choices regarding diet and exercise, significant improvements occurred in most coronary risk factors in as little as 4-6 weeks.

  10. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition...

  11. Determinants of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults: The Basis for High School and College Physical Education To Promote Active Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahas, Markus V.; Goldfine, Bernie; Collins, Mitchell A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews factors that influence high school and college students' physical activity adoption and/or maintenance based on recent behavioral research. Relevant determinants of physical activity include self-efficacy, intentions, perceived barriers, enjoyment, stages of change, and social support. Suggestions for behavior modifications to increase…

  12. Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Khera, Amit V; Emdin, Connor A; Drake, Isabel; Natarajan, Pradeep; Bick, Alexander G; Cook, Nancy R; Chasman, Daniel I; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Rader, Daniel J; Fuster, Valentin; Boerwinkle, Eric; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ridker, Paul M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2016-12-15

    Background Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of coronary artery disease. The extent to which increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle is unknown. Methods Using a polygenic score of DNA sequence polymorphisms, we quantified genetic risk for coronary artery disease in three prospective cohorts - 7814 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 21,222 in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), and 22,389 in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) - and in 4260 participants in the cross-sectional BioImage Study for whom genotype and covariate data were available. We also determined adherence to a healthy lifestyle among the participants using a scoring system consisting of four factors: no current smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Results The relative risk of incident coronary events was 91% higher among participants at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic scores) than among those at low genetic risk (bottom quintile of polygenic scores) (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 2.09). A favorable lifestyle (defined as at least three of the four healthy lifestyle factors) was associated with a substantially lower risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (defined as no or only one healthy lifestyle factor), regardless of the genetic risk category. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a 46% lower relative risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63). This finding corresponded to a reduction in the standardized 10-year incidence of coronary events from 10.7% for an unfavorable lifestyle to 5.1% for a favorable lifestyle in ARIC, from 4.6% to 2.0% in WGHS, and from 8.2% to 5.3% in MDCS. In the BioImage Study, a favorable lifestyle was associated with significantly less coronary-artery calcification within each genetic risk

  13. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's…

  14. Lifestyle Advice Combined with Personalized Estimates of Genetic or Phenotypic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, and Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes is now widely available and is being incorporated into disease prevention programs. Whether such information motivates behavior change or has adverse effects is uncertain. We examined the effect of communicating an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes in a parallel group, open, randomized controlled trial. Methods and Findings We recruited 569 healthy middle-aged adults from the Fenland Study, an ongoing population-based, observational study in the east of England (Cambridgeshire, UK). We used a computer-generated random list to assign participants in blocks of six to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, n = 190) or in combination with a genetic (n = 189) or a phenotypic (n = 190) risk estimate for type 2 diabetes (intervention groups). After 8 wk, we measured the primary outcome, objectively measured physical activity (kJ/kg/day), and also measured several secondary outcomes (including self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, anxiety, and perceived risk). The study was powered to detect a between-group difference of 4.1 kJ/kg/d at follow-up. 557 (98%) participants completed the trial. There were no significant intervention effects on physical activity (difference in adjusted mean change from baseline: genetic risk group versus control group 0.85 kJ/kg/d (95% CI −2.07 to 3.77, p = 0.57); phenotypic risk group versus control group 1.32 (95% CI −1.61 to 4.25, p = 0.38); and genetic risk group versus phenotypic risk group −0.47 (95% CI −3.40 to 2.46, p = 0.75). No significant differences in self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, and anxiety were observed between trial groups. Estimates of perceived risk were significantly more accurate among those who received risk information than among those who did not. Key limitations include the recruitment of a sample that may not be representative of the UK population, use of self

  15. C5-Alkyl-2-methylurea-Substituted Pyridines as a New Class of Glucokinase Activators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) activators represent a class of type 2 diabetes therapeutics actively pursued due to the central role that GK plays in regulating glucose homeostasis. Herein we report a novel C5-alkyl-2-methylurea-substituted pyridine series of GK activators derived from our previously reported thiazolylamino pyridine series. Our efforts in optimizing potency, enzyme kinetic properties, and metabolic stability led to the identification of compound 26 (AM-9514). This analogue showed a favorable combination of in vitro potency, enzyme kinetic properties, acceptable pharmacokinetic profiles in preclinical species, and robust efficacy in a rodent PD model. PMID:25516785

  16. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  17. One-Class Classification-Based Real-Time Activity Error Detection in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Das, Barnan; Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Caring for individuals with dementia is frequently associated with extreme physical and emotional stress, which often leads to depression. Smart home technology and advances in machine learning techniques can provide innovative solutions to reduce caregiver burden. One key service that caregivers provide is prompting individuals with memory limitations to initiate and complete daily activities. We hypothesize that sensor technologies combined with machine learning techniques can automate the process of providing reminder-based interventions. The first step towards automated interventions is to detect when an individual faces difficulty with activities. We propose machine learning approaches based on one-class classification that learn normal activity patterns. When we apply these classifiers to activity patterns that were not seen before, the classifiers are able to detect activity errors, which represent potential prompt situations. We validate our approaches on smart home sensor data obtained from older adult participants, some of whom faced difficulties performing routine activities and thus committed errors. PMID:27746849

  18. Diverse activation pathways in class A GPCRs converge near the G protein-coupling region

    PubMed Central

    Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Deupi, Xavier; Lebon, Guillaume; Heydenreich, Franziska M.; Flock, Tilman; Miljus, Tamara; Balaji, Santhanam; Bouvier, Michel; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.; Tate, Christopher G.; Schertler, Gebhard F. X.; Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    Class A G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that mediate a wide variety of physiological functions (e.g. vision, neurotransmission, and immune response)1–4. Not surprisingly, they are the targets of nearly one-third of all prescribed medicinal drugs5 (e.g. beta blockers, antipsychotics). GPCR activation is facilitated by extracellular ligands, and leads to the recruitment of intracellular G proteins3,6. Structural rearrangements of residue contacts in the transmembrane domain serve as ‘activation pathways’ that connect the ligand-binding pocket to the G protein-coupling region within the receptor. How similar are these activation pathways across different class A GPCRs? Here, we analysed 27 GPCRs from diverse subgroups for which structures of active and/or inactive states are available. We show that despite the diversity in activation pathways between receptors, the pathways converge near the G protein-coupling region. This convergence is mediated by a strikingly conserved structural rearrangement of residue contacts between transmembrane helices 3, 6, and 7 that releases G protein-contacting residues. The convergence of activation pathways may explain how the activation steps initiated by diverse ligands confer GPCRs the ability to bind a common repertoire of G proteins. PMID:27525504

  19. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  20. Computer-assisted mechanistic structure-activity studies: application to diverse classes of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Loew, G H; Poulsen, M; Kirkjian, E; Ferrell, J; Sudhindra, B S; Rebagliati, M

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we have indicated how the techniques and capabilities of theoretical chemistry, together with experimental results, can be used in a mechanistic approach to structure-activity studies of toxicity. In the second part, we have illustrated how this computer-assisted approach has been used to identify and calculate causally related molecular indicators of relative carcinogenic activity in five classes of chemical carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their methyl derivatives, aromatic amines, chloroethanes, chloroalkenes and dialkyl nitrosamines. In each class of chemicals studied, candidate molecular indicators have been identified that could be useful in predictive screening of unknown compounds. In addition, further insights into some mechanistic aspects of chemical carcinogenesis have been obtained. Finally, experiments have been suggested to both verify the usefulness of the indicators and test their mechanistic implications. PMID:3905382

  1. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  2. Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Docking by Different Classes of Macromolecules in Active Zone Material

    PubMed Central

    Szule, Joseph A.; Harlow, Mark L.; Jung, Jae Hoon; De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2012-01-01

    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10–15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles’ distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry. PMID:22438915

  3. Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integrons.

    PubMed

    Jové, Thomas; Da Re, Sandra; Denis, François; Mazel, Didier; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements that allow bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes that are usually promoterless. These integrons play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. They typically consist of a gene (intI) encoding an integrase (that catalyzes the gene cassette movement by site-specific recombination), a recombination site (attI1), and a promoter (Pc) responsible for the expression of inserted gene cassettes. The Pc promoter can occasionally be combined with a second promoter designated P2, and several Pc variants with different strengths have been described, although their relative distribution is not known. The Pc promoter in class 1 integrons is located within the intI1 coding sequence. The Pc polymorphism affects the amino acid sequence of IntI1 and the effect of this feature on the integrase recombination activity has not previously been investigated. We therefore conducted an extensive in silico study of class 1 integron sequences in order to assess the distribution of Pc variants. We also measured these promoters' strength by means of transcriptional reporter gene fusion experiments and estimated the excision and integration activities of the different IntI1 variants. We found that there are currently 13 Pc variants, leading to 10 IntI1 variants, that have a highly uneven distribution. There are five main Pc-P2 combinations, corresponding to five promoter strengths, and three main integrases displaying similar integration activity but very different excision efficiency. Promoter strength correlates with integrase excision activity: the weaker the promoter, the stronger the integrase. The tight relationship between the aptitude of class 1 integrons to recombine cassettes and express gene cassettes may be a key to understanding the short-term evolution of integrons. Dissemination of integron-driven drug resistance is therefore more complex than previously thought.

  4. Active region 11748: Recurring X-class flares, large scale dimmings and waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; Malanushenko, Anna; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2014-06-01

    AR 11748 was a relatively compact active region that crossed the solar disk between 05/14/2013 and 05/26/2013. Despite its size it produced a number X-class flares, and global scale eruptive events that were captured by the SDO Feature Finding Team's (FFT) Dimming Region Detector. Using the results of this module and other FFT modules, we present an analysis of the this AR region and investigate why it was so globally impactful.

  5. Effectiveness and Student Perceptions of an Active Learning Activity Using a Headline News Story to Enhance In-Class Learning of Cell Cycle Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation,…

  6. Hands-On Astrophysics, 680 Hands at a Time: Lab Activities in Big Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H.

    1996-12-01

    In brief: it is possible to have students do experiments in very large lecture classes. Evaluations show it works. Hands-on science, while traditional in many other disciplines, has not played a large role in astronomy teaching, though many of the concepts we deal with such as heat and pressure can be explored with simple experiments. 340 students in a large lecture class did an experiment with drink bottles, ice, warm water, and baggies to explore the dependence of pressure on temperature. They worked together in approximately 100 groups, working through a teaching sequence which included both a classic demonstration done by the instructor and a hands-on activity where they did the experiment themselves. This activity was carried out in a rather challenging setting: a large lecture room with fixed seats and no plumbing. Handling and disposing of the materials was only modestly more challenging than teaching a regular class. Student evaluations and student performance on exam questions demonstrated that the activity was successful. This research was part of DISCUS (Delaware Innovative Science/Math Collaborative for Undergraduate Success), an initiative supported by the Delaware Department of Public Instruction and the National Science Foundation (DUE-9553787).

  7. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II—IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Crane, Tracy E.; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24 month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  8. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  9. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  10. Active-absorbing-state phase transition beyond directed percolation: a class of exactly solvable models.

    PubMed

    Basu, Urna; Mohanty, P K

    2009-04-01

    We introduce and solve a model of hardcore particles on a one-dimensional periodic lattice which undergoes an active-absorbing-state phase transition at finite density. In this model, an occupied site is defined to be active if its left neighbor is occupied and the right neighbor is vacant. Particles from such active sites hop stochastically to their right. We show that both the density of active sites and the survival probability vanish as the particle density is decreased below half. The critical exponents and spatial correlations of the model are calculated exactly using the matrix product ansatz. Exact analytical study of several variations of the model reveals that these nonequilibrium phase transitions belong to a new universality class different from the generic active-absorbing-state phase transition, namely, directed percolation.

  11. Pea formaldehyde-active class III alcohol dehydrogenase: common derivation of the plant and animal forms but not of the corresponding ethanol-active forms (classes I and P).

    PubMed Central

    Shafqat, J; El-Ahmad, M; Danielsson, O; Martínez, M C; Persson, B; Parés, X; Jornvall, H

    1996-01-01

    A plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase (or glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase) has been characterized. The enzyme is a typical class III member with enzymatic parameters and substrate specificity closely related to those of already established animal forms. Km values with the pea enzyme are 6.5 microM for NAD+, 2 microM for S-hydroxymethylglutathione, and 840 microM for octanol versus 9, 4, and 1200 microM, respectively, with the human enzyme. Structurally, the pea/human class III enzymes are closely related, exhibiting a residue identity of 69% and with only 3 of 23 residues differing among those often considered in substrate and coenzyme binding. In contrast, the corresponding ethanol-active enzymes, the long-known human liver and pea alcohol dehydrogenases, differ more (47% residue identities) and are also in functionally important active site segments, with 12 of the 23 positions exchanged, including no less than 7 at the usually much conserved coenzyme-binding segment. These differences affect functionally important residues that are often class-distinguishing, such as those at positions 48, 51, and 115, where the plant ethanol-active forms resemble class III (Thr, Tyr, and Arg, respectively) rather than the animal ethanol-active class I forms (typically Ser, His, and Asp, respectively). Calculations of phylogenetic trees support the conclusions from functional residues in subgrouping plant ethanol-active dehydrogenases and the animal ethanol-active enzymes (class I) as separate descendants from the class III line. It appears that the classical plant alcohol dehydrogenases (now called class P) have a duplicatory origin separate from that of the animal class I enzymes and therefore a paralogous relationship with functional convergence of their alcohol substrate specificity. Combined, the results establish the conserved nature of class III also in plants, and contribute to the molecular and functional understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases by

  12. Activation of class I major histocompatibility complex gene expression by hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, D X; Taraboulos, A; Ou, J H; Yen, T S

    1990-01-01

    Normal hepatocytes express very few class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I) molecules, but MHC I expression is elevated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We report here that hepatoblastoma cells with replicating HBV genomes express three- to fourfold-higher levels of MHC I protein and mRNA than do parent cells without HBV DNA. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the HBV X protein trans activated transcription from an MHC I promoter and allowed identification of cis elements important for trans activation. Images PMID:2164611

  13. On the global well-posedness theory for a class of PDE models for criminal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, N.

    2013-10-01

    We study a class of ‘reaction-advection-diffusion’ system of partial differential equations, which can be taken as basic models for criminal activity. This class of models are based on routine activity theory and other theories, such as the ‘repeat and near-repeat victimization effect’ and were first introduced in Short et al. (2008) [11]. In these models the criminal density is advected by a velocity field that depends on a scalar field, which measures the appeal to commit a crime. We refer to this scalar field as the attractiveness field. We prove local well-posedness of solutions for the general class of models. Furthermore, we prove global well-posedness of solutions to a fully-parabolic system with a velocity field that depends logarithmically on the attractiveness field. Our final result is the global well-posedness of solutions the fully-parabolic system with velocity field that depends linearly on the attractiveness field for small initial mass.

  14. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:Mar 14,2017 Following recommendations about diet, exercise and ... liquid you get. Many people are prescribed diuretics (water pills) to help them get rid of extra ...

  15. Class III peroxidases are activated in proanthocyanidin-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Liguo; Xu, Weifeng; Li, Wenrao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Rui; Shi, Lu; Bin Rahman, A. N. M. Rubaiyath; Fan, Mingshou; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims It has previously been shown that proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana have the ability to scavenge superoxide radicals (O2−). However, the physiological processess in PA-deficit seeds are not clear. It is hypothesized that there exist alternative ways in PA-deficient seeds to cope with oxidative stress. Methods The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its relevance to the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidases was investigated in both wild-type and PA-deficit mutant seeds. A biochemical staining approach was used to detect tissue localizations of peroxidase activities in PA-deficit mutant seeds. Key Results PA-deficient mutants possess significantly lower levels of H2O2 than the wild-type, despite their higher accumulation of superoxide radicals. Screening of the key antioxidant enzymes revealed that peroxidase activity was significantly over-activated in mutant seeds. This high peroxidase activity was mainly confined to the seed coat zone. Interestingly, neither ascorbate peroxidase nor glutathione peroxidase, just the guaiacol peroxidases (class III peroxidases), was specifically activated in the seed coat. However, no significant difference in peroxidase activity was observed in embryos of either mutants or the wild-type, although gene expressions of several candidate peroxidases were down-regulated in the embryos of PA-deficient seeds. Conclusions The results suggest that enhanced class III peroxidase activity in the seed coat of PA-deficient mutants is an adaptive strategy for seed development and survival. PMID:23448691

  16. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  17. [Healthy lifestyle in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Goldbaum, Moisés; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-23

    The objective was to analyze adolescent, adult, and elderly lifestyles in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed with data from the Health Survey in São Paulo City (ISA-Capital 2008) database. Lifestyle was defined on the basis of physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol abuse and addiction, according to the respective guidelines. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was 36.9% in the elderly, 15.4% in adults, and 9.8% in adolescents, and was higher in females in the elderly and adults. Among individuals with unhealthy lifestyle, 51.5% of the elderly, 32.2% of adults, and 57.9% of adolescents failed to reach the guidelines for adequate diet. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was highest among the elderly, followed by adults and adolescents. Food consumption was the main factor associated with unhealthy lifestyle, demonstrating the importance of interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, especially adequate diet.

  18. Repression domains of class II ERF transcriptional repressors share an essential motif for active repression.

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Matsui, K; Hiratsu, K; Shinshi, H; Ohme-Takagi, M

    2001-08-01

    We reported previously that three ERF transcription factors, tobacco ERF3 (NtERF3) and Arabidopsis AtERF3 and AtERF4, which are categorized as class II ERFs, are active repressors of transcription. To clarify the roles of these repressors in transcriptional regulation in plants, we attempted to identify the functional domains of the ERF repressor that mediates the repression of transcription. Analysis of the results of a series of deletions revealed that the C-terminal 35 amino acids of NtERF3 are sufficient to confer the capacity for repression of transcription on a heterologous DNA binding domain. This repression domain suppressed the intermolecular activities of other transcriptional activators. In addition, fusion of this repression domain to the VP16 activation domain completely inhibited the transactivation function of VP16. Comparison of amino acid sequences of class II ERF repressors revealed the conservation of the sequence motif (L)/(F)DLN(L)/(F)(x)P. This motif was essential for repression because mutations within the motif eliminated the capacity for repression. We designated this motif the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, and we identified this motif in a number of zinc-finger proteins from wheat, Arabidopsis, and petunia plants. These zinc finger proteins functioned as repressors, and their repression domains were identified as regions that contained an EAR motif.

  19. Dithiolopyrrolones: Biosynthesis, Synthesis, and Activity of a Unique Class of Disulfide-Containing Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Wever, Walter J.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Bowers, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dithiolopyrrolone (DTP) group antibiotics were first isolated in the early half of the 20th century, but only recently has research been reawakened by insights gained from the synthesis and biosynthesis of this structurally intriguing class of molecules. DTPs are characterized by an electronically unique bicyclic structure, which contains a compact disulfide bridge between two ene-thiols. Points of diversity within the compound class occur outside of the bicyclic core, at the two amide nitrogens. Such modifications distinguish three of the most well studied members of the class, holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin; the DTP core has also more recently been identified in the marine antibiotic thiomarinol, in which it is linked to a marinolic acid moiety, analog of the FDA-approved topical antibiotic Bactroban® (GlaxoSmithKline). Dithiolopyrrolones exhibit relatively broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, they have been shown to exhibit potent and selective anti-cancer activity. Despite this promising profile, there is still much unknown about the mechanisms of action for DTPs. Early reports suggested that they inhibit yeast growth at the level of transcription and that this effect is largely responsible for their distinctive microbial static properties; a similar mechanism is supported in bacteria. Elucidation of biosynthetic pathways for holomycin in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Yersinia ruckeri and thiomarinol in Alteromonas rava sp. nov. SANK 73390, have contributed evidence suggesting that multiple mechanisms may be operative in the activity of these compounds. This review will comprehensively cover the history and development of dithiolopyrrolones with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis, synthesis, biological activity and mechanism of action. PMID:24835149

  20. The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) project: outline of methods.

    PubMed

    Telford, Richard D; Bass, Shona L; Budge, Marc M; Byrne, Donald G; Carlson, John S; Coles, David; Cunningham, Ross B; Daly, Robin M; Dunstan, David W; English, Rowena; Fitzgerald, Robert; Eser, Prisca; Gravenmaker, Karen J; Haynes, Wayne; Hickman, Peter E; Javaid, Ahmad; Jiang, Xiaoli; Lafferty, Tony; McGrath, Mark; Martin, Mary Kay; Naughton, Geraldine A; Potter, Julia M; Potter, Stacey J; Prosser, Laurence; Pyne, David B; Reynolds, Graham J; Saunders, Philo U; Seibel, Markus J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Southcott, Emma; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Stuckey, Darryl; Telford, Rohan M; Thomas, Kerry; Tallis, Ken; Waring, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This methods paper outlines the overall design of a community-based multidisciplinary longitudinal study with the intent to stimulate interest and communication from scientists and practitioners studying the role of physical activity in preventive medicine. In adults, lack of regular exercise is a major risk factor in the development of chronic degenerative diseases and is a major contributor to obesity, and now we have evidence that many of our children are not sufficiently active to prevent early symptoms of chronic disease. The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) study investigates how early physical activity contributes to health and development, utilizing a longitudinal design and a cohort of eight hundred and thirty 7-8-year-old (grade 2) school children followed to age 11-12 years (grade 6), their average family income being very close to that of Australia. We will test two hypotheses, that (a) the quantity and quality of physical activity undertaken by primary school children will influence their psychological and physical health and development; (b) compared with existing practices in primary schools, a physical education program administered by visiting specialists will enhance health and development, and lead to a more positive perception of physical activity. To test the first hypothesis we will monitor all children longitudinally over the 4 years. To test the second we will involve an intervention group of 430 children who receive two 50min physical education classes every week from visiting specialists and a control group of 400 who continue with their usual primary school physical education with their class-room teachers. At the end of grades 2, 4, and 6 we will measure several areas of health and development including blood risk factors for chronic disease, cardiovascular structure and function, physical fitness, psychological characteristics and perceptions of physical activity, bone structure and strength, motor control, body composition, nutritional

  1. Freshwater bacterial lifestyles inferred from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Joshua A; Emrich, Scott J; Tan, John; Jones, Stuart E

    2014-03-01

    While micro-organisms actively mediate and participate in freshwater ecosystem services, we know little about freshwater microbial genetic diversity. Genome sequences are available for many bacteria from the human microbiome and the ocean (over 800 and 200, respectively), but only two freshwater genomes are currently available: the streamlined genomes of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp. asymbioticus and the Actinobacterium AcI-B1. Here, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of eight phylogentically diverse freshwater bacteria exhibiting a range of lifestyle characteristics. Comparative genomics of these bacteria reveals putative freshwater bacterial lifestyles based on differences in predicted growth rate, capability to respond to environmental stimuli and diversity of useable carbon substrates. Our conceptual model based on these genomic characteristics provides a foundation on which further ecophysiological and genomic studies can be built. In addition, these genomes greatly expand the diversity of existing genomic context for future studies on the ecology and genetics of freshwater bacteria.

  2. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed.

  3. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  4. Lifestyle and genetics in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temelkova-Kurktschiev, T; Stefanov, T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are multifactorial health threats caused by a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and the environment with dramatically increasing worldwide prevalence. The role of heritability in their etiology is well recognized, however, the numerous attempts made in order certain genetic variants determining individual susceptibility to be identified have had limited success, until recently. At present the advancements in human genetics and the utilization of the genome-wide association approach have led to the identification of over 20 genetic loci associated with, respectively obesity and type 2 diabetes. Most of the genes identified to date, however, have modest effect on disease risk suggesting that both diseases are unlikely to develop without the individual being exposed to obesity- and/or type 2 diabetes-promoting environment. Indeed, unhealthy lifestyle, characterized by physical inactivity and food overconsumption is an unequivocally established risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, on the other hand, have demonstrated that lifestyle modification is effective in obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention. Furthermore, gene-lifestyle interaction studies suggest that genetic susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes may be partially or totally kept under control by healthy lifestyle or lifestyle modification and that lifestyle determines whether an individual is likely to develop the disease. Inherited factors, however, seem to influence individual response to a lifestyle intervention program and even the motivation for lifestyle change. Personalized interventions according to genotype may be, therefore, considered in the future. By then lifestyle modification targeting dietary change and increased physical activity may be recommended for successful obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention irrespectively of genetic susceptibility.

  5. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  6. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  7. A Case Study of How a Large Multilevel EFL Writing Class Experiences and Perceives Multiple Interaction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsien-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' experiences and perceptions of multiple interaction activities (self-directed, peer, and teacher feedback) implemented in a large multilevel EFL writing class in one private technological university in the southern part of Taiwan. Large size writing classes, quite common in private institutions of…

  8. Development of Pupils' Transfer Skills by Means of Hands On Activities with Artisan Materials in Natural Sciences Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chicinas, Luminita

    2008-01-01

    Hands on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strength of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical…

  9. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  10. Enzymatic activity and proteomic profile of class III peroxidases during sugarcane stem development.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Sampaio Mayer, Juliana Lischka; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Class III peroxidases are present as large multigene families in all land plants. This large number of genes together with the diversity of processes catalyzed by peroxidases suggests possible functional specialization of each isoform. However, assigning a precise role for each individual peroxidase gene has continued to be a major bottleneck. Here we investigated the enzyme activity and translational profile of class III peroxidases during stem development of sugarcane as a first step in the estimation of physiological functions of individual isoenzymes. Internodes at three different developmental stages (young, developing and mature) were divided into pith (inner tissue) and rind (outer tissue) fractions. The rind of mature internodes presented the highest enzymatic activity and thus could be considered the ideal tissue for the discovery of peroxidase gene function. In addition, activity staining of 2DE gels revealed different isoperoxidase profiles and protein expression regulation among different tissue fractions. In-gel tryptic digestion of excised spots followed by peptide sequencing by LC-MS/MS positively matched uncharacterized peroxidases in the sugarcane database SUCEST. Multiple spots matching the same peroxidase gene were found, which reflects the generation of more than one isoform from a particular gene by post-translational modifications. The identified sugarcane peroxidases appear to be monocot-specific sequences with no clear ortholog in dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  11. Project lifestyle: developing positive health lifestyles for schoolchildren in Antigua.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D P

    1992-12-01

    Countries of the English-speaking Caribbean are in epidemiological transition. Following 30 years of socioeconomic change, obesity and chronic diseases have almost replaced malnutrition and infectious diseases as major health problems. Major risk factors for this modern epidemic are lifestyle-related. Project Lifestyle seeks to develop positive health lifestyles in schoolchildren gradually, sequentially, and systematically from grades 1-12 and throughout the school system on the island of Antigua. The four health habits addressed include weighing right, eating right, doing daily physical exercise, and having a positive self-concept. Since risk interventions with schoolchildren have produced positive results in several developed countries, this project developed an intervention methodology in the Caribbean context.

  12. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity. In most of the studies described in this chapter, telomere length was measured in leukocytes (LTL) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), taken from blood draws from the study subjects. Much of this chapter focuses on psychological stress, a widespread factor often intimately tied in with lifestyle or behavioral factors that in turn are related to risks of clinical diseases. Together, these findings suggest that cellular aging is linked to a range of influences, with an individual's life events and lifestyle parameters playing significant roles. Lastly, we propose possible biochemical mechanisms that mediate these associations and discuss future directions.

  13. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  14. A class of promising acaricidal tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Ruan, Qiao; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Zheng, Zuo-Lue; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le; Geng, Hui-Ling

    2014-06-16

    As part of our continuing research on isoquinoline acaricidal drugs, this paper reports the preparation of a series of the 2-aryl-1-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring, their in vitro acaricidal activities against Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite, and discusses their SAR as well. The structures of all compounds, including 12 new ones, were elucidated by analysis of UV, IR, NMR, ESI-MS, HR-MS spectra and X-ray diffraction experiments. All target compounds showed varying degrees of activity at 0.4 mg/mL. Compound 1 showed the strongest activity, with a 50% lethal concentration value (LC50) of 0.2421 μg/mL and 50% lethal time value (LT50) of 7.79 h, comparable to the standard drug ivermectin (LC50 = 0.2474 μg/mL; LT50 = 20.9 h). The SAR showed that the substitution pattern on the N-aromatic ring exerted a significant effect on the activity. The substituents 2'-F, 3'-F, 2'-Cl, 2'-Br and 2'-CF3 remarkably enhanced the activity. Generally, for the isomers with the same substituents at different positions, the order of the activity was ortho > meta > para. It was concluded that the target compounds represent a class of novel promising candidates or lead compounds for the development of new tetrahydroisoquinoline acaricidal agents.

  15. EdAl-2 (Educació en Alimentació) programme: reproducibility of a cluster randomised, interventional, primary-school-based study to induce healthier lifestyle activities in children

    PubMed Central

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Queral, Rosa; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the reproducibility of an educational intervention EdAl-2 (Educació en Alimentació) programme in ‘Terres de l'Ebre’ (Spain), over 22 months, to improve lifestyles, including diet and physical activity (PA). Design Reproduction of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Two semi-rural town-group primary-school clusters were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Participants Pupils (n=690) of whom 320 constituted the intervention group (1 cluster) and 370 constituted the control group (1 cluster). Ethnicity was 78% Western European. The mean age (±SD) was 8.04±0.6 years (47.7% females) at baseline. Inclusion criteria for clusters were towns from the southern part of Catalonia having a minimum of 500 children aged 7–8 year; complete data for participants, including name, gender, date and place of birth, and written informed consent from parents or guardians. Intervention The intervention focused on eight lifestyle topics covered in 12 activities (1 h/activity/session) implemented by health promoting agents in the primary school over three academic years. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was obesity (OB) prevalence and the secondary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) collected every year and dietary habits and lifestyles collected by questionnaires filled in by parents at baseline and end-of-study. Results At 22 months, the OB prevalence and BMI values were similar in intervention and control groups. Relative to children in control schools, the percentage of boys in the intervention group who performed ≥4 after-school PA h/week was 15% higher (p=0.027), whereas the percentage of girls in both groups remained similar. Also, 16.6% more boys in the intervention group watched ≤2 television (TV) h/day (p=0.009), compared to controls; and no changes were observed in girls in both groups. Conclusions Our school-based intervention is feasible and reproducible by increasing after-school PA

  16. Mesaconase Activity of Class I Fumarase Contributes to Mesaconate Utilization by Burkholderia xenovorans.

    PubMed

    Kronen, Miriam; Sasikaran, Jahminy; Berg, Ivan A

    2015-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, and many other bacteria are able to utilize the C5-dicarboxylic acid itaconate (methylenesuccinate). Itaconate degradation starts with its activation to itaconyl coenzyme A (itaconyl-CoA), which is further hydrated to (S)-citramalyl-CoA, and citramalyl-CoA is finally cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. The xenobiotic-degrading betaproteobacterium Burkholderia xenovorans possesses a P. aeruginosa-like itaconate degradation gene cluster and is able to grow on itaconate and its isomer mesaconate (methylfumarate). Although itaconate degradation proceeds in B. xenovorans in the same way as in P. aeruginosa, the pathway of mesaconate utilization is not known. Here, we show that mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. As this enzyme (Bxe_A3136) has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration, we conclude that B. xenovorans class I fumarase is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source.

  17. Family of class I lantibiotics from actinomycetes and improvement of their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Monciardini, Paolo; Catacchio, Bruno; Mazzetti, Carlo; Münch, Daniela; Brunati, Cristina; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Donadio, Stefano

    2015-04-17

    Lantibiotics, an abbreviation for "lanthionine-containing antibiotics", interfere with bacterial metabolism by a mechanism not exploited by the antibiotics currently in clinical use. Thus, they have aroused interest as a source for new therapeutic agents because they can overcome existing resistance mechanisms. Starting from fermentation broth extracts preselected from a high-throughput screening program for discovering cell-wall inhibitors, we isolated a series of related class I lantibiotics produced by different genera of actinomycetes. Analytical techniques together with explorative chemistry have been used to establish their structures: the newly described compounds share a common 24 aa sequence with the previously reported lantibiotic planosporicin (aka 97518), differing at positions 4, 6, and 14. All of these compounds maintain an overall -1 charge at physiological pH. While all of these lantibiotics display modest antibacterial activity, their potency can be substantially modulated by progressively eliminating the negative charges, with the most active compounds carrying basic amide derivatives of the two carboxylates originally present in the natural compounds. Interestingly, both natural and chemically modified lantibiotics target the key biosynthetic intermediate lipid II, but the former compounds do not bind as effectively as the latter in vivo. Remarkably, the basic derivatives display an antibacterial potency and a killing effect similar to those of NAI-107, a distantly related actinomycete-produced class I lantibiotic which lacks altogether carboxyl groups and which is a promising clinical candidate for treating Gram-positive infections caused by multi-drug-resistant pathogens.

  18. MARCH1 down-regulation in IL-10-activated B cells increases MHC class II expression.

    PubMed

    Galbas, Tristan; Steimle, Viktor; Lapointe, Réjean; Ishido, Satoshi; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    IL-10 is vastly studied for its anti-inflammatory properties on most immune cells. However, it has been reported that IL-10 activates B cells, up-regulates their MHC class II molecules and prevents apoptosis. As MARCH1 was shown to be responsible for the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells and monocytes in response to IL-10, we set out to clarify the role of this ubiquitin ligase in B cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that splenic follicular B cells represent the major cell population that up-regulate MHC II molecules in the presence of IL-10. Activation of these cells through TLR4, CD40 or the IL-10 receptor caused the down-regulation of MARCH1 mRNA. Accordingly, B cells from MARCH1-deficient mice do not up-regulate I-A(b) in response to IL-10. In all, our results demonstrate that IL-10 can have opposite effects on MARCH1 regulation in different cell types.

  19. Patterns of activity and use of time in rural Bangladesh: class, gender, and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Zaman, H

    1995-04-01

    Tarapur is a village in the district of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, covering an area of 821.05 acres. 342 households with a total population of 1981 were identified in the village by the 1985 census. The author investigated the use of time during 1984 and 1985 in busy, intermediate, and slack seasons among the village population to examine the variation in time use by gender and social class. Activity patterns were found to vary from one season to another, and also across social classes. The study highlights the need to refine some of the conceptual and methodological issues in the collection of data on women and work. The study also presents useful data on home-based production and market-oriented work. It could be useful to adopt an anthropological approach in order to understand the allocation of time by men and women from the perspective of household production and the local economy and culture. Study findings focus upon the following policy issues: the need for a better understanding and recognition of the significant role of women in field agriculture and postharvest processing, creation of further nontraditional employment and business opportunities for poor women in rural areas, and consciousness-raising and the challenge of cultural barriers affecting women. Rural women, especially those in need of employment and involved in market-oriented production, should be the target of mainstream development activities in future planning.

  20. A new class of phytoestrogens; evaluation of the estrogenic activity of deoxybenzoins.

    PubMed

    Fokialakis, Nikolas; Lambrinidis, George; Mitsiou, Dimitra J; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Mitakou, Sofia; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Pratsinis, Harris; Mikros, Emmanuel; Alexis, Michael N

    2004-03-01

    Although deoxybenzoins are intermediates in the synthesis of isoflavones, their estrogenic activity has not been investigated. Eleven deoxybenzoins were synthesized and their estrogenicity was evaluated. While their affinities for estrogen receptors (ER) ERalpha and ERbeta were found grossly comparable to those of daidzein, some exhibited considerable selectivity and transcriptional bias toward ERbeta, which appeared to allow for enhancement of ER-mediated transcription via deoxybenzoin binding of ERbeta. Their activity to stimulate the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells and regulate the expression of endogenous and stably transfected reporter genes differed considerably, with some inhibiting cell proliferation while effectively inducing gene expression at the same time. Molecular modeling confirmed that deoxybenzoins fit well in the ligand binding pocket of ERbeta, albeit with different orientations. Our data support the view that deoxybenzoins constitute a promising new class of ERbeta-biased phytoestrogens.

  1. Allylic isothiouronium salts: The discovery of a novel class of thiourea analogues with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Misael; Assunção, Laura Sartori; Silva, Adny Henrique; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz; Sá, Marcus Mandolesi

    2017-03-31

    A series of 28 aryl- and alkyl-substituted isothiouronium salts were readily synthesized in high yields through the reaction of allylic bromides with thiourea, N-monosubstituted thioureas or thiosemicarbazide. The S-allylic isothiouronium salts substituted with aliphatic groups were found to be the most effective against leukemia cells. These compounds combine high antitumor activity and low toxicity toward non-tumoral cells, with selectivity index higher than 20 in some cases. Furthermore, the selected isothiouronium salts induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death, possibly by apoptosis. Therefore, these compounds can be considered as a promising class of antitumor agents due to the potent cytostatic activity associated with high selectivity.

  2. Leptin, Leptin Soluble Receptor, and the Free Leptin Index following a Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Gino S.; Gollie, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin (LEP) is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r); the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI), an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M) of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP). In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI. Methods. 6 M WLP consisted of diet/lifestyle interventions following ADA guidelines. Body composition was assessed by DXA. LEP and sOB-r analysis were done via ELISA. Results. 10 adults completed the WLP. Significant reductions were seen in total fat percentage (% fat), nontrunk fat, (NTF), and trunk fat (TF) from base to 3 m and 6 M (p ≤ 0.05). The FLI were reduced at 3 M and 6 M for males and 6 M for females. Total body fat and body weight predicted the FLI in both sexes. Conclusions. LEP and FLI reductions following 6 M of WLP were achieved independent of sOB-r changes. We also demonstrate that the FLI can be predicted noninvasively through total fat mass and body weight in kilograms. PMID:28050279

  3. Leptin, Leptin Soluble Receptor, and the Free Leptin Index following a Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Jeffrey E; Panza, Gino S; Gollie, Jared M

    2016-01-01

    Leptin (LEP) is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r); the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI), an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M) of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP). In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI. Methods. 6 M WLP consisted of diet/lifestyle interventions following ADA guidelines. Body composition was assessed by DXA. LEP and sOB-r analysis were done via ELISA. Results. 10 adults completed the WLP. Significant reductions were seen in total fat percentage (% fat), nontrunk fat, (NTF), and trunk fat (TF) from base to 3 m and 6 M (p ≤ 0.05). The FLI were reduced at 3 M and 6 M for males and 6 M for females. Total body fat and body weight predicted the FLI in both sexes. Conclusions. LEP and FLI reductions following 6 M of WLP were achieved independent of sOB-r changes. We also demonstrate that the FLI can be predicted noninvasively through total fat mass and body weight in kilograms.

  4. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    PubMed Central

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  5. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  6. Training for Lifestyle Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalglish, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Many developed countries have issues with the movement of populations away from rural areas. There has been an active move towards "value adding" in rural areas, and in particular, the development of tourism activities, to counter this trend. The purpose of this paper is to document the curriculum development process that was engaged in,…

  7. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  8. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-05-30

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.

  9. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaqin; Liu, Jiane; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s) underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA) treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade. PMID:26263390

  10. Initial effects of treatment of Class II malocclusion with the Herren activator, activator-headgear combination, and Jasper Jumper.

    PubMed

    Weiland, F J; Ingervall, B; Bantleon, H P; Droacht, H

    1997-07-01

    The initial effects of treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with an activator, according to Herren (27 patients), with an activator-headgear combination (20 patients), or with the Jasper Jumper appliance (25 patients) were studied on lateral cephalograms from before and after 6 to 8 months of treatment. The patients' ages ranged from 9 to 12 years. At the end of the period of observation, the correction in overjet and molar relationship was more complete in the patients with the Jasper Jumper than in the patients with the activator. Whereas all the patients with the Jasper Jumper showed neutral occlusion, this was the case in only 20 of the 47 patients with the activator. The correction of the distal occlusion occurred through a combination of skeletal and dentoalveolar adaptations. Skeletal changes accounted for 42%, 35%, and 48% of the overjet correction by the Herren-type activator, the headgear-activator, and the Jasper Jumper, respectively. The correction of the molar relationship occurred to 55%, 46%, and 38% by skeletal changes in the respective groups. Dentoalveolar compensation (distal movement of the upper molars, mesial movement of the lower molars) appeared to be inversely related to skeletal adaptation. The patients with the Jasper Jumper showed a marked intrusion of the lower incisors with a consequent reduction in overbite.

  11. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  12. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physically active adults have a lower risk of depression and cognitive decline. Being overweight or obese might be associated with hot flashes, but further research is needed. Exercise isn't a proven way to reduce menopausal ...

  13. Human Activity Recognition from Smart-Phone Sensor Data using a Multi-Class Ensemble Learning in Home Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Karunanithi, Mohan; Dowling, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Home monitoring of chronically ill or elderly patient can reduce frequent hospitalisations and hence provide improved quality of care at a reduced cost to the community, therefore reducing the burden on the healthcare system. Activity recognition of such patients is of high importance in such a design. In this work, a system for automatic human physical activity recognition from smart-phone inertial sensors data is proposed. An ensemble of decision trees framework is adopted to train and predict the multi-class human activity system. A comparison of our proposed method with a multi-class traditional support vector machine shows significant improvement in activity recognition accuracies.

  14. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Agonists with Preference for Human over Mouse TLR4 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Heeke, Darren S.; Rao, Eileen; Maynard, Sean K.; Hornigold, David; McCrae, Christopher; Fraser, Neil; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Yu, Li; Williams, Nicola; King, Sarah; Cooper, Martin E.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Woo, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants. PMID:27736941

  15. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Agonists with Preference for Human over Mouse TLR4 Activation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jason D; Heeke, Darren S; Rao, Eileen; Maynard, Sean K; Hornigold, David; McCrae, Christopher; Fraser, Neil; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Yu, Li; Williams, Nicola; King, Sarah; Cooper, Martin E; Hajjar, Adeline M; Woo, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants.

  16. Written justifications to multiple-choice concept questions during active learning in class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Brooks, Bill J.; Higgins, Adam Z.

    2016-07-01

    Increasingly, instructors of large, introductory STEM courses are having students actively engage during class by answering multiple-choice concept questions individually and in groups. This study investigates the use of a technology-based tool that allows students to answer such questions during class. The tool also allows the instructor to prompt students to provide written responses to justify the selection of the multiple-choice answer that they have chosen. We hypothesize that prompting students to explain and elaborate on their answer choices leads to greater focus and use of normative scientific reasoning processes, and will allow them to answer questions correctly more often. The study contains two parts. First, a crossover quasi-experimental design is employed to determine the influence of asking students to individually provide written explanations (treatment condition) of their answer choices to 39 concept questions as compared to students who do not. Second, we analyze a subset of the questions to see whether students identify the salient concepts and use appropriate reasoning in their explanations. Results show that soliciting written explanations can have a significant influence on answer choice and, when it does, that influence is usually positive. However, students are not always able to articulate the correct reason for their answer.

  17. Global gene regulation during activation of immunoglobulin class switching in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youming; Fear, David J.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A. G.; Cookson, William O.; Moffatt, Miriam F.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE is a tightly regulated process central to atopic disease. To profile the B-cell transcriptional responses underlying the activation of the germinal centre activities leading to the generation of IgE, naïve human B-cells were stimulated with IL-4 and anti-CD40. Gene expression and alternative splicing were profiled over 12 days using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. A total of 1,399 genes, forming 13 temporal profiles were differentially expressed. CCL22 and CCL17 were dramatically induced but followed a temporal trajectory distinct from classical mediators of isotype switching. AICDA, NFIL3, IRF4, XBP1 and BATF3 shared a profile with several genes involved in innate immunity, but with no recognised role in CSR. A transcription factor BHLHE40 was identified at the core of this profile. B-cell activation was also accompanied by variation in exon retention affecting >200 genes including CCL17. The data indicate a circadian component and central roles for the Th2 chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 in the activation of CSR. PMID:27897229

  18. Ten-week lifestyle changing program reduces several indicators for metabolic syndrome in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Marita S; Moreto, Fernando; Burini, Franz Hp; Dalanesi, Reinaldo C; McLellan, Kátia Cp; Burini, Roberto C

    2012-01-19

    We aim to investigate the effectiveness of a 10-week lifestyle intervention focusing on physical activity and high fiber intake for reducing indicators for metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese individuals. A prospective study of 50 overweight (OW) adults (22 in the general educational group - G1; 28 in the high fiber nutrition group - G2) was performed. Both groups were offered dietary counseling and supervised exercise. Clinical, anthropometric, dietary and plasma biochemical tests were performed at baseline - time 0 (T0) and after 10 weeks - time 1 (T1). Both groups improved their dietary quality, but only G2 presented higher intake of fruit and vegetables (servings/day), higher plasma β-carotene levels and a 24% reduction of MetS incidence. Additionally G2 showed greater reductions in body fat (4%), and waist circumference (7%), obesity class III (2%) and obesity class II (14%) rate. Lifestyle intervention, including a high dietary fiber intake, improved healthy eating index and decreased body fat composition and plasma lipid concentrations leading to MetS incidence reduction.

  19. Extracellular assembly and activation principles of oncogenic class III receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-11-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades initiated by class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK-IIIs) and their cytokine ligands contribute to haematopoiesis and mesenchymal tissue development. They are also implicated in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and cancers. Recent snapshots of RTK-III ectodomains in complex with cognate cytokines have revealed timely insights into the structural determinants of RTK-III activation, evolution and pathology. Importantly, candidate 'driver' and 'passenger' mutations that have been identified in RTK-IIIs can now be collectively mapped for the first time to structural scaffolds of the corresponding RTK-III ectodomains. Such insights will generate a renewed interest in dissecting the mechanistic effects of such mutations and their therapeutic relevance.

  20. Performance analysis of active disturbance rejection tracking control for a class of uncertain LTI systems.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenchao; Huang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers the tracking problem for a class of uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) systems with both uncertain parameters and external disturbances. The active disturbance rejection tracking controller is designed and the resulting closed-loop system's characteristics are comprehensively studied. In the time-domain, it is proven that the output of closed-loop system can approach its ideal trajectory in the transient process against different kinds of uncertainties by tuning the bandwidth of extended state observer (ESO). In the frequency-domain, different kinds of parameters' influences on the phase margin and the crossover frequency of the resulting control system are illuminated. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are verified through the actuator position control system with uncertain parameters and load disturbances in the simulations.

  1. Individualized patient-centered lifestyle recommendations: an expert system for communicating patient specific cardiovascular risk information and prioritizing lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chih-Lin; Nick Street, W; Robinson, Jennifer G; Crawford, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    We propose a proof-of-concept machine-learning expert system that learned knowledge of lifestyle and the associated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks from individual-level data (i.e., Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, ARIC). The expert system prioritizes lifestyle options and identifies the one that maximally reduce an individual's 10-year CVD risk by (1) using the knowledge learned from the ARIC data and (2) communicating for patient-specific cardiovascular risk information and personal limitations and preferences (as defined by variables used in this study). As a result, the optimal lifestyle is not only prioritized based on an individual's characteristics but is also relevant to personal circumstances. We also explored probable uses and tested the system in several examples using real-world scenarios and patient preferences. For example, the system identifies the most effective lifestyle activities as the starting point for an individual's behavior change, shows different levels of BMI changes and the associated CVD risk reductions to encourage weight loss, identifies whether weight loss or smoking cessation is the most urgent change for a diabetes patient, etc. Answers to the questions noted above vary based on an individual's characteristics. Our validation results from clinical trial simulations, which compared original with the optimal lifestyle using an independent dataset, show that the optimal individualized patient-centered lifestyle consistently reduced 10-year CVD risks.

  2. Lifestyle Behavior Pattern Predicts Incident Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. The Cache County Study

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Maria C.; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W.; Breitner, John C.S.; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cognitive decline and dementia risk have been associated with diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption and smoking. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct behavioral patterns, and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. DESIGN Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. SETTING Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. PARTICIPANTS 2,491 non-demented participants (51% male) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within past five years. Average age was 73.01 (SD=5.69) years and average education 13.67 (SD=4.10) years. MEASUREMENTS Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors included: Diet: high = above median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; Exercise: 5+ hours/week of light activity and at least occasional moderate/vigorous activity; Church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; Social Interaction: spending time with family/friends at least twice weekly; Alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages 2+/week; Non-smoker: no current use (or former if < 100 cigarettes ever). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, gender, education, APOE status. Follow-up averaged 6.32 (SD=5.31) years, revealing 278 cases of incident dementia (200 AD). RESULTS LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. “Unhealthy-Religious” (UH-R; 11.5%), “Unhealthy-Non-Religious” (UH-NR; 10.5%), “Healthy-Moderately Religious” (H-MR; 38.5%), and “Healthy-Very Religious” (H-VR; 39.5%). Compared to UH-R class, UH-NR (Hazard Ratio, HR=.54, p=.028), H-MR (HR=.56, p=.003), and H-VR (HR=.58, p=.005) had significantly lower dementia risk. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. CONCLUSION Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations having

  3. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  4. Selective class II HDAC inhibitors impair myogenesis by modulating the stability and activity of HDAC–MEF2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nebbioso, Angela; Manzo, Fabio; Miceli, Marco; Conte, Mariarosaria; Manente, Lucrezia; Baldi, Alfonso; De Luca, Antonio; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Usiello, Alessandro; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Altucci, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new epi-drugs, but the presence of both class I and class II enzymes in HDAC complexes precludes a detailed elucidation of the individual HDAC functions. By using the class II-specific HDAC inhibitor MC1568, we separated class I- and class II-dependent effects and defined the roles of class II enzymes in muscle differentiation in cultured cells and in vivo. MC1568 arrests myogenesis by (i) decreasing myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) expression, (ii) by stabilizing the HDAC4–HDAC3–MEF2D complex, and (iii) paradoxically, by inhibiting differentiation-induced MEF2D acetylation. In vivo MC1568 shows an apparent tissue-selective HDAC inhibition. In skeletal muscle and heart, MC1568 inhibits the activity of HDAC4 and HDAC5 without affecting HDAC3 activity, thereby leaving MEF2–HDAC complexes in a repressed state. Our results suggest that HDAC class II-selective inhibitors might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of muscle and heart diseases. PMID:19498465

  5. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  6. Staphylococcus-mediated T-cell activation and spontaneous natural killer cell activity in the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Hoynowski, S. M.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Beharka, A. A.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We used major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-deficient transgenic mice to show that in vitro natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell activation by staphylococcal exotoxins (superantigens) are not dependent upon the presence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. T cells can be activated by exotoxins in the presence of exogenously added interleukin 1 or 2 or in the presence of specific antibody without exogenously added cytokines.

  7. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Medication or Lifestyle Changes for Pre-diabetes Updated:Aug 30,2016 What’s best? Medication or lifestyle changes? Most people at the pre- ...

  8. Hydroxytyrosol: a new class of microbicide displaying broad anti-HIV-1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya, Luis M.; Beltrán, Manuela; Obregón-Calderón, Patricia; García-Pérez, Javier; de la Torre, Humberto E.; González, Nuria; Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte; Auñón, David; Capa, Laura; Gómez-Acebo, Eduardo; Alcamí, José

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity and activity against HIV of 5-hydroxytyrosol as a potential microbicide. Design: The anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound, was tested against wild-type HIV-1 and viral clones resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. In addition to its activity against founder viruses, different viral subtypes and potential synergy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and emtricitabine was also tested. 5-Hydroxytyrosol toxicity was evaluated in vivo in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Methods: We have cloned pol gene from drug-resistant HIV-1 isolated from infected patients and env gene from Fiebeg III/IV patients or A, C, D, E, F and G subtypes in the NL4.3-Ren backbone. 5-Hydroxytyrosol anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated in infections of MT-2, U87-CCR5 or peripheral blood mononuclear cells preactivated with phytohemagglutinin + interleukin-2 with viruses obtained through 293T transfections. Inhibitory concentration 50% and cytotoxic concentration 50% were calculated. Synergy was analysed according to Chou and Talalay method. In-vivo toxicity was evaluated for 14 days in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Results: 5-Hydroxytyrosol inhibited HIV-1 infections of recombinant or wild-type viruses in all the target cells tested. Moreover, 5-hydroxytyrosol showed similar inhibitory concentration 50% values for infections with NRTIs, NNRTIs, protease inhibitors and INIs resistant viruses; founder viruses and all the subtypes tested. Combination of 5-hydroxytyrosol with tenofovir was found to be synergistic, whereas it was additive with lamivudine and emtricitabine. In-vivo toxicity of 5-hydroxytyrosol was very low even at the highest tested doses. Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytyrosol displayed a broad anti-HIV-1 activity in different cells systems in the absent of in-vivo toxicity, therefore supporting its

  9. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  10. An Active, Reflective Learning Cycle for E-Commerce Classes: Learning about E-Commerce by Doing and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Alan S.; Singh, Tirna

    2010-01-01

    Active, experiential learning is an important component in information systems education, ensuring that students gain an appreciation for both practical and theoretical information systems concepts. Typically, students in active, experiential classes engage in real world projects for commercial companies or not-for-profit organizations. In the…

  11. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hauser, Nicole; Kolczewski, Sabine; Lengyel, Judith; Mory, Roland; Saladin, Christian; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Stalder, Henri

    2014-04-10

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration.

  12. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration. PMID:24900853

  13. Osteoporosis and Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal tissue is formed during the first two decades of life; then a constant bone mass is maintained until 40 y of age. In the case of women, the bone mass is rapidly reduced at menopause at around 50 y of age. After that, bone mass slowly decreases in both men and women who have passed the 70-y-old mark. The National Institute of Health Consensus Conference adopted the definition of osteoporosis as a skeletal disorder that is characterized by compromised bone strength leading to a predisposition for and an increased risk of fracture. Since osteoporotic fractures are the third-highest cause for becoming bedridden, the maintenance of healthy bones is an important factor in extending a person's healthy lifespan. Bone mass is influenced by many factors, such as nutrition, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake, as well as by genetic factors. Thus, a healthy diet providing balanced nutrients including calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein, regular physical activity, and not smoking help maintain bone health and delay or prevent osteoporosis. Some functional foods containing soy isoflavones, milk basic protein and n-3 fatty acid may help promote bone health.

  14. Validity of the New Lifestyles NL-1000 Accelerometer for Measuring Time Spent in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, David; Rowe, David A.; Stark, Michelle; Nicol, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in promoting physical activity in the school environment necessitates an inexpensive, accurate method of measuring physical activity in such settings. Additionally, it is recognized that physical activity must be of at least moderate intensity in order to yield substantial health benefits. The purpose of the study, therefore, was…

  15. Salinomycin and Other Ionophores as a New Class of Antimalarial Drugs with Transmission-Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Sarah; Corbett, Yolanda; Ilboudo, Denise P.; Misiano, Paola; Dahiya, Nisha; Abay, Solomon M.; Habluetzel, Annette; Grande, Romualdo; Gismondo, Maria R.; Dechering, Koen J.; Koolen, Karin M. J.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Taramelli, Donatella; Parapini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The drug target profile proposed by the Medicines for Malaria Venture for a malaria elimination/eradication policy focuses on molecules active on both asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium, thus with both curative and transmission-blocking activities. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the class of monovalent ionophores, which includes drugs used in veterinary medicine and that were recently proposed as human anticancer agents, meets these requirements. The activity of salinomycin, monensin, and nigericin on Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual erythrocytic stages and on the development of the Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum mosquito stages is reported here. Gametocytogenesis of the P. falciparum strain 3D7 was induced in vitro, and gametocytes at stage II and III or stage IV and V of development were treated for different lengths of time with the ionophores and their viability measured with the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The monovalent ionophores efficiently killed both asexual parasites and gametocytes with a nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Salinomycin showed a fast speed of kill compared to that of standard drugs, and the potency was higher on stage IV and V than on stage II and III gametocytes. The ionophores inhibited ookinete development and subsequent oocyst formation in the mosquito midgut, confirming their transmission-blocking activity. Potential toxicity due to hemolysis was excluded, since only infected and not normal erythrocytes were damaged by ionophores. Our data strongly support the downstream exploration of monovalent ionophores for repositioning as new antimalarial and transmission-blocking leads. PMID:26055362

  16. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  17. Effect of lifestyle interventions with or without metformin therapy on serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand in patients with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Tutal, Esra; Sahin, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Ucan, Bekir; Ozturk, Gulfer; Cakal, Erman; Biyikli Gencturk, Zeynep; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2017-02-01

    Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance variables, osteoprotegerin, and nuclear factor-B ligand markers, carotid intima media thickness were examined at baseline for all participants. To evaluate the effect of therapy we determined the same parameters after the end of the study. Measurements of waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage and levels of fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride levels and hsCRP and carotid intima media thickness were significantly higher in patients with prediabetes (p < 0.05). We also found higher osteoprotegerin and lower nuclear factor-B ligand levels in patients than in controls however, the value was non-significant (p > 0.05). Patients with prediabetes were under lifestyle interventions with (group 1, n = 33) or without metformin (group 2, n = 21) therapy. Baseline anthropometric and metabolic characteristics were not found statistically different in group 1 and group 2. Mean follow up period of the patients were 7.9 ± 2.2 month (min-max: 6-12 months). After the follow up period we evaluated the same parameters and found significant differences between waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and

  18. A class of extracellular vesicles from breast cancer cells activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qiyu; Zhang, Chengliang; Lum, David; Druso, Joseph E.; Blank, Bryant; Wilson, Kristin F.; Welm, Alana; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-classical secretory vesicles, collectively referred to as extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been implicated in different aspects of cancer cell survival and metastasis. Here, we describe how a specific class of EVs, called microvesicles (MVs), activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis through a unique 90 kDa form of VEGF (VEGF90K). We show that VEGF90K is generated by the crosslinking of VEGF165, catalysed by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase, and associates with MVs through its interaction with the chaperone Hsp90. We further demonstrate that MV-associated VEGF90K has a weakened affinity for Bevacizumab, causing Bevacizumab to be ineffective in blocking MV-dependent VEGF receptor activation. However, treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor releases VEGF90K from MVs, restoring the sensitivity of VEGF90K to Bevacizumab. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which cancer cell-derived MVs influence the tumour microenvironment and highlight the importance of recognizing their unique properties when considering drug treatment strategies. PMID:28205552

  19. THE CONFINED X-CLASS FLARES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 2192

    SciTech Connect

    Thalmann, J. K.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

    2015-03-10

    The unusually large active region (AR) NOAA 2192, observed in 2014 October, was outstanding in its productivity of major two-ribbon flares without coronal mass ejections. On a large scale, a predominantly north–south oriented magnetic system of arcade fields served as a strong top and lateral confinement for a series of large two-ribbon flares originating from the core of the AR. The large initial separation of the flare ribbons, together with an almost absent growth in ribbon separation, suggests a confined reconnection site high up in the corona. Based on a detailed analysis of the confined X1.6 flare on October 22, we show how exceptional the flaring of this AR was. We provide evidence for repeated energy release, indicating that the same magnetic field structures were repeatedly involved in magnetic reconnection. We find that a large number of electrons was accelerated to non-thermal energies, revealing a steep power-law spectrum, but that only a small fraction was accelerated to high energies. The total non-thermal energy in electrons derived (on the order of 10{sup 25} J) is considerably higher than that in eruptive flares of class X1, and corresponds to about 10% of the excess magnetic energy present in the active-region corona.

  20. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  1. Apelin-13 impedes foam cell formation by activating Class III PI3K/Beclin-1-mediated autophagic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Xie, Wei; Tan, Yu-Lin; Gong, Duo; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Liu, Dan; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-10-30

    Apelin-13, an adipokine, promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages with antiatherosclerotic effect. Autophagy, an evolutionarily ancient response to cellular stress, has been involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin-13 regulates macrophage foam cell cholesterol metabolism through autophagy, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that apelin-13 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux. Our study further demonstrated that apelin-13 induced autophagy via activation of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Beclin-1. Inhibition of Class III PI3K and Beclin-1 suppressed the stimulatory effects of apelin-13 on autophagy activity. The present study concluded that apelin-13 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cells by activating autophagy via Class III PI3K/Beclin-1 pathway. Therefore, our results provide brand new insight about apelin-13 inhibiting foam cell formation and highlight autophagy as a promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

  2. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices.

  3. Lifestyle Change: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R.W.; Yeo, M.A.; Hougesen, B.; Todd, V.

    1989-01-01

    Many relationships between behaviour and disease are now recognized by both health care professionals and the public. In lifestyle counselling, caregivers help patients to change their unhealthy habits. The primary care office seems an ideal setting for implementing behaviour change strategies, but studies suggest that physicians only sporadically elicit behavioural risk factors and infrequently counsel patients to modify risky behaviours. Physicians have been introduced to the goals of clinical prevention, but with the limited application of clinical prevention research to practical office approaches, they often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to achieve them. The individual intervention and group program strategies described in this paper have been adapted to the primary care setting, and we hope they will help family physicians to play an effective role in lifestyle change.

  4. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts.

  5. [Ancient dietetics - lifestyle and medicine].

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2004-01-01

    The wide reaching meaning of eating and drinking is already recognized in antiquity. The declared aim of antique dietetics is the upbringing to a healthy lifestyle. Fundamental considerations of dietetic, theoretically organized ideas can be traced back to the Presocratics, who, for the first time in cultural history, let themselves be guided by direct observations from nature. Working from the meaning of dietetics as pure nutritional teaching, one can see in the Corpus Hippocraticum a significant, systematic attempt to put forth dietetics as a concept of lifestyle. Here a central aspect is that of equilibrium, as it is expressed in the rule of the four humours. Dietetics continually become a connecting link between Natural Philosophy and Anthropology and a lifestyle orientated to nature. Finally, Galen introduces a further systematization of the already existing and the increasingly modified. Nutrition and health are brought into association and the theoretical presupposed practically overturned. In late Antiquity dietetical outlooks continue to be discussed, which were transferred to the Middle Ages and still show practical relevance.

  6. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults.

    PubMed

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Fournier, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A; Kong, Jian; Gallagher, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2013-05-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body mass index; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination.

  7. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  8. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-02

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05).

  9. Joint effects of smoking and sedentary lifestyle on lung function in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Sarpong, Daniel F; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique S; Hickson, Demarc A; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-28

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highest level of lung function, and smokers with sedentary lifestyles had the lowest level. The female non-smokers with sedentary lifestyles had a significantly higher FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted than smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (93.3% vs. 88.6%; p = 0.0102 and 92.1% vs. 86.9%; p = 0.0055 respectively). FEV1/FVC ratio for men was higher in non smokers with sedentary lifestyles than in smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (80.9 vs. 78.1; p = 0.0048). Though smoking is inversely associated with lung function, it seems to have a more deleterious effect than sedentary lifestyle on lung function. Physically active smokers had higher lung function than their non physically active counterparts.

  10. Critical Reading of Research Articles as Oral Activator in the Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanco, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead…

  11. Using Classroom Response Technology to Create an Active Learning Environment in Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncy, James A.; Eastman, Jacqueline K.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom response systems (CRS), also called student/audience response systems or clickers, have been used by business instructors, particularly in larger classes, to allow instructors to ask students questions in class and have their responses immediately tabulated and reported electronically. While clickers have typically been used to measure…

  12. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  13. Technology and Teaching: Promoting Active Learning Using Individual Response Technology in Large Introductory Psychology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Christopher R.; Feldman, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Individual response technology (IRT), in which students use wireless handsets to communicate real-time responses, permits the recording and display of aggregated student responses during class. In comparison to a traditional class that did not employ IRT, students using IRT performed better on exams and held positive attitudes toward the…

  14. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  15. Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolu; Shi, Huisheng; Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A

    2010-01-15

    Processes that maximize utilization of industrial solid wastes are greatly needed. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to create alkali-activated complex binders (AACBs) from class C fly ash (CFA) and other Ca-containing admixtures including Portland cement (PC), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), and water treatment residual (WTR). Specimens made only from CFA (CFA100), or the same fly ash mixed with 40 wt% PC (CFA60-PC40), with 10 wt% FGDG (CFA90-FGDG10), or with 10 wt% WTR (CFA90-WTR10) had better mechanical performance compared to binders using other mix ratios. The maximum compressive strength of specimens reached 80.0 MPa. Geopolymeric gel, sodium polysilicate zeolite, and hydrated products coexist when AACB reactions occur. Ca from CFA, PC, and WTR precipitated as Ca(OH)(2), bonded in geopolymers to obtain charge balance, or reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. However, Ca from FGDG probably reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form ettringite. Utilization of CFA and Ca-containing admixtures in AACB is feasible. These binders may be widely utilized in various applications such as in building materials and for solidification/stabilization of other wastes, thus making the wastes more environmentally benign.

  16. Transcriptional activation of Xenopus class III genes in chromatin isolated from sperm and somatic nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffe, A P

    1989-01-01

    Xenopus sperm chromatin lacks class III transcription complexes and somatic histone H1. Inactive class III genes in sperm chromatin are easily programmed with transcription complexes de novo and transcribed in Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. In contrast, repressed class III genes in somatic chromatin are not transcribed in the oocyte nuclear extract. Class III genes that are initially inactive or repressed in both types of chromatin can be efficiently transcribed in a cell free preparation of Xenopus eggs. Chromatin mediated repression of class III genes in somatic nuclei is reversible in Xenopus egg extract, but not in the oocyte nuclear extract. Any inhibition of transcription attributed to chromatin assembly onto a gene, will therefore depend on the extract in which transcription is assayed. Images PMID:2915929

  17. Effect of vitamin D on MS activity by disease-modifying therapy class

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Dalia L.; Healy, Brian C.; Malik, Muhammad T.; Carruthers, Robert L.; Musallam, Alexander J.; Kivisakk, Pia; Weiner, Howard L.; Glanz, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether vitamin D status predicts disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) taking interferon-β (IFN), glatiramer acetate (GA), and fingolimod (FTY). Methods: Participants (n = 324) with relapsing-remitting MS on IFN (96), GA (151), or FTY (77) were identified from the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of MS at Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB) Study at the Partners MS Center. FTY-treated participants were analyzed separately because of differences in selection. Serum vitamin 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for season. We evaluated the relationship between 25(OH)D tertile and time to relapse or gadolinium-enhancing lesion using a Cox model adjusted for age, sex, and disease duration. Results: Higher 25(OH)D was associated with longer time to the combined endpoint in the overall IFN/GA cohort (p for trend = 0.042; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77) and in the IFN subgroup (HRIFN = 0.58; pIFN = 0.012), but not in GA-treated participants (p = 0.50; HR = 0.89). For gadolinium-enhancing lesions alone, there was a significant association observed in GA and IFN subgroups, although the effect was more pronounced on IFN (HRGA = 0.57; pGA = 0.039 vs HRIFN = 0.41; pIFN = 0.022). No significant associations were found for relapses. For FTY, higher 25(OH)D was associated with longer survival for the combined endpoint (HRFTY = 0.48; pFTY = 0.016) and for relapses (HRFTY = 0.50; pFTY = 0.046), but not for gadolinium-enhancing lesions. Conclusions: Disease activity generally improved with higher 25(OH)D, but this study raises the question of effect modification by treatment class. PMID:26568968

  18. Combatting synthetic designer opioids: active vaccination ablates lethal doses of fentanyl class drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Paul T.; Kimishima, Atsushi; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Zhou, Bin; Collins, Karen C.; Janda, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is an addictive prescription opioid that is over 80 times more potent than morphine. The synthetic nature of fentanyl has enabled the creation of dangerous ‘designer drug’ analogues that escape toxicology screening, yet display comparable potency to the parent drug. Alarmingly, a large number of fatalities have been linked to overdose of fentanyl derivatives. Herein, we report an effective immunotherapy for reducing the psychoactive effects of fentanyl class drugs. A single conjugate vaccine was created that elicited high levels of antibodies with cross-reactivity for a wide panel of fentanyl analogues. Moreover, vaccinated mice gained significant protection from lethal fentanyl doses. Lastly, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based technique was established enabling drug specificity profiling of antibodies derived directly from serum. Our newly developed fentanyl vaccine and analytical methods may assist in the battle against synthetic opioid abuse. Fentanyl is an effective synthetic opioid that is used legally as a schedule II prescription pain reliever. However, fentanyl presents a significant abuse liability due to the euphoric feeling it induces via activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the brain; the same pharmacological target as the illegal schedule I opioid, heroin.[1] Excessive activation of MOR results in respiratory depression which can be fatal.[2] Fentanyl exceeds the potency of heroin by >10-fold, and morphine by >80-fold posing a significant risk of overdose when it is consumed from unregulated sources.[3] Furthermore, the ease of fentanyl synthesis enables illegal production and the creation of designer drug analogues.[4] The fact that the pharmacology of these analogues has yet to be properly characterized makes them particularly dangerous, especially when certain modifications, even methyl additions, can increase potency, notably at the 3-position (Figure 1).[5] PMID:26879590

  19. Gametocytocidal Screen Identifies Novel Chemical Classes with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Natalie G.; Sullivan, David J.; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

  20. The effectiveness of a work style intervention and a lifestyle physical activity intervention on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms in computer workers.

    PubMed

    Bernaards, Claire M; Ariëns, Geertje A M; Knol, Dirk L; Hildebrandt, Vincent H

    2007-11-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a single intervention targeting work style and a combined intervention targeting work style and physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms. Computer workers with frequent or long-term neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, n=152), work style and physical activity group (WSPA, n=156), or usual care group (n=158). The WS and WSPA group attended six group meetings. All meetings focused on behavioural change with regard to body posture, workplace adjustment, breaks and coping with high work demands (WS and WSPA group) and physical activity (WSPA group). Pain, disability at work, days with symptoms and months without symptoms were measured at baseline and after 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2). Self-reported recovery was assessed at T1/T2. Both interventions were ineffective in improving recovery. The work style intervention but not the combined intervention was effective in reducing all pain measures. These effects were present in the neck/shoulder, not in the arm/wrist/hand. For the neck/shoulder, the work style intervention group also showed an increased recovery-rate. Total physical activity increased in all study groups but no differences between groups were observed. To conclude, a group-based work style intervention focused on behavioural change was effective in improving recovery from neck/shoulder symptoms and reducing pain on the long-term. The combined intervention was ineffective in increasing total physical activity. Therefore we cannot draw conclusions on the effect of increasing physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms.

  1. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  2. Association of lifestyle factors with abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity: The Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community-based setting. Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle factors (dietary quality, physical activity, smo...

  3. Community based lifestyle intervention improves body weight, anthropometric, and fitness parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification of nutrition, physical activity and behavior is a proven methodology for weight loss and health improvement. We examined a community based lifestyle intervention (CBLI) program on anthropometric, fitness and biologic outcomes in 41 (2 men, 39 women) overweight and obese (BMI =...

  4. Health and Life-Style of Longevous Palauans: Implications for Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gordon D.; Polloi, Anthony H.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the health, illness, and life-styles of the oldest Palauans (N=38) by interview in their homes. They were in unusually good physical and mental health. The most common physical problem was arthritis. Life-style is described in terms of diet, physical activity, medical services, and living conditions. (JAC)

  5. Developing School Students' Identity and Engagement through Lifestyle Sports: A Case Study of Unicycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignold, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article emerges from a background of UK policy concerns about young people's participation in physical activity. It rehearses the arguments for lifestyle sports as a rich ground for enhancing students' engagement with physical education (PE). A review of the still limited literature suggests that lifestyle sports may have an under-exploited…

  6. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression.

  7. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  8. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  9. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people.

  10. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures.

  11. [Chronological nutrition and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    Lifestyle controls the circadian rhythms produced by clock genes and affects telomere length that regulates healthspan. Biological clocks are classified into oscillatory (clock genes) and hourglass clocks (telomeres). Clock genes align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, become shorter during cell division. Shortened telomeres have been documented in various pathological states in lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. Human activity is driven by NADH and ATP produced from nutrients, and the resulting NAD and AMP play a predominant role in energy regulation. Caloric restriction and proper exercise increase both AMP and NAD, and extend the healthspan. SIRT1, the NAD-dependent deacetylase, attenuates telomere shortening, while PGC-1alpha, a master modulator of gene expression, is phosphorylated by AMP kinase and deacetylated by SIRT1. Prevention of lifestyle related diseases by chronological nutrition is described based on these mechanisms.

  12. Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: results of the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important contributor to disability. Limited clinical trial evidence exists regarding the impact of physical exercise on cognitive function (CF). We report results of a pilot study to provide estimates of the relative impact of physical activity (PA) on 1-year ...

  13. The impact of sarcopenia on a physical activity intervention: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if sarcopenia modulates the response to a physical activity intervention in functionally limited older adults. Design: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting: three academic centers. Participants: elders aged 70 to 89 years at risk for mobility disability who under...

  14. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, randomized trial of physical activity: Effect on the prevention of major mobility disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining if physical activi...

  15. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The…

  16. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  17. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  18. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases.

  19. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  20. The Social and Lifestyle Characteristics of Australian Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…

  1. Diet and lifestyle in CVD prevention and treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing CVD. Thi...

  2. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  3. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

  4. Active Tasks to Change the Use of Class Time within an Outcomes Based Approach to Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Diane; Pang, Marco Y. C.; Sharma, Piyush

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how new roles for instructors and learners can be integrated into course design and delivery by rethinking course design as part of a process-based staff development program. The goal of incorporating online learning tasks was to engage students with course resources prior to class time through active learning. The staff…

  5. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  6. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  7. Rhythmic control of activity and sleep by class B1 GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Michael; Tso, Matthew C.F.; Ghosh, D. Dipon; Herzog, Erik D.; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the class B1 family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) whose ligands are neuropeptides have been implicated in regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep in diverse metazoan clades. This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which class B1 GPCRs, especially the mammalian VPAC2 receptor and its functional homologue PDFR in Drosophila and C. elegans, regulate arousal and daily rhythms of sleep and wake. There are remarkable parallels in the cellular and molecular roles played by class B1 intercellular signaling pathways in coordinating arousal and circadian timekeeping across multiple cells and tissues in these very different genetic model organisms. PMID:25410535

  8. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  9. The Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): participants' perspectives of a four-week lifestyle intervention for children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin S; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M

    2012-12-01

    To date, there is a paucity of qualitative research examining the influence of community-based interventions for childhood obesity on the participants themselves. This study explored the experiences of children who participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.), a four-week day camp for children with obesity aged 8-14, in order to uncover key program elements for positive behavior change. Following the intervention, children (n = 36) participated in focus groups where they were asked about their experiences pertaining to physical activity and nutrition, what it was like to be part of a team, and how they felt about themselves. Findings revealed that participants perceived C.H.A.M.P. as helpful (e.g. in making healthier food choices, being more active, and feeling more confident and self-aware). This pilot study offers unique insights into the perspectives of children with obesity. Results are discussed with respect to future program development and research for childhood obesity treatment.

  10. A telehealth program for self-management of COPD exacerbations and promotion of an active lifestyle: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Hermens, Hermie; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the use of and satisfaction with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) telehealth program applied in both primary and secondary care. The program consisted of four modules: 1) activity coach for ambulant activity monitoring and real-time coaching of daily activity behavior, 2) web-based exercise program for home exercising, 3) self-management of COPD exacerbations via a triage diary on the web portal, including self-treatment of exacerbations, and 4) teleconsultation. Twenty-nine COPD patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (telehealth program for 9 months) or the control group (usual care). Page hits on the web portal showed the use of the program, and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire showed satisfaction with received care. The telehealth program with decision support showed good satisfaction (mean 26.4, maximum score 32). The program was accessed on 86% of the treatment days, especially the diary. Patient adherence with the exercise scheme was low (21%). Health care providers seem to play an important role in patients' adherence to telehealth in usual care. Future research should focus on full-scale implementation in daily care and investigating technological advances, like gaming, to increase adherence.

  11. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health. PMID:23743794

  12. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  13. Synthesis of new class of alkyl azarene pyridinium zwitterions via iodine mediated sp3 C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Gupta, Garima; Srivastava, Suman

    2011-12-16

    An efficient and conceptually different approach toward C-H bond activation by using iodine mediated sp(3) C-H functionalization for the synthesis of alkyl azaarene pyridinium zwitterions is described. This work has the interesting distinction of being the first synthesis of a new class of alkyl azaarene pyridinium zwitterion via transition-metal-free sp(3) C-H bond activation of an alkyl azaarene.

  14. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pegan, Scott D.; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Baker, Erica A.; Krasnykh, Olga; Franzblau, Scott G.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  15. Class Schedules Need Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  16. Identification of an AR Mutation-Negative Class of Androgen Insensitivity by Determining Endogenous AR Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ukat, M.; Schweikert, H. U.; Hiort, O.; Werner, R.; Drop, S. L. S.; Cools, M.; Hughes, I. A.; Audi, L.; Ahmed, S. F.; Demiri, J.; Rodens, P.; Worch, L.; Wehner, G.; Kulle, A. E.; Dunstheimer, D.; Müller-Roßberg, E.; Reinehr, T.; Hadidi, A. T.; Eckstein, A. K.; van der Horst, C.; Seif, C.; Siebert, R.; Ammerpohl, O.; Holterhus, P.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Only approximately 85% of patients with a clinical diagnosis complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and less than 30% with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome can be explained by inactivating mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Objective: The objective of the study was to clarify this discrepancy by in vitro determination of AR transcriptional activity in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) and male controls. Design: Quantification of DHT-dependent transcriptional induction of the AR target gene apolipoprotein D (APOD) in cultured genital fibroblasts (GFs) (APOD assay) and next-generation sequencing of the complete coding and noncoding AR locus. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital endocrine research laboratory. Patients: GFs from 169 individuals were studied encompassing control males (n = 68), molecular defined DSD other than androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS; n = 18), AR mutation-positive AIS (n = 37), and previously undiagnosed DSD including patients with a clinical suspicion of AIS (n = 46). Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): DHT-dependent APOD expression in cultured GF and AR mutation status in 169 individuals was measured. Results: The APOD assay clearly separated control individuals (healthy males and molecular defined DSD patients other than AIS) from genetically proven AIS (cutoff < 2.3-fold APOD-induction; 100% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, P < .0001). Of 46 DSD individuals with no AR mutation, 17 (37%) fell below the cutoff, indicating disrupted androgen signaling. Conclusions: AR mutation-positive AIS can be reliably identified by the APOD assay. Its combination with next-generation sequencing of the AR locus uncovered an AR mutation-negative, new class of androgen resistance, which we propose to name AIS type II. Our data support the existence of cellular components outside the AR affecting androgen signaling during sexual differentiation with high

  17. Do Changes in Lifestyle Engagement Moderate Cognitive Decline in Normal Aging? Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Brent J.; Dixon, Roger A.; McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Do lifestyle activities buffer normal aging-related declines in cognitive performance? The emerging literature will benefit from theoretically broader measurement of both lifestyle activities and cognitive performance, and longer-term longitudinal designs complemented with dynamic statistical analyses. We examine the temporal ordering of changes in lifestyle activities and changes in cognitive neuropsychological performance in older adults. Method We assembled data (n = 952) across a 12-year (5-wave) period from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Latent Change Score models were applied to examine whether (and in which temporal order) changes in physical, social, or cognitive lifestyle activities were related to changes in three domains of cognitive performance. Results Two main results reflect the dynamic coupling among changes in lifestyle activities and cognition. First, reductions in cognitive lifestyle activities were associated with subsequent declines in measures of verbal speed, episodic memory, and semantic memory. Second, poorer cognitive functioning was related to subsequent decrements in lifestyle engagement, especially in social activities. Conclusions The results support the dual contention that (a) lifestyle engagement may buffer some of the cognitive changes observed in late life, and (b) persons who are exhibiting poorer cognitive performance may also relinquish some lifestyle activities. PMID:22149165

  18. Depressive symptoms, lifestyle structure, and ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals: a longitudinal mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Blashill, Aaron J; Safren, Steven A; Wagner, Glenn J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship between depression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) nonadherence, few studies have identified explanatory pathways through which depression affects adherence. The current study tested lifestyle structure-the degree of organization and routinization of daily activities-as a mediator of this relationship, given previous evidence of lifestyle structure being associated with both depression and ART nonadherence. HIV-infected individuals starting or re-starting ART in the California Collaborative Treatment Group 578 study (n = 199) were assessed over 48 weeks. Adherence was measured using electronic monitoring caps to determine dose timing and doses taken, and viral load was assessed. The mediating role of lifestyle structure was tested using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling and bootstrapping. Lifestyle significantly mediated the relationship between depression and both measures of ART adherence behavior. Interventions that minimize disruptions to lifestyle structure and link adherence to daily activities may be useful for individuals with depression and ART nonadherence.

  19. Refolding of β-Stranded Class I Chitinases of Hippophae rhamnoides Enhances the Antifreeze Activity during Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Deswal, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Class I chitinases hydrolyse the β-1,4-linkage of chitin and also acquire antifreeze activity in some of the overwintering plants during cold stress. Two chitinases, HrCHT1a of 31 kDa and HrCHT1b of 34 kDa, were purified from cold acclimated and non-acclimated seabuckthorn seedlings using chitin affinity chromatography. 2-D gels of HrCHT1a and HrCHT1b showed single spots with pIs 7.0 and 4.6 respectively. N-terminal sequence of HrCHT1b matched with the class I chitinase of rice and antifreeze proteins while HrCHT1a could not be sequenced as it was N-terminally blocked. Unlike previous reports, where antifreeze activity of chitinase was cold inducible, our results showed that antifreeze activity is constitutive property of class I chitinase as both HrCHT1a and HrCHT1b isolated even from non-acclimated seedlings, exhibited antifreeze activity. Interestingly, HrCHT1a and HrCHT1b purified from cold acclimated seedlings, exhibited 4 and 2 times higher antifreeze activities than those purified from non-acclimated seedlings, suggesting that antifreeze activity increased during cold acclimation. HrCHT1b exhibited 23–33% higher hydrolytic activity and 2–4 times lower antifreeze activity than HrCHT1a did. HrCHT1b was found to be a glycoprotein; however, its antifreeze activity was independent of glycosylation as even deglycosylated HrCHT1b exhibited antifreeze activity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that both these chitinases were rich in unusual β-stranded conformation (36–43%) and the content of β-strand increased (∼11%) during cold acclimation. Surprisingly, calcium decreased both the activities of HrCHT1b while in case of HrCHT1a, a decrease in the hydrolytic activity and enhancement in its antifreeze activity was observed. CD results showed that addition of calcium also increased the β-stranded conformation of HrCHT1a and HrCHT1b. This is the first report, which shows that antifreeze activity is constitutive property of class I chitinase and cold

  20. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.

  1. Beyond the Schoolyard: The Contributions of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions to the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250

  2. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  3. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  4. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Edward; Pojednic, Rachele; Polak, Rani; Bush, Jennifer; Trilk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM) into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1) supporting of deans and key personnel, 2) creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3) use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4) provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5) engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice. PMID:25652118

  5. Concurrent and convergent validity of the simple lifestyle indicator questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; Bethune, Cheri; Kirby, Allison; Pike, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle issues including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported stress have all been shown to predispose people to higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This study provides further psychometrics on the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ), a short, easy-to-use instrument which measures all these lifestyle characteristics as a single construct. One hundred and ninety-three individuals from St. John's, Newfoundland, and Labrador, Canada completed the SLIQ and reference standards for diet, exercise, stress, and alcohol consumption. The reference standards were a detailed Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), the SF36 Health Status Questionnaire, and a survey of eight questions from a cardiovascular risk questionnaire. Physical activity score was compared with number of steps on a pedometer. Correlations between scores on the SLIQ and the reference standards were the SLIQ versus DHQ (r = 0.679, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus pedometer (r = 0.455, P = 0.002), SLIQ versus alcohol consumption (r = 0.665, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus SRRS (r = -0.264, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus eight-question risk score (r = 0.475, P = 0.001), and SLIQ versus Question 1 on SF36 (r = 0.303, P = 0.001). The SLIQ is sufficiently valid when compared to reference standards to be useful as a brief assessment of an individual's cardiovascular lifestyle in research and clinical settings.

  6. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  7. Discovery of a novel class of boron-based antibacterials with activity against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Vincent; Crépin, Thibaut; Palencia, Andrés; Cusack, Stephen; Akama, Tsutomu; Baker, Stephen J; Bu, Wei; Feng, Lisa; Freund, Yvonne R; Liu, Liang; Meewan, Maliwan; Mohan, Manisha; Mao, Weimin; Rock, Fernando L; Sexton, Holly; Sheoran, Anita; Zhang, Yanchen; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Yasheen; Nieman, James A; Anugula, Mahipal Reddy; Keramane, El Mehdi; Savariraj, Kingsley; Reddy, D Shekhar; Sharma, Rashmi; Subedi, Rajendra; Singh, Rajeshwar; O'Leary, Ann; Simon, Nerissa L; De Marsh, Peter L; Mushtaq, Shazad; Warner, Marina; Livermore, David M; Alley, M R K; Plattner, Jacob J

    2013-03-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause approximately 70% of the infections in intensive care units. A growing number of bacterial isolates responsible for these infections are resistant to currently available antibiotics and to many in development. Most agents under development are modifications of existing drug classes, which only partially overcome existing resistance mechanisms. Therefore, new classes of Gram-negative antibacterials with truly novel modes of action are needed to circumvent these existing resistance mechanisms. We have previously identified a new a way to inhibit an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), in fungi via the oxaborole tRNA trapping (OBORT) mechanism. Herein, we show how we have modified the OBORT mechanism using a structure-guided approach to develop a new boron-based antibiotic class, the aminomethylbenzoxaboroles, which inhibit bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase and have activity against Gram-negative bacteria by largely evading the main efflux mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lead analogue, AN3365, is active against Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae bearing NDM-1 and KPC carbapenemases, as well as P. aeruginosa. This novel boron-based antibacterial, AN3365, has good mouse pharmacokinetics and was efficacious against E. coli and P. aeruginosa in murine thigh infection models, which suggest that this novel class of antibacterials has the potential to address this unmet medical need.

  8. A new class of nifuroxazide analogues: synthesis of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Andrea; Tavares, Leoberto Costa

    2007-06-15

    Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an increasing problem worldwide since the initial reports over 40 years ago. To examine new drug leads with potential antibacterial activities, 14 p-substituted benzoic acid [(5-nitro-thiophen-2-yl)-methylene]-hydrazides were designed, synthesized, and tested against standard and multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains by serial dilution tests. All compounds exhibited significant bacteriostatic activity and some of them also showed bactericidal activity. The results confirmed the potential of this class of compounds as an alternative for the development of selective antimicrobial agents.

  9. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in High School Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those

  10. BW A256C, a chemically novel class 1 antiarrhythmic agent. A comparison of in vitro and in vivo activity with other class 1 antiarrhythmic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G.; Donoghue, S.; Follenfant, M. J.; Sawyer, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    BW A256C (5(3)-amino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,3(2,5)-dihydro-3(5)-imino-2 -isopropyl-1,2,4-triazine) is a novel class 1 antiarrhythmic agent designed to combine the features of potency with reduced central nervous system penetration. BW A256C reduced the maximum rate of depolarization of guinea-pig ventricle and dog Purkinje fibres in vitro (EC50, 2.2 X 10(-6) M and 1.8 X 10(-6) M, respectively), being significantly more potent than quinidine, lidocaine, disopyramide and flecainide. BW A256C was also more potent than these agents at inhibiting aconitine-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats; however, unlike these agents, BW A256C was devoid of hypotensive activity at antiarrhythmic doses. In anaesthetized dogs, intravenous administration of BW A256C (0.25-1 mg kg-1) caused a dose-dependent suppression of ventricular arrhythmias that occurred on reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery. In conscious dogs, intravenous infusion (total dose, 1.5 mg kg-1) or oral administration of BW A256C (1.25-5 mg kg-1) caused dose-dependent suppression of the ventricular ectopic activity that occurred following 20-24 h of permanent coronary artery ligation. In the conscious dog, BW A256C was approximately 7 times more potent and was also longer acting than flecainide. Administration of BW A256C was not associated with any evidence of peripheral or CNS toxicity. However, plasma levels 3-4 times greater than the antiarrhythmic levels were associated with a proarrhythmic activity. PMID:3730698

  11. Aminopyrrolic synthetic receptors for monosaccharides: a class of carbohydrate-binding agents endowed with antibiotic activity versus pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Nativi, Cristina; Francesconi, Oscar; Gabrielli, Gabriele; De Simone, Irene; Turchetti, Benedetta; Mello, Tommaso; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Buzzini, Pietro; Roelens, Stefano

    2012-04-16

    The biological activity of a set of structurally related aminopyrrolic synthetic receptors for monosaccharides has been tested versus yeast and yeast-like microorganisms and compared to their binding affinity toward mannosides. Antibiotic activity comparable to that of well-known polyene (amphotericin B) or azole (ketoconazole) drugs has been found for some members of the family, along with a general correlation with binding abilities. A systematic structure-activity-affinity investigation shed light on the structural and functional requirements necessary for antibiotic activity and identified the tripodal compound 1 as the most potent compound of the set. Together with toxicity tests and inhibitor localization experiments performed through fluorescence microscopy, these studies led to the characterization of a new class of carbohydrate binding agents possessing antibiotic activity, in which pyrrolic groups precisely structured on a tripodal architecture appear to be responsible for permeability through the cell wall of pathogens, as well as for antibiotic activity inside the cytoplasm.

  12. Techniques of Play Activity at Physical Education Classes at Specialized Secondary Educational Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynova, Victoria A.; Kapustin, Aleksandr G.

    2016-01-01

    The issue is urgent today because at present the organization and content of Physical Education (PE) classes at specialized secondary educational establishments (SSEEs) do not completely meet contemporary requirements. The following negative trends prove that, namely: the physical and psychological health decline in school leavers and students,…

  13. Mainstreaming in Home Economics Classes: A Handbook for Home Economics Teachers Featuring Activity Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildner, Carol

    The handbook is intended to help home economics teachers incorporate mainstreamed special needs students into their classes. Sample individualized education programs with home economics related goals and objectives are offered to illustrate the role of home economics instruction. General teaching suggestions (such as breaking down the task to…

  14. Google Docs in an Out-of-Class Collaborative Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wenyi; Simpson, Elizabeth; Domizi, Denise Pinette

    2012-01-01

    Google Docs, an online word processing application, is a promising tool for collaborative learning. However, many college instructors and students lack knowledge to effectively use Google Docs to enhance teaching and learning. Goals of this study include (1) assessing the effectiveness of using Google Docs in an out-of-class collaborative writing…

  15. The Impact of Physical Activity on Academics in English Classes at the Junior High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The pressure educators, schools, and school districts face with meeting Adequate Yearly Progress on state assessments as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act has made some schools and school district reduce class offerings and time for subjects not considered core subjects. In addition, the rising obesity rates in students have prompted…

  16. Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle Structure, and ART Adherence Among HIV-Infected Individuals: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Safren, Steven A.; Wagner, Glenn J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship between depression and antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-adherence, few studies have identified explanatory pathways through which depression affects adherence. The current study tested lifestyle structure—the degree of organization and routinization of daily activities—as a mediator of this relationship, given previous evidence of lifestyle structure being associated with both depression and ART nonadherence. HIV-infected individuals starting or re-starting ART in the California Collaborative Treatment Group 578 study (n = 199) were assessed over 48 weeks. Adherence was measured using electronic monitoring caps to determine dose timing and doses taken, and viral load was assessed. The mediating role of lifestyle structure was tested using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling and bootstrapping. Lifestyle significantly mediated the relationship between depression and both measures of ART adherence behavior. Interventions that minimize disruptions to lifestyle structure and link adherence to daily activities may be useful for individuals with depression and ART nonadherence. PMID:24874725

  17. Dietary quality and lifestyle factors in relation to 10-year mortality in older Europeans: the SENECA study.

    PubMed

    Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette P G M; Burema, Jan; Cruz, José A Amorim; Osler, Merete; van Staveren, Wija A

    2002-11-15

    The single and combined effects of three healthy lifestyle behaviors-nonsmoking, being physically active, and having a high-quality diet-on survival were investigated among older people in the SENECA Study. This European longitudinal study started with baseline measurements in 1988-1989 and lasted until April 30, 1999. The study population consisted of 631 men and 650 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland. A lifestyle score was calculated by adding the scores of the lifestyle factors physical activity, dietary quality, and smoking habits. The single lifestyle factors and the lifestyle score were related to mortality. Even at ages 70-75 years, the unhealthy lifestyle behaviors smoking, having a low-quality diet, and being physically inactive were singly related to an increased mortality risk (hazard ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.1). The risk of death was further increased for all combinations of two unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Finally, men and women with all three unhealthy lifestyle behaviors had a three- to fourfold increase in mortality risk. These results underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle, including multiple lifestyle factors, and the maintenance of it with advancing age.

  18. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project.

    PubMed

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p < 0.001). This association was primarily driven by changes in obesity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake. As compared to improving poor lifestyle habits, maintaining a healthy lifestyle seemed to be most helpful in avoiding metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  19. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles.

  20. The linkage between deviant lifestyles and victimization: an examination from a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojin

    2009-07-01

    A small but growing body of research has demonstrated the merits of linking victimization to a life course perspective. Although cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between deviant lifestyles and victimization, few have assessed this association from the life course perspective. Drawing data from a prospective, longitudinal study, the current study examines this association in a group of high school adolescents. Results from latent growth curve models show that (a) victimization and deviant lifestyles, measured as involvement in delinquent activities, affiliation with deviant peers, and time spent on unsupervised activities change over time; and (b) change in deviant lifestyle patterns leads to change in victimization patterns over time.

  1. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle.

  2. Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Khan, Zulfia; Ansari, M Athar; Khalique, Najam; Anees, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results: Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention. PMID:22279255

  3. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the "normal-weight metabolically obese" phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority.

  4. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy.

  5. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required.

  6. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three aspects of urolithiasis, i.e. epidemiology, mechanisms linking lifestyle and urolithiasis and lifestyle intervention for preventing urolithiasis. Results Epidemiological evidence links the prevalence of urinary stone formation to general lifestyle factors. Detailed analysis has identified individual lifestyle elements that affect the risk of urinary stone formation. Currently there are several concepts that explain the mechanism of stone formation. Urinary markers like calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and urinary pH are involved in all these concepts. Many studies show that changing (combinations of) specific lifestyle elements has a favourable effect on these urinary markers. Based on this evidence, protocols have been developed that use a combination of these lifestyle changes and medication to prevent stone formation. In well-controlled studies where patients are optimally informed and continuously motivated, these protocols clearly reduce the stone formation rate. In general practice the result is less clear, because the time and tools are insufficient to maintain long-term patient compliance in the use of medication and lifestyle advice. Conclusion The risk of stone formation can be reduced in general practice when the patient’s compliance is optimised by providing individualised advice, continuous information, and feedback and incorporation of the advice into a regular lifestyle. The use of ‘e-tools’ might enable this without increasing the time required from the physician. PMID:26558032

  7. The effects of exergaming on physical activity in a third-grade physical education class.

    PubMed

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical activity across participants.

  8. Perenosins: a new class of anion transporter with anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Van Rossom, Wim; Asby, Daniel J; Tavassoli, Ali; Gale, Philip A

    2016-03-07

    A new class of anion transporter named 'perenosins' consisting of a pyrrole linked through an imine to either an indole, benzimidazole or indazole is reported. The indole containing members of the perenosin family function as effective transmembrane Cl(-)/NO3(-) antiporters and HCl cotransporters in a manner similar to the prodigiosenes. The compounds reduce the viability of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7.

  9. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Polyprenol (GBP) from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL) is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca2+ mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diameter 90.2 nm) combining with gentamicin sulfate had the highest enhancing antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, and the MIC value was 33.0 μg/mL. The increase of the antibacterial effect of tested antibiotics was positively correlated with the decrease of the average diameter of GBP microemulsion. Moreover, GBP microemulsion enhanced antibacterial effect and prolonged antibacterial time of GBP combining with gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could enhance the ability of gentamicin inducing an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations to Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could help some classes of antibiotics to inhibit or kill bacteria. This study supports the fact that GBP microemulsion obviously can not only reduce the dosage of some classes of antibiotics, but also reduce the frequency of the antibiotic use in vitro. PMID:27642597

  10. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of a novel isothiazolone class of bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ian R; McCarroll, Andrew J; McGarry, David; Kirkham, James; Pichowicz, Mark; Walker, Rolf; Warrilow, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Savage, Victoria J; Moyo, Emmanuel; Forward, Henry; Cheung, Jonathan; Metzger, Richard; Gault, Zoe; Nelson, Gary; Hughes, Diarmaid; Cao, Sha; Maclean, John; Charrier, Cédric; Craighead, Mark; Best, Stuart; Stokes, Neil R; Ratcliffe, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent and unmet medical need for new antibacterial drugs that tackle infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. During the course of our wider efforts to discover and exploit novel mechanism of action antibacterials, we have identified a novel series of isothiazolone based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerase. Compounds from the class displayed excellent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with encouraging activity against a panel of MDR clinical Escherichia coli isolates when compared to ciprofloxacin. Representative compounds also displayed a promising in vitro safety profile.

  11. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  12. Lifestyles: Past, Present, Future. A Unit to Integrate Economics in the Junior High Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyler, Eric; Hyler, Linda

    Designed as a 4-9 week cumulative unit on economics for junior high school classes, this award-winning program introduces students to the economic bases of past, present, and future American lifestyles. Following introductory information on the authors, rationale, and objectives, a suggested 6-week lesson plan is presented designed to help…

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Maria J.; Cacho, Alberto; Alarcón, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated. Results: Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment. Conclusions: Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation. Key words:Class II malocclusion, jaw muscles, mandibular kinematics, sEMG, Teuscher activator. PMID:23385506

  14. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  15. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  16. Lifestyle Modification for Resistant Hypertension: The TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J.; Mabe, Stephanie; Watkins, Lana; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Craighead, Linda W.; Babyak, Michael; Tyson, Crystal; Young, Kenlyn; Ashworth, Megan; Kraus, William; Liao, Lawrence; Hinderliter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health burden in this country affecting as many as one in five adults being treated for hypertension. RH is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to reduce blood pressure in this high risk population are a national priority. Methods TRIUMPH is a single site, prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie DASH eating plan, and weight management compared to standardized education and physician advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (N=150) will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical practice. The primary end point is clinic blood pressure; secondary endpoints include ambulatory blood pressure and an array of CVD biomarkers including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids, sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory markers. Lifestyle habits, blood pressure and CVD risk factors also will be measured at one year follow-up. Conclusions The TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a standardized education and physician advice counseling session on blood presssure and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4 months of treatment, and will determine whether lifestyle changes can be maintained for a year. PMID:26542509

  17. A Census of the Class of X-ray Active γ Cas Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; de Oliveira, R. L.; Motch, C.

    2016-11-01

    “γ Cas stars” are perhaps the primary contributors to the total hard X-ray flux from Galactic B stars. We review basic properties of 12 suspected or known members of this class. The sample extends out to 6-7 kpc and is finally sufficient to compare such basic properties as spectral type, rotation rate, binarity/Blue Straggler status, Hα lobe structure EWHα, Lx, temperature of the dominant X-ray emitting plasma component (kThot), and ranges in Lx and kThot.

  18. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  19. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  20. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students’ LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. PMID:27543636

  1. The GPS motif is a molecular switch for bimodal activities of adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Prömel, Simone; Frickenhaus, Marie; Hughes, Samantha; Mestek, Lamia; Staunton, David; Woollard, Alison; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schnabel, Ralf; Russ, Andreas P; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-08-30

    Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions.

  2. Active Learning in Research Methods Classes Is Associated with Higher Knowledge and Confidence, Though not Evaluations or Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Peter J.; Baughman, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26973575

  3. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  4. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  5. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  6. Teaching Mathematics with Technology: Activities to Introduce Your Class to LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lyn

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities employing LOGO to help create situations that enable students to make meaningful cognitive connections while exploring mathematical relationships. Activities explore the concepts of angles and rotations, progressing from off-line to on-line activities with suggested extensions. (MDH)

  7. Uptake of Optional Activities Leads to Improved Performance in a Biomedical Sciences Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Optional (non-assessed) learning activities are a learning tool that may help students achieve their desired grade, or help students with lower levels of previous experience in the topic. This study examines the implementation of, and outcomes from, two optional activities, one online and one paper-based. The activities complemented the lectures…

  8. Influence of lifestyle measures on hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, F; D'Addato, S; Laghi, L; Malagoni, A M; Mandini, S; Boari, B; Borghi, C; Manfredini, R

    2009-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is a common dyslipidaemia encountered in clinical practice. People with hypertriglyceridaemia are frequently obese, insulin-resistant, hypertensive or diabetic, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertriglyceridaemia also contributes to metabolic syndrome, in which an atherogenic diet, sedentary lifestyle, overweight/obesity and genetic factors interact. A multi-factorial intervention for all risk factors is necessary, including weight reduction, dietary modification and increased physical exercise. This review focuses on the influence of diet, sedentary lifestyle and negative habits (such as excessive alcohol intake, smoking and drug addiction) on hypertriglyceridaemia as well as the effects of lifestyle change.

  9. Enhancement of antibody class switch recombination by the cumulative activity of four separate elements1

    PubMed Central

    Dunnick, Wesley A.; Shi, Jian; Zerbato, Jennifer M.; Fontaine, Clinton A.; Collins, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Class switch recombination of antibody isotype is mediated by a recombinational DNA deletion event, and must be robustly upregulated during antigen-driven differentiation of B cells. The enhancer region 3′ of the Cα gene is important for the upregulation of switch recombination. Using a transgene of the entire heavy chain constant region locus, we now demonstrate that it is the four 3′ enhancer elements themselves (a total of 4.7 kb) that are responsible for the upregulation, rather than the 24 kb of DNA in between them. Neither allelic exclusion nor transgenic μ expression is reduced by deletion of the four 3′ enhancers. We also test deletions of two or three of the 3′ enhancers, and show that deletion of more 3′ enhancers results in a progressive reduction in both switch recombination and germline transcription of all heavy chain genes. Nevertheless, we find evidence for special roles for some 3′ enhancers--different heavy chain genes are affected by different 3′ enhancer deletions. Thus, we find that the dramatic induction of class switch recombination during antigen-driven differentiation is the result of an interaction among four separated regulatory elements. PMID:21949022

  10. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  11. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.

  12. Impact of 20 Week Lifestyle Intervention Package on Anthropometric Biochemical and Behavioral Characteristics of Schoolchildren in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Bhavneet; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Dhawan, Veena; Bhansali, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. There is convincing evidence that school-based interventions are effective in managing childhood obesity. However, the nature of interventions, its impact on prevention of obesity and how they work remain poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight and body mass index (BMI) of children in a school-based setting. Methods: It is a cluster randomized trial where four schools were randomly selected and allocated to intervention and control arm equally. Of the 462 schoolchildren selected, 201 were assigned to the intervention group and 261 belonged to the control group. Children in the intervention arm received a multicomponent lifestyle package. Primary outcome measures included anthropometric measurements (weight, BMI, skinfold thickness and waist and hip circumference), whereas secondary outcomes were biochemical parameters, physical activity and dietary intake. Results: Compared with controls and adjusting for age, sex and clustering within classes, children in the intervention group showed decrease in the weight by − 0.08 (−0.15 to − 0.00, p  =  0.048) z-score units, waist circumference by − 0.14 (−0.25 to − 0.03, p  =  0.01) and triceps thickness by − 0.35 (−0.47 to − 0.22, p < 0.001) z-score units; however, BMI showed no significant decrease. There was significant reduction in intake of energy, protein and fat but no to minimal reduction in biochemical parameters. Conclusion: A school-based lifestyle intervention package favorably affected anthropometric (weight, waist circumference and triceps and biceps thickness) and behavioral parameters. At least 20 weeks of healthy lifestyle promoting intervention package should be included in school curriculum in each academic year for sustainable impact and behavioral change to reduce the burden of lifestyle

  13. Parent-child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life.

  14. Reframing Perceptions of the Lecture from Challenges to Opportunities: Embedding Active Learning and Formative Assessment into the Teaching of Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstone, Naomi; Millward, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and assessing large classes can be reframed from focusing on overcoming difficulties with large classes, to seeking the unique educational opportunities provided by such learning environments. We discuss data and examples illustrating how active learning and formative assessment can be successfully embedded into the teaching of large…

  15. [Circadian clocks and lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the disturbance of circadian rhythm and the development of lifestyle-related diseases. First, epidemiological studies showed that rotating shift workers are more likely to develop obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancers than day shift employees. In addition, mice with their circadian rhythm chronically impaired by alteration of the light-dark cycle also develop such diseases. Furthermore, both the genotypes and genetic modifications of the clock genes are associated with the development of lifestyle-related diseases in humans and mice, respectively. Finally, circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are impaired in both patients with type 2 diabetes and obese diabetic mice, probably not due to metabolic abnormalities, but to the lifestyle, aging, and/or genetic factors. Thus, disturbance of the circadian rhythm is an important cause of lifestyle-related diseases, and therefore the circadian clocks are attractive therapeutic targets for preventing and treating these conditions.

  16. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  17. Listening to Learn: The Status of Listening Activities in Secondary Instrumental Ensemble Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and challenges…

  18. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  19. A Potpourri of Activities--For Use in Heterogeneously Grouped Secondary School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullstrom, Faith Z.

    This pamphlet includes a variety of suggestions and activities to stimulate language and thereby increase students' control over their environment and their lives. Although many of these activities can be used with elementary students, the emphasis in this collection is on language stimulation among secondary school children. The first section…

  20. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1.

    PubMed

    Ng, M; Yanofsky, M F

    2001-04-01

    Proper development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis flowers requires the activities of APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), whose transcripts can be detected in the petal and stamen primordia. Localized expression of AP3 and PI requires the activities of at least three genes: APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO). It has been proposed that UFO provides spatial cues and that LFY specifies competence for AP3 and PI expression in the developing flower. To understand the epistatic relationship among AP1, LFY, and UFO in regulating AP3 and PI expression, we generated two versions of AP1 that have strong transcriptional activation potential. Genetic and molecular analyses of transgenic plants expressing these activated AP1 proteins show that the endogenous AP1 protein acts largely as a transcriptional activator in vivo and that AP1 specifies petals by regulating the spatial domains of AP3 and PI expression through UFO.

  2. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2010-11-02

    Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.

  3. The role of lifestyle change for prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Staimez, Lisa R; Weber, Mary Beth; Gregg, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is disproportionately greater in those with diabetes than in the general population, including higher rates of hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction, and mortality. Health-promoting lifestyle factors reduce both diabetes and CVD in healthy individuals; however, the efficacy of these strategies for CVD reduction in people with preexisting diabetes is unclear. In this review, we describe the most recent evidence (2013-2014) surrounding the effects of lifestyle changes on CVD outcomes in those with diabetes, and we contextualize the evidence against a backdrop of earlier key findings. Two major randomized controlled trials were identified, providing opposing conclusions about the role of lifestyle factors on CVD events in those with diabetes. Other recent prospective observational analyses support associations of physical activity and reduced CVD risk in diabetes. Limitations across studies include the use of self-report for measurement of lifestyle or lifestyle change, the length of follow-up needed to measure CVD outcomes, and the role of participants' medications on associations of lifestyle factors and CVD outcomes. Equivocal findings from the two randomized controlled trials support the need for additional research to identify the specific lifestyle factors that reduce CVD mortality and macrovascular complications in populations with diabetes.

  4. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Pentacyclines: A Novel Class of Tetracycline Analogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Employing a highly efficient total synthesis approach, we synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity diverse and novel pentacycline analogs with systematic variations at C7, C8, C9, and C10. Certain substitution groups, as well as substitution patterns at various positions, were found to be preferred for increased antibacterial activity. A number of pentacycline analogs displayed potent activity in vitro and in vivo, especially against Gram-positive organisms. Several analogs have also shown promising oral bioavailability in rats and cynomolgus monkey. PMID:21500832

  5. A novel class of PTEN protein in Arabidopsis displays unusual phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and efficiently binds phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Pribat, Anne; Sormani, Rodnay; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Julkowska, Magdalena M; Testerink, Christa; Joubès, Jerôme; Castroviejo, Michel; Laguerre, Michel; Meyer, Christian; Germain, Véronique; Rothan, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) proteins are dual phosphatases with both protein and phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. They modulate signalling pathways controlling growth, metabolism and apoptosis in animals and are implied in several human diseases. In the present paper we describe a novel class of PTEN pro-teins in plants, termed PTEN2, which comprises the AtPTEN (Arabidopsis PTEN) 2a and AtPTEN2b proteins in Arabidopsis. Both display low in vitro tyrosine phosphatase activity. In addition, AtPTEN2a actively dephosphorylates in vitro the 3' phosphate group of PI3P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate), PI(3,4)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate) and PI(3,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate). In contrast with animal PTENs, PI(3,4,5)P3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) is a poor substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis of AtPTEN2a and molecular modelling of protein-phosphoinositide interactions indicated that substitutions at the PTEN2 core catalytic site of the Lys267 and Gly268 residues found in animals, which are critical for animal PTEN activity, by Met267 and Ala268 found in the eudicot PTEN2 are responsible for changes in substrate specificity. Remarkably, the AtPTEN2a protein also displays strong binding activity for PA (phosphatidic acid), a major lipid second messenger in plants. Promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) fusion, transcript and protein analyses further showed the transcriptional regulation of the ubiquitously expressed AtPTEN2a and AtPTEN2b by salt and osmotic stress. The results of the present study suggest a function for this novel class of plant PTEN proteins as an effector of lipid signalling in plants.

  6. Determinants of MSK health and disability: lifestyle determinants of symptomatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Marlene; Simic, Milena; Harmer, Alison R

    2014-06-01

    It is frequently considered that, for many people, symptomatic osteoarthritis involving the lower limb joints is a largely preventable 'lifestyle disease'. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent scientific evidence examining the effect of various lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, obesity, diet, smoking, alcohol and injury, on the development of symptomatic knee or hip osteoarthritis. The strengths and weaknesses of various studies are discussed, the magnitude of any demonstrated risks presented and current overall conclusions drawn.

  7. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  8. Remixing Chemistry Class: Two Colorado Teachers Make Vodcasts of Their Lectures to Free Up Class Time for Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Jonathan; Sams, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    As educators, the authors continually strive to improve the quality of time spent in class with their students. As chemistry teachers, they know that lectures are necessary to convey content, but experiential learning is more effective at constructing and solidifying knowledge. Podcasting and vodcasting their lessons at first proved to be an…

  9. 76 FR 40377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Class II Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Condoms AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... information to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers...

  10. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

    PubMed

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music. Furthermore, infants assigned to the active musical experience showed superior development of prelinguistic communicative gestures and social behaviour compared to infants assigned to the passive musical experience. These results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development.

  11. Making large class basic histology lectures more interactive: The use of draw-along mapping techniques and associated educational activities.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would focus students during large class lectures. After each lecture on three basic histology tissues, a guided draw-along mapping session covering the work from the lecture was introduced in the form of a click-advance PowerPoint presentation which was used to demonstrate the unfolding of an "ideal" map. The lecturer simultaneously drew a similar map using an overhead projector allowing the students to draw their own maps on blank sheets of paper along with the lecturer. Students remained attentive during the activity and many participated in answering informal questions posed by the lecturer as the map-making session progressed. After the last session, students completed an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire (response rate of 78%). The majority of students found the draw-along maps useful (94%) and believed that its use should be continued in the future (93%). A significant increase (P < 0.001) was found in the test results of student cohorts who were given the current intervention compared to cohorts from previous years who were given mind maps as handouts only or had no intervention. The use of the draw-along mapping sessions were successful in focusing students during large class lectures while also providing them with a useful tool for their studies.

  12. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  13. Lead detoxification activities of a class of novel DMSA--amino acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanxia; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Hu, Xiaomin; Hou, Baoguang; Peng, Li; Zheng, Meiqing; Wu, Jianhui; Peng, Shiqi

    2011-06-20

    The coupling of the 1-carboxyl of DMSA with l-amino acids led to a class of novel 1-(carbonyl-l-amino-acid)-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids (DMSA--amino acid conjugates, DMSA-Gly, -Ser, -Val, -Leu, -Ile, -Asn, -Asp, -Gln, -Glu, -Met, -Phe, and -Trp). In the in vivo evaluation of Pb-loaded mice, 0.4 mmol/kg of the conjugates effectively decreased the Pb levels of the femur, brain, kidney, liver, and blood, greatly enhanced urination, and increased the Pb levels of both urine and feces, while causing no redistributions of Pb to the other organs, especially to the brain. With respect to lowering the bone and brain Pb, DMSA-Ile, -Asn, -Gln, and -Met were more effective than DMSA. This benefit was attributed to their high transmembrane ability. In contrast to Pb, the essential metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ca of the treated mice were not affected by the administration of the conjugates. Silico molecular modeling predicted that the conjugates had little hepatotoxicity, except possibly for DMSA-Phe.

  14. Class A scavenger receptor-mediated cell adhesion requires the sequential activation of Lyn and PI3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Dejan M; Cholewa, Jill; Gass, Cecelia; Gong, Ming C; Post, Steven R

    2007-04-01

    Class A scavenger receptors (SR-A) participate in multiple macrophage functions including macrophage adhesion to modified proteins. SR-A-mediated adhesion may therefore contribute to chronic inflammation by promoting macrophage accumulation at sites of protein modification. The mechanisms that couple SR-A binding to modified proteins with increased cell adhesion have not been defined. In this study, SR-A expressing HEK cells and SR-A+/+ or SR-A-/- macrophages were used to delineate the signaling pathways required for SR-A-mediated adhesion to modified protein. Inhibiting G(i/o) activation, which decreases initial SR-A-mediated cell attachment, did not prevent the subsequent spreading of attached cells. In contrast, inhibition of Src kinases or PI3-kinase abolished SR-A-dependent cell spreading without affecting SR-A-mediated cell attachment. Consistent with these results, the Src kinase Lyn and PI3-kinase were sequentially activated during SR-A-mediated cell spreading. Furthermore, activation of both Lyn and PI3-kinase was required for enhancing paxillin phosphorylation. Activation of a Src kinase-PI3-kinase-Akt pathway was also observed in cells expressing a truncated SR-A protein that does not internalize indicating that SR-A-mediated activation of intracellular signaling cascades following adhesion to MDA-BSA is independent of receptor internalization. Thus SR-A binding to modified protein activates signaling cascades that have distinct roles in regulating initial cell attachment and subsequent cell spreading.

  15. Regulating alternative lifestyles in entomopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason M; Kontnik, Renee; Clardy, Jon

    2010-01-12

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus participate in a trilateral symbiosis in which they enable their nematode hosts to parasitize insect larvae. The bacteria switch from persisting peacefully in a nematode's digestive tract to a lifestyle in which pathways to produce insecticidal toxins, degrading enzymes to digest the insect for consumption, and antibiotics to ward off bacterial and fungal competitors are activated. This study addresses three questions: (1) What molecular signal triggers antibiotic production in the bacteria? (2) What small molecules are regulated by the signal? And (3), how do the bacteria recognize the signal? Differential metabolomic profiling in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and Xenorhabdus nematophila revealed that L-proline in the insect's hemolymph initiates a metabolic shift. Small molecules known to be crucial for virulence and antibiosis in addition to previously unknown metabolites are dramatically upregulated by L-proline, linking the recognition of host environment to bacterial metabolic regulation. To identify the L-proline-induced signaling pathway, we deleted the proline transporters putP and proU in P. luminescens TT01. Studies of these strains support a model in which acquisition of L-proline both regulates the metabolic shift and maintains the bacterial proton motive force that ultimately regulates the downstream bacterial pathways affecting virulence and antibiotic production.

  16. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Methods Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results The overall therapeutic effects were mainly dentoalveolar and occurred mostly during the active treatment with Forsus (T2-T3, mean duration = 0.5 ± 0.1 years). The overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Conclusions Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome. PMID:24892027

  17. REDUCTION IN THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES WITH LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION OR METFORMIN

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors — elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, over-weight, and a sedentary lifestyle — are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. Methods We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. Results The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Conclusions Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin. PMID:11832527

  18. Health Promoting Lifestyle and its Determinants Among University Students in Sabzevar, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284

  19. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  20. Creating Classrooms of and for Activism at the Intersections of Class, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishida, Akemi; Fine, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors describe pedagogy which rests on commitments to solidarity, activism, and intersectional understandings of personhood and social (in)justices. The authors seek to create accessible classrooms where our many selves and critical consciousness can be in (dis)comforting conversation with one another. Then, they hope to…

  1. A Survey of Glutamine Synthetase Activities in Tissues from Three Classes of Fish.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    ammonia , enzyme, urea, brain, liver, kidney, gill, fish, salmon, herring, carp, catfish, hagfish, ratfish, dogfish, cod, stingray, Potarnotrygon,K... spleen , S; and spinal cord, SC. 4 Tissue activity, TA, is expressed in units per & tisue. Values below the lower limit of reliable detection, 1.5

  2. The Influence of the Sport Education Model on Amotivated Students' In-Class Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The Sport Education Model (SEM) was designed by Siedentop to provide students with a holistic sport-based experience. As research on the SEM continues, an aspect that has gained interest is the influence on (a) students with low levels of motivation and (b) opportunities to engage in health-enhancing levels of physical activity. The purpose of…

  3. Active Learning to Improve Presentation Skills: The Use of Pecha Kucha in Undergraduate Sales Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert E.; Derby, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Recruiters seek candidates with certain business skills that are not developed in the typical lecture-based classroom. Instead, active-learning techniques have been shown to be effective in honing these skills. One skill that is particularly important in sales careers is the ability to make a powerful and effective presentation. To help students…

  4. Inequity outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer M.; Putnam, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that shows that extracurricular activities help cultivate the skills, connections, and knowledge that prepare children for lifelong success. They add, however, that low-income students are increasingly being excluded from participating. Struggling with budget cuts and deficits, many school districts…

  5. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages.

  6. Viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC class I-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Bolanos, Fred D; Tripathy, Sandeep K

    2013-05-01

    Continuous engagement of the Ly49H activating receptor with its ligand (m157) in a transgenic mouse expressing m157 (m157-Tg) results in hyporesponsiveness of Ly49H(+) NK cells. The same interaction, during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, leads to activation of Ly49H(+) NK cells. MCMV infection results in decreased MHC class I (MHC-I) expression on the infected cell as well as inflammatory responses, both of which do not take place in the uninfected m157-Tg mouse, potentially allowing for activation of NK cells in the context of MCMV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC-I-independent mechanism. Furthermore, Ly49H(+) NK cells in an MHC-I-deficient environment remained hyporesponsive in the context of m157 expression, even when mature WT splenocytes were transferred into m157-Tg mice in an MHC-I-deficient environment. However, the administration of cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-β resulted in a partial recovery from activation receptor-induced hyporesponsiveness. Thus, the release of the aforementioned cytokines during MCMV infection and not the downregulation of MHC-I expression appears to be responsible for partial resolution of Ly49H receptor-induced NK cell hyporesponsiveness.

  7. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  8. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications.

  9. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:26729155

  10. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  11. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  12. Nurse provision of healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Kable, Ashley; James, Carole; Snodgrass, Suzanne; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Guest, Maya; Ashby, Samantha; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a regional area in Australia to measure nurses' perceptions, practices, and knowledge in regard to providing healthy lifestyle advice to people who are overweight or obese. Responses were compared between geographic regions. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Of the 79 nurse participants, 68% considered that provision of healthy lifestyle advice was within their scope of practice. Only 28% reported frequently estimating body mass index in the practice setting. Nurses often recommended increasing activity levels (44%), but recommended reducing daily caloric intake less often (25%). Nurses' knowledge about weight management was variable and the proportion of correct answers to knowledge items ranged from 33-99%. Nurses have many opportunities to deliver healthy lifestyle advice in a range of practice settings. The variation in practices and knowledge of nurses indicates a need for improved healthy lifestyle education for undergraduate and practicing nurses.

  13. Preconception and pregnancy: opportunities to intervene to improve women's diets and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Barker, M; Baird, J; Lawrence, W; Vogel, C; Stömmer, S; Rose, T; Inskip, H; Godfrey, K; Cooper, C

    2016-02-29

    Recently, large-scale trials of behavioural interventions have failed to show improvements in pregnancy outcomes. They have, however, shown that lifestyle support improves maternal diet and physical activity during pregnancy, and can reduce weight gain. This suggests that pregnancy, and possibly the whole periconceptional period, represents a 'teachable moment' for changes in diet and lifestyle, an idea that was made much of in the recent report of the Chief Medical Officer for England. The greatest challenge with all trials of diet and lifestyle interventions is to engage people and to sustain this engagement. With this in mind, we propose a design of intervention that aims simultaneously to engage women through motivational conversations and to offer access to a digital platform that provides structured support for diet and lifestyle change. This intervention design therefore makes best use of learning from the trials described above and from recent advances in digital intervention design.

  14. First-in-Class Inhibitors of Sulfur Metabolism with Bactericidal Activity against Non-Replicating M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Palde, Prakash B.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Pedrό Rosa, Laura E.; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Gupta, Vinayak; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Singh, Amit; Carroll, Kate S.

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective therapies to eradicate persistent, slowly replicating M. tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a significant challenge to controlling the global TB epidemic. To develop such therapies, it is imperative to translate information from metabolome and proteome adaptations of persistent Mtb into the drug discovery screening platforms. To this end, reductive sulfur metabolism is genetically and pharmacologically implicated in survival, pathogenesis, and redox homeostasis of persistent Mtb. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway are expected to serve as powerful tools in its preclinical and clinical validation as a therapeutic target for eradicating persisters. Here, we establish a first functional HTS platform for identification of APS reductase (APSR) inhibitors, a critical enzyme in the assimilation of sulfate for the biosynthesis of cysteine and other essential sulfur-containing molecules. Our HTS campaign involving 38 350 compounds led to the discovery of three distinct structural classes of APSR inhibitors. A class of bioactive compounds with known pharmacology displayed potent bactericidal activity in wild-type Mtb as well as MDR and XDR clinical isolates. Top compounds showed markedly diminished potency in a conditional ΔAPSR mutant, which could be restored by complementation with Mtb APSR. Furthermore, ITC studies on representative compounds provided evidence for direct engagement of the APSR target. Finally, potent APSR inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular levels of key reduced sulfur-containing metabolites and also induced an oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of live Mtb, thus providing functional validation of our screening data. In summary, we have identified first-in-class inhibitors of APSR that can serve as molecular probes in unraveling the links between Mtb persistence, antibiotic tolerance, and sulfate assimilation, in addition to their potential therapeutic value. PMID:26524379

  15. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  16. Structure--Antimicrobial Activity Relationship Comparing a New Class of Antimicrobials, Silanols, to Alcohols and Phenols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Hoekman D, Leo A, Zhang LT, Li P, "The Expanding Role of Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships ( QSAR ) in Toxicology ." Toxicol Lett 1995; 79: 45...partition coefficients (log P) and H-bond acidities (Continued on p. ii) Antimicrobial, Bacteria, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, QSAR , silanol U U U UU...Med Chem 1968; 11: 430–441. [9] Kubinyi H, QSAR : Hansch Analysis and Related Approaches. New York: VCH Publishers, 1993. [10] Kim Y, Farrah S

  17. A new class of furoxan derivatives as NO donors: mechanism of action and biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ferioli, R; Folco, G C; Ferretti, C; Gasco, A M; Medana, C; Fruttero, R; Civelli, M; Gasco, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The mechanism of action and biological activity of a series of R-substituted and di-R-substituted phenylfuroxans is reported. 2. Maximal potency as vasodilators on rabbit aortic rings, precontracted with noradrenaline (1 microM), was shown by phenyl-cyano isomers and by the 3,4-dicyanofuroxan, characterized by a potency ratio 3-10 fold higher than glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). This effect was reduced upon coincubation with methylene blue or oxyhaemoglobin (10 microM). 3. The furoxan derivatives showing maximal potency as vasodilators were also able to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range. 4. The furoxan derivatives were able to stimulate partially purified, rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase; among the most active compounds, the 3-R-substituted isomers displayed a higher level of stimulatory effect than the 4-R analogues. 5. Solutions (0.1 mM) of all the tested furoxans, prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, (diluting 10 mM DMSO stock solutions) did not release nitric oxide (NO) spontaneously; however in presence of 5 mM L-cysteine, a significant NO-releasing capacity was observed, which correlated significantly with their stimulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. PMID:7773542

  18. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  19. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  20. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  1. Exploring Weight and Lifestyle: Mexican Immigrant Men’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joseph; Powell, Jamie; Agne, April; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite interest in family-centered obesity and diabetes prevention programs for Latinos, few studies have assessed men’s perspectives on obesity-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to explore Mexican immigrant men’s perspectives regarding weight, diet, and physical activity as they relate to the individual and the family. Design and Sample This was a focus group study with a convenience sample of Mexican immigrant men (n=16). Measures A moderator’s guide was used to elicit perceptions of personal and family behaviors influencing weight, and lifestyle. Results Mean age of participants was 41 years (SD+/− 12.7), and 100% were born in Mexico. Mean time in Alabama was 8 years. Perceived benefits of a healthy weight included improved mobility and decreased morbidities. Perceived barriers to a healthy lifestyle included demanding work schedules and an environment not conducive to walking. Participants described immigration as having a negative impact on family unity and established meal structures. Conclusion Previous studies among Latinas cite husband resistance as a barrier to sustained diet and lifestyle change; however, men in this study voiced openness to programs for obesity and diabetes prevention. Future family-centered programs should engage men and promote communication within the family on common goals related to health and illness prevention. PMID:23078420

  2. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  3. [Dementia and lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese aging society].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the number of elderly patients with dementia has been increasing in Japan because of both the extension of average life expectancy and a considerable rise in the incidence of dementia with age. For these reasons, dementia in Japan has become common, and more than half of all cases are Alzheimer disease. This disease has typically been considered to be a degenerative disorder due to genetic abnormalities, but recent epidemiological studies have indicated that lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity in midlife could accelerate the dementing process, via either vascular changes in cerebral infarction or Alzheimer-related pathological changes with plaque and tangle formations which result in dementia in later life. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a high intake of vegetables and fish, an active daily life, and lifelong education might positively influence cognitive function as neuroprotective factors. Therefore, we should try to prevent dementia based on the clinical and hygienic management of the lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases, even in the youth.

  4. The Diversification of Evolutionarily Conserved MAPK Cascades Correlates with the Evolution of Fungal Species and Development of Lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuan; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Qian, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays an extraordinary diversity of lifestyles, developmental processes, and ecological niches. The MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade consists of interlinked MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK, and collectively such cascades play pivotal roles in cellular regulation in fungi. However, the mechanism by which evolutionarily conserved MAPK cascades regulate diverse output responses in fungi remains unknown. Here we identified the full complement of MAPK cascade components from 231 fungal species encompassing 9 fungal phyla. Using the largest data set to date, we found that MAPK family members could have two ancestors, while MAPKK and MAPKKK family members could have only one ancestor. The current MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK subfamilies resulted from duplications and subsequent subfunctionalization during the emergence of the fungal kingdom. However, the gene structure diversification and gene expansion and loss have resulted in significant diversity in fungal MAPK cascades, correlating with the evolution of fungal species and lifestyles. In particular, a distinct evolutionary trajectory of MAPK cascades was identified in single-celled fungi in the Saccharomycetes. All MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK subfamilies expanded in the Saccharomycetes; genes encoding MAPK cascade components have a similar exon–intron structure in this class that differs from those in other fungi. PMID:26957028

  5. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bisphosphonates for lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-11-01

    A lifestyle-related disease and osteoporosis are diseases to increase with aging and a lifestyle-related disease has an influence on the bone metabolism. Because the number of patients with lifestyle-related disease is getting larger, it is necessary to prevent fracture in those. Unfortunately, substantial randomized control studies are yet to be done in patients with lifestyle-related disease to clarify if anti-osteoporotic drugs are effective to prevent fractures. It is suggested by the subanalysis in the existing clinical study with usefulness of bisphosphonates with evidence as an osteoporotic therapeutic drug in life-related disease. Here I will review about the effective and problem with bisphosphonate for the lifestyle-related disease with arteriosclerosis.

  6. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  7. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  8. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women’s health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions. PMID

  9. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  10. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  11. Structural basis for enhancement of carbapenemase activity in the OXA-51 family of class D β- lactamases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Clyde A.; Antunes, Nuno Tiago; Stewart, Nichole K.; Frase, Hilary; Toth, Marta; Kantardjieff, Katherine A.; Vakulenko, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Class D β-lactamases of Acinetobacter baumannii are enzymes of the utmost clinical importance, producing resistance to last resort carbapenem antibiotics. Although the OXA-51-like enzymes constitute the largest family of class D β-lactamases, they are poorly studied and their importance in conferring carbapenem resistance is controversial. We present the detailed microbiological, kinetic and structural characterization of the eponymous OXA-51 β-lactamase. Kinetic studies show that OXA-51 has low catalytic efficiency for carbapenems, primarily due to the low affinity of the enzyme for these substrates. Structural studies demonstrate that this low affinity results from the obstruction of the enzyme active site by the side chain of Trp222 which presents a transient steric barrier to an incoming carbapenem substrate. The Trp222Met substitution relieves this steric hindrance and elevates the affinity of the mutant enzyme for carbapenems by 10-fold, significantly increasing the levels of resistance to these antibiotics. The ability of OXA-51 to evolve into a robust carbapenemase as the result of a single amino acid substitution may, in the near future, elevate the ubiquitous enzymes of the OXA-51 family to the status of the most deleterious A. baumannii carbapenemases, with dire clinical consequences. PMID:26042471

  12. The decision, implementation and assessment of a credit-bearing activity class by faculty in residence: A case study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff; Humphrey, Michael; Sielaff, Cala; Wintrow, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This case study reports on a programmatic decision to require a credit-bearing course that was made by Faculty in Residence (FIR), including its implementation and results over a two-year period from 2010-2012. The focus is on FIR and on the impact of their decision upon the students enrolled in their Living Learning Communities (LLCs). The credit-bearing course was a Kinesiology Activities class taken by all seven LLCs at Boise State University. Anonymous feedback from students was obtained via end of semester surveys; results were used to improve the course. Survey feedback was analyzed to assess the value students perceived to have gained from the course. The majority of students reported gaining value from the class. Students noted that it positively affected their time management/personal accountability, that it decreased their stress level and that it increased their awareness of the Recreational Center offerings. Some students were critical of the course, reporting little to no value or even resentment about the course requirement. The decision, implementation and improvements of the course required faculty leadership and full participation of all LLCs; perceptions of the FIR in terms of the effects of adding the required course on their LLC are reported.

  13. A new class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists with a novel binding epitope shows antidiabetic effects.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Tove; Svensson, Stefan; Selén, Göran; Uppenberg, Jonas; Thor, Markus; Sundbom, Maj; Sydow-Bäckman, Mona; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Jendeberg, Lena

    2004-09-24

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the NR1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. The PPARs play key roles in the control of glucose and lipid homeostasis, and the synthetic isoform-specific PPAR agonists are used clinically to improve insulin sensitivity and to lower serum triglyceride levels. All of the previously reported PPAR agonists form the same characteristic interactions with the receptor, which have been postulated to be important for the induction of agonistic activity. Here we describe a new class of PPARalpha/gamma modulators, the 5-substituted 2-benzoylaminobenzoic acids (2-BABAs). As shown by x-ray crystallography, the representative compounds BVT.13, BVT.762, and BVT.763, utilize a novel binding epitope and lack the agonist-characteristic interactions. Despite this, some compounds within the 2-BABA family are potent agonists in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Furthermore, BVT.13 displays antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice. We concluded that the 2-BABA binding mode can be used to design isoform-specific PPAR modulators with biological activity in vivo.

  14. P2X7 Receptor Activation Impairs Exogenous MHC Class I Oligopeptides Presentation in Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a potent molecule to activate CD8+ T cells and initiate immunity. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are present on the plasma membrane of APCs to sense the extracellular danger signal adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). P2X7R activates the inflammasome and the release of IL-1β in macrophages and other immune cells to initiate the inflammatory response. Here we show that P2X7R stimulation by ATP in APCs decreased the amount of MHC I at the plasma membrane. Specific antagonism or genetic ablation of P2X7R inhibited the effects of ATP on levels of cellular MHC I. Furthermore, P2X7R stimulation was able to inhibit activation of CD8+ T cells via specific MHC I-oligopeptide complexes. Our study suggests that P2X7R activation on APCs is a novel inhibitor of adaptive CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:23940597

  15. Characterization of the lymphocyte activation gene 3-encoded protein. A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), expressed in human activated T and natural killer (NK) cells, is closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein levels. We report here the initial characterization of the LAG-3-encoded protein. We have generated two monoclonal antibodies after immunization of mice with a 30-amino acid peptide that corresponds to an exposed extra loop region present in the LAG-3 immunoglobulin-like first domain. The reactivity of these reagents is directed against LAG-3 since they recognize both membrane-expressed and soluble recombinant LAG-3 molecules produced in a baculovirus expression system. The two antibodies are likely to react with the same or closely related epitope (termed LAG-3.1) exposed on the LAG-3 first domain extra loop, as assessed in competition experiments on LAG-3- expressing activated lymphocytes. Cellular distribution analysis indicated that the LAG-3.1 epitope is expressed on activated T (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets) and NK cells, and not on activated B cells or monocytes. In immunoprecipitation experiments performed on activated T and NK cell lysates, a 70-kD protein was detected after SDS-PAGE analysis. 45-kD protein species were also immunoprecipitated. Both the 70- and 45-kD proteins were shown to be N-glycosylated. In Western blot analysis, only the former molecule was recognized by the anti-LAG-3 antibodies, demonstrating that it is LAG-3 encoded. These anti-LAG-3 antibodies were used to investigate whether the LAG-3 protein interacts with the CD4 ligands. By using a high-level expression cellular system based on COS-7 cell transfection with recombinant CDM8 vectors and a quantitative cellular adhesion assay, we demonstrate that rosette formation between LAG-3-transfected COS-7 cells and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-bearing B lymphocytes is specifically dependent on LAG-3/HLA class II interaction. In contrast to CD4, LAG-3 does not bind the human immunodeficiency virus gp120. This initial

  16. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    PubMed

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  17. Overweight children and adolescents referred for weight management: are they meeting lifestyle behaviour recommendations?

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; Lenk, Julie M; Barbarich, Bobbi N; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Fishburne, Graham J; Mackenzie, Kelly A; Willows, Noreen D

    2008-10-01

    Adopting and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours can help overweight boys and girls manage their weight and reduce obesity-related health risks. However, we currently know very little about the lifestyle habits of overweight children and adolescents referred for weight management in Canada and whether or not they are meeting current lifestyle recommendations. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours of overweight children and adolescents referred for clinical weight management, and (ii) to examine sex (boys vs. girls) and (or) age (child vs. youth) differences with respect to the achievement of lifestyle behaviour recommendations. Overweight (age- and sex-specific body mass index > or = 85th percentile) children (n = 27 girls, n = 24 boys) and adolescents (n = 29 girls, n = 19 boys) were referred to and enrolled in weight-management programs at the Pediatric Centre for Weight and Health (PCWH) at the Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton, Alta.) from January 2006-September 2007. Information was collected at intake regarding demography, anthropometry, and lifestyle behaviours before participants started a formal weight-management program. Lifestyle behaviour recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and sleep were used to determine whether participants were meeting established guidelines. Overall, participants presented with poor lifestyle behaviours. Although most consumed adequate servings of grain products (93.9%) and meat and alternatives (68.7%), few met the serving recommendations for milk and alternatives (31.3%) or vegetables and fruit (14.1%). Physical activity levels were low - 7.4% and 4.1% achieved the recommended time and steps per day goals, respectively. Approximately 1/4 (22.7%) met the screen time recommendation, whereas fewer than 1/2 (47.4%) achieved the nightly sleep duration goal. Sex and age-group comparisons revealed subtle, but potentially important

  18. Synthesis of a new class of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines with antimitotic activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Tisi, Silvia; Primac, Irina; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Barraja, Paola

    2014-03-03

    A new series of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI₅₀ values reaching the low micromolar level (1.3-19.8 μM). These compounds were able to induce cell death mainly by apoptosis through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Selected compounds showed antimitotic activity and a reduction of tubulin polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they showed anti-angiogenic properties since reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted HUVEC capillary-like tube network in Matrigel.

  19. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jayesh; Chaudhari, S.; Sarkar, Prasanta K.

    2011-01-01

    Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed. PMID:22661838

  20. NEW CLASS OF VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMITTERS: RADIO-DARK MINI SHELLS SURROUNDING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Motoki; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Orienti, Monica

    2013-02-20

    We explore non-thermal emission from a shocked interstellar medium, which is identified as an expanding shell, driven by a relativistic jet in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this work, we particularly focus on parsec-scale size mini shells surrounding mini radio lobes. From the radio to X-ray band, the mini radio lobe emission dominates the faint emission from the mini shell. On the other hand, we find that inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the shell can overwhelm the associated lobe emission at the very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray range, because energy densities of synchrotron photons from the lobe and/or soft photons from the AGN nucleus are large and IC scattering works effectively. The predicted IC emission from nearby mini shells can be detected with the Cherenkov Telescope Array and they are potentially a new class of VHE {gamma}-ray emitters.