Science.gov

Sample records for active liquid wastes

  1. Feasibility study of the applicability of the activated sludge process to treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Akio; Nishimaki, Kenzo

    1997-12-31

    The authors used an activated sludge process to treat radioactive organic liquid waste. Organic liquid waste is difficult to treat by conventional radioactive liquid treatment processes, but in order to reduce long-term irradiation of the public the removal of radionuclides from such waste is preferable to dilution. Activated sludge processes are widely used for the biological treatment of sewage and are considered appropriate means for treating radioactive organic liquid waste. In this process, the fate of radionuclides eluted by treated water or immobilized by activated sludge, is extremely important for public safety and for the treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste. The authors performed uptake and desorption behavior experiments on the three short half-life radionuclides {sup 134}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 85}Sr, and used three nutritive types of artificial sewage as the feed solution. On the basis of the results, they discuss the uptake-desorption behavior of these radionuclides in an activated sludge process. The authors conclude that treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste by an activated sludge process is possible, but improvements must be made in the process if it is to be more effective.

  2. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: leaching and NMR multinuclear approach.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Martino, Delia Chillura; Caponetti, Eugenio; Armetta, Francesco; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈ 2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process--from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening--of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20%wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of TOT bonds (where T is Al or Si) by (29)Si and (27)Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for geopolymers containing high amounts of waste (10-20%wt). The results show the formation of a stable matrix after only 15 days independently on the waste amount introduced; the longer curing times increase the matrices stabilities and their ability to immobilize chromium cations. The maximum amount of waste that can be inertized is around 10 wt% after a curing time of 28 days.

  3. Determination of Interfacial Properties by Surface Active Impurities in an Organic Waste Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.; Demond, A. H.

    2001-12-01

    Wettability and interfacial tension play an important role in governing the transport and distribution of the organic contaminants in the vadose zone. Organic liquids, like waste tetrachloroethylene (PCE) or gasoline, contain surface active impurities that alter the interfacial properties and, in some cases, invert the wettability depending on the pH which is controlled by the geochemistry of the system. Most studies looking at interfacial property changes utilize a single surface active impurity, while this study seeks to understand the behavior of a binary surfactant system. Individually, octanoic acid (OA) does not alter the wettability of quartz since it exists only in a netural or anionic form and cannot sorb to the negatively charged quartz surface. Dodecylamine (DDA), in its cationic form, sorbs to quartz and changes the contact angle from 5¡V70 degree, but the surface remains weakly water wetting. However, a mixture of the two changes quartz to oil wet, giving a contact angle of up to 130 degree. Similarly, the interfacial tension decreases in the mixtures more than expected based on the individual behavior of the compounds. An anionic-cationic surfactant complex is proposed to account for the change. Evidence to support this species is based on comparing the equilibrium pH values of several OA/DDA aqueous solutions with the expected pH values assuming no mutual interaction. The discrepancy between these two sets of pH values suggests that a positive-charged surfactant complex forms that may sorb on quartz. Taken together, these data show the role of pH in the formation of a hydrophobic cationic-anionic surface-active complex, and point to the importance of the synergy between geochemistry and the surface-active solutes.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  5. [Distribution and activity of microorganisms in the deep repository for liquid radioactive waste at the Siberian Chemical Combine].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Luk'ianova, E A; Zakharova, E V; Ivoĭlov, V S; Poltaraus, A B; Kalmykov, S N; Beliaev, S S; Zubkov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions, composition of microbial communities, and the rates of anaerobic processes in the deep sandy horizons used as a repository for liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Tomsk oblast), were studied. Formation waters from the observation wells drilled into the production horizons of the radioactive waste disposal site were found to be inhabited by microorganisms of different physiological groups, including aerobic organotrophs, anaerobic fermentative, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The density of microbial population, as determined by cultural methods, was low and usually did not exceed 10(4) cells/ml. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of production horizons. The contemporary processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were assayed; the rates of these terminal processes of organic matter destruction were found to be low. The denitrifying bacteria from the underground repository were capable of reducing the nitrates contained in the wastes, provided sources of energy and biogenic elements were available. Biosorption of radionuclides by the biomass of aerobic bacteria isolated from groundwater was demonstrated. The results obtained give us insight into the functional structure of the microbial community inhabiting the waters of repository production horizons. This study indicates that the numbers and activity of microbial cells are low both inside and outside the zone of radioactive waste dispersion, in spite of the long period of waste discharge.

  6. [Distribution and activity of microorganisms in the deep repository for liquid radioactive waste at the Siberian Chemical Combine].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Luk'ianova, E A; Zakharova, E V; Ivoĭlov, V S; Poltaraus, A B; Kalmykov, S N; Beliaev, S S; Zubkov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions, composition of microbial communities, and the rates of anaerobic processes in the deep sandy horizons used as a repository for liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Tomsk oblast), were studied. Formation waters from the observation wells drilled into the production horizons of the radioactive waste disposal site were found to be inhabited by microorganisms of different physiological groups, including aerobic organotrophs, anaerobic fermentative, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The density of microbial population, as determined by cultural methods, was low and usually did not exceed 10(4) cells/ml. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of production horizons. The contemporary processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were assayed; the rates of these terminal processes of organic matter destruction were found to be low. The denitrifying bacteria from the underground repository were capable of reducing the nitrates contained in the wastes, provided sources of energy and biogenic elements were available. Biosorption of radionuclides by the biomass of aerobic bacteria isolated from groundwater was demonstrated. The results obtained give us insight into the functional structure of the microbial community inhabiting the waters of repository production horizons. This study indicates that the numbers and activity of microbial cells are low both inside and outside the zone of radioactive waste dispersion, in spite of the long period of waste discharge. PMID:17205810

  7. Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Hu, Lanfang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

    2011-03-01

    The use of sludge fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as an additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has drawn much attention recently as it can reuse sludge organics, reduce waste activated sludge production, and improve BNR performance. Our previous laboratory study had shown that the SCFA production was significantly enhanced by controlling sludge fermentation at pH 10 with NaOH. This paper focused on a pilot-scale study of alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge, separation of the fermentation liquid from the alkaline fermentation system, and application of the fermentation liquid to improve municipal biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) were used respectively to adjust the alkaline fermentation pH, and their effects on sludge fermentation and fermentation liquid separation were compared. The results showed that the use of Ca(OH)(2) had almost the same effect on SCFA production improvement and sludge volatile suspended solids reduction as that of NaOH, but it exhibited better sludge dewatering, lower chemical costs, and higher fermentation liquid recovery efficiency. When the fermentation liquids, adjusted with Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH respectively, were added continuously to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic municipal wastewater BNR system, both the nitrogen and phosphorus removals, compared with the control, were improved to the same levels. This was attributed to the increase of not only influent COD but also denitrifying phosphorus removal capability. It seems that the use of Ca(OH)(2) to control sludge fermentation at pH 10 for efficiently producing a carbon source for BNR is feasible.

  8. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  9. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  10. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOEpatents

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  11. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  12. Nano-TiO2 enhanced photofermentative hydrogen produced from the dark fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuxiao; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-10-01

    After anaerobic dark fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production, there are a large number of organic compounds including protein, polysaccharide, and volatile fatty acids left in the dark fermentation liquid, which can be further bioconverted to hydrogen by photofermentation techniquea. In this study, the enhancement of photofermentative hydrogen produced from WAS dark fermentation liquid by using nano-TiO2 is reported. First, high concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in the dark fermentation liquid was observed to inhibit the photofermentative hydrogen production, and its removal was essential. Then the effect of nano-TiO2 on photofermentative hydrogen generation was investigated, and the addition of 100 mg/L nano-TiO2 increased hydrogen by 46.1%. Finally, the mechanisms for nano-TiO2 improving hydrogen production were investigated. It was found that nano-TiO2 improved the decomposition of protein and polysaccharide to small-molecule organic compounds and promoted the growth of photosynthetic bacteria and the activity of nitrogenase but decreased the H2-uptake hydrogenase activity.

  13. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  14. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  15. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-01

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as `problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  16. Used powdex resin for liquid waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.J.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    Powdex resin has traditionally been used on the Secondary side for condensate polishing. The resins on these polishers are backwashed periodically based on chemical breakthrough or high differential pressure. Upon the backwash, the ion exchange capacity on the powdex resin is not completely exhausted. In the past, this partially used powdex resin was sluiced to a liner and treated as waste for disposal. In an effort to reduce radioactivity being released from segregated, high chemical concentration wastes, the idea of trying used powdex resin was initiated. In 1992, Duke Power Company began processing problem liquid waste streams with used Secondary powdex and subsequent decanting of the waste water for release. the results have shown significant reductions in the activity of this water. This paper will detail the history, method, and the results of using Secondary powdex for liquid radwaste processing. It will also describe the benefits, such as: (1) Processing waste streams not suitable for bead resin demineralizers. (2) Ability to process large volumes of waste water in a short period of time. (3) Recycling media thought to be useless. (4) > 80% Reduction in activity of water processed. (5) Overall curies reduction. (6) Improved bead demineralizer performance.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  18. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  19. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  20. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1997-03-01

    This annual report summarizes operating activities dealing with the process waste system, the liquid low-level waste system, and the gaseous waste system. It also describes upgrade activities dealing with the process and liquid low-level waste systems, the cathodic protection system, a stack ventilation system, and configuration control. Maintenance activities are described dealing with nonradiological wastewater treatment plant, process waste treatment plant and collection system, liquid low-level waste system, and gaseous waste system. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits/reviews/tours, and environmental restoration support.

  1. Treatability Variance for Containerised Liquids in Mixed Debris Waste - 12101

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, Catherine M.

    2012-07-01

    The TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC) is a Department of Energy facility whose mission is to receive and process for appropriate disposal legacy Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH) waste, including debris waste stored at various DOE Oak Ridge facilities. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) prepared for the waste characterizes the waste as mixed waste, meaning it is both radioactive and regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The AK also indicates that a number of the debris waste packages contain small amounts of containerised liquids. The documentation indicates liquid wastes generated in routine lab operations were typically collected for potential recovery of valuable isotopes. However, during activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), some containers with small amounts of liquids were placed into the waste containers with debris waste. Many of these containers now hold from 2.5 milliliters (ml) to 237 ml of liquid; a few contain larger volumes. At least some of these containers were likely empty at the time of generation, but documentation of this condition is lacking. Since WIPP compliant AK is developed on a waste stream basis, rather than an individual container basis, and includes every potential RCRA hazardous constituent within the waste stream, it is insufficient for the purpose of characterizing individual containers of liquid. Debris waste is defined in 40 CFR 268.2(g) as 'solid material exceeding a 60 mm particle size that is intended for disposal and that is: a manufactured object; or plant or animal matter; or natural geologic material'. The definition further states that intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured and that retain at least 75% of their original volume are not debris. The prescribed treatment is removal of intact containers from the debris waste, and treatment of their contents to meet specific Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards. This is true for

  2. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents details about the operation of the liquid and gaseous waste department of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the calendar year 1994. Topics discussed include; process waste system, upgrade activities, low-level liquid radioactive waste solidification project, maintenance activities, and other activities such as training, audits, and tours.

  3. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  4. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  5. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  6. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses work at the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department of ORNL. An operating summary, upgrade activities and maintenance activities are presented for the Process Waste Treatment Plant, Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, and Runoff Treatment Facility.

  7. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  8. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  9. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  10. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  11. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  12. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  13. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  14. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  15. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  16. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  17. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document.

  18. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  2. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  3. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R&D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  4. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M. ); Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R. ); King, R.B. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  5. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    COZZI, ALEX

    2004-02-18

    At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

  7. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  8. A Canadian Solution for Management of Mixed Liquid Waste - 13384

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayan, Sriram; Husain, Aamir

    2013-07-01

    Mixed liquid wastes (MLW) from Canadian nuclear facilities consist of solvents, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous wastes. Historically, MLW drums were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, commercial waste destruction facilities in US cannot accept PCB wastes from non-US jurisdictions. Because of this, Kinectrics has recently developed a novel and flexible process for disposing both PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated MLW within Canada. This avoids the need for cross-border shipments which significantly reduces the complexity and cost for waste disposal. This paper presents an overview of the various approaches and activities undertaken to date by Kinectrics for successfully processing and disposing the MLW drums. A summary of the results, challenges and how they were overcome are also presented. (authors)

  9. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  10. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  11. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  12. Liquid effluent services and solid waste disposal interface control document

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-10-27

    This interface control document between Liquid Effluent Services (LES) and Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) establishes the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. The document includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities. The interface control document also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the Liquid Effluent Services and Solid Waste divisions.

  13. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  14. Liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-03-11

    The performance of liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning is examined for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Program currently under study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Centrifugation might have application for the separation of the LiF-BeF{sub 2} salt from heavier radioactive materials fission product and actinides in the separation of fission product from actinides, in the isotope separation of fission-product cesium before transmutation of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 135}Cs, and in the removal of spallation product from the liquid lead target. It is found that useful chemical separations should be possible using existing materials for the centrifuge construction for all four cases with the actinide fraction in fission product perhaps as low as 1 part in 10{sup 7} and the fraction of {sup 137}CS in {sup 133}Cs being as low as a few parts in 10{sup 5}. A centrifuge cascade has the advantage that it can be assembled and operated as a completely closed system without a waste stream except that associated with maintenance or replacement of centrifuge components.

  15. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  16. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  17. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  18. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  19. Functional requirements for the Liquid Waste Transfer and Distribution Station at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Tulay, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    A new facility will be constructed near the Bethel Valley storage tanks to receive process waste liquids generated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory during closure activities at Waste Area Grouping 6. The facility will unload trucks and distribute the liquid waste to other treatment facilities. It will be able to handle eight 5000-gal transfers per 8-h shift. No waste categorized as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or liquid low-level is expected, but is such waste is encountered, it will cause transfer rate restrictions.

  20. Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.W.

    1981-05-01

    During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

  1. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  2. Declassification of radioactive liquid wastes generated in radio immune assay [corrected] (RIA) laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sancho, M; Arnal, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Campayo, J M; Verdú, G

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes of low-medium activity level are generated in radio immune assay (RIA) laboratories, which are also potentially infectious because of the pathogens from patient blood. The most common way of managing these wastes consists of a temporal storage, for partial radioactivity decay, followed by management by an authorised company. The object of this work is to study the viability of treating radioactive liquid wastes coming from RIA using membrane techniques in order to reduce their volume, which would mean an improvement from the radiological point of view and a decrease in management costs. This paper describes the results of some experiments carried out with RIA real wastes, by means of processes such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. It has been proved that waste volume can be significantly reduced, obtaining a treated liquid that is free of pathogens and organic matter and with an activity level around the environmental background.

  3. Declassification of radioactive liquid wastes generated in radio immune assay [corrected] (RIA) laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sancho, M; Arnal, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Campayo, J M; Verdú, G

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes of low-medium activity level are generated in radio immune assay (RIA) laboratories, which are also potentially infectious because of the pathogens from patient blood. The most common way of managing these wastes consists of a temporal storage, for partial radioactivity decay, followed by management by an authorised company. The object of this work is to study the viability of treating radioactive liquid wastes coming from RIA using membrane techniques in order to reduce their volume, which would mean an improvement from the radiological point of view and a decrease in management costs. This paper describes the results of some experiments carried out with RIA real wastes, by means of processes such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. It has been proved that waste volume can be significantly reduced, obtaining a treated liquid that is free of pathogens and organic matter and with an activity level around the environmental background. PMID:16604690

  4. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  5. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  6. EFFECT OF LIQUID TO SOLID RATIO ON LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause significant damage to the environment an human health. A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behav...

  7. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  8. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  10. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  11. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-12-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.

  12. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  13. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  14. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  15. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  16. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  18. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  19. Perspectives in active liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M.; Virga, Epifanio G.

    2014-01-01

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour. PMID:25332386

  20. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces

  1. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  3. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate.

    PubMed

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14+/-1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85+/-0.19 million t representing 37.22+/-6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  4. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  5. [The investigation of the composition of liquid radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Suslov, A V; Suslova, I N; Bagiian, A; Leonov, V V; Kapustin, V K

    2008-01-01

    In investigation the process of composition sediment of liquid unorganic radioactive waste, that are forming in cistern-selectors at PNPI RAS, it was discovered apart from great quantity of ions of different metals and radionuclides considerable maintenance of organic material (to 30% and more from volume of sediment) unknown origin. A supposition was made about its microbiological origin. Investigation shows, that the main microorganisms, setting this sediment, are the bacterious of Pseudomonas kind, capable of effectively bind in process of grow the radionuclide 90Sr, that confirms the potential posibility of using this microorganisms for bioremediation of liquid low radioactive wastes (LRW).

  6. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  7. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  8. LANL Waste acceptance criteria, Chapter 3, radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, Robert L.

    2006-08-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives and treats aqueous radioactive wastewater generated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to meet he discharge criteria specified in a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The majority of this wastewater is received at the RL WTF through a network of buried pipelines, known as the Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System (RLWCS). Other wastewater is transported to the RL WTF by truck. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) outlined in this Chapter are applicable to all radioactive wastewaters which are conveyed to the Technical Area 50(T A-50), RL WTF by the RL WCS or by truck.

  9. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  10. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  11. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  12. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  13. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  14. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  15. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  16. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.217 What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and... product wastes) likely to be generated by your proposed exploration activities. Describe: (1) The...

  17. Handling of liquid radioactive wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, B.V.

    1995-10-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)

  18. Savannah River Site, Liquid Waste Program, Savannah River Remediation American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Benefits and Lessons Learned - 12559

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Mark A.; Crouse, Thomas N.

    2012-07-01

    Utilizing funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River site successfully executed forty-one design, procurement, construction, and operating activities in the period from September 2009 through December 2011. Project Management of the program included noteworthy practices involving safety, integrated project teams, communication, and cost, schedule and risk management. Significant upgrades to plant capacity, progress toward waste tank closure and procurement of needed infrastructure were accomplished. Over 1.5 million hours were worked without a single lost work day case. Lessons Learned were continually identified and applied to enhance the program. Investment of Recovery Act monies into the Liquid Waste Program has ensured continued success in the disposition of radioactive wastes and the closure of high level waste tanks at SRS. The funding of a portion of the Liquid Waste Program at SRS by ARRA was a major success. Significant upgrades to plant capacity, progress toward waste tank closure and procurement of needed infrastructure was accomplished. Integrated Project Teams ensured quality products and services were provided to the Operations customers. Over 1.5 million hours were worked without a single lost work day case. Lessons Learned were continually reviewed and reapplied to enhance the program. Investment of Recovery Act monies into the Liquid Waste Program has ensured continued success in the disposition of radioactive wastes and the closure of high level waste tanks at SRS. (authors)

  19. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  20. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  2. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  3. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  4. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1993-09-01

    In 1943 the Hanford Site was chosen as a location for the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. The 100-N Area at Hanford was used from 1963 to 1987 for a dual-purpose, plutonium production and steam generation reactor and related operational support facilities (Diediker and Hall 1987). In November 1989, the reactor was put into dry layup status. During operations, chemical and radioactive wastes were released into the area soil, air, and groundwater. The 1325-N LWDF was constructed in 1983 to replace the 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility (1301-N LWDF). The two facilities operated simultaneously from 1983 to 1985. The 1301-N LWDF was retired from use in 1985 and the 1325-N LWDF continued operation until April 1991, when active discharges to the facility ceased. Effluent discharge to the piping system has been controlled by administrative means. This report discusses ground water contamination resulting from the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal facility.

  5. A supported polymeric liquid membrane process for removal of carboxylic acids from a waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.V.

    1999-12-31

    The removal or elimination of organic residues from aqueous waste streams represents a major need in the chemical industry. The authors have developed a new class of membrane called supported polymeric liquid membranes that are capable of removing and concentrating low molecular weight organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions, especially those that also contain high concentrations of inorganic salts. Attractive features of this membrane process include the ability to recover the contaminants in concentrated form for either recycle or more economical disposal, low pressure (ambient) operation, simple scale-up using commercial hollow fiber modules, and ease of in-situ regeneration of the polymeric liquid. The process has shown treatment feasibility for several types of aqueous waste streams. This paper describes the laboratory development activities for treating a waste stream containing a dilute mixture of C2-C6 carboxylic acids and nitric acid.

  6. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  7. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  8. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    PubMed

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength.

  9. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  10. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.

  11. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  12. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Low-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    L. E. Lagos; M. A. Ebadian

    1998-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a data collection containing values for the dielectric properties of various low-level liquid waste (LLLW) simulants measured as a function of frequency, temperature, and composition. The investigation was motivated by current interest in the use of microwave processing for the treatment of radioactive waste. A large volume of transuranic liquid and sludge produced by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) during the production of nuclear fiel bars is stored at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites around the United States. Waste storage and disposal space is scarce, expensive, and must be minimized. Thus, several DOE sites are pursuing the use of microwave heating as a means of achieving volume reduction and solidification of low-level liquid wastes. It is important to know which microwave frequencies should be employed tc achieve the most efficient processing at a range of different temperatures. The dielectric properties of the LLLW simulants can be utilized to determine the optimum frequencies for use with a particular LLLW or with other LLLWS of similar composition. Furthermore, nonlinear thermal processes, such as thermal runaway, which occur in the material being treated cannot be modeled without a knowledge of the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties. Often, this data does not exist; however, when it does, only very limited data near room temperature are available. The data collection generated in this study can be used to predict the behavior of a variety of microwave thermal treatment technologies, which have the potential of substantially reducing the volume of the LLLWS that are currently stored at many DOE sites. This information should help the users of the microwave reduction and solidification technology to optimize microwave processes used in the treatment of LLLW. The microwave reduction and solidification technology has clear advantages over other methods of reducing LLLWS. These

  14. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network. PMID:26542394

  15. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network.

  16. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories.

  17. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. PMID:26089188

  18. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  19. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  1. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  2. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E.

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  3. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (<100 NTU) by sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process.

  4. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  5. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  6. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report.

  7. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined.

  8. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined. PMID:18524482

  9. Nuclear waste isolation activities report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Included are: a report from the Deputy Assistant Secretary, a summary of recent events, new literature, a list of upcoming waste management meetings, and background information on DOE`s radwaste management programs. (DLC)

  10. Annual waste reduction activities report. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-18

    This report discusses the waste minimization activities for the Pinellas Plant. The Pinellas Plant deals with low-level radioactive wastes, solvents, scrap metals and various other hazardous materials. This program has realized cost savings through recycling and reuse of materials.

  11. Characterization of low-level liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Clark, B.R.; Scott, C.B.; Berry, J.B.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates existing data on samples taken from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLW) system. Although the primary focus is on the contents of the eight 50,000-gal Melton Valley Storage Tanks, data on raw LLW from the source facilities, Evaporator Service Tanks, and past operations involving the Gunite Storage Tanks are also included. A brief overview of the ORNL LLW system is provided. Methods of sample collection and analytical procedures are described. Data from each set of samples are reported and evaluated against criteria for classification of wastes. The quality and self-consistency of the data set are also discussed. Issues ranging from classifying as transuranic or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste to providing input for dose-rate calculations and evaluations of chemical compatibility with potential processing options are discussed. Remaining data voids are identified, and activities for filling those voids are recommended. 13 figs., 41 tabs.

  12. Residual of 17beta-estradiol in digestion liquid generated from a biogas plant using livestock waste.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kubota, A; Furukawa, T; Sugamoto, K; Asano, Y; Takahashi, H; Sekito, T; Dote, Y; Sugimoto, Y

    2009-06-15

    A biogas plant using livestock waste in which a methane fermentation process is applied is a useful facility for generating energy. The digestion liquid generated from the biogas plant as a residue has high potential for use as a crop fertilizer. However, high-density estrogens such as 17beta-estradiol (E2) are included in livestock waste, and there is little information on the behavior of E2 in the digestion liquid. In this study, a survey of E2 concentration at each process in a biogas plant using livestock waste was carried out. In addition, the efficiencies of E2 removal from the digestion liquid by activated carbon adsorption and soil infiltration were examined. The total concentration of E2 in raw livestock waste was reduced to 2 microg/l after treatment, and the removal efficiency of E2 was about 80% for the plant. The methane fermentation process is important not only for the generation of methane but also for the removal of E2. The proportion of E2 conjugates comprising the total E2 concentration was 10% or less in all treated samples. In the plant, there is no likelihood of an increase in estrogen activity by the cleaving of E2 conjugates. By carrying out activated carbon adsorption to remove E2 from the digestion liquid, a large portion of E2 was removed from the digestion liquid, but an E2 concentration of 0.5 microg/l still remained in the treated digestion liquid. In contrast, it was possible to purify the digestion liquid to an E2 concentration of less than 0.002-0.011 microg/l by soil infiltration. It is thus possible to utilize the digestion liquid as a fertilizer without causing aquatic environmental pollution, but factors such as application rate, soil characteristics, and the E2 concentration of digestion liquid should be considered first.

  13. Incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes by underwater thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, M.; Lemont, F.; Baronnet, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes using an oxygen thermal plasma jet, submerged under water. The results presented here are focused on incineration of three different wastes: a mixture of tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane, a perfluoropolyether oil (PFPE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). To evaluate the plutonium behavior in used TBP/dodecane incineration, zirconium is used as a surrogate of plutonium; the method to enrich TBP/dodecane mixture in zirconium is detailed. Experimental set-up is described. During a trial run, CO2 and CO contents in the exhaust gas are continuously measured; samples, periodically taken from the solution, are analyzed by appropriate chemical methods: contents in total organic carbon (COT), phosphorus, fluoride and nitrates are measured. Condensed residues are characterized by RX diffraction and SEM with EDS. Process efficiency, during tests with a few L/h of separated or mixed wastes, is given by mineralization rate which is better than 99.9 % for feed rate up to 4 L/h. Trapping rate is also better than 99 % for phosphorous as for fluorine and chlorine. Those trials, with long duration, have shown that there is no corrosion problems, also the hydrogen chloride and fluoride have been neutralized by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate.

  14. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  16. Properties required by extractants and diluents for the decontamination of liquid wastes using supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.

    1993-12-31

    Macrocyclic extractants are now being studied more and more often for the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes: coronands (crown ethers, azacrown...) and cryptands. As these very sophisticated compounds are expensive, the best technique is supported liquid membranes which need a very low extractant inventory. This paper deals with the properties required by the extractant and the diluent in order to be used in an SLM device and to ensure a stable and efficient SLM: solubility of the extractant in organic compounds and in aqueous solutions; size of crown ether cavities; influence of the substituent groups on the selectivity of the crown ether; and influence of the properties of the diluent (polarity, transport of acidity) on the efficiency of the process and on the stability of the membrane (interfacial tension between the organic and aqueous phases, solubility in the aqueous phase). The influence of these parameters is illustrated by experiments performed in order to remove strontium and cesium from high sodium content liquid waste. The studies described in this paper are focused on the decategorization of evaporator concentrates arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

  17. Waste handling activities in glovebox dismantling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio; Yoshino, Masanori; Hirano, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The Glovebox Dismantling Facility is a facility to decontaminate and size-reduce after-service gloveboxes in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The wastes generated from these dismantling activities are simultaneously handled and packaged into drums in a bag-out manner. For future waste treatment and disposal, these wastes are separated into material categories. In this paper, we present the basic steps and analyzed data for the waste handling activities. The data were collected from dismantling activities for three gloveboxes (Grinding Pellet Glovebox, Visual Inspection Glovebox, Outer-diameter Screening Glovebox) conducted from 2001-2004. We also describe both current and near-future improvements. (authors)

  18. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient.

  19. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  20. A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located in vicinity of TAN-616, hot liquid waste treatment plant. Date: November 13, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9159 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.

  2. Investigation and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems for the removal of pertechnetate from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansle, Kristina Marie Rohal

    1998-11-01

    The solvent extraction behavior of perrhenate (ReO 4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4- ) from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants was examined using the anion-exchange reagent Aliquat-336 nitrate. The extraction tendencies of ReO 4- followed those of TcO4- from both acidic and basic media, demonstrating that ReO4 - was a suitable nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4 -. For ICP-AES analysis of Re in high salt solutions, a V-groove nebulizer and 1:1 dilution of the sample and standards with 0.1% Triton X-100 surfactant reduced deposition of solids within the sample introduction system, thus minimizing memory effects. A new approach to waste remediation technology, Redox-Recyclable Extraction and Recovery (R2ER), was also studied. The redox-active species 1,1',3,3'-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene (HEP) was oxidized to its cationic form for extraction of TcO4 - or ReO4- from aqueous waste and reduced to its neutral form for recovery of the anion. The thermodynamics of liquid-liquid interfacial electron transfer for the oxidation/activation of HEP were shown to be controlled by three factors: the reduction potentials of the redox-active species in the aqueous and organic phases and the transfer of an ion across the liquid-liquid interface. The deactivation/reduction rate of HEP+NO3- by iron was affected by organic solvent diluent and improved by treating the iron with hexanes and 1 M HCl. The volume of solid secondary-waste in the R2ER cycle was reduced by a factor of 3000. In complete extraction/recovery cycles, HEP+NO3- in 2-nonanone removed greater than 99% TcO4- from the 101-SY, 103-SY, 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH/1.5 M NaNO3 Hanford Tank waste simulants. Another redox-active extractant, bis(hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borato)iron(III) nitrate (FeTp2+NO3-), was also selective for ReO4- remediation from simulated aqueous waste. Organic solutions of the alkyl substituted ferricenium extractants were not stable in the presence of nucleophilic anions and/or reducing agents. HEP+NO3

  3. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  4. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.C.; Sliger, G.J.

    1981-03-09

    This document is tabulated quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive liquid wastes that have been discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas. In addition to data for 1980, cumulative data since plant startup are presented. Also in this document is a listing of decayed activity to the various plant sites. An overall summary is presented giving the radioactive liquid waste discharged to the ground during the current year of 1980 and since startup (for both total and decayed depositions) with the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) control zone (200 Area plateau). Overall summaries are also presented for 200 East and for 200 West Area. The data contain an estimate of the radioactivity discharged to individual periods: (1) all four quarters of 1980; and (2) from startup through December 31, 1980. The location and reference drawings of each disposal site, and the usage dates of each disposal site are given. The estimates for the radioactivity discharged to the ponds also include major nonradioactive streams. The waste discharged during 1980 to each active disposal site is detailed on a month-to-month basis along with the monthly maximum concentration and average concentration data.

  5. Treatment requirements for decontamination of ORNL low-level liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.

    1991-10-01

    Experimental studies have been made to provide data for the development of improved processes for decontaminating low-level liquid wastes (LLLWs) that exist and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The concept underlying this work is that there is a net benefit if the major radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and actinides) can be separated into small volumes, thereby reducing the activity of the bulk of the waste so that it can be disposed of or managed at a lower total cost. Data-base calculations on the LLLW supernate and sludges contained in the active Melton Valley Storage Tanks and evaporator storage and service tanks are essential in order to define and determine the extent of the problem. These calculations indicate to what extent alpha- and beta-gamma-emitting radionuclides must be removed and/or treated before final disposition of the waste can be made. They also show that many of the inorganic constitutents (e.g., regulated metals and nitrate) and minor radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and actinides (in terms of quantity present) must be removed before the LLLW can be disposed of as either liquid to the environment or solidified and disposed of as solid NUS Class L-1 or L-2 LLW. 25 refs., 31 tabs.

  6. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  7. Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

  8. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  9. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10{sup 6} and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > {approximately}11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH {approximately}13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was {approximately}12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  11. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  12. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  13. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinhui Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili

    2009-07-15

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

  14. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges... (dpp) and Development Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.248 What solid and liquid wastes... following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...

  15. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  16. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  17. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  18. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation.

  19. Performance Assessment Program for the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Facilities - 13610

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Kent H.

    2013-07-01

    The Liquid Waste facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are operated by Liquid Waste Operations contractor Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR). A separate Performance Assessment (PA) is prepared to support disposal operations at the Saltstone Disposal Facility and closure evaluations for the two liquid waste tank farm facilities at SRS, F-Tank Farm and H-Tank Farm. A PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified in operations and closure regulatory guidance. The Saltstone Disposal Facility is subject to a State of South Carolina industrial solid waste landfill permit and the tank farms are subject to a state industrial waste water permit. The three Liquid Waste facilities are also subject to a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Due to the regulatory structure, a PA is a key technical document reviewed by the DOE, the State of South Carolina and the EPA. As the waste material disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility and the residual material in the closed tank farms is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also a reviewing agency for the PAs. Pursuant to the Act, the NRC also has a continuing role to monitor disposal actions to assess compliance with stated performance objectives. The Liquid Waste PA program at SRS represents a continual process over the life of the disposal and closure operations. When the need for a PA or PA revision is identified, the first step is to develop a conceptual model to best represent the facility conditions. The conceptual model will include physical dimensions of the closed system, both the engineered and natural system, and modeling

  20. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1980-03-06

    An overall summary is presented giving the radioactive liquid waste discharged to the ground during the current year of 1979 and since startup (for both total and decayed depositions) with the Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) control zone (200 Area plateau). Overall summaries are also presented for 200 East and for 200 West Area. The data contains an estimate of the radioactivity discharged to individual ponds, cribs and specific retention sites during the following periods: (1) All four quarters of 1979; and (2) from startup through December 31, 1979. The location and reference drawings of each disposal site, and the usage dates of each disposal site are given. The estimates for the radioactivity discharged to the ponds also include major nonradioactive streams. The waste discharged during 1979 to each active disposal site is detailed on a month-to-month basis, along with the monthly maximum concentration and average concentration data.

  1. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  2. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  3. Microbiology of formation waters from the deep repository of liquid radioactive wastes Severnyi.

    PubMed

    Nazina, Tamara N; Kosareva, Inessa M; Petrunyaka, Vladimir V; Savushkina, Margarita K; Kudriavtsev, Evgeniy G; Lebedev, Valeriy A; Ahunov, Viktor D; Revenko, Yuriy A; Khafizov, Robert R; Osipov, George A; Belyaev, Sergey S; Ivanov, Mikhail V

    2004-07-01

    The presence, diversity, and geochemical activity of microorganisms in the Severnyi repository of liquid radioactive wastes were studied. Cultivable anaerobic denitrifiers, fermenters, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens were found in water samples from a depth of 162-405 m below sea level. Subsurface microorganisms produced methane from [2-(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]CO(2), formed hydrogen sulfide from Na(2) (35)SO(4), and reduced nitrate to dinitrogen in medium with acetate. The cell numbers of all studied groups of microorganisms and rates of anaerobic processes were higher in the zone of dispersion of radioactive wastes. Microbial communities present in the repository were able to utilise a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and components of waste (acetate, nitrate, and sulfate) both aerobically and anaerobically. Bacterial production of gases may result in a local increase of the pressure in the repository and consequent discharge of wastes onto the surface. Microorganisms can indirectly decrease the mobility of radionuclides due to consumption of oxygen and production of sulfide, which favours deposition of metals. These results show the necessity of long-term microbiological and radiochemical monitoring of the repository.

  4. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  5. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  6. Getters for Tc and I Removal from Liquid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Lawter, A.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental waste form for the low activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site, which contains significant amounts of radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to decrease the rate of contaminant release and diffusivity, and improve Cast Stone performance. A series of kinetic batch sorption experiments was performed to determine the effectiveness of the getter materials. Several Tc getters [blast furnace slag, Sn (II) apatite, SnCl2, nanoporous Sn phosphate, KMS-2 (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and Sn(II) hydroxyapatite] and I getters [layered Bi hydroxide, natural argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, Ag-impregnated carbon, and Ag-exchanged zeolite] were tested in different solution media, 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a caustic LAW waste simulant containing 6.5 M Na or 7.8 M Na. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in the presence or absence of air. Results indicated that most Tc getters (with the exception of KMS-2) performed better in the DI H2O solution than in the 6.5 and 7.8 M Na LAW simulant. In addition, Tc sequestration may be affected by the presence of other redox sensitive elements that were present in the LAW simulant, such as Cr. The Tc getter materials have been examined through various solid-state characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM/EDS, XANES and EXAFS which provided evidence for plausible mechanisms of aqueous Tc removal. The results indicated that the Tc precipitates differ depending on the getter material and that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) in most of the getters but to a differing extents. For the I getters, Ag-exchanged zeolite and synthetic argentite were the most effective ones. The other I getters showed limited effectiveness for sorbing I under the high ionic strength and caustic

  7. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  8. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  9. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-07-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  10. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  11. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  12. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  13. Disposal of Liquid Wastes from Parlors and Milkhouses. Special Circular 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of liquid wastes from parlors and milkhouses. Approaches to resolving problems through stabilization lagoons, irrigation, and tank collection as mandated in statutory authority are discussed. (CS)

  14. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616) under construction. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616) under construction. Camera facing northeast. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9232 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616). Interior of evaporator control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616). Interior of evaporator control room. Date: 1962. INEEL negative no. 62-6824 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  17. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission.

  18. Mixed incineration of RAIW and liquid scintillator waste after storage for decay

    SciTech Connect

    Naba, K.; Nakazato, K.; Kataoka, K.; Imao, K.

    1993-12-31

    Most medical radioactive waste is combustible after radioactive decay. Moreover mixed incineration of LLW with biomedical radioactive waste will lessen radiation exposure to the public. This paper describes the total system flowsheet for the processing of liquid scintillator wastes and radioimmunoassay tube wastes containing iodine 125 (after a two-year storage for decay). The process was tested with a 60 kg/hr capacity incinerator from 1987 to 1991; this has been upgraded to a 150 kg/hr incinerator which is used for nonradioactive biomedical waste incineration as well.

  19. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  1. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    PubMed

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169

  3. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  4. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-03-28

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

  5. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System.

  6. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, Timothy K.; Sherbine, Catherine A.

    1994-01-01

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  7. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  8. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

  9. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  10. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  11. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1995-03-31

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

  12. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States' first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  13. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States` first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    SciTech Connect

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity.

  15. Subsurface injection of liquid waste with emphasis on injection practices in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Vecchioli, John

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface injection of liquid waste is used as a disposal method in many parts of the country. It is used particularly when other methods for managing liquid waste are either not possible or too costly. Interest in subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method stems partly from recognition that surface disposal of liquid waste may establish a potential for degrading freshwater resources. Where hydrogeologic conditions are suitable and where surface disposal may cause contamination, subsurface injection is considered an attractive alternative for waste disposal. Decisions to use subsurface injection need to be made with care because, where hydrogeologic conditions are not suitable for injection, the risk to water resources, particularly ground water, could be great. Selection of subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method requires thoughtful deliberation and, in some instances, extensive data collection and analyses. Subsurface injection is a geological method of waste disposal. Therefore, many State and local governmental officials and environmentally concerned citizens who make decisions about waste-disposal alternatives may know little about it. This report serves as an elemental/guide to subsurface injection and presents subsurface injection practices in Florida as an example of how one State is managing injection.

  16. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia.

  17. Data on subsurface storage of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida, 1963-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hull, R.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1963, when industrial waste was first injected into the subsurface in northwest Florida, considerable data have been collected relating to the geochemistry of subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface storage systems near Pensacola, Fla., which inject liquid industrial waste through deep wells into a saline aquifer. Injection sites are described giving a history of well construction, injection, and testing; geologic data from cores and grab samples; hydrographs of injection rates, volume, pressure, and water levels; and chemical and physical data from water-quality samples collected from injection and monitor wells. (USGS)

  18. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  19. Removal of BrO₃⁻ from drinking water samples using newly developed agricultural waste-based activated carbon and its determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad R; ALOthman, Zeid A; AlSohaimi, Ibrahim; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Turki, Turki M; Ali, Rahmat

    2015-10-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from date pits via chemical activation with H3PO4. The effects of activating agent concentration and activation temperature on the yield and surface area were studied. The optimal activated carbon was prepared at 450 °C using 55 % H3PO4. The prepared activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area. The prepared date pit-based activated carbon (DAC) was used for the removal of bromate (BrO3 (-)). The concentration of BrO3 (-) was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass tandem spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The experimental equilibrium data for BrO3 (-) adsorption onto DAC was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and showed maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 25.64 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetics of BrO3 (-) adsorption was very well represented by the pseudo-first-order equation. The analytical application of DAC for the analysis of real water samples was studied with very promising results.

  20. Removal of BrO₃⁻ from drinking water samples using newly developed agricultural waste-based activated carbon and its determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad R; ALOthman, Zeid A; AlSohaimi, Ibrahim; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Turki, Turki M; Ali, Rahmat

    2015-10-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from date pits via chemical activation with H3PO4. The effects of activating agent concentration and activation temperature on the yield and surface area were studied. The optimal activated carbon was prepared at 450 °C using 55 % H3PO4. The prepared activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area. The prepared date pit-based activated carbon (DAC) was used for the removal of bromate (BrO3 (-)). The concentration of BrO3 (-) was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass tandem spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The experimental equilibrium data for BrO3 (-) adsorption onto DAC was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and showed maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 25.64 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetics of BrO3 (-) adsorption was very well represented by the pseudo-first-order equation. The analytical application of DAC for the analysis of real water samples was studied with very promising results. PMID:26040265

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  2. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  3. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  4. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  5. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  6. Assessment of Tank 241-S-112 Liquid Waste Mixing in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Trent, Donald S.; Wells, Beric E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mixing of liquid waste from Tank 241-S-112 with waste in Tank 241-SY-101 and to determine the properties of the resulting waste for the cross-site transfer to avoid potential double-shell tank corrosion and pipeline plugging. We applied the time-varying, three-dimensional computer code TEMPEST to Tank SY-101 as it received the S-112 liquid waste. The model predicts that temperature variations in Tank SY-101 generate a natural convection flow that is very slow, varying from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} ft/sec (0.3 to about 4 ft/hr) in most areas. Thus, natural convection would eventually mix the liquid waste in SY-101 but would be very slow to achieve nearly complete mixing. These simulations indicate that the mixing of S-112 and SY-101 wastes in Tank SY-101 is a very slow process, and the density difference between the two wastes would further limit mixing. It is expected to take days or weeks to achieve relatively complete mixing in Tank SY-101.

  7. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  8. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  9. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  10. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  11. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.; McClenahan, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  12. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe).

  13. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  14. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  15. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  16. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  18. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning of TAN radioactive liquid-waste-evaporator system (PM-2A). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning of the Test Area North (TAN) liquid waste evaporator (PM-2A). The PM-2A facility included the aboveground evaporator system, two underground holding tanks and feedlines, an electrical distribution subsystem, and one above ground concrete tank. Much surface soil of the PM-2A area was also radioactively contaminated. Stabilization of the liquid and sludge in the holding tanks, a major task, was achieved by pumping most of the liquid into 55-gal drums and mixing it with cement. The drums were buried in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining liquid and sludge were dried in place by layers of diatomaceous earth. The most contaminated surface soil was removed, and the area backfilled with clean topsoil and graded, reducing the surface radiation field to background. A 6-ft-high chain link fence now surrounds the area. Most of the area was seeded to crested wheatgrass. 46 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Conditioning of Boron-Containing Low and Intermediate Level Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12041

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunova, Olga A.; Kamaeva, Tatiana S.

    2012-07-01

    Improved cementation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW) aided by vortex electromagnetic treatment as well as silica addition was investigated. Positive effects including accelerated curing of boron-containing cement waste forms, improve end product quality, decreased product volume and reduced secondary LRW volume from equipment decontamination were established. These results established the possibility of boron-containing LRW cementation without the use of neutralizing alkaline additives that greatly increase the volume of the final product intended for long-term storage (burial). Physical (electromagnetic) treatment in a vortex mixer can change the state of LRW versus chemical treatment. By treating the liquid phase of cement solution only, instead of the whole solution, and using fine powder and nano-particles of ferric oxides instead of separable ferromagnetic cores for the activating agents the positive effect are obtained. VET for 1 to 3 minutes yields boron-containing LRW cemented products of satisfactory quality. Silica addition at 10 % by weight will accelerate curing and solidification and to decrease radionuclide leaching rates from boron-containing cement products. (authors)

  1. Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

  2. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  4. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  5. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  6. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

    2005-06-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-activity waste grout stabilization development program FY-97 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Marshall, D.W.; McCray, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-activity wastes (LAW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LAW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste, (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines, (3) facility decontamination processes, and (4) process equipment waste. Grout formulation studies for sodium-bearing LAW, including decontamination and process equipment waste, continued this fiscal year. A second task was to develop a grout formulation to solidify potential process residual heels in the tank farm vessels when the vessels are closed.

  8. ASSESSING THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM A MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE AS A FUNCTION OF LIQUID TO SOLID RATIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behavior of metals. Leaching tests in the form of column and batch studies were carried out to investigate liquid to solid ratios ranging from 0.7 to 50. Although the waste pa...

  9. Status of the ORNL liquid low-level waste management upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed. The latest information on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to be in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement compliance, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize Environmental Safety & Health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily but significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receiving additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term.

  10. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  11. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  12. Microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction coupled on-line with normal-phase liquid chromatography for the determination of cationic surfactants in river and waste water.

    PubMed

    Norberg, J; Thordarson, E; Mathiasson, L; Jönsson, J A

    2000-02-11

    Membrane-based continuous liquid-liquid extraction combined on-line with normal-phase liquid chromatography is proposed for the determination of cationic surfactants in complex aqueous samples. The technique has the potential for complete automation. Selective enrichment of cationic surfactants from spiked river water and waste-water samples with simultaneous removal of matrix constituents, followed by a quantitative transfer of the extract onto a liquid chromatographic column and separation of the surfactant homologues yielding low detection limits, has been realised. The homologues of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (Dodigen 226) were chosen as model compounds in the method development. Dodigen homologues were ion-paired with heptanoic acid and extracted into chlorobutane by means of microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction. It was thereby possible to attain an enrichment of over 250 times for one of the homologues, viz. the concentration in the organic liquid is 250 times higher than in the original sample. Detection limits for the three best-detected homologues of the mixture were in the range 0.7-5 microg/l in spiked river water samples. Ion-pair normal-phase liquid chromatography, again with heptanoic acid as counter-ion, gave the necessary separation of the surfactant homologues.

  13. Utilization of the wastes of vital activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusarov, B. G.; Drigo, Y. A.; Novikov, V. M.; Samsonov, N. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Chizhov, S. V.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    The recycling of wastes from the biological complex for use in life-support systems is discussed. Topics include laboratory equipment, heat treatment of waste materials, mineralization of waste products, methods for production of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, the extraction of sodium chloride from mineralized products, and the recovery of nutrient substances for plants from urine.

  14. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 Areas during 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site and is provided pursuant to DOE Order 5484.1. There are twenty-three liquid effluent discharge streams in the 200 Areas, twenty of which are normally contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactive material. Of these twenty streams, one discharged radioactive material above Table I concentration guides and two others discharged material above Table II concentration guides, as noted below. The three noncontaminated streams are included to maintain an accurate record of total volume of liquid discharged to each specific waste site.

  15. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  16. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  17. Reaction of catalytic oxidation by liquid water and its application to waste water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Ioffe, I.I.; Rubinskaya, E.V.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the results of experiments and some considerations of theoretical and practical problems devoted to a new type of chemical reaction--oxidation of organic substances by liquid water with the aid of noble metal catalyst--are given. Some problems of application such as reaction to self-purification of industrial waste waters are also considered.

  18. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing north. Detail of personnel entrance door, stoop, and stairway. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing northeast. South wall with oblique views of west sides of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing east. Showing west facades of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616), south side. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616), south side. Camera facing north. Personnel door at left side of wall. Partial view of outdoor stairway to upper level platform. Note concrete construction. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN616. Plan, elevations, sections, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN-616. Plan, elevations, sections, and details. Evaporator pit. Pump room. Room names and numbers. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-616-A 297. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0616-00-693-106889 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  4. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) waste.

    PubMed

    Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jauregui, Olga; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc

    2007-10-17

    The phenolic content of lavandin waste obtained after the distillation of essential oils for the perfume industry was investigated to find an alternative use for this material. The antioxidant activity of different fractions as well as their total phenolic content were evaluated by different methods. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, none of which have previously been reported in lavandin waste. Some structure-activity relationships were proposed by relating the type of scavenging activity of different fractions with the identified phenolic compounds. Contents of representative phenolic acids of Lamiaceae (chlorogenic and rosmarinic) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and compared with those of other plant species.

  5. Modeling injection well performance during deep-well injection of liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, K. P.; Sharma, M. M.; Bryant, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Deep-well injection of municipal and industrial wastes, and liquid hazardous wastes is an important waste disposal practice worldwide. Performance of injection wells during the deep-well injection of liquid wastes and waste waters is critically dependent upon the physico-chemical properties of the waste, the operational parameters such as injection rates and pressures, as well as the hydrogeologic and geochemical character of the host formation. Development of theories and models that can predict the injection well performance as a function of these parameters is a vital research need. This paper presents the development and application of a well injectivity decline (WID) simulator, that can be used to model injection well performance during deep-well injection. Injectivity decline due to particulates in the injection fluid is modeled for various types of well completions. Results from the simulator are presented with an emphasis on the resulting well plugging and injectivity decline. The significant role played by injected wastewater quality, host formation properties, injection rate and pressure, well completion type, initial damage to the well/formation and the presence of gravel packs around the wellbore is discussed. The results quantitatively show that under typical injection conditions a high total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the waste stream, low injection rate, low injection pressures, formation heterogeneity (layering), low porosity and permeability of the formation all contribute to a rapid decline in injection well performance. The simulator provides a tool for predicting well performance during waste injection as a function of the waste, formation and operational characteristics. Such simulations can be valuable during planning and operating injection wells to achieve and sustain satisfactory well performance.

  6. Audit of the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) generates radioactive and liquid wastes that must be treated before being discharged to the environment. Presently, the liquid wastes are treated in the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility), which is over 30 years old and in need of repair or replacement. However, there are various ways to satisfy the treatment need. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Los Alamos cost effectively managed its Treatment Facility operations. The audit determined that Los Alamos` treatment costs were significantly higher when compared to similar costs incurred by the private sector. This situation occurred because Los Alamos did not perform a complete analysis of privatization or prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its treatment operations, although a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan requirement was incorporated into the contract in 1996. As a result, Los Alamos may be spending $2.15 million more than necessary each year and could needlessly spend $10.75 million over the next five years to treat its radioactive liquid waste. In addition, Los Alamos has proposed to spend $13 million for a new treatment facility that may not be needed if privatization proves to be a cost effective alternative. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque), (1) require Los Alamos to prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its radioactive liquid waste treatment operations, (2) review the plan for approval, and (3) direct Los Alamos to select the most cost effective method of operations while also considering other factors such as mission support, reliability, and long-term program needs. Albuquerque concurred with the recommendations.

  7. Cementitious Wasteforms for Immobilization of Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Wood, Marcus I.

    2009-07-01

    Solidification of low-activity wastes with cementitious materials is a widely accepted technique that has the advantages of readily accessible materials, low cost, high physical strength, and easy tailoring for various waste streams. Concrete encasement contains and isolates the waste from the hydrologic environment. However, any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages via mass flow and/or diffusion into the surrounding subsurface environment. A better understanding of the interactions of long-lived radionuclides in cemented matrices will ultimately lead to improved predictions of the long-term fate of these sequestered contaminants from cementitious waste forms.

  8. Prospects for using membrane distallation for reprocessing liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dytnerskii, Y.I.; Karlin, Y.V.; Kropotov, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    Membrane distillation is a promising method for deep desalinization and for removal of impurities of different nature from water. The crux of the method is as follows. The initial (hot) solution, heated up to 30-70{degrees}C, is fed into one side of a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A less heated (cold) distillate moves along the other. Since the membrane is hydrophobic and the pores are small ({approximately}1 {mu}m and less), the liquid phase does not penetrate into the pores in accordance with Kelvin`s law. The vapor evaporating from the surface of the hot solution (the evaporation surface in this case are solution meniscuses forming at the entrance into a pore) penetrates into the pores of the membrane, diffuses through the air layer in the pore, and condenses on the surface of the menisci of cold liquid. In the process rarefaction is produced in the pores, and this accelerates evaporation and therefore increases its efficiency.

  9. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  10. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  11. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-03-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes.

  12. STRONTIUM-90 LIQUID CONCENTRATION SOLUBILITY CORRELATION IN THE HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.; PLACE, D.; WITTMAN, R.

    2004-08-05

    A new correlation was developed to estimate the concentration of strontium-90 in a waste solution based on total organic carbon. This correlation replaces the strontium-90 wash factors, and when applied in the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator, significantly reduced the estimated quantity of strontium-90 in the delivered low-activity waste feed. This is thought to be a more realistic estimate of strontium-90 than using the wash-factor method.

  13. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs. PMID:26996262

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields.

  15. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs.

  16. Catalytic cracking of HDPE wastes to liquid fuel in the presence of siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Anita; Majid, Noor Diana Abdul; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-10-01

    A siliceous gel was synthesized at 80°C and aged for 5 days at 120°C before it was dried at 120°C for 16 hours and calcined at 500 and 700°C. The calcined Na-Si-MMS samples were then undergone ion exchange with ammonia solution to form NH4- Si - MMS . All samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties using nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption isotherm for surface area and porosity; and temperature programme desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3) for determination of acidity. The catalytic activity of all samples was tested in pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) waste at catalyst to HDPE ratio of 0.2. The organic liquid product (OLP) collected was analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Results show that presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 500°C promotes the formation of gasoline-like product while presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 700°C promotes the formation of both diesel-like and kerosene-like products. On the other hand, presence of all NH4-Si-MMS catalysts promotes the formation of gasoline-like product. These show that the activation process of Si-MMS has a significant effect on the production of fuel-like product from pyrolysis of HDPE.

  17. Efficiency of inductively torch plasma operating at atmospheric pressure on destruction of chlorinated liquid wastes- A path to the treatment of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgang-Youbi, G.; Poizot, K.; Lemont, F.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl3 feed rates up to 400 g·h-1 with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g·kWh-1. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO2, HCl and H2O) and redox titration (Cl2). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (< 1 g·h-1) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO2 and H2O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  18. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  19. Enhanced NH3 emission from swine liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Swine animal feeding operations are sources of emissions for various gases [ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic carbons (VOCs)], and fine particulate matter. Gaseous emissions from simple aqueous systems are typically controlled by temperature, pH, wind speed, total dissolved concentration of the chemical species of interest (e.g. NH3+NH4+ = TAN), and the Henry’s law constant. Ammonia emissions from three different sources [ammonium sulfate (AS), swine anaerobic lagoon liquid (SLL), and pit liquid (SPL) from swine housing units] were evaluated using a small flow-through teflon-lined chamber (SFTC; 0.3m × 0.2m × 0.15m) under controlled laboratory conditions. The SFTC was designed for 100% collection efficiency of NH3 gas emitted from the liquids. The internal volume of the chamber, 9 L, was exchanged 1.1 times per minute. All three liquid formulations exhibit the expected response in emissions with changes in temperature and pH. However, NH3 emissions from the SPL and SLL are ~5 times those from pure solutions of AS. Furthermore, the enhancement in NH3 emissions was a function of TAN concentration, decreasing in intensity at higher TAN and approaching rates comparable to the pure solutions of AS. The difference in emissions with solutions of equivalent TAN suggests a synergistic mechanism that is enhancing NH3 emissions in SPL and SLL. Concurrent measurements as part of the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study at the swine operations originally sampled for SPL and SLL document the emissions of CO2, H2S and VOCs (primarily acetic, propionic and butyric acids) at levels that are comparable to observed NH3 emissions. To date, only additions of NaHCO3 to the SPL and SLL have been found to enhance NH3 emissions and exhibit the same response to increasing TAN as exhibited by the original SPL and SLL solutions. Possible reactions that could enhance emissions will be discussed.

  20. Extracellular enzyme activities during regulated hydrolysis of high-solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Wang, Pei

    2007-11-01

    The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Recirculating the leachate from hydrolysis reactor and recycling the effluent from methanogenic reactor to hydrolysis reactor in the two-stage solid-liquid anaerobic digestion process could accelerate degradation of organic solid wastes. To justify the influencing mechanism of recirculation and recycling on hydrolysis, the relationship of hydrolysis to the synthesis and locations of extracellular enzymes was evaluated by regulating the dilution rate of the methanogenic effluent recycle. The results showed that the hydrolysis could be enhanced by increasing the dilution rate, resulting from improved total extracellular enzyme activities. About 15%, 25%, 37%, 56% and 92% of carbon, and about 9%, 18%, 27%, 45% and 80% of nitrogen were converted from the solid phase to the liquid phase at dilution rates of 0.09, 0.25, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.8d(-1), respectively. The hydrolysis of organic wastes was mainly attributable to cell-free enzyme, followed by biofilm-associated enzyme. Increasing the dilution rate afforded cell-free extracellular enzymes with more opportunity to access the surface of organic solid waste, which ensured a faster renewal of niche where extracellular enzymes functioned actively. Meanwhile, the increment of biofilm-associated enzyme was promoted concomitantly, and therefore improved the hydrolysis of organic solid wastes.

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-03-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM`s Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable.

  2. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  3. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The

  4. High-temperature vitrification of Hanford residual-liquid waste in a continuous melter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.

    1980-04-01

    Over 270 kg of high-temperature borosilicate glass have been produced in a series of three short-term tests in the High-Temperature Ceramic Melter vitrification system at PNL. The glass produced was formulated to vitrify simulated Hanford residual-liquid waste. The tests were designed to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-temperature, continuous-vitrification technology for the immobilization of the residual-liquid waste, (2) test the airlift draining technique utilized by the high-temperature melter, (3) compare glass produced in this process to residual-liquid glass produced under laboratory conditions, (4) investigate cesium volatility from the melter during waste processing, and (5) determine the maximum residual-liquid glass production rate in the high-temperature melter. The three tests with the residual-liquid composition confirmed the viability of the continuous-melting vitrification technique for the immobilization of this waste. The airlift draining technique was demonstrated in these tests and the glass produced from the melter was shown to be less porous than the laboratory-produced glass. The final glass produced from the second test was compared to a glass of the same composition produced under laboratory conditions. The comparative tests found the glasses to be indistinguishable, as the small differences in the test results fell within the precision range of the characterization testing equipment. The cesium volatility was examined in the final test. This examination showed that 0.44 wt % of the cesium (assumed to be cesium oxide) was volatilized, which translates to a volatilization rate of 115 mg/cm/sup 2/-h.

  5. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  6. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% < 1,000 Da (low MW), 30% from 1,000 to 10,000 Da (medium MW), and 31% > 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  7. Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, David K.; Akagha, Jude; Belasco, Jon; Bullis, Jane; Byrne, Gloria; di Patria, Joan; Fisher, Wayne; Fonzino, James; Hsu, Jeffrey; Merchan, Lucy; Oster, David; Rosenberg, Jon; von Aulock, Sabine; Vroeginday, Barry

    1987-11-01

    Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal labeling on packaging are critical. Local, county, and state governments must be encouraged to coordinate the necessary infrastructure. Managing hazardous household wastes now will mitigate potential disposal problems.

  8. Supported liquid membranes in radioactive waste treatment processes: Recent experience and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Kapranchik, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    Recent experience in practical application of Supported Liquid Membranes (SLM or SUPLIM) both in the hydrometallurgy and nuclear technology has been analyzed. The results obtained allow one to consider SUPLIM as a promising technology for radioactive waste treatment. This statement is based on the evaluation of integrated socioeconomic effects, including quantity of additional chemicals, the volume of secondary technological streams and secondary wastes, simplicity and the low costs of equipment used, potential possibility to organize in situ process, and the level of the harmful impact on personnel. 35 refs.

  9. Membrane treatment of liquid wastes from radiological decontamination operations.

    PubMed

    Svittsov, A A; Khubetsov, S B; Volchek, K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the evaluation of membrane filtration for the treatment of liquid radioactive streams generated in area decontamination operations. In this work, semi-permeable membranes were demonstrated to be effective reducing the volume of wastewater containing cesium and cobalt by two orders of a magnitude. The efficiency of membrane separation was enhanced by employing additives that enlarged the size of target radionuclide species and improved their rejection by the membranes. This was achieved by chelation with synthetic water-soluble polymers and by adsorption on micro particles of adsorbent coupled with micelle formation. The effect of wastewater composition and that of the radionuclide-binding additives on the volume reduction was investigated. Membrane treatment is expected to help simplify further processing and decrease disposal costs.

  10. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the

  11. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  12. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles.

  13. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-06-22

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  14. SOLIEX: A Novel Solid-Liquid Method of Radionuclides Extraction from Radioactive Waste Solutions - 13486

    SciTech Connect

    Shilova, E.; Viel, P.; Huc, V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments in new solid-liquid extraction method, called SOLIEX, to remove cesium from alkaline solutions. SOLIEX relies on the use of a reversible complexing system comprising a carbon felt bearing molecular traps (calixarenes). This complexing system exhibits a high selectivity for Cs, and is thus expected to be helpful for the treatment of highly diluted cesium wastes even with a high concentration of competing alkali metal cations. As additional advantage, this complexing system can be adapted by molecular engineering to capture other radionuclides, such as Sr, Eu, Am. Finally, this complexing system can be easily and efficiently regenerated by using a cost effective stripping procedure, which limits further generation of waste to meet 'zero liquid' discharge requirements for nuclear facilities. (authors)

  15. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott; Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross

  16. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container. PMID:25209251

  17. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container.

  18. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Injecting liquid wastes deep underground is an attractive but not necessarily practical means for disposing of them. For decades, impressive volumes of unwanted oil-field brine have been injected, currently about 10,000 acre-feet yearly. Recently, liquid industrial wastes are being injected in ever-increasing quantity. Dimensions of industrial injection wells range widely but the approximate medians are: depth, 2,660 feet; thickness of injection zone, 185 feet; injection rate, 135 gallons per minute; wellhead injection pressure, 185 pounds per square inch. Effects of deep injection are complex and not all are understood clearly. In a responsible society, injection cannot be allowed to put wastes out of mind. Injection is no more than storage--for all time in the case of the most intractable wastes--in underground space of which little is attainable in some areas and which is exhaustible in most areas. Liquid wastes range widely in character and concentration-some are incompatible one with another or with materials of the prospective injection zone; some which are reactive or chemically unstable would require pretreatment or could not be injected. Standards by which to categorize the wastes are urgently desirable. To the end that injection may be planned effectively and administered in orderly fashion, there is proposed an immediate and comprehensive canvass of all the United States to outline injection provinces and zones according to their capacities to accept waste. Much of the information needed to this end is at hand. Such a canvass would consider (1) natural zone, of groundwater circulation, from rapid to stagnant, (2) regional hydrodynamics, (3) safe injection pressures, and (4) geochemical aspects. In regard to safe pressure, definitive criteria would be sought by which to avoid recurrence of earthquake swarms such as seem to have been triggered by injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well near Denver, Colo. Three of the 50 States--Missouri, .Ohio, and

  19. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive.

  20. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content. PMID:17951878

  1. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  2. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 areas during 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sliger, G.J.

    1983-03-02

    This document summarizes radioactive liquids discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Sites and is provided pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements. There are twenty-five liquid effluent discharge streams in the 200 Areas, twenty-one of which are normally contaminated or potentially contaminated with radioactive material. Of these twenty-one streams, two discharged radioactive material above Table I concentration guides, and one other discharged material above Table II concentration guides. The four noncontaminated streams are included to maintain an accurate record of total volume of liquid discharged to each specific waste site. B-Plant process condensate (BCP) exceeded Table I for Sr-90 by a factor of 15 and Cs-137 by a factor of 3.5. Discharge point ws the 216-B-62 Crib. Plans have been developed to provide effluent treatment improvements which will bring this waste stream below Table I concentration guides for all radioisotopes. PUREX process condensate (PDD) exceeded Table II for Cs-137 by a factor of 2.6. Discharge point was the 216-A-10 Crib. UO-3 Plant process condensate (U-12) exceeded Table I for total uranium by a factor of 11. Discharge point was the 216-U-12 Crib. (Note: The uranium limits for liquid have recently been reduced, and the UO-3 Plant has made process changes to meet the new limits in the future.)

  3. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  4. Development of Concentration and Calcination Technology For High Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, D.P.

    2006-07-01

    The concentrated medium and high-level liquid radio chemicals effluents contain nitric acid, water along with the dissolved chemicals including the nitrates of the radio nuclides. High level liquid waste contain mainly nitrates of cesium, strontium, cerium, zirconium, chromium, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, pickle, iron etc. and other fission products. This concentrated solution requires further evaporation, dehydration, drying and decomposition in temperature range of 150 to 700 deg. C. The addition of the calcined solids in vitrification pot, instead of liquid feed, helps to avoid low temperature zone because the vaporization of the liquid and decomposition of nitrates do not take place inside the melter. In our work Differential and thermo gravimetric studies has been carried out in the various stages of thermal treatment including drying, dehydration and conversion to oxide forms. Experimental studies were done to characterize the chemicals present in high-level radioactive waste. A Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner was used for development of the process because this is amenable for continuous operation and moderately good heat transfer can be achieved inside the kiln. This also has minimum secondary waste and off gases generation. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner Demonstration facility system was designed and installed for the demonstration of calcination process. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner is a slowly rotating slightly inclined horizontal tube that is externally heated by means of electric resistance heating. The liquid feed is sprayed onto the moving bed of metal balls in a slowly rotating calciner by a peristaltic type-metering pump. The vaporization of the liquid occurs in the pre-calcination zone due to counter current flow of hot gases. The dehydration and denitration of the solids occurs in the calcination zone, which is externally heated by electrical furnace. The calcined powder is cooled in the post calcination portion. It has been demonstrated that the

  5. Direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants in a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovsky, G. M.; Gitelson, J. I.; Shilenko, M. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Trubachev, I. N.

    1997-01-01

    Model experiments in phytotrons have shown that urea is able to cover 70% of the demand in nitrogen of the conveyer cultivated wheat. At the same time wheat plants can directly utilize human liquid wastes. In this article by human liquid wastes the authors mean human urine only. In a long-term experiment on ``man-higher plants'' system with two crewmen, plants covered 63 m^2, with wheat planted to - 39.6 m^2. For 103 days, complete human urine (total amount - 210.7 l) was supplied into the nutrient solution for wheat. In a month and a half NaCl supply into the nutrient solution stabilized at 0.9-1.65 g/l. This salination had no marked effect on wheat production. The experiment revealed the realistic feasibility to directly involve liquid wastes into the biological turnover of the life support system. The closure of the system, in terms of water, increased by 15.7% and the supply of nutrients for wheat plants into the system was decreased. Closedness of biological turnover of matter in a man-made ``man - higher plants'' ecological system might involve, among other processes, direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants. The amount of urine comprises 15-20% of the total amount of water cycling within the system including water as part of food, household, hygiene and potable water necessary for man. What is more, it they contains most nitrogen-bearing compounds emitted by man, almost all of the NaCl and some other substances involved in the biological turnover. Human liquid wastes can be utilized either by preliminary physical-chemical treatment (evaporating or freezing out the water, finally oxidizing the organic matter, isolating the mineral components required for plants, etc.) and further involvement of the obtained products or by direct application into the nutrient solution for plants. The challenge of direct utilization is that plants have no need of Na^+ and Cl^-, and also the organic forms of nitrogen emitted by man cannot fully meet the demand of

  6. Cellulose-based films prepared directly from waste newspapers via an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guangmei; Wan, Jiqiang; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Lili; Wu, Jin; He, Jiasong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-20

    Waste newspapers, composed of cellulose (>60wt%), lignin (∼15wt%), hemicellulose (∼10wt%) and other additives, are one kind of low-cost, easily collected and abundant resources. In order to get value-added products from this waste, in this work an attempt was made to directly convert waste newspapers into cellulose-based films by employing an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as a solvent. Most of the organic substances in this waste were dissolved quickly in AmimCl under mild conditions, and then coagulated and dried. Although containing lignin, hemicellulose and inorganic additives, the regenerated cellulose-based films were smooth, compact and semi-transparent, and exhibited good mechanical properties. If the newspaper/AmimCl solution was filtered to remove undissolved inorganic substances, the regenerated films became transparent and had a tensile strength of 80MPa. Thus, this work provides a new, simple and highly efficient way to achieve a high-valued utilization of waste newspapers for packaging and wrapping. PMID:27474561

  7. Cellulose-based films prepared directly from waste newspapers via an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guangmei; Wan, Jiqiang; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Lili; Wu, Jin; He, Jiasong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-20

    Waste newspapers, composed of cellulose (>60wt%), lignin (∼15wt%), hemicellulose (∼10wt%) and other additives, are one kind of low-cost, easily collected and abundant resources. In order to get value-added products from this waste, in this work an attempt was made to directly convert waste newspapers into cellulose-based films by employing an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as a solvent. Most of the organic substances in this waste were dissolved quickly in AmimCl under mild conditions, and then coagulated and dried. Although containing lignin, hemicellulose and inorganic additives, the regenerated cellulose-based films were smooth, compact and semi-transparent, and exhibited good mechanical properties. If the newspaper/AmimCl solution was filtered to remove undissolved inorganic substances, the regenerated films became transparent and had a tensile strength of 80MPa. Thus, this work provides a new, simple and highly efficient way to achieve a high-valued utilization of waste newspapers for packaging and wrapping.

  8. LOW LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AT MURMANSK, RUSSIA: FACILITY UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C.; DYER,R.S.; SORLIE,A.

    2000-03-01

    Today there exist many almost overfilled storage tanks with liquid radioactive waste in the Russian Federation. This waste was generated over several years by the civil and military utilization of nuclear power. The current waste treatment capacity is either not available or inadequate. Following the London Convention, dumping of the waste in the Arctic seas is no longer an alternative. Waste is being generated from today's operations, and large volumes are expected to be generated from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. The US and Norway have an ongoing co-operation project with the Russian Federation to upgrade and expand the capacity of a treatment facility for low level liquid waste at the RTP Atomflot site in Murmansk. The capacity will be increased from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3} /year. The facility will also be able to treat high saline waste. The construction phase will be completed the first half of 1998. This will be followed by a start-up and a one year post-construction phase, with US and Norwegian involvement for the entire project. The new facility will consist of 9 units containing various electrochemical, filtration, and sorbent-based treatment systems. The units will be housed in two existing buildings, and must meet more stringent radiation protection requirements that were not enacted when the facility was originally designed. The US and Norwegian technical teams have evaluated the Russian design and associated documentation. The Russian partners send monthly progress reports to US and Norway. Not only technical issues must be overcome but also cultural differences resulting from different methods of management techniques. Six to eight hour time differentials between the partners make real time decisions difficult and relying on electronic age tools becomes extremely important. Language difficulties is another challenge that must be solved. Finding a common vocabulary, and working through interpreters make the

  9. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  10. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard. PMID:25753763

  11. Active liquid degassing in microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J Mikael; Gazin, Muriel; Laakso, Sanna; Haraldsson, Tommy; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Mäki, Minna; Goossens, Herman; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2013-11-21

    We present a method for efficient air bubble removal in microfluidic applications. Air bubbles are extracted from a liquid chamber into a vacuum chamber through a semipermeable membrane, consisting of PDMS coated with amorphous Teflon(®) AF 1600. Whereas air is efficiently extracted through the membrane, water loss is greatly reduced by the Teflon even at elevated temperatures. We present the water loss and permeability change with the amount of added Teflon AF to the membrane. Also, we demonstrate bubble-free, multiplex DNA amplification using PCR in a PDMS microfluidic device. PMID:24056885

  12. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  13. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, S.E.

    1993-10-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON`s evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA).

  14. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations.

  15. Environmental assessment for liquid waste treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential impacts to the environment from treatment of low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The potential impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions are discussed herein in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended in Title 42 U.S.C. (4321), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) policies and procedures set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1021 and DOE Order 451.1, ``NEPA Compliance Program.`` The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, construction and operation of a centralized liquid waste treatment facility, were addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. However, DOE is reevaluating the need for a centralized facility and is considering other alternative treatment options. This EA retains a centralized treatment facility as the proposed action but also considers other feasible alternatives.

  16. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-03-06

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

  17. Efficient recovery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Feng, Leiyu; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus need to be recovered to reduce the environmental impact of waste activated sludge (WAS). In this study the improved short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from WAS by the addition of kitchen waste to adjust the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), and the efficient recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from the fermentation liquid were reported. Firstly, the optimum conditions for SCFA production were found to be pH 8, temperature 35 °C, C/N ratio 21 mg-C/1 mg-N, and fermentation time 6 d, using the response surface methodology. After alkaline fermentation, the struvite precipitation method was applied to efficiently and simultaneously recover the released ammonia and phosphorus from the fermentation liquid. Finally, the fermentation liquid was used as the additional carbon source for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. It was observed that, compared with acetic acid, the use of fermentation liquid as carbon source showed greater removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and total phosphorus.

  18. Liquid water and active resurfacing on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Reynolds, R. T.; Cassen, P. M.; Peale, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments for recent resurfacing of Europa by H2O from a liquid layer are presented, based on new interpretations of recent spacecraft and earth-based observations and revised theoretical calculations. The heat flow in the core and shell due to tidal forces is discussed, and considerations of viscosity and convection in the interior are found to imply water retention in the outer 60 km or so of the silicates, forming a layer of water/ice many tens of km thick. The outer ice crust is considered to be too thin to support heat transport rates sufficient to freeze the underlying water. Observational evidence for the calculations would consist of an insulating layer of frosts derived from water boiling up between cracks in the surface crust. Evidence for the existence of such a frost layer, including the photometric function of Europa and the deposits of sulfur on the trailing hemisphere, is discussed.

  19. Development of US Navy Shipboard Systems for solid and liquid waste thermal treatment. Report for July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gullet, B.K.

    1996-07-01

    The paper describes the U.S. Navy`s shipboard environmental challenges and a few of its research programs for meeting its needs for solid and liquid waste treatment. This objective is particularly important in environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where fleet deployment time is significant. Prohibitions on ocean dumping and anticipated requirements on effluent discharge quality have led the Navy to continue the research, development, and demonstration of shipboard systems to treat their unpreventable wastes. For solid, non-hazardous wastes, post-minimization efforts are geared toward long-term development of systems to thermally pyrolyze and oxidize the wastes into significantly reduced volume and weight.

  20. Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-03-15

    This study investigated the recovery of indium from waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel using vacuum carbon-reduction. First of all, high purity In2O3 was investigated. The results indicated that indium can be reclaimed from In2O3 using vacuum carbon-reduction in thermodynamics and dynamics. The conditions of 1223K, 50wt% carbon addition, 30min, and 1Pa were confirmed as the optimal conditions for pure In2O3 and high purity indium could be selectively recovered on condensing zone. Based on this, the experiment of the recovery of indium from waste LCD power was performed. The best parameters were confirmed as 1223K and 1Pa with 30wt% carbon addition for 30min. The recovery rate of indium from LCD powder could reach to 90wt%. No hazardous materials produced in this process. Therefore, this technique provides the possibility of reutilization of LCD in an environmentally friendly way.

  1. [A new evaporation procedure for monitoring of iodine-125 in liquid waste].

    PubMed

    Kawae, M; Wada, M; Mori, K; Sasaki, Y; Kano, E

    1987-06-01

    A simplified monitoring method of 125I in liquid waste was devised. The waste water of 200 cm3 was taken on a Saran (polyvinylidene chloride) film covering a stainless steel vat. A stable iodine (20 mg) and sodium hydroxide (1 mmol) was added. The water was evaporated using an infra-red lamp. After heating to dryness, the Saran film was folded and transferred into a polyethylene tube. The radioactivity of 125I was counted with a well type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. When a multi-channel analyzer was available for counting, an absolute decay rate of 125I was calculated with single and sum photo-peak counts. The radioactivity of 125I counted by a single-channel counter must be corrected with the counting efficiency of about 55%, with a special emphasis of a self absorption of photons. The recovery of 125I for concentrations below the permissible level was more than 98%. PMID:3671791

  2. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  3. Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

  4. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed.

  5. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Contextual view, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Contextual view, facing south. Wall of hot shop (TAN-607) with high bay at left of view. Lower-roofed building at left edge of view is TAN- 633, hot cell annex. Complex at center of view is TAN-616. Tall metal building with gable roof is TAN-615. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. The symbiotic relationship between waste burning and safety in liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Wootan, D.W.; Omberg, R.P.; Waltar, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    The relationship between the transmutation of minor actinides and fission products, and safety related reactivity feedbacks in liquid metal reactors (LMR) was explored. Several design features appear promising for performing waste transmutation while retaining the desirable safety characteristics. Innovative variations of conventional LMR configurations and compositions establish symbiotic relationships between plutonium fuel, minor actinides, and fission products. These relationships enhance safety characteristics of the core and provide acceptable fuel and burnup performance. Although a specific design has not been developed, an LMR capable of transmuting the minor actinides and fission products from up to 10 comparable light water reactors while retaining desirable safety features, appears to be feasible.

  7. Liquid wastes and industrial sludge. New investigation fields to recycle metals

    SciTech Connect

    Meux, E.; Leclerc, N.; Peneliau, F.; Muller, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work is to propose some alternatives to the landfilling of metallic hydroxide sludge coming from the classical physico-chemical treatment of liquid wastes containing metallic cations. A downstream treatment was investigated. It consists of a selective leaching of filter-press cakes. This chemical treatment allows the elimination of toxic metals from the sludge and produces an inertized residue. An upstream treatment was studied: the selective precipitation of metallic cations. In this case, it is possible to obtain zinc sulfide and iron oxide. These products meet the acceptance conditions for the zinc and steel industry.

  8. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  9. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOEpatents

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  10. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document is the fourth annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, this document lists FFA activities planned for FY 1997. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service.

  11. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  12. Receipt and processing of RBOF/RRF liquid waste in H-Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.

    1994-10-31

    The Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuels/Resin Regeneration Facility (RBOF/RRF) currently generates approximately 50,000 gallons of wastewater per month. This waste is sent to the 211-H General Purpose (GP) evaporator and/or the 241-H Tank Farm (HTF). The primary criteria for selecting the destination of the waste are solids content and radioactively.The waste is typically sent to the GP evaporator if it has low solids content and low activity. Currently, approximately 70% of the waste water produced at RBOF/RRF meets the criteria for acceptance by the GP evaporator. In June 1993, High Level Waste Engineering opened a Technical Issue (TI) related to processing of RBOF/RRF directly through the 1H Cesium Removal Column (CRC) to the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). In March 1994, additional emphasis was placed on this effort after it was determined that the 1H evaporator had a failed tube bundle. As a result, The TI was expanded to include evaluations of methods to increase the acceptance rate of wastewater at the GP (i.e., to ensure that the 70% of RBOF/RRF wastewater that currently meets the GP acceptance criteria is actually processed at the GP). Since March 1994, waste receipts from RBOF/RRF have averaged less than the 30,000 gallons/month allotted in the HLW System Plan. In addition, the RBOF/RRF waste sent to HTF has successfully been processed through the 2H evaporator. Based on this progress, no additional effort should be expended to reduce the amount of RBOF/RRF sent to HTF, either by increasing the criteria for acceptance of RBOF/RRF waste at the GP evaporator or by evaluating alternate treatment options (such as processing through the 1H CRC or installing treatment equipment in the RBOF/RRF).

  13. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils.

  14. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils. PMID:26515426

  15. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  16. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  17. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  18. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  20. Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

    The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

  1. Uncoupling of liquid and solid retention times in anaerobic digestion of catering wastes.

    PubMed

    Climenhaga, M A; Banks, C J

    2008-01-01

    Source-separated food wastes collected from a university campus catering facility were processed in bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The feedstock contained a varied mix of fruits, vegetables, meats and fried foods. Two modes of digestion were compared. The first was hydraulic flush (HF) mode, in which liquids were flushed through the reactor on a retention time of 25 days while solids were maintained on an extended retention time of over 150 days. The converse was a solids wastage (SW) mode, in which liquid retention time was over 150 days, and solids were wasted to maintain a retention time of 25 days. SW reactors exhibited methanogenic failure after approximately 45 days. HF reactors, in contrast, maintained stable digestion for a period of 100 days, and were robust enough to recover from a thermal shock applied over a three-day period in which the temperature was increased from 35 degrees C to 50 degrees C between days 105-108 of the experiment. Stable operation was regained by day 139 and continued until the end of the run on day 150.

  2. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Pengtao; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-20

    The principal goal of this work was to reuse the carbohydrates and recycle sulfuric acid in the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Therefore, in this work, the optimizations of further hydrolysis of waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC and catalytic conversion of L4 to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were studied. Sulfuric acid was separated by spiral wound diffusion dialysis (SWDD). The results revealed that cellulose can be hydrolyze to glucose absolutely under the condition of temperature 35 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 62 wt%. And 78.3% sulfuric acid was recovered by SWDD. The yield of 5-HMF was highest in aqueous solution under the optimal condition was as follows, temperature 160 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 12 wt%. Then the effect of biphasic solvent systems catalytic conversion and inorganic salt as additives were still examined. The results showed that both of them contributed to prepare 5-HMF. The yield and selectivity of 5-HMF was up to 21.0% and 31.4%, respectively.

  3. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of HNO3 which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion.

  5. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. PMID:26444486

  6. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  7. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  8. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  10. The sonophysics and sonochemistry of liquid waste quantification and remediation. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, T.J.

    1998-06-01

    'To perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, to elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, to examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and to monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, to design and to evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and to determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. This report summarizes work performed during year 2 of a 3-year project. The goals included performing near-IR spectroscopy of sonoluminescence. Cells have been designed for multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. The MBSL cells are designed around a 20 kHz acoustic horn with replaceable titanium tips from Sonics and Materials. The horn is pressure-fitted into a stainless steel cell via O-rings and a compression ring, to seal the cell up to 100 psi for pressure experiments. The cell is thermostated by circulating coolant in a jacket, as well as flowing the cell fluid (at 4L/min.) through a temperature control bath. Several ports are located on the cell for gas ports (one for headspace, another for bubbling), a pressure transducer, a thermocouple, a needle hydrophone, and a septum port for addition or withdrawal of samples. The total volume is approximately 80 mL with a 10 mL head space. Directly opposite the horn tip is a 2 cm quartz window against which a fiber optic bundle is placed. Light collected through the fiber optic is imaged onto one of several detection systems.'

  11. Design and Testing of a Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) monitor has been designed, fabricated and tested at full-scale for deployment inside a Hanford tank. The Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor (SLIM) integrates a commercial sonar system with a mechanical deployment system for deploying into an underground waste tank. The system has undergone several design modifications based upon changing requirements at Hanford. We will present the various designs of the monitor from first to last and will present performance data from the various prototype systems. We will also present modeling of stresses in the enclosure under 85 mph wind loading. The system must be able to function at winds up to 15 mph and must withstand a maximum loading of 85 mph. There will be several examples presented of engineering tradeoffs made as FIU analyzed new requirements and modified the design to accommodate. We will present our current plans for installing into the Cold Test Facility at Hanford and into a double-shelled tank at Hanford. Finally, we will present our vision for how this technology can be used at Hanford and Savannah River Site to improve the filling and emptying of high-level waste tanks. In conclusion: 1. The manually operated first-generation SLIM is a viable option on tanks where personnel are allowed to work on top of the tank. 2. The remote controlled second-generation SLIM can be utilized on tanks where personnel access is limited. 3. The totally enclosed fourth-generation SLIM, when the design is finalized, can be used when the possibility exists for wind dispersion of any HLW that maybe on the system. 4. The profiling sonar can be used effectively for real-time monitoring of the solid-liquid interface over a large area. (authors)

  12. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  13. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  14. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.; Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu{sup 3+} from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  15. Kinetics of the aerobic biological degradation of shredded municipal solid waste in liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Bizukojc, Marcin; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2002-04-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) should be utilised by means of biological methods. The biodegradation of solid wastes can be intensified owing to application of the bioreactors. Estimation of the optimum values of the organic load is one of the most important tasks for the aerobic biodegradation processes. The kinetic model of biological oxidation of the organic wastes has been presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out in batch 6-l working volume stirred tank bioreactors at constant temperature of 25 degrees C. Initial total solids have been at the levels of 15, 19, 34, 55 and 66 g l(-1). The kinetics of microbial decomposition of organic substances was described by means of an unstructured model. The satisfactory time courses for substrate chemical oxygen demand in the solid (CODs) and liquid phase (CODL) and biomass concentration (RNA) have been achieved. Also, the influence of the initial TS on the kinetics of the biodegradation process was investigated and the optimum value of initial TS for this type of processes was estimated at 34-55 g l(-1).

  16. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  17. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  18. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  19. Design analysis, basin F liquid waste disposal facility, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, FY81

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    This design document for the liquid waste disposal facility, Basin F, was authorized by directive No. 14, design 81-MCA-OMAHA District, dated 7 April 1981. This work consists of the design and preparation of a final design document, with on-board review for the construction of facilities to reduce the amount of free liquid in Basin F to a minimum to facilitate capping. Chapters include: accelerated evaporation, civil geotechnical investigation, structural, mechanical, electrical, roads and drainage, and safety. As a general description of the work, the Basin F enhanced evaporation project shall consist of the following: (1) construct a dike between the wet and dry areas in the basin, (2) construct an interior dike between the wet and dry areas of the basin as the liquid surface recedes, (3) construct a berm and/or ditch along the east side of the basin, (4) excavate and dispose of the chemical sewer system from south plants to Basin F, (5) provide pump capacity and trickle discharge pipeline, and (6) provide electrical power.

  20. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  1. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  2. Development studies for the treatment of ORNL low-level liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental program is under way to investigate potential separation methods for application to specific problems relating to the management of low-level liquid wastes (LLLWs) at ORNL. This report summarizes experimental results that were acquired during fiscal year 1990 and have not been previously reported elsewhere. Measurements are presented for cesium and strontium removal from simulated high-salt waste compositions, using both inorganic ion- exchange sorbents and organic ion-exchange resins, and for one experiment with actual LLLW supernate solution from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-26, using inorganic sorbents. The purpose of the study was to acquire an extensive data base to support the development of flowsheets for decontamination of the LLLW currently stored at ORNL. Experimental measurements with inorganic ion exchangers focused on batch separations of cesium using several transition-metal hexacyanoferrate(2) compositions (ferrocyanides) and of strontium using titanium oxide-based sorbents. Cesium distribution coefficients in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 6} were generally observed with nickel and cobalt ferrocyanides at pH values {le}11, yielding DFs of about 100 with 100 ppm sorbent in a single-stage batch separation. Most organic ion-exchange resins are not very effective for cesium removal from such high salt concentrations, but a new resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site was found to be considerably superior to any other such material tested. Several chelating resins were effective for removing strontium from the waste simulants. An ion-exchange column test successfully demonstrated the simultaneous removal of both cesium and strontium from a waste simulant solution.

  3. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. PMID:26896823

  4. Radio Active Waste Plants - Back to the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Earp, J.E.; Thompson, D.R.

    2008-07-01

    for sub contractor support service, by provision of Docking Bays and subcontractor Laydown areas, allows the future use of specialist waste services. - Environmental; Reduced operational source terms gives potential for significantly reduced liquid and gaseous effluent levels. - Solid Waste; improved ion exchange processes deliver equivalent performance with reduced waste volumes. - Increased use of modular design and skid mounted systems. - As a whole, these allow optimal design for the whole life cycle. - Although more intensive, the processes have still not changed from those of the past. Hence, Back to the Future. (authors)

  5. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  6. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  7. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  8. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  9. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  10. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  11. Determination of 55Fe in waste waters of the Krsko nuclear power plant measured simultaneously by liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC) and X-ray spectrometer (XRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikelic, L.; Orescanin, V.; Lulic, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents comparison of two methods for the determination of 55Fe activity of waste waters discharged from the Krsko nuclear power plant (KNPP). Research was conducted on 12 composite samples of waste water collected in the waste monitor tank (WMT) during each month as well as on Analytics, Inc. cross-check sample. Results showed that the complicated and time-consuming method proposed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) could be successfully replaced with a simple and fast based on the extraction of 55Fe from waste water by non-specific chelating agent ammonium-pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 4 after separation from cobalt, and activity measurement by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRS). Results obtained by the XRS method were approximately 8.6% lower than those obtained by liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). The mean deviation of the XRS results from the activity of cross-check sample was 2.47%, which ensures that this method is accurate enough for environmental monitoring.

  12. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system.

  13. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  14. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-01

    The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH-) are involved into diffusion process.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1217 What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers... emission standard under § 63.1219(a)(2); (3) For cadmium and lead combined, except for an area source...

  16. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  17. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  18. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  19. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  20. How can a carbene be active in an ionic liquid?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The solvation of the carbene 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole-2-ylidene in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to reveal the interaction between these two highly important classes of materials: N-heterocyclic carbenes with superb catalytic activity and ionic liquids with advantageous properties as solvents and reaction media. In contrast to previously published data on analogous systems, no hydrogen bond is observed between the hypovalent carbon atom and the most acidic ring hydrogen atoms, as these interaction sites of the imidazolium ring are predominantly occupied by the acetate ions. Keeping the carbene away from the ring hydrogen atoms prevents stabilization of this reactive species, and hence any retarding effect on subsequent reactions, which explains the observed high reactivity of the carbene in acetate-based ionic liquids. Instead, the carbene exhibits a weaker interaction with the methyl group of the imidazolium cation by forming a hitherto unprecedented kind of C⋅⋅⋅H-C hydrogen bond. This unexpected finding not only indicates a novel kind of hydrogen bond for carbenes, but also shows that such interaction sites of the imidazolium cation are not limited to the ring hydrogen atoms. Thus, the results give the solute-solvent interactions within ionic liquids a new perspective, and provide a further, albeit weak, site of interaction to tune in order to achieve the desired environment for any dissolved active ingredient. PMID:24375892

  1. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  2. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis.

  3. Utilization of natural hematite as reactive barrier for immobilization of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Attallah, M F; Borai, E H

    2016-01-01

    Potential utilization of hematite as a natural material for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste was investigated. Hematite ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET-surface area. In this study, europium was used as REEs(III) and as a homolog of Am(III)-isotopes (such as (241)Am of 432.6 y, (242m)Am of 141 y and (243)Am of 7370 y). Micro particles of the hematite ore were used for treatment of radioactive waste containing (152+154)Eu(III). The results indicated that 96% (4.1 × 10(4) Bq) of (152+154)Eu(III) was efficiently retained onto hematite ore. Kinetic experiments indicated that the processes could be simulated by a pseudo-second-order model and suggested that the process may be chemisorption in nature. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models was investigated. It was found that Langmuir isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results. It can be concluded that hematite is an economic and efficient reactive barrier for immobilization of long-lived radio isotopes of actinides and REEs(III). PMID:26465672

  4. Technoeconomic analysis for the destruction of toxic liquid wastes using induction plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Soucy, G.; Bergeron, E.; Boulos, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    During the past decade, thermal plasma technology has been pointed out as one of the most promising innovative technologies for the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes and for this role, it has been supported by the EPA. In this field, many process alternatives have been developed but insufficient attention have been given to the details of their economic viability. The objective of this paper is to carry out an economic analysis of a particular thermal induction plasma technology for toxic liquid waste destruction. This work is presented in three parts. The first part presents a description of the conceptual design for a process using high frequency (HF) induction plasma. The second part, based on an order-of-magnitude factored estimate, provides an analysis of the capital investment cost of this process. The third part presents an estimation of the operating costs and a discounted cash flow analysis of this conceptual project using a HF plasma generator. The analysis of the economic viability is discussed with reference to the net present worth and the internal rate of return. The discussion examines those variables that significantly affect the viability of such technology by exploring its advantages towards minimizing impacts on the global environment and economic situation. Finally, a comparison is drawn up between the induction plasma technology and other alternative competitive processes.

  5. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

    2013-10-15

    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  6. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50{degree}C and 90{degree}C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na{sup {plus}}, P0{sub 4}{sup 3-}, N0{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and OH{sup -}. The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na{sup {plus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH{sup -} and Na{sup {plus}} ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0{sub 2}{sup -} and N0{sub 3}{sup -} were retained in the pore solution indefinitely.

  7. Digital simulation of the regional effects of subsurface injection of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Industrial, organic, liquid waste has been injected into a part of the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer at one site since 1963 and at another site since 1975, raising water levels in the injection zone throughout a large region. The hydrogeologic conceptual model of the injection zone is a layer tightly confined above by a thick layer of clay and in which lateral hydraulic conductivity decreases rapidly below the upper 60 feet. Recharge areas are to the north and east, where the confining layer pinches out. There appear to be permeability barriers to the northwest, west, and southwest due to facies changes, faults, or pinchouts. Measured and reconstructed preinjection water levels suggested that flow in the aquifer is from the northern recharge areas toward the southeast. A steady-state model simulation incorporating the cited boundary assumptions approximately simulated this pattern. A two-dimensional flow model and the subsurface waste injection program (SWIP) were calibrated to simulate the water level increases at various monitor wells since 1963. Sensitivity analyses showed the simulations to be quite sensitive to moderate errors in either transmissivity or storage parameter specifications. The predictive use of the hydraulic model is understood to be restricted to the geographical locations of data used for model calibration. (USGS)

  8. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  9. Hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms based on sewage microorganisms and their application in hydrocarbon removal in liquid wastes.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-07-01

    Attempts to establish hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms that could be applied in waste-hydrocarbon removal are still very rare. In this work, biofilms containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were successfully established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for 1 month. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in the biofilms revealed the occurrence of the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, Bosea, and Ancylobacter. Biofilms established in oil-containing effluent contained more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria than those established in oil-free effluent, and both biofilms had dramatically different bacterial composition. Culture-independent analysis of the bacterial flora revealed a bacterial community structure totally different from that determined by the culture-dependent method. In microcosm experiments, these biofilms, when used as inocula, removed between 20% and 65% crude oil, n-hexadecane, and phenanthrene from the surrounding effluent in 2 weeks, depending on the biofilm type, the hydrocarbon identity, and the culture conditions. More of the hydrocarbons were removed by biofilms established in oil-containing effluent than by those established in oil-free effluent, and by cultures incubated in the light than by those incubated in the dark. Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers and diversities were enhanced in the biofilms that had been previously used in hydrocarbon bioremediation. These novel findings pave a new way for biofilm-based hydrocarbon bioremediation, both in sewage effluent and in other liquid wastes.

  10. Active Matter: Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2011-07-01

    Coherently moving flocks of beasts, birds and bacteria are an example of polar nematic liquid-crystalline order in the living world. The highly ordered local structures seen in the configurations of the biopolymeric filaments, energized by molecular motors, in the cytoskeleton of a living cell are another example; and chemically or mechanically agitated orientable particles such as catalytic colloidal rods or monolayers of macroscopic bits of wire are a third. There has been a great deal of progress in understanding the states, phase transitions, and fluctuations of these nonequilibrium systems, known broadly as Active Matter, and the methods used are a nice generalization of the hydrodynamic approach to liquid crystals. Among the interesting results that have emerged are some curious instabilities in bulk as well as thin-film geometries; the peculiar kinetics of domain growth of active nematics; anomalies in the dynamics of a stiff filament in an active medium, and the twisted instabilities of chiral active liquid crystals. My talk will provide some background, summarize the achievements of the field, including those of our group, and identify open problems and future directions.

  11. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system.

  12. The thermoelectrochemistry of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids: towards waste heat harvesting.

    PubMed

    Black, Jeffrey J; Murphy, Thomas; Atkin, Rob; Dolan, Andrew; Aldous, Leigh

    2016-07-27

    Thermoelectrochemistry offers a simple, scalable technique for direct conversion of waste heat into useful electricity. Here the thermoelectrochemical properties of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids, as well as their dilute electrolyte analogues, have been investigated using mixtures of tetraglyme (G4, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li[NTf2]). The thermoelectrochemical process is entropically-driven by release of the glyme from the lithium-glyme complex cation, due to electrodeposition of lithium metal at the hotter lithium electrode with concomitant electrodissolution at the cooler lithium electrode. The optimum ratio for thermochemical electricity generation is not the solvate ionic liquid (equimolar mixture of Li[NTf2] and glyme), but rather one Li[NTf2] to four G4, due to the mixtures relatively high ionic conductivity and good apparent Seebeck coefficient (+1.4 mV K(-1)). Determination of the lithium-glyme mixture thermal conductivity enabled full assessment of the Figure of Merit (ZT), and the efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency to be determined. As the lithium electrodeposits are porous, alternating the temperature gradient results in a system that actually improves with repeated use. PMID:27412130

  13. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs.

  14. Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks.

  15. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown. PMID:17367925

  16. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  17. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  18. Control of active liquid crystals with a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Guillamat, Pau; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc

    2016-05-17

    Living cells sense the mechanical features of their environment and adapt to it by actively remodeling their peripheral network of filamentary proteins, known as cortical cytoskeleton. By mimicking this principle, we demonstrate an effective control strategy for a microtubule-based active nematic in contact with a hydrophobic thermotropic liquid crystal. By using well-established protocols for the orientation of liquid crystals with a uniform magnetic field, and through the mediation of anisotropic shear stresses, the active nematic reversibly self-assembles with aligned flows and textures that feature orientational order at the millimeter scale. The turbulent flow, characteristic of active nematics, is in this way regularized into a laminar flow with periodic velocity oscillations. Once patterned, the microtubule assembly reveals its intrinsic length and time scales, which we correlate with the activity of motor proteins, as predicted by existing theories of active nematics. The demonstrated commanding strategy should be compatible with other viable active biomaterials at interfaces, and we envision its use to probe the mechanics of the intracellular matrix.

  19. Circulation convection during subsurface injection of liquid waste, St. Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of liquid waste into a highly transmissive, saltwater-bearing, fractured dolomite underlying the city of St. Petersburg, Florida, provided an opportunity to study density-dependent flow associated with two miscible and density-different liquids. The injection zone was 98 m thick with a radial hydraulic conductivity of 762 m/d and a vertical hydraulic conductivity of 152 m/d. Mean chloride concentrations of the injectant during two tests of 91 and 366 days duration were 180 and 170 mg/L, respectively, whereas chloride concentration of native salt water ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 mg/L. During the 366-day test, chloride concentration in water from a well open to the upper part of the injection zone 223 m from the injection well approximately stabilized at about 4000 mg/L. Relatively constant chloride concentrations in water from this observation well at a level significantly greater than the injectant concentration suggested the hypothesis that circular convection with saltwater flow added chloride ions to the injection zone flow sampled at the observation well. In order to assess the acceptability of the circular convection hypothesis, information was required about the velocity field during injection. Mass transport model simulations were used to provide this information, after determining that the fractured injection zone could be treated as an equivalent porous medium with a single porosity. The mass transport model was calibrated using the 91-day test data from two observation wells 223 m from the injection well. The model was then run without parameter changes to simulate the 366-day test. Mass fractions of injectant computed for four observation wells during the 366-day test compared favorably with observed mass fractions. Observed mass fractions were calculated as a function of chloride concentration and density. Comparisons between model-computed mass fraction and velocity fields in a radial section showed circular convection, with salt water

  20. Rockwell Hanford Operations effluents and solid waste burials during CY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, V.M.; Aldrich, R.C.; Cox, G.R.; Litzinger, M.H.; Meade, G.G.; Sliger, G.J.

    1983-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) activities generate solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes that must be discharged to the environment or stored or disposed of onsite. The quantities of solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes buried or discharged during CY 1982 are tabulated. No liquid or solid wastes are discharged offsite.

  1. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. PMID:25398411

  2. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  3. Function and requirement for a waste disloging and conveyance system for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory high level liquid waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.D.

    1996-09-10

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development initiated the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) program to support the Consent Order between the State of Idaho, U.S. Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency that requires ceasing use of the 11 high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP).

  4. Biodegradation of imidazolium ionic liquids by activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Maton, Cedric; Stevens, Christian V

    2015-11-01

    Biological properties of ionic liquids (ILs) have been usually tested with the help of standard biodegradation or ecotoxicity tests. So far, several articles on the identification of intermediate metabolites of microbiological decay of ILs have been published. Simultaneously, the number of novel ILs with unrecognized characteristics regarding biodegradability and effect on organisms and environment is still increasing. In this work, seven imidazolium ionic liquids of different chemical structure were studied. Three of them are 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromides, while the other four are tetra- or completely substituted imidazolium iodides. This study focused on the identification of intermediate metabolites of the aforementioned ionic liquids subjected to biodegradation in a laboratory activated sludge system. Both fully substituted ionic liquids and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide were barely biodegradable. In the case of two of them, no biotransformation products were detected. The elongation of the alkyl side chain made the IL more susceptible for microbiological decomposition. 1-Decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide was biotransformed most easily. Its primary biodegradation up to 100 % could be achieved. Nevertheless, the cleavage of the imidazolium ring has not been observed.

  5. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  6. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  7. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  8. Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-03-01

    Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.

  9. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  10. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

  11. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  12. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  13. Collective dose estimates by the marine food pathway from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Togawa, O; Povinec, P P; Pettersson, H B

    1999-09-30

    IAEA-MEL has been engaged in an assessment programme related to radioactive waste dumping by the former USSR and other countries in the western North Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. This paper focuses on the Sea of Japan and on estimation of collective doses from liquid radioactive wastes. The results from the Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expeditions are summarized, and collective doses for the Japanese population by the marine food pathway are estimated from liquid radioactive wastes dumped in the Sea of Japan and compared with those from global fallout and natural radionuclides. The collective effective dose equivalents by the annual intake of marine products caught in each year show a maximum a few years after the disposals. The total dose from all radionuclides reaches a maximum of 0.8 man Sv in 1990. Approximately 90% of the dose derives from 137Cs, most of which is due to consumption of fish. The total dose from liquid radioactive wastes is approximately 5% of that from global fallout, the contribution of which is below 0.1% of that of natural 210Po.

  14. Antitumor Activity of Ionic Liquids Based on Ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Ricardo; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Fernandes, Maria H; Santos, Miguel M; Marrucho, Isabel M; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Petrovski, Željko; Branco, Luís C

    2015-09-01

    Significant antiproliferative effects against various tumor cell lines were observed with novel ampicillin salts as ionic liquids. The combination of anionic ampicillin with appropriate ammonium, imidazolium, phosphonium, and pyridinium cations yielded active pharmaceutical ingredient ionic liquids (API-ILs) that show potent antiproliferative activities against five different human cancer cell lines: T47D (breast), PC3 (prostate), HepG2 (liver), MG63 (osteosarcoma), and RKO (colon). Some API-ILs showed IC50 values between 5 and 42 nM, activities that stand in dramatic contrast to the negligible cytotoxic activity level shown by the ampicillin sodium salt. Moreover, very low cytotoxicity against two primary cell lines-skin (SF) and gingival fibroblasts (GF)-indicates that the majority of these API-ILs are nontoxic to normal human cell lines. The most promising combination of antitumor activity and low toxicity toward healthy cells was observed for the 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium-ampicillin pair ([C2 OHMIM][Amp]), making this the most suitable lead API-IL for future studies.

  15. Passive and Active Stabilization of Liquid Bridges in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Thiessen, David B.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Wei, Wei; Niederhaus, Charles E.; Truong, Duc K.

    2001-01-01

    Tests are planned in the low gravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) of new methods for the suppression of the capillary instability of liquid bridges. Our suppression methods are unusual in that they are not limited to liquid bridges having very special properties and may impact a variety of low-gravity and earth-based technologies. There are two main approaches to be investigated: (1) Passive Acoustic Stabilization (PAS); and (2) Active Electrostatic Stabilization (AES). In PAS, the suppression of the mode growth is accomplished by placing the bridge in an acoustic field having the appropriate properties such that the acoustic radiation pressure automatically pulls outward on the thinnest portion of the bridge. In AES, the bridge deformation is sensed optically and counteracted by actively adjusting the electrostatic Maxwell stresses via two ring electrodes concentric with the slightly conducting bridge to offset the growth of the unstable mode. While the present work emphasizes cylindrical bridges, the methods need not be restricted to that case. The methods to be explored are relevant to the suppression of capillary instabilities in floating zone crystal growth, breakup of liquid jets and columns, bubbles, and annular films as well as the management of coolants or propellants in low-gravity.

  16. Evaluation of efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment and identification of daily inspection indices: a case study in Changchun, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment has previously been conducted to prevent pollution of the environment. The current study aimed to provide a set of practical methods for efficient airport sanitary supervision. Aircraft liquid waste was collected at Longjia International Airport, Changchun from multiple flights. The efficiency of liquid waste treatment as well as the water quality of the wastewater processed via a second-stage wastewater facility were examined by measuring a number of physical, chemical, and biological indices. Our results indicated that treatment solely via resolvable sanitizing liquid was not sufficient. Although the contents of first-class pollutants all met the requirements of the standard criteria, the contents of a number of second-class pollutants did not satisfy these criteria. However, after further treatment via a second-stage wastewater facility installed at the airport, all indices reached second-grade requirements of the discharge standard. We suggest that daily inspection and quarantine indices at airports should include the suspension content, biological oxygen demands after 5 days, chemical oxygen demand total organic carbon content, amino nitrogen content, total phosphorous content, and the level of fecal coliforms.

  17. Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.

    PubMed

    Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-11-21

    Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation. PMID:26345231

  18. Thin film transistor circuits for active matrix liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Martin John

    The demand for a high quality flat panel video display device for use in consumer and professional products has led to the rapid development of Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD). The majority of these displays use Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) as the active devices and improvements in the performance of these transistors is creating the opportunity to integrate increasingly sophisticated circuits onto the glass substrates of the displays. This thesis describes a number of aspects of the use of thin film transistor circuits for active matrix liquid crystal displays. The electrical characteristics of TFTs differ in a number of respects from those of conventional MOS devices. This is illustrated with measurements of transistors and simple circuits fabricated using two different low temperature poly-Si TFT technologies. At present the key application for TFT circuits is integration of the row and column drive circuits for active matrix liquid crystal displays. The issues which arise in the design of TFT drive circuits are discussed and the design and operation of a prototype display with integrated drive circuits is described. The availability of high mobility TFTs makes it possible to integrate signal processing functions within the pixels of a display. A novel technique employing digital to analogue conversion of the video data within the pixels of a display is presented. This technique allows the display to be addressed with digital column drive waveforms simplifying the column drive circuit. Operation of the pixel data converters has been demonstrated by the design and measurement of small arrays of test pixels.

  19. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  20. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  1. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  2. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  3. Reconstruction of the radionuclide spectrum of liquid radioactive waste released into the Techa river in 1949-1951.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yuri G

    2003-04-01

    The major part of the liquid radioactive waste released by the Mayak Production Association (PA) radiochemical plant into the Techa river occurred in 1949-1951, but there is information on only one single radiochemical analysis of a water sample taken on 24 and 25 September 1951. These data are here used to assess the spectrum of radionuclides that were released between 1949 and 1951. For this purpose, details of the radiochemical methods of radionuclide extraction and radiometric measurements of beta-activity used at Mayak PA in the 1950s have been taken into account. It is concluded that the data from the radiochemical measurements agree with the theoretical composition of fission products in uranium after exposure times in the reactor (120 days) and subsequent hold times (35 days) that were typical for the procedures at that time. The results of the analysis are at variance with assumptions that underlie the current Techa river dosimetry system. They confirm the conclusion that the external doses to the Techa river residents in the critical period up to 1952 were predominantly due to short-lived fission products.

  4. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  5. Antipolar ordering of topological charges in active liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Oza, Anand

    Recent experiments demonstrated that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery has sparked considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by merging universality ideas with the classical Landau-de Gennes theory. The resulting model agrees quantitatively with recently published data and, in particular, predicts a previously unexplained regime of antipolar order. Our analysis implies that active liquid crystals are governed by the same generic ordering principles that determine the non-equilibrium dynamics of dense bacterial suspensions and elastic bilayer materials. Moreover, the theory manifests a profound energetic analogy with strongly interacting quantum gases. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetric-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  6. Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased.

  7. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production. However, its heterogeneity is the major barrier to efficient conversion to biofuels. MSW paper mix was generated and blended with corn stover (CS). It has been shown that both of them can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme-free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released. There is a correlation between the viscosity profile and hydrolysis efficiency; low viscosity of the hydrolysate generally corresponds to high sugar yields. Overall, the results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries. PMID:25817030

  8. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  9. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect. PMID:27130684

  10. Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays: A focus on indium.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Danilo; Forte, Federica; De Carolis, Roberta; Grosso, Mario

    2015-11-01

    In the present work the recovery of indium and of the polarizing film from waste liquid crystal displays was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. First of all, the polarizing film was removed by employing a number of different techniques, including thermal and chemical treatments. Leaching of indium was then performed with HCl 6N, which allowed solubilisation of approximately 90% In (i.e. 260 mg In per kg of glass) at room temperature, without shredding. Indium recovery from the aqueous phase was then investigated through solvent extraction with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems. Indium extraction tests through the PEG-ammonium sulphate-water system were conducted as a function of PEG concentration, salt concentration and molecular weight of PEG, using 1,10 phenanthroline as a ligand. The experimental results demonstrated that indium partitioning between the bottom (salt-rich) and the top (PEG-rich) phase is quite independent on the composition of the system, since 80-95% indium is extracted in the bottom phase and 5-20% in the top phase; it was also found that when PEG concentration is increased, the ratio between the bottom and the upper phase volumes decreases, resulting in an increase of indium concentration in the bottom phase (at [PEG]=25% w/w, indium concentration in the bottom phase is ∼30% higher than the initial concentration before the extraction).

  11. A novel dismantling process of waste printed circuit boards using water-soluble ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Xie, Henghua; Liu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Recycling processes for waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have been well established in terms of scientific research and field pilots. However, current dismantling procedures for WPCBs have restricted the recycling process, due to their low efficiency and negative impacts on environmental and human health. This work aimed to seek an environmental-friendly dismantling process through heating with water-soluble ionic liquid to separate electronic components and tin solder from two main types of WPCBs-cathode ray tubes and computer mainframes. The work systematically investigates the influence factors, heating mechanism, and optimal parameters for opening solder connections on WPCBs during the dismantling process, and addresses its environmental performance and economic assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, retention time, and turbulence resulting from impeller rotation during the dismantling process, were 250 °C, 12 min, and 45 rpm, respectively. Nearly 90% of the electronic components were separated from the WPCBs under the optimal experimental conditions. This novel process offers the possibility of large industrial-scale operations for separating electronic components and recovering tin solder, and for a more efficient and environmentally sound process for WPCBs recycling. PMID:23910241

  12. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect.

  13. Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased. PMID:18581263

  14. STATISTICAL SAMPLING FOR IN-SERVICE INSPECTION OF LIQUID WASTE TANKS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Baxter, L.

    2011-04-07

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) is implementing a statistical sampling strategy for In-Service Inspection (ISI) of Liquid Waste (LW) Tanks at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. As a component of SRS's corrosion control program, the ISI program assesses tank wall structural integrity through the use of ultrasonic testing (UT). The statistical strategy for ISI is based on the random sampling of a number of vertically oriented unit areas, called strips, within each tank. The number of strips to inspect was determined so as to attain, over time, a high probability of observing at least one of the worst 5% in terms of pitting and corrosion across all tanks. The probability estimation to determine the number of strips to inspect was performed using the hypergeometric distribution. Statistical tolerance limits for pit depth and corrosion rates were calculated by fitting the lognormal distribution to the data. In addition to the strip sampling strategy, a single strip within each tank was identified to serve as the baseline for a longitudinal assessment of the tank safe operational life. The statistical sampling strategy enables the ISI program to develop individual profiles of LW tank wall structural integrity that collectively provide a high confidence in their safety and integrity over operational lifetimes.

  15. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 μm (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

  16. Multi-function waste tank facility path forward engineering analysis technical task 3.3, single-shell tank liquid contents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Mattichak, R.W.

    1995-04-28

    Results are reported on actions taken to determine the quantity of liquid wastes in the single shell tanks that still need stabilization, and to determine the amount of flush water needed to support the stabilization effort.

  17. Activation and stabilization of enzymes in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-06-28

    As environmentally benign "green" solvents, room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as solvents or (co)solvents in biocatalytic reactions and processes for a decade. The technological utility of enzymes can be enhanced greatly by their use in ionic liquids (ILs) rather than in conventional organic solvents or in their natural aqueous reaction media. In fact, the combination of green properties and unique tailor-made physicochemical properties make ILs excellent non-aqueous solvents for enzymatic catalysis with numerous advantages over other solvents, including high conversion rates, high selectivity, better enzyme stability, as well as better recoverability and recyclability. However, in many cases, particularly in hydrophilic ILs, enzymes show relative instability and/or lower activity compared with conventional solvents. To improve the enzyme activity as well as stability in ILs, various attempts have been made by modifying the form of the enzymes. Examples are enzyme immobilization onto support materials via adsorption or multipoint attachment, lyophilization in the presence of stabilizing agents, chemical modification with stabilizing agents, formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates, pretreatment with polar organic solvents or enzymes combined with suitable surfactants to form microemulsions. The use of these enzyme preparations in ILs can dramatically increase the solvent tolerance, enhance activity as well as stability, and improve enantioselectivity. This perspective highlights a number of pronounced strategies being used successfully for activation and stabilization of enzymes in non-aqueous ILs media. This review is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to present a general overview of the potential approaches to activate enzymes for diverse enzymatic processes and biotransformations in ILs. PMID:20445940

  18. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  19. Active electrostatic control of liquid bridge dynamics and stability.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, David B; Wei, Wei; Marston, Philip L

    2004-11-01

    Stabilization of cylindrical liquid bridges beyond the Rayleigh-Plateau limit has been demonstrated in both Plateau-tank experiments and in short-duration low gravity on NASA KC-135 aircraft using an active electrostatic control method. The method controls the (2,0) capillary mode using an optical modal-amplitude detector and mode-coupled electrostatic feedback stress. The application of mode-coupled stresses to a liquid bridge is also a very useful way to study mode dynamics. A pure (2,0)-mode oscillation can be excited by periodic forcing and then the forcing can be turned off to allow for a free decay from which the frequency and damping of the mode is measured. This can be done in the presence or absence of feedback control. Mode-coupled feedback stress applied in proportion to modal amplitude with appropriate gain leads to stiffening of the mode allowing for stabilization beyond the Rayleigh-Plateau limit. If the opposite sign of gain is applied the mode frequency is reduced. It has also been demonstrated that, by applying feedback in proportion to the modal velocity, the damping of the mode can be increased or decreased depending on the velocity gain. Thus, both the mode frequency and damping can be independently controlled at the same time and this has been demonstrated in Plateau-tank experiments. The International Space Station (ISS) has its own modes of oscillation, some of which are in a low frequency range comparable to the (2,0)-mode frequency of typical liquid bridges. In the event that a vibration mode of the ISS were close to the frequency of a capillary mode it would be possible, with active electrostatic control, to shift the capillary-mode frequency away from that of the disturbance and simultaneously add artificial damping to further reduce the effect of the g-jitter. In principle, this method could be applied to any fluid configuration with a free surface.

  20. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  1. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  2. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to

  3. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (<0.1 %) of the total arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization

  4. First results of in-can microwave processing experiments for radioactive liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B.; Mattus, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Handling and Packaging Plant is developing a microwave process to reduce and solidify remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) liquids and sludges presently stored in large tanks at ORNL. Testing has recently begun on an in drum microwave process using nonradioactive RH-TRU surrogates. The microwave process development effort has focused on an in-drum process to dry the RH-TRU liquids and sludges in the final storage container and then melt the salt residues to form a solid monolith. A 1/3-scale proprietary microwave applicator was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the essential features of the microwave design and to provide input into the design of the full-scale applicator. Conductivity cell measurements suggest that the microwave energy heats near the surface of the surrogate over a wide range of temperatures. The final wasteform meets the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a federal repository for defense transuranic wastes near Carlsbad, New Mexico. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K.

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

  6. Liquid scintillation counting methodology for 99Tc analysis. A remedy for radiopharmaceutical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mumtaz; Um, Wooyong

    2015-08-13

    This paper presents a new approach for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analysis of single-radionuclide samples containing appreciable organic or inorganic quench. This work offers better analytical results than existing LSC methods for technetium-99 (99gTc) analysis with significant savings in analysis cost and time. The method was developed to quantify 99gTc in environmental liquid and urine samples using LSC. Method efficiency was measured in the presence of 1.9 to 11,900 ppm total dissolved solids. The quench curve was proved to be effective in the case of spiked 99gTc activity calculation for deionized water, tap water, groundwater, seawater, and urine samples. Counting efficiency was found to be 91.66% for Ultima Gold LLT (ULG-LLT) and Ultima Gold (ULG). Relative error in spiked 99gTc samples was ±3.98% in ULG and ULG-LLT cocktails. Minimum detectable activity was determined to be 25.3 mBq and 22.7 mBq for ULG-LLT and ULG cocktails, respectively. A pre-concentration factor of 1000 was achieved at 100°C for 100% chemical recovery.

  7. Analysis of radioactive mixed hazardous waste using derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Lerner, B.D.; Bean, R.M.; Grant, K.E.; Lucke, R.B.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitroso-iminodiacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid. The chelator of highest concentration was ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in all six samples analyzed. Liquid chromatography was used to quantitate low molecular weight acids including oxalic, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids, which are present in the waste as acid salts. From 23 to 61% of the total organic carbon in the samples analyzed was accounted for by these acids.

  8. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  9. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Digby D.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, the examination of electrochemical noise data comprised three main approaches: one, a computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity relating to corrosion on a metal surface; two, experimental modeling of the electrochemical environment inside nuclear waste storage containers and collection of EN generated; and three, Wavelet analysis of the EN data from the first two parts. The simulation of EN proved to be effective in replicating the EN data of both general and pitting corrosion. Using competition mechanisms for the anodic and cathodic sites on the surface, the long-term, low-frequency data generated by localized pitting corrosion was reproduced. Disabling one or more of the rules of the simulation eliminated the low-frequency character of the data, and eliminating all of the rules effectively reproduced general corrosion noise. The simulation accuracy benefited from comparison to experimental data, and conversely, it improved the EN analysis by providing theory for the underlying mechanisms. The experimental electrochemical cell modeled the important factors in nuclear waste storage containers for this EN study; mainly increased temperature and the concentrations of corrosion-inducing or inhibiting chemicals. It also provided a platform for studying how the EN was affected by the competing chemicals.

  10. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. PMID:25869843

  11. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out.

  12. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chicken waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhang; Hong Cui; Riko Ozao; Yan Cao; Bobby I.-T. Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from chicken waste (CW) and coal (E-coal) blended at the ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80, and 0:100. The process included carbonization in flowing gaseous nitrogen (300 mL min{sup -1}) at ca. 430{sup o}C for 60 min and successive steam activation (0.1 mL min{sup -1} water injection with a flow of N{sub 2} at 100 mL min{sup -1}) at 650{sup o}C for 30 min. Chicken waste is low in sulfur content but is high in volatile matter (about 55 wt %), and ACs with higher specific surface area were more successfully obtained by mixing with coal. The specific surface area of the CW/Coal blend AC can be estimated by SSA{sub BET} = -65.8x{sup 2} + 158x + 168, where SSA{sub BET} is the specific surface area in m{sup 2} g{sup -1} as determined by the BET method using CO{sub 2} as the adsorbent, where x is the coal fraction by weight in the CW/coal blend ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 (e.g., x = 0.0 signifies the blend contains no coal and x = 1.0 signifies the blend consists of 100% coal). 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Activation and waste management considerations of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.; Saji, G.

    1994-09-01

    Inconel-625 (Ni625), SS316, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), ferritic steel (FS), reduced activity ferritic steel (RAFS), manganese steel (Mn-steel), and V5Cr5Ti (V55), were examined for a near-term experimental D-T fueled fusion power reactor with respect to waste management. Activation calculations for these materials were performed assuming one year continuous operation at 1 MW/m 2 wall loading. The results show that the blanket components made of V55, Ti64, Mn-steel, and FS will be allowed for transfer to an on-site dry storage facility after 10 years of cooling after discharge. To transport the discharged blanket components to a permanent disposal site, the cooling time needed can be within 10 years for Ti64 and V55, provided that the impurities (mainly Ni, Nb and Mo) be controlled to an acceptable level. The RAFS and Mn-steel will need about 30 y cooling time because of its Fe and Mn contents. Ni625, 316SS, and FS, however, will require more than 50000 y cooling time because of their Nb and Mo contents. The RAFS, Mn-steel, Ti64 and V55 can be shallow-land wastes if the impurity level for Nb and Mo is dropped below 10 ppm.

  14. Development of a New Thermal HF Plasma Reactor for the Destruction of Radioactive Organic Halogen Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bournonville, B.; Meillot, E.; Girold, C.

    2006-07-01

    A newly patented process employing thermal plasma for destruction of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes is proposed. This studied safe system can destroy a great variety of wastes, even mixed together, using plasma torch as high temperature source. At the exit of the process, only non-toxic products are formed as atmospheric gases, liquid water and halogen sodium salt. The process has been built with the help of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. A good atomic stoichiometry is necessary for avoiding the formation of solid carbon (soot) or toxic COCl{sub 2}. That why liquid water is added to the waste in the plasma flow. Then, an introduction of air cools and dilutes the formed gases and adds oxidant agent achieving oxidation of explosive H{sub 2} and toxic CO. Due to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid, an efficient wet treatment using soda traps it. Subsequently, the exhaust gases are only composed of Ar, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In the first experimental step, pure organic molecules, mixed or not, without halogen have been destroyed. The experimental results show that all the compounds have been completely destroyed and only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been formed without formation of any toxic compound or soot. After these encouraging results, chlorinated compounds as dichloromethane or chloroform have been destroyed by the process. In this case, the results are close to the previous one with an important formation of hydrochloric acid, as expected, which was well trapped by the soda to respect the French norm of rejection. A specific parameter study has been done with dichloromethane for optimising the operating condition to experimentally observe the influence of different parameters of the process as the stoichiometry ratio between waste and water, the air addition flow, the waste flow. The final aim of this study is to develop a clean process for treatment of radioactive organic halogen compounds. A small scale reactor

  15. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  16. Material Flows in an Active Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Active matter systems are composed of energy consuming constituent components which drive far-from-equilibrium dynamics. As such, active materials exhibit energetic states which would be unfavorable in passive, equilibrium materials. We study one such material; an active nematic liquid crystal which exists in a dynamical steady state where +/-1/2 defects are continuously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. The active nematic is composed of micron-sized microtubule filaments which are highly concentrated into a quasi-2D film that resides on an oil-water interface. Kinesin motor proteins drive inter-filament sliding which results in net extensile motion of the microtubule film. Notably, we find a mesophase in which motile +1/2 defects, acquire system-spanning orientational order. Currently, we are tracking material flows generated by the active stresses in the system to measure length scales at which energy is dissipated, and to measure the relation between internally generated flows and bend in the nematic field.

  17. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  18. Scenarios for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Scenarios describing representative exposure cases associated with the disposal of low activity waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks have been defined. These scenarios are based on guidance from the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and previous Hanford waste disposal performance assessments.

  19. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  20. Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis.

  1. Improved production of propionic acid driven by hydrolyzed liquid containing high concentration of l-lactic acid from co-fermentation of food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Sizhou; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improved production propionic acid-enriched volatile fatty acid (VFA) from high concentration (Cs) of food waste and waste activated sludge (WAS) via lactic acid pathway by using of Propionibacterium acidipropionici. It was observed that production of l-lactate overwhelmed to d-lactate at first stage, which improved from 3.21 to 35.45gCOD/L with increase of substrate Cs. However, kinetic model analysis indicated that P. acidipropionici growth rate μmax was decreased with increase of l-lactate concentration, which explained second stage free cell fermentation of propionic acid was inhibited when fed by first stage liquid from R-40, R-55 and R-70. Then, the fibrous bed bioreactor was employed to eliminate the feed inhibition. The maximal percentage of propionic acid (68.3%) and production (16.31gCOD/L) was obtained by feeding liquid of R-55, which was improved by 3.33 folds compared to the free cell fermentation. PMID:27614154

  2. Photoresponsive Self-Assembly of Surface Active Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aoli; Lu, Fei; Sun, Panpan; Gao, Xinpei; Shi, Lijuan; Zheng, Liqiang

    2016-08-16

    A novel photoresponsive surface active ionic liquid (SAIL) 1-(4-methyl azobenzene)-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide ([C14mimAzo]Br) with azobenzene located in the headgroup was designed. Reversible vesicle formation and rupture can be finely controlled by photostimuli without any additives in the aqueous solution of the single-tailed ionic liquid. The photoisomerization of the azobenzene derivative was investigated by (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further demonstrate that trans-[C14mimAzo]Br has less negative interaction energy, which is beneficial to aggregate formation in water. The incorporation of trans-azobenzene group increases the hydrophobicity of the headgroup and reduces the electrostatic repulsion by delocalization of charge, which are beneficial to the formation of vesicles. However, the bend of cis-azobenzene makes the cis-isomers have no ability to accumulate tightly, which induces the rupture of vesicles. Our work paves a convenient way to achieve controlled topologies and self-assembly of single SAIL. PMID:27445115

  3. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy. PMID:26979412

  4. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy.

  5. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    PubMed Central

    An, Ran; Li, Yadong; Niu, Xiaojun; Yu, Hongtao

    2008-01-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish. PMID:18678923

  6. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  7. Waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-03-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  9. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Activated-sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers.

  14. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  15. Synchronization and liquid crystalline order in soft active fluids.

    PubMed

    Leoni, M; Liverpool, T B

    2014-04-11

    We introduce a phenomenological theory for a new class of soft active fluids with the ability to synchronize. Our theoretical framework describes the macroscopic behavior of a collection of interacting anisotropic elements with cyclic internal dynamics and a periodic phase variable. This system can (i) spontaneously undergo a transition to a state with macroscopic orientational order, with the elements aligned, a liquid crystal, (ii) attain another broken symmetry state characterized by synchronization of their phase variables, or (iii) a combination of both types of order. We derive the equations describing a spatially homogeneous system and also study the hydrodynamic fluctuations of the soft modes in some of the ordered states. We find that synchronization can promote or inhibit the transition to a state with orientational order, and vice versa. We provide an explicit microscopic realization: a suspension of microswimmers driven by cyclic strokes. PMID:24766022

  16. A liquid-activated textile battery for wearable biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lillehoj, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wearable biosensors is an emerging field which offers great potential for many applications including human health monitoring, environmental sensing and bioagent detection. An important requirement for these systems is the need for robust, lightweight batteries which can be easily integrated with wearable materials (i.e. textiles). In this paper, we demonstrate a new textile Ag-Al battery which is activated by liquids. Experiments were performed to optimize the battery performance by altering the device parameters, such as the electrode/electrolyte area and electrolyte concentration. Based on these results, we developed a single-cell battery that can produce a voltage of 1.3 V. By connecting two cells in series, we could power a 1.6 V LED for up to 30 minutes.

  17. Synchronization and liquid crystalline order in soft active fluids.

    PubMed

    Leoni, M; Liverpool, T B

    2014-04-11

    We introduce a phenomenological theory for a new class of soft active fluids with the ability to synchronize. Our theoretical framework describes the macroscopic behavior of a collection of interacting anisotropic elements with cyclic internal dynamics and a periodic phase variable. This system can (i) spontaneously undergo a transition to a state with macroscopic orientational order, with the elements aligned, a liquid crystal, (ii) attain another broken symmetry state characterized by synchronization of their phase variables, or (iii) a combination of both types of order. We derive the equations describing a spatially homogeneous system and also study the hydrodynamic fluctuations of the soft modes in some of the ordered states. We find that synchronization can promote or inhibit the transition to a state with orientational order, and vice versa. We provide an explicit microscopic realization: a suspension of microswimmers driven by cyclic strokes.

  18. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual.

  19. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    DOEpatents

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  20. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1).

  1. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  2. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge.

  3. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge. PMID:17512728

  4. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1). PMID:23312862

  5. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of −20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of −0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production. PMID:26541371

  6. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production.

  7. Inhibitory effects of ionic liquids on the lactic dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing; Fan, Yunchang; Zhang, Heng; Zhong, Yingying; Yang, Yang; Miao, Juan; Hua, Shaofeng

    2016-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) were widely used in scientific and industrial application and have been reported to possess potential toxicity to the environment and human health. The effects of six typical N-methylimidazolium-based ILs ([Cnmim]X, n=4, 6, 8; X=Br(-), Cl(-), BF4(-), CF3SO3(-)) on the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and the molecular interaction mechanism of ILs and the LDH were investigated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques. Experimental results showed that the LDH activity was inhibited in the presence of ILs. For the ILs with the same anion but different cations, their inhibitory ability on the LDH activity increased with increasing the alkyl chain length on the IL cation. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were obtained by analyzing the fluorescence behavior of LDH with the addition of ILs. Both positive ΔH and ΔS suggested that hydrophobicity was the major driven force in the interaction process as expected. PMID:26802246

  8. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed 'green technique'. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production. PMID:26541371

  9. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-11-06

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed 'green technique'. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production.

  10. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  11. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  12. Study on Conversion of Municipal Plastic Wastes into Liquid Fuel Compounds, Analysis of Crdi Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Kumar, R. Ravi; Kumarappa, S.; Antony, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The rate of economic evolution is untenable unless we save or stops misusing the fossil fuels like coal, crude oil or fossil fuels. So we are in need of start count on the alternate or renewable energy sources. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the conversion of municipal plastic wastes like milk covers and water bottles are selected as feed stocks to get oil using pyrolysis method, the performance analysis on CRDI diesel engine and to assess emission characteristics like HC, CO, NOX and smoke by using blends of Diesel-Plastic liquid fuels. The plastic fuel is done with the pH test using pH meter after the purification process and brought to the normal by adding KOH and NaOH. Blends of 0 to 100% plastic liquid fuel-diesel mixture have been tested for performance and emission aspect as well. The experimental results shows the efficiently convert weight of municipal waste plastics into 65% of useful liquid hydrocarbon fuels without emitting much pollutants.

  13. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE MIXING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 211B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Aqueous radioactive high-level waste slurries are combined during processing steps that ultimately produce a stable borosilicate glass waste form. Chemically treated waste slurries are combined with each other and with glass frit-water slurries to produce the melter feed. Understanding the evolution of the rheological properties of the slurries is an important aspect of removing and treating the stored waste. To a first approximation, combinations of colloidal waste slurry with {approx}0.1-mm mean diameter glass frit or glass beads act in an analogous matter to slurries of spherical beads in Newtonian liquids. The non-Newtonian rheological properties of the waste slurries without frit, however, add complexity to the hydrodynamic analysis. The use of shear rate dependent apparent viscosities with the modified Einstein equation was used to model the rheological properties of aqueous frit-waste slurries.

  14. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  16. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  17. The Polymers for Liquid Radioactive Waste Solidification: a Lost Chapter in the History of Engineering or a Step Forward? - 13529

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Yury; Kelley, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Ideas on the application of polymers for the liquid radioactive waste immobilization go a way back, and the first studies in the area were published 30-40 years ago. One should admit that regardless of the fairly large number of publications appeared in the past years currently the interest in this work came down greatly. It was the successful assimilation and worldwide implementation of the LRW cementation technology caused a slump in the interest in polymers. But today it's safe to say that the situation slowly changes, particularly due to the market appearance of the high-tech polymers manufactured by Nochar Company, and unique properties of these polymers gradually raise the demand in various countries. The results of multiple experiments performed with the simulated solutions have passed the comprehensive tests with actual waste. The economic effect from the implementation of the new technology is defined by the volume reduction of waste coming onto the repository, by the decline in the cost of transportation and of the repository construction on account of cutting down the construction volume. Interesting results have been obtained during the search for the technical decisions that would allow using the polymer materials in the processing technology of the industrial toxic waste. One more promising area of the possible application of polymers should be pointed out. It is the application of polymer materials as the assets for the emergency damage control when the advantages of the polymers become obvious. (authors)

  18. Demonstration of an approach to waste form qualification through simulation of liquid-fed ceramic melter process operations

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Peters, R.D.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    During fiscal year 1982, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assigned responsibility for managing civilian nuclear waste treatment programs in the United States to the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). One of the principal objectives of this program is to establish relationships between vitrification process control and glass quality. Users of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process will need such relationships in order to establish acceptance of vitrified high-level nuclear waste at a licensed federal repository without resorting to destructive examination of the canisters. The objective is to be able to supply a regulatory agency with an estimate of the composition, durability, and integrity of the glass in each waste glass canister produced from an LFCM process simply by examining the process data collected during the operation of the LFCM. The work described here will continue through FY-1987 and culminate in a final report on the ability to control and monitor an LFCM process through sampling and process control charting of the LFCM feed system.

  19. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  20. Application of solvlent change techniques to blended cements used to immobilize low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    The microstructures of hardened portland and blended cement pastes, including those being considered for use in immobilizing hazardous wastes, have a complex pore structure that changes with time. In solvent exchange, the pore structure is examined by immersing a saturated sample in a large volume of solvent that is miscible with the pore fluid. This paper reports the results of solvent replacement measurements on several blended cements mixed at a solution:solids ratio of 1.0 with alkaline solutions from the simulation of the off- gas treatment system in a vitrification facility treating low-level radioactive liquid wastes. The results show that these samples have a lower permeability than ordinary portland cement samples mixed at a water:solids ratio of 0.70, despite having a higher volume of porosity. The microstructure is changed by these alkaline solutions, and these changes have important consequences with regard to durability.

  1. Antipolar ordering of topological defects in active liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand U.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-09-01

    ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals (ALCs) that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This recent discovery has sparked considerable interest but a quantitative theoretical description is still lacking. We present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by generalizing the classical Landau–de Gennes free-energy to account for the experimentally observed spontaneous buckling of motor-driven extensile microtubule bundles. The resulting model agrees with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar order. Our analysis implies that ALCs are governed by the same generic ordering principles that determine the non-equilibrium dynamics of dense bacterial suspensions and elastic bilayer materials. Moreover, the theory manifests an energetic analogy with strongly interacting quantum gases. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  2. Antipolar ordering of topological defects in active liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand U.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-09-01

    ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals (ALCs) that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This recent discovery has sparked considerable interest but a quantitative theoretical description is still lacking. We present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by generalizing the classical Landau-de Gennes free-energy to account for the experimentally observed spontaneous buckling of motor-driven extensile microtubule bundles. The resulting model agrees with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar order. Our analysis implies that ALCs are governed by the same generic ordering principles that determine the non-equilibrium dynamics of dense bacterial suspensions and elastic bilayer materials. Moreover, the theory manifests an energetic analogy with strongly interacting quantum gases. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  3. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  4. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  5. Possibility of Salicornia europaea use for the human liquid wastes inclusion into BLSS intrasystem mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia A.; Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kalacheva, Galina S.; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One of the ways of solving the problem of the human liquid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) can be the use of halophytic vegetable plant Salicornia europaea capable of accumulating sodium chloride in rather high concentrations. Since the most specific higher plant function in BLSS, which at present cannot be substituted by physicochemical processes, appears to be the biosynthesis of a wide spectrum of nutritive substances necessary for a human, the object of the given work was the investigation of the S. europaea productivity, biochemical and mineral composition when grown under close to optimal BLSS vegetative component conditions. As the use of human urine after its preliminary physicochemical processing is supposed to be the mineral solution basis for the S. europaea cultivation, it is necessary to clear up the effect of reduced nitrogen on plants growth. Ground research was carried out. Biochemical composition of the S. europaea edible part showed that crude protein was contained in the highest degree. At that the content of crude protein (24% per dry weight) and cellulose (4.7% per dry weight) was higher in the plants grown on solutions containing amide nitrogen in comparison with the plants grown on solutions with nitrate nitrogen (15.4%—3.1% correspondingly). The water-soluble sugar contents were not high in the S. europaea edible part and depending on the nitrogen nutrition form they amounted to 1.1% (amide nitrogen) and 1.5% (nitrate nitrogen). The polysaccharide number (except cellulose) was rather higher and varied from 7.7% to 8.2%. Although the lipid content in the S. europaea plants was relatively low (7% per dry weight), it was shown that the plant lipids are characterized by a high nonsaturation degree mainly due to alpha linolenic and linoleic acids. Nitrogen nutrition form did not significantly affect the S. europaea productivity, and dry edible biomass of one plant was 8.6 g. Sodium and its concentrations

  6. Development of advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopy for monitoring corrosion in simulated DOE liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    'Objective of this project is to develop and use Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy (EES) and other electrochemical techniques as in situ tools for exploring corrosion mechanisms of iron and carbon steel in highly alkaline solutions and for continuously monitoring corrosion on structural materials in DOE liquid waste storage system. In particular, the author will explore the fundamental aspects of the passive behavior of pure iron since breakdown of passivity leads to localized corrosion. This report summarizes work after 1 year of a 3 year project.'

  7. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  8. Super Saver Investigators: An Elementary, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Studies Activity Guidebook about Solid Waste and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, David; And Others

    This is an elementary, interdisciplinary, environmental studies activity guidebook about solid waste and natural resources. "Super Saver Investigators" what solid waste is, where it is generated, how we manage it and could manage it better, and the consequence of mismanagement. It contains many hands-on, skill enhancing activities for elementary…

  9. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  10. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  11. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  12. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  13. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  14. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  15. Modulating enzyme activity using ionic liquids or surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goldfeder, Mor; Fishman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    One of the important strategies for modulating enzyme activity is the use of additives to affect their microenvironment and subsequently make them suitable for use in different industrial processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated extensively in recent years as such additives. They are a class of solvents with peculiar properties and a "green" reputation in comparison to classical organic solvents. ILs as co-solvents in aqueous systems have an effect on substrate solubility, enzyme structure and on enzyme-water interactions. These effects can lead to higher reaction yields, improved selectivity, and changes in substrate specificity, and thus there is great potential for IL incorporation in biocatalysis. The use of surfactants, which are usually denaturating agents, as additives in enzymatic reactions is less reviewed in recent years. However, interesting modulations in enzyme activity in their presence have been reported. In the case of surfactants there is a more pronounced effect on the enzyme structure, as can be observed in a number of crystal structures obtained in their presence. For each additive and enzymatic process, a specific optimization process is needed and there is no one-fits-all solution. Combining ILs and surfactants in either mixed micelles or water-in-IL microemulsions for use in enzymatic reaction systems is a promising direction which may further expand the range of enzyme applications in industrial processes. While many reviews exist on the use of ILs in biocatalysis, the present review centers on systems in which ILs or surfactants were able to modulate and improve the natural activity of enzymes in aqueous systems. PMID:24281758

  16. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    PubMed

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels. PMID:27039400

  17. Investigation of the liquid low-level waste evaporator steam coil failure and supporting laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.; Keiser, J.R.; Longmire, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    Using a remote video camera, the internals of a low-level waste evaporator tank (termed 2A2, type 304L stainless steel construction, known to have failed steam coils) were inspected. This inspection revealed at least three rather substantial holes as opposed to crack- or pit-like leak sites near the nominal solution level position on one particular steam coil. This section was removed from the evaporator vessel, and subsequent hot cell examination revealed extensive general corrosion on the process side of the coil with little or no attack on the steam side. Hot cell metallography confirmed intense general corrosion on the process side and, in addition, revealed shallow intergranular attack at the leading edge of corrosion. No pits or cracks were detected in this section of the steam coil. Laboratory corrosion tests with coupons of 304L (and other high-alloy materials) isothermally exposed in a range of solutions similar to those expected in the evaporator reveal only very low corrosion rates below 40% sodium hydroxide and the solution boiling point. However, {open_quotes}dried film{close_quotes} experiments revealed that much more dilute solutions became aggressive to stainless steel due to concentrating effects (evaporation and periodic wetting) at the air/solution interface. The high general corrosion rates observed on the failed coil section occurred at or near the air/solution interface and were attributed to such {open_quotes}splash zone{close_quotes} activity.

  18. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  19. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  20. Feasibility Study of Solidification for Low-Level Liquid Waste Generated by Sulfuric Acid Elution Treatment of Spent Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    We studied cement-like solidification process for low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete of the planned repository, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of the pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Therefore, the present solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH)2•8H2O to the liquid waste. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid waste containing BaSO4 precipitate. We show the range of appropriate Ba/SO4 molar ratio is from 1.1 to 1.5 in the present solidification process by leaching tests for some kinds of solid waste samples. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% at a typical CIS condition, i.e. Ba/SO4 molar ratio=1.3, reaction temperature=60°C, and time=3 hr.